WorldWideScience

Sample records for black-and-white warbler mniotilta

  1. Personal Learning Environments in Black and White

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2010, 22 January). Personal Learning Environments in Black and White. Presentation provided during the workshop "Informal Learning and the use of social software in veterinary medicine" of the Noviceproject (http://www.noviceproject.eu), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  2. Black and White Differentials in Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Antonio A.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    1986-01-01

    Overviews vital statistics data, emphasizing differences in health status between the Black and White populations with respect to specific diseases and mortality. Discusses major causes of death among US Blacks. (GC)

  3. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...

  4. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  5. Some Dynamics of Urban Service Evaluations Among Blacks and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Roger

    1976-01-01

    This study investigates public service evaluations among blacks and whites in St. Louis, Missouri over the period 1956 to 1968. Changes in levels and sources of satisfaction with schools, parks, police protection, and garbage collection are examined. (Author/RM)

  6. Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).

  7. Romanticism and Eroticism among Black and White College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lawrence N.

    1981-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 1,142 Black and White university students of both sexes in an effort to determine the relationship between eroticism, romanticism and sexual identity. Results indicated that males were more erotic, females more romantic, and that the discrepancy was greater for Blacks than for Whites. (Author/CM)

  8. Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans | Peltzer | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans. K. Peltzer. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 115-118). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i3.9074 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. A Comparison of Colour and Black and White T. V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol; Meisner, Alan

    The relative educational effectiveness of color vs. black and white television has not been exhaustively explored. While previous studies have concentrated on the factual retention of subject matter--bypassing the subjective attitudes--this study was designed to thoroughly analyze both areas. Using Osgood's Semantic Differential and the Liking…

  10. Black and White Women Managers: Access to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the differing views of Black and White female managers regarding access to key career opportunities for White women and women of color. Items addressed include access to hiring, promotions, key assignments, salary increases, acknowledgment for work, and mentors. Access to each is described by comparing White women and women of…

  11. Linking Communalism to Achievement Correlates for Black and White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth; Love, Keisha; Brown, Carrie; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Thomas, Deneia; Garriott, Patton O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between home-based communal activities and beliefs and student reports of various achievement correlates with 290 black and white undergraduates. MANOVA procedures examined differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, identified motivation, motivation to know, and amotivation and scores on Home Communalism Measure…

  12. Correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to

  13. Job Orientation of Black and White College Graduates in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, O. C.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Examined differences in job orientation between Black and White male and female business college graduates. Significant race differences were found. Factor analysis indicates that Blacks value long-range career objectives and structure considerably more than do Whites, while their preference for intrinsic and extrinsic factors was less pronounced.…

  14. Black-and-white photographic chemistry: A reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. D. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    This work is intended as a reference of black-and-white photographic chemistry. Included is a basic history of the photographic processes and a complete description of all chemicals used, formulas for the development and fixation process, and associated formulas such as cleaners, hardeners, and toners. The work contains a complete glossary of photographic terms, a trouble-shooting section listing causes and effects regarding photographic film and papers, and various conversion charts.

  15. Chemical Demonstrations with Consumer Chemicals: The Black and White Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    A color-change reaction is described in which two colorless solutions are combined to afford a black mixture. Two more colorless solutions are combined to afford a white mixture. The black and white mixtures are then combined to afford a clear, colorless solution. The reaction uses chemicals that are readily available on the retail market: vitamin C, tincture of iodine, vinegar, ammonia, bleach, Epsom salt, and laundry starch.

  16. Brumation of introduced Black and White Tegus, Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae), in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Michelle; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Klug, Page E.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    An established population of Tupinambis merianae (Black and White Tegu) in southeastern Florida threatens the Everglades ecosystem. Understanding the behavioral ecology of Black and White Tegus could aid in management and control plans. Black and White Tegus are seasonally active and brumate during the winter in their native range, but brumation behavior is largely unstudied in either the native or the invasive range. We describe the first observations of Black and White Tegu brumation in southeastern Florida after monitoring 5 free-ranging, adult male Black and White Tegus through an inactive season using radiotelemetry and automated cameras. Duration of brumation averaged 137 days, beginning in September and ending by February. One of the 5 Black and White Tegus emerged to bask regularly during brumation, which to our knowledge represents the first documented instance of a free-ranging Black and White Tegu basking during brumation. These preliminary findings provide a basis for future research of brumation behavior.

  17. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, Scott M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  18. A Comparison of Colour and Black and White Television as Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol; Meisner, Alan

    1976-01-01

    Black and white television is adequate for educational purposes. Color has an advantage over black and white in that it creates more emotional involvement, but only when the material to be taught is highly visual in both content and presentation. (LS)

  19. Invited Reaction: Black and White Women Managers--Access to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of Black and White women managers, Linda M. Hite identifies differences in the managers' perceptions of opportunities available to different race and gender groups. Her findings reveal divergent beliefs about the opportunities for people of color; there is more similarity in Black and White women's views when comparing opportunities…

  20. Are Separate Black and White MMPI Norms Needed?: An IQ-Controlled Comparison of Accused Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, William R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated racial differences in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by comparing samples of Black and White men charged with murder (N=160). Results indicated Black murderers tend to deny symptoms of pathology and are more socially outgoing. The confounding effects of intelligence suggested separate Black and White norms are…

  1. Birth weight trends among interracial black and white infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J D

    2000-05-01

    I examined time trends in low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) among interracial compared with single-race infants. Using natality data from 1978 through 1997 for singleton births to black and white parents, I calculated relative risks (RRs) of LBW and VLBW for interracial compared with single-race births, stratified by maternal race and adjusted for maternal characteristics. Among black mothers, interracial births had lower risks of LBW and VLBW than single-race births, and RRs were similar throughout the time period [for example, adjusted RR = 0.76 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-0.80 for LBW in 1994-1997]. Among white mothers, interracial infants had higher risks of LBW than single-race infants; however, the adjusted RRs declined over the time period, from 1.22 (95% CI = 1.19-1.27) in 1978-1981 to 1.05 (95% CI = 1.03-1.08) in 1994-1997. Since 1978, there has been some relative improvement in birth outcomes for infants of white mothers and black fathers compared with single-race white births. There was, however, no relative improvement for black mother/black father infants relative to black mother/white father births.

  2. Spirituality, Religiousness, and Alcoholism Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison between Black and White Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Farkas, Kathleen J.; Townsend, Aloen L.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses an unexplained finding in the alcoholism treatment field: despite the health and socioeconomic disparities that exist between blacks and whites at intake, blacks and whites achieve equivalent treatment outcomes. Using Project MATCH data, this study explores religiousness and spirituality as strengths in the African American community that may account in part for equivalent outcomes. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that as purpose in life increased, blacks were more likely to achieve sobriety than whites. This study provides evidence that purpose in life is a cultural strength and an advantage among blacks in achieving sobriety. PMID:22707846

  3. Producing high-quality negatives from ERTS black-and-white transparancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Myhre

    1973-01-01

    A method has been devised for producing high-quality black-and-white negatives quickly and efficiently from dense transparencies orgininating from Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery. Transparencies are evaluated on a standard light source to determine exposure and processing information needed for making negatives. A “System ASA Rating” was developed by...

  4. Effects of Black and White, Authentic and Contrived Color on Children's Perceptions of Dynamic Picture Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollan, Clayton J.

    A study was devised to determine whether, if color is found superior to black-and-white for communicating dynamic picture content, that superiority can be attributed to the realism of authentic color, or whether that superiority is the effect of the simple presence of color. A sample of 90 sixth grade students were shown slides, half of which…

  5. Black and White Viewers' Perception and Recall of Occupational Characters on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Osei

    2002-01-01

    Examines the differences in how Black and White viewers process messages based on the race of television characters representing five occupations. Notes that findings from male college students suggest that Black viewers have better recall of Black occupational characters than White characters on television. Reveals evidence that both Black and…

  6. Small-area Variation in Hypertension Prevalence among Black and White Medicaid Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kellee; Stewart, John E; Lòpez-DeFede, Ana; Wilkerson, Rebecca C

    2016-07-21

    To examine within-state geographic heterogeneity in hypertension prevalence and evaluate associations between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual characteristics for Black and White South Carolina Medicaid enrollees in urban vs rural areas. Ecological. South Carolina, United States. Hypertension prevalence. Data representing adult South Carolina Medicaid recipients enrolled in fiscal year 2013 (N=409,907) and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level contextual measures (racial segregation, rurality, poverty, educational attainment, unemployment and primary care physician adequacy) were linked in a spatially referenced database. Optimized Getis-Ord hotspot mapping was used to visualize geographic clustering of hypertension prevalence. Spatial regression was performed to examine the association between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual indicators. Significant (alpha=.05) hotspot spatial clustering patterns were similar for Blacks and Whites. Black isolation was significantly associated with hypertension among Blacks and Whites in both urban (Black, b=1.34, P<.01; White, b=.66, P<.01) and rural settings (Black, b=.71, P=.02; White, b=.70, P<.01). Primary care physician adequacy was associated with hypertension among urban Blacks (b=-2.14, P<.01) and Whites (b=-1.74, P<.01). The significant geographic overlap of hypertension prevalence hotspots for Black and White Medicaid enrollees provides an opportunity for targeted health intervention. Provider adequacy findings suggest the value of ACA network adequacy standards for Medicaid managed care plans in ensuring health care accessibility for persons with hypertension and related chronic conditions.

  7. Racial Differences in Resolving Conflicts: A Comparison between Black and White Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y.; Payne, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the behavioral differences between Black and White police officers in handling interpersonal conflicts. Observational and survey data from the Project on Policing Neighborhoods and the 1990 census data were used. Actions taken by officers are examined along two behavioral dimensions: coercion and support. Findings show that…

  8. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  9. The Factor Structure of the Vocational Preference Inventory for Black and White College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom, B. Lee; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In the present study, the Vocational Preference Inventory scores for a group of black students and white students were factor analyzed and the black structure was rotated to correspond to the white structure. The correspondence between the variables for black and white students was found to be very similar. (Author)

  10. Perceived Discrimination and Interracial Contact: Predicting Interracial Closeness among Black and White Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether perceptions of discrimination moderate relationships between interracial contact and feelings of interracial closeness among black and white Americans, using survey responses gathered by the National Conference for Community and Justice (2000). Results indicate that the general association between contact and…

  11. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  12. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were

  13. Mortality risk among Black and White working women: the role of perceived work trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2012-02-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. The findings reveal the imprint of women's work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. © The Author(s) 2012

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Bed-Sharing Among Black and White Infants in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Robb, Sara Wagner; Kanu, Florence A

    2016-02-01

    To examine: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of bed-sharing among non-Hispanic Black and White infants in Georgia, and (2) differences in bed-sharing and sleep position behaviors prior to and after the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2005 recommendations against bed-sharing. Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data were obtained from the Georgia Department of Public Health. Analysis was guided by the socioecological model levels of: Infant, Maternal, Family, and Community/Society within the context of race. Data from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to address the first objective and from 2000 to 2004 and 2006 to 2011 to address the second objective. Rao-Scott Chi square tests and backward selection unconditional logistic regression models for weighted data were built separately by race; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 6595 (3528 Black and 3067 White) cases were analyzed between 2004 and 2011. Significantly more Black mothers (81.9 %) reported "ever" bed-sharing compared to White mothers (56 %), p Blacks, the final model included infant age, pregnancy intention, number of dependents, and use of Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Services. For Whites, the final model included infant age, maternal age, financial stress, partner-related stress, and WIC. When comparing the period 2000-2004 to 2006-2011, a total of 10,015 (5373 Black and 4642 White cases) were analyzed. A significant decrease in bedsharing was found for both Blacks and Whites; rates of non-supine sleep position decreased significantly for Blacks but not Whites. Continued high rates of bed-sharing and non-supine sleep position for both Blacks and Whites demonstrate an ongoing need for safe infant sleep messaging. Risk profiles for Black and White mothers differed, suggesting the importance of tailored messaging. Specific research and practice implications are identified and described.

  15. Implicit Race Bias Decreases the Similarity of Neural Representations of Black and White Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Brosch, Tobias; Bar-David, Eyal; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race bias has been shown to affect decisions and behaviors. It may also change perceptual experience by increasing perceived differences between social groups. We investigated how this phenomenon may be expressed at the neural level by testing whether the distributed blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) patterns representing Black and White faces are more dissimilar in participants with higher implicit race bias. We used multivoxel pattern analysis to predict the race of faces pa...

  16. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Mechanisms of Black and White Plumage Determination in Black-Bone Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigang Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Melanin is a major and ubiquitous component of plumage colouration, and patterns of melanin pigmentation in birds are extremely varied. However, the molecular mechanism of pigmentation in avian plumage is still largely unknown. Methods: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of black and white plumage, this study takes advantage of high-throughput sequencing technology to compare differences in the transcriptome between black and white chicken feather bulbs. In total, we constructed six cDNA libraries from black (Group B and white (Group W feather bulbs in the dorsal plumage of Muchuan black-boned chickens. Results: A comparison between Groups B and W revealed 61 differentially expressed genes, with 47 displaying higher, and 14 displaying lower, levels of expression in white feather bulbs. Our results revealed a set of candidate genes and two potential metabolic pathways involved in black-bone chicken plumage melanogenesis. These include four homeobox genes (HOXB9, HOXC8, HOXA9, and HOXC 9, two glutathione (GSH metabolism-related genes (CHAC1 and GPX3, and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β signalling pathway. Two known genes, TYR and MITF, were also shown to play a role in melanin formation. Conclusion: our data provide a valuable resource for discovering genes important in plumage melanin formation and will help further elucidate the molecular mechanisms for black and white plumage.

  17. Evaluation of computer tomograms using a black-and-white monitor and a colour monitor: A ROC comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockstroh, G.; Rotte, K.H.; Kriedemann, E.

    1987-01-01

    Different views about the value of a colour monitor for the evaluation of computer tomograms have prompted us to carry out this ROC (Receiver Operation Characteristic) examination. The latter was based on patient computer tomograms in which lesions of the liver were simulated by image manipulation. 5 radiologists analysed the image material (a) on a black-and-white monitor, (b) on a colour monitor, and (c) simultaneously on a black-and-white and a colour monitor. The study shows that the use of a colour monitor gives no essentially different result than evaluation with a black-and-white monitor. The slightly better result of 2% more true positive findings with simultaneous representation of black-and-white and colour image relative to the sole use of black-and-white display is within error limits. The colour representation gives no advantages for the evaluation of usual computer tomograms because the window technique enables a contrasty representation in black-and-white too. (orig.) [de

  18. Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlankii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn M. Donner

    2011-01-01

    Spring travelers from around the world are attracted to the young jack pine forests of Michigan for a chance to hear the loud distinct song of the endangered Kirtland's Warbler. This blue-gray-backed warbler with a yellow underside can be heard singing from its perch in the tops of standing snags or jack pine trees, or seen hopping from tree to tree or to the...

  19. Plasma Selenium Biomarkers in Low Income Black and White Americans from the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Liu, Jianguo; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Patel, Kushal A.; Larson, Celia O.; Schlundt, David G.; Kenerson, Donna M.; Hill, Kristina E.; Burk, Raymond F.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers of selenium are necessary for assessing selenium status in humans, since soil variation hinders estimation of selenium intake from foods. In this study, we measured the concentration of plasma selenium, selenoprotein P (SEPP1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX3) activity and their interindividual differences in 383 low-income blacks and whites selected from a stratified random sample of adults aged 40–79 years, who were participating in a long-term cohort study in the southeastern United States (US). We assessed the utility of these biomarkers to determine differences in selenium status and their association with demographic, socio-economic, dietary, and other indicators. Dietary selenium intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire designed for the cohort, matched with region-specific food selenium content, and compared with the US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) set at 55 µg/day. We found that SEPP1, a sensitive biomarker of selenium nutritional status, was significantly lower among blacks than whites (mean 4.4±1.1 vs. 4.7±1.0 mg/L, p = 0.006), with blacks less than half as likely to have highest vs. lowest quartile SEPP1 concentration (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.2–0.8). The trend in a similar direction was observed for plasma selenium among blacks and whites, (mean 115±15.1 vs. 118±17.7 µg/L, p = 0.08), while GPX3 activity did not differ between blacks and whites (136±33.3 vs. 132±33.5 U/L, p = 0.320). Levels of the three biomarkers were not correlated with estimated dietary selenium intake, except for SEPP1 among 10% of participants with the lowest selenium intake (≤57 µg/day). The findings suggest that SEPP1 may be an effective biomarker of selenium status and disease risk in adults and that low selenium status may disproportionately affect black and white cohort participants. PMID:24465457

  20. Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin: Sulfur and lead isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal

  1. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 3. Baseline characteristics of black and white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the differences at baseline in demographic, medical, and ophthalmic characteristics between blacks and whites enrolled in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 332 black patients (451 eyes), 249 white patients (325 eyes), and 10 patients of other races (13 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma that could not be controlled by medical therapy alone participated. There was no intervention performed. The investigators compare the baseline demographic, medical, and ophthalmic characteristics of black and white patients, adjusting the comparisons for age and gender. Blacks in the study were younger than whites and had more systemic hypertension and diabetes than whites. The visual field defects of blacks on average were substantially more severe than those of whites. Intraocular pressures and visual acuity scores were similar in the two groups. Blacks were more hyperopic and had relatively fewer disk rim hemorrhages than whites. The findings of the current study concur with those of previous clinical studies of open-angle glaucoma that visual field defects are more severe in blacks than whites.

  2. Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The differential impact of discrimination on health among Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.

  5. Conflict with Mothers and Siblings During Caregiving: Differential Costs for Black and White Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Rurka, Marissa; Con, Gulcin; Peng, Siyun; Pillemer, Karl

    2017-12-16

    Family conflict has been found to play a role in caregivers' psychological well-being; however, few studies have considered race differences in the prevalence and consequences of caregiving conflict. In this paper, we use mixed-methods to examine differences in the experiences of conflict among Black and White adult children caring for mothers. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 279 adult-child caregivers (213 White; 66 Black). Multilevel modeling revealed that conflict with mothers predicted depressive symptoms among Black, but not White caregivers, whereas there were not statistically significant race differences in the effects of conflict with siblings. However within-model tests showed stronger effects of conflict with mothers than siblings for Black caregivers, and stronger effects of conflict with siblings than mothers for White caregivers. Qualitative data revealed that Black caregivers' conflict with mothers resulted from their inability to meet their mothers' needs, inducing concern and sadness. White children's conflict stemmed from mothers' resistance to unwanted assistance and requests for support that children considered excessive, evoking irritation and frustration. This study highlights ways in which the experiences of caregivers reflect broader patterns of differences between Black and White families in both intergenerational cohesion and health disparities in midlife. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Implicit Race Bias Decreases the Similarity of Neural Representations of Black and White Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Bar-David, Eyal; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race bias has been shown to affect decisions and behaviors. It may also change perceptual experience by increasing perceived differences between social groups. We investigated how this phenomenon may be expressed at the neural level by testing whether the distributed blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) patterns representing Black and White faces are more dissimilar in participants with higher implicit race bias. We used multivoxel pattern analysis to predict the race of faces participants were viewing. We successfully predicted the race of the faces on the basis of BOLD activation patterns in early occipital visual cortex, occipital face area, and fusiform face area (FFA). Whereas BOLD activation patterns in early visual regions, likely reflecting different perceptual features, allowed successful prediction for all participants, successful prediction on the basis of BOLD activation patterns in FFA, a high-level face-processing region, was restricted to participants with high pro-White bias. These findings suggest that stronger implicit pro-White bias decreases the similarity of neural representations of Black and White faces. PMID:23300228

  7. From colour photographs to black-and-white line drawings: an assessment of chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes') transfer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, James; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over two experiments, we investigated the ability of two adolescent and two adult chimpanzees to generalise a learnt, pictorial categorisation to increasingly degraded and abstract stimuli. In Experiment 2, we further assessed the ability of the adolescent chimpanzees to engage in open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings. The current results confirmed and extended previous findings, showing that sub-adult chimpanzees outperform adult chimpanzees in the categorisation of pictorial stimuli, particularly when the stimuli are more degraded and abstract in nature. However, none of the four chimpanzees showed positive transfer of their category learning to a set of black-and-white line drawings, and neither of the adolescent chimpanzees evidenced reliable open-ended categorisation of the black-and-white line drawings. The latter findings suggest that both sub-adult and adult chimpanzees find it difficult to recognise black-and-white line drawings, and that open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings is challenging for chimpanzees.

  8. Recognition memory for colored and black-and-white scenes in normal and color deficient observers (dichromats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Cornet, Alyssa; Rakic, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Color deficient (dichromat) and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A'), response bias (B"D), response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses) among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.

  9. Anger in young black and white workers: effects of job control, dissatisfaction, and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sheila T; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Suchday, Sonia; Ewart, Craig K

    2003-08-01

    This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that characteristics of work that contribute to job strain also increase anger in young service-sector workers. A new measure of anger directed at coworkers, supervisors, and customers was regressed on job strain indices (job control, coworker and supervisor support, dissatisfaction) in models that controlled for dispositional negative affect and work status. Results in a sample of 230 young Black and White men and women revealed that low levels of job control and social support, and high levels of job dissatisfaction, were independently associated with increased work-related anger. Moreover, social support moderated the impact of low job control on anger directed at coworkers. Findings indicate that anger experienced at work may be an early marker of job stress, which has been prospectively related to cardiovascular disease.

  10. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  11. Class advantages and disadvantages are not so Black and White: intersectionality impacts rank and selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Higginbotham, Gerald D; Henderson, Kyshia

    2017-12-01

    At the intersection of race and class the consequences of being working-class or middle-class are not so Black and White. Rather, established and emerging research suggests that race/ethnicity and social class intersect to differentially afford benefits and burdens. For instance, racial/ethnic minorities often do not reap the social, psychological or economic benefits of higher social class; yet, in some key life domains (e.g. health and mortality) racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. seem to be buffered from some burdens of lower social class. We integrate empirical evidence to suggest that such differential advantages and disadvantages along racial lines reflect that social class exists alongside, rather than separate from, race/ethnicity as two distinct yet intersecting sources of rank and in turn selves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  13. Cross-cultural Conflicts in Fire Management in Northern Australia: Not so Black and White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Andersen

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available European ("scientific" and Aboriginal ("experiential" perspectives on fire management in northern Australia are often contrasted with each other. For Europeans, management is portrayed as a science-based, strategically directed and goal-oriented exercise aimed at achieving specific ecological outcomes. In contrast, landscape burning by Aboriginal people is more of an emergent property, diffusely arising from many uses of fire that serve social, cultural, and spiritual, as well as ecological, needs. Aboriginal knowledge is acquired through tradition and personal experience, rather than through the scientific paradigm of hypothesis testing. Here I argue that, in practice, science plays only a marginal role in European fire management in northern Australia. European managers often lack clearly defined goals in terms of land management outcomes, and rarely monitor the ecological effects of their management actions. Management is based primarily on tradition, intuition, and personal experience rather than on scientific knowledge, and there is often a reluctance to accept new information, particularly when it is provided by "outsiders." In these ways, the processes by which European land managers acquire and utilize information are actually similar to those of indigenous Australians, and can be considered characteristic of a management culture. In this context, the conventional European vs. Aboriginal contrast might be more accurately described as a conflict between scientists on one hand and land managers in general, both black and white, on the other. That is not to say that science has all the answers and that researchers always deliver useful research outcomes. Cultural tensions between Australia's colonists and its original inhabitants rank highly on the national agenda, particularly in relation to land access and ownership. For the effective management of such land, another difficult but rewarding challenge lies in reconciling tensions between

  14. Relationship between negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and mental health outcomes of Black and White female survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Relationships between mastitis and functional longevity in Danish Black and White dairy cattle estimated using survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, H.J.; Madsen, P.; Ducrucq, V.; Vollema, A.R.; Jensen, I.; Korsgaard, I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between mastitis and functional longevity was assessed with survival analysis on data of Danish Black and White dairy cows. Different methods of including the effect of mastitis treatment on the culling decision by a farmer in the model were compared. The model in which mastitis

  16. Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap between Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah; Shapiro, David

    1996-01-01

    Data from black and white women ages 34-44 (1968-88) showed that differences in characteristics did not explain occupational segregation by race nor the racial wage gap. During the 1980s, the gap was influenced by widening differences in access to occupations and an increase in returns to education. (SK)

  17. Vitamin D status of black and white Americans and changes in vitamin D metabolites after varied doses of vitamin D supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Controversy exists over the cause of disparate circulating 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD) between black and white Americans. Objective: To determine whether there are differences in total and directly measured free 25OHD between black and white American adults and to assess the degree to w...

  18. Identifying Contextual and Emotional Factors to Explore Weight Disparities between Obese Black and White Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NiCole R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obese black women enrolled in weight loss interventions experience 50% less weight reduction than obese white women. This suggests that current weight loss strategies may increase health disparities. Objective We evaluated the feasibility of identifying daily contextual factors that may influence obesity. Methods In-home interviews with 16 obese (body mass index ≥ 30 black and white urban poor women were performed. For 14 days, ecological momentary assessment (EMA was used to capture emotion and social interactions every other day, and day reconstruction method surveys were used the following day to reconstruct the context of the prior day's EMA. Results Factors included percentage of participants without weight scales (43.8% or fitness equipment (68.8% in the home and exposed to food at work (55.6%. The most frequently reported location, activity, and emotion were home (19.4 ± 8.53, working (7.1 ± 8.80, and happy (6.9 ± 10.03, respectively. Conclusion Identifying individual contexts may lead to valuable insights about obesogenic behaviors and new interventions to improve weight management.

  19. Characterization of black and white chromium electrodeposition films. Surface and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, M.; Palomar-Pardave, M. [Departamento de Materiales, UAM-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, Mexico D.F. 02200 (Mexico); Barrera, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Av. Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Huerta, L.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2003-11-01

    Thin films of black and white chromium have been prepared by electrodeposition on stainless steel substrates. The potentiodynamic and potentiostatic technique was used in order to prepare these materials. XRD, XPS, SEM and spectral reflectance in the UV-Visible-near IR and medium IR ranges, for both films coatings were characterized. From the SEM analysis, it was found while the black chromium has a lamellar morphology that leads to a strong dispersion level, the white one has a flat morphology. The chemical composition of these thin films was determined by XRD and XPS technique. The XRD results showed that in both cases chromium is the main bulk chemical compound in both films. However, from XPS analysis of these surfaces, it was possible to determine that the most external layers of the films are made of different kinds of chromium compounds. The black chromium film has better optical properties to transform solar energy into thermal energy, and these properties remain practically constant even when heat treated to a high temperature, 400 C. On the other hand the white chromium film is a better substrate for hydrogen evolution reactions than the black one.

  20. Characteristics of Black and White suicide decedents in Fulton County, Georgia, 1988-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Karon; Mertz, Kristen J; Powell, Kenneth E; Hanzlick, Randy L

    2008-09-01

    We compared the prevalence of risk factors for Black and White suicide decedents in Fulton County, Georgia, from 1988-2002. We used data from the Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office to compile information on suicides that occurred in Fulton County between 1988 and 2002. We used the chi(2) test and logistic regression to identify associations between suicide risk factors and race. Black suicide decedents were more likely than White suicide decedents to be male (odds ratio [OR]=2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.38, 3.09), to be younger, (>or=24 y [OR = 4.74; 95% CI = 2.88, 7.81]; 25-34 y [OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.74, 4.47]; 35-44 y [OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.13, 3.07]), and to hurt others in a suicide (OR = 4.22; 95% CI = 1.60, 11.15) but less likely to report depression (OR=0.63; 95% CI=0.48, 0.83), to have a family history of suicide (OR=0.08; 95% CI=0.01, 0.61), or to leave a suicide note (OR=0.37; 95% CI=0.26, 0.52). Future research should consider that Black suicide decedents are less likely to report depression than White suicide decedents. This suicide risk difference is important when developing effective suicide prevention programs.

  1. Study on the Excretion Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Number of Defecations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first hundred days of lactation. The aim ofthis study was to measure the main aspects that characterized the excretion behaviour (defecation of the cows in 24hours that were divided into 3 day periods: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-2:001 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During theexperiments, the following defecation behaviour aspects were determined: total number of defecations, number ofdefecations in the three intervals, number of defecations according to administration order of forages (fibroussucculentsand succulents-fibrous. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the differencesbetween intervals I1-I2 and I1-I3 were statistically very significant (p< 0.01. In fibrous – succulent order thedefecation were 0.69 higher than in succulent- fibrous order (p< 0.01. Total number of defecation resulted bysumming the defecation from the three intervals, was 14.67 in the first administration order (fibrous-succulent and12.61 in the second administration order (succulent-fibrous.

  2. The Influence of Daily Periods on the Drinking Behavior in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim of this study was to determine some aspect of drinking behavior of the cows in 24 hours that were divided into 3 day periods (intervals: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-21:00 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During the experiments, the following drinking behavior aspects were determined: the number of drinkings and the length of drinking periods per 24 hours, in the fibrous-succulents administration order of forages (O1 and succulents-fibrous order (O2. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the daily periods had an influence on the number of drinkings and drinking length, the lowest number of drinkings occurred during the night interval I3 (4.20 and the highest number together with the longest drinking period occurred in the second interval I2 (12.47 and 1062.50 seconds. In both administration order of forages ( O1 and O2 there were a very significant differences (p<0.001 between I1 and I2 in favour of I2, between I1 and I3 in favour of I1 and between I2 and I3 in favour of I2, for number of drinkings periods and for length of drinking periods.

  3. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin a reduction in black and white pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Jinap, S.; Noranizan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is an important means of decontamination of food commodities, especially spices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) for decontaminating ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ), B 2 (AFB 2 ), G 1 (AFG 1 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) residues in artificially contaminated black and white pepper samples. The moisture content of the pepper samples was set at 12% or 18%, and the applied gamma dose ranged from 5 to 30 kGy. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column (IAC) chromatography. Both the gamma irradiation dose and moisture content showed significant effects (P<0.05) on mycotoxin reduction. The maximum toxin reductions, found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy, were 55.2%, 50.6%, 39.2%, 47.7% and 42.9% for OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. - Highlights: ► The effect of gamma ray on the reduction of AFs and OTA in pepper was investigated. ► The gamma dose and moisture showed significant effects on mycotoxin reduction. ► The maximum reduction was found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy gamma ray. ► The method, even at 30 kGy and 18% moisture, failed to destroy total of mycotoxins.

  4. Distribution and determinants of QRS rotation of black and white persons in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prineas, Ronald J; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Stevens, Cladd E; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    The prevalence and determinants of QRS transition zones are not well established. We examined the distributions of Normal, clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW)) QRS transition zones and their relations to disease, body size and demographics in 4624 black and white men and women free of cardiovascular disease and major ECG abnormalities enrolled in the NHANES-III survey. CW transition zones were least observed (6.2%) and CCW were most prevalent (60.1%) with Normal in an intermediate position (33.7%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the adjusted, significant predictors for CCW compared to Normal were a greater proportion of blacks and women, fewer thin people (BMI<20, thin), a greater ratio of chest depth to chest width, and an LVMass index <80g. By contrast, CW persons were older, had larger QRS/T angles, smaller ratio of chest depth to chest width, had a greater proportion of subjects with low voltage QRS, more pulmonary disease, a greater proportion with high heart rates, shorter QRS duration and were more obese (BMI≥30). Normal rather than being the most prevalent transition zone was intermediate in frequency between the most frequently encountered CCW and the least frequently encountered transition zone CW. Differences in the predictors of CW and CCW exist. This requires further investigation to examine how far these differences explain the differences in the published prognostic differences between CW and CCW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troan, Brigid V; Perelygina, Ludmila; Patrusheva, Irina; Wettere, Arnaud J van; Hilliard, Julia K; Loomis, Michael R; Voe, Ryan S De

    2007-12-15

    A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence. The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation. Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

  6. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2018-01-11

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. An optimization approach for black-and-white and hinge-removal topology designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yongqing; Zhang, Xianmin [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    An optimization approach for black-and-white and hinge-removal topology designs is studied. To achieve this motive, an optimal topology allowing grey boundaries is found firstly. When a suitable design has been obtained, this solution is then used as a starting point for the follow-up optimization with the goal to free unfavorable intermediate elements. For this purpose, an updated optimality criterion in which a threshold factor is introduced to gradually suppress elements with low density is proposed. The typical optimality method and new technique proposed are applied to the design procedure sequentially. Besides, to circumvent the one-point hinge connection problem producing in the process of freeing intermediate elements, a hinge-removal strategy is also proposed. During the optimization, the binary constraints on design variables are relaxed based on the scheme of solid isotropic material with penalization. Meanwhile, the mesh independency filter is employed to ensure the existence of a solution and remove well-known checkerboards. In this way, a solution that has few intermediate elements and is free of one-point hinge connections is obtained. Finally, different numerical examples including the compliance minimization, compliant mechanisms and vibration problems demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  8. Sequencing Disadvantage: Barriers to Employment Facing Young Black and White Men with Criminal Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAGER, DEVAH; WESTERN, BRUCE; SUGIE, NAOMI

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of a large-scale field experiment conducted in New York City investigating the effects of race and a prison record on employment. Teams of black and white men were matched and sent to apply for low-wage jobs throughout the city, presenting equivalent resumés and differing only in their race and criminal background. The authors find a significant negative effect of a criminal record on employment outcomes that appears substantially larger for African Americans. The sequence of interactions preceding hiring decisions suggests that black applicants are less often invited to interview, thereby providing fewer opportunities to establish rapport with the employer. Furthermore, employers’ general reluctance to discuss the criminal record of an applicant appears especially harmful for black ex-offenders. Overall, these results point to the importance of rapport-building for finding work, something that the stigmatizing characteristics of minority and criminal status make more difficult to achieve. PMID:23459367

  9. Prevalence of colon polyps detected by colonoscopy screening in asymptomatic black and white patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David; Holub, Jennifer; Moravec, Matthew; Eisen, Glenn; Peters, Dawn; Morris, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context Compared to whites, Black men and women have a higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer and may develop cancer at a younger age. Colorectal cancer screening might be less effective in Blacks, if there are racial differences in the age-adjusted prevalence and location of cancer precursor lesions. Objectives To determine and compare the prevalence rates and location of polyp(s) >9mm in asymptomatic Blacks and whites who receive colonoscopy screening. Design, Setting, and Patients Colonoscopy data were prospectively collected from 67 practice sites in the United States using a computerized endoscopic report generator from 2004–2005. Data were transmitted to a central data repository, where all asymptomatic whites (n = 80,061) and Blacks (n = 5464) who received screening colonoscopy were identified. Main outcome measures Prevalence and location of polyp(s) >9mm, adjusted for age, gender, and family history of colorectal cancer in a multivariate analysis. Results Both Black men and women had a higher prevalence of polyp(s) >9mm (7.7 versus 6.2%; p 9mm (OR 1.133; 95% CI 0.93,1.38). However, in a sub-analysis of patients over age 60 years, proximal polyps >9mm were more likely in Black men (p = 0.026) and women (p9mm, and Black over age 60 years are more likely to proximal polyps >9mm. PMID:18812532

  10. Leachates analysis of glass from black and white and color televisions sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to determine the content of selected elements in the glass from color and black and white television (TV sets. The amount of back taken TV sets in the Czech Republic increases annualy, which is associated with higher production of the waste glass. Currently there is 1.4 television sets for each household and the number of it should increase in future, because of higher standard of living and new technologies used. Waste glass treatment or landfilling may present, because of composition of the waste glass threat to the environment. One of the indicators of the polution from waste glass is leachate analysis, which can show us the content of hazardous substances in the waste glass, which can be released to the environment. A qualitative analysis of leachate samples was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results showed concentration of potencionaly hazardous substances contained in leachate samples. This was especially content of aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, tin and zinc. Results of analyzes of the aqueous extract of glass were confronted with the limits specified in the currently valid legislation. Based on the results there is clear that in the case of landfilling of the glass from television sets, there is possibility of the contamination of landfill leachate by the elements, which are presented in the glass.

  11. Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes between black and white smokers.

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    Muscat, Joshua E; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D; Richie, John P

    2008-10-01

    The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X+1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2-0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, Pwhites.

  12. Research on Rumination Time According to Administration Order of Forages in Romanian Black and White Cows

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    Silvia Erina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim of this study was to measure the main aspects that characterized the rumination behavior of the cows in 24 hours that were divided into 3 day periods: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-2:001 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3.  During the experiments, the following rumination behavior aspects were determined: the number of ruminating periods, their total duration (min., number of  chewing, the length of one ruminating period (min. and average number of chewing per period according to administration order of forages: fibrous-succulents (O1   and succulents-fibrous (O2,  in cows housed in tie stalls. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. In fibrous – succulent order (O1, results showed that the differences between intervals I1-I3 and I2-I3 were statistically very significant (p< 0.001 for most measured parameters. In succulent – fibrous order (O2, significant differences was between intervals I1-I3, I2-I3 and between intervals I1-I2 for some parameters.

  13. Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing between Blacks and Whites of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaNoue, Marianna; Harvey, Abby; Mautner, Dawn; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    The factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale remains in question. Additionally, research on health belief differences between Black and White respondents suggests that the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale may not be invariant. We reviewed the literature regarding the latent variable structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the three-factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and analyzed between-group differences in the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control structure and means across Black and White respondents. Our results indicate differences in means and structure, indicating more research is needed to inform decisions regarding whether and how to deploy the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control appropriately.

  14. Comparing Black and White Drug Offenders: Implications for Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice and Reentry Policy and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alana; Groves, Allison K; Blankenship, Kim M

    2017-01-01

    Despite knowledge of racial bias for drug-related criminal justice involvement and its collateral consequences, we know less about differences between Black and White drug offenders. We compare 243 Blacks and White non-violent drug offenders in New Haven, CT for demographic characteristics, substance use, and re-entry services accessed. Blacks were significantly more likely to have sales and possession charges, significantly more likely to prefer marijuana, a less addictive drug, and significantly less likely to report having severe drug problems. For both races, drug treatment was the most common service accessed through supervision. These comparisons suggest different reasons for committing drug-related crimes and thus, different reentry programming needs. While drug treatment is critical for all who need it, for racial justice, we must also intervene to address other needs of offenders, such as poverty alleviation and employment opportunities.

  15. Racism in soccer? Perception of challenges of black and white players by white referees, soccer players, and fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla

    2012-02-01

    This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.

  16. COLORS FERTILE T. UYAR WAYS OF READING IN THE DILEMMA / FIRST CHOICE: BLACK AND WHITE

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    Fatih Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since all light from the sun, which is still dominated by the first light of the sky or the sun. World time gave even at their disposal. They do people, he must realize that, albeit in different forms in the light. the main source of artificial light until it has never been changed. Poetry actually crushed under the light, will be written. He said the poet who want to reach an unknown time, the intention is to go on the road as close to divine theology. Take under the influence of the environment as a soul the dust of the poem depends to spread the spirit of all known. That's why we look at our poets, they move beyond what we see at a glance. The sense of light known by everyone. Special meaning is a reflection of the property. İknci Yeni, has witnessed a time of poetic intensity in the Turkish poetry tradition. Different trends in the world, has seen a time when the break occurred. All transitions have very different reactions in the human world of poets exception. Turgut Uyar, then all the values of the semi-urban stuck together as a personality we can say that to their climate. Light is a double value illuminating or decision they want to see him. Besides the special general sense, it also carries a qualified sense. Particularly striking is filled with black and white images load. White is interesting to carry the same attributes in the black space of the tragic point. This Turgut Uyar, adds a different dimension to the meaning of the poem.

  17. Vitamin D Supplementation Does Not Impact Insulin Resistance in Black and White Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferira, Ashley J; Laing, Emma M; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hall, Daniel B; McCabe, George P; Martin, Berdine R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Warden, Stuart J; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D supplementation trials with diabetes-related outcomes have been conducted almost exclusively in adults and provide equivocal findings. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response of vitamin D supplementation on fasting glucose, insulin, and a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in white and black children aged 9–13 years, who participated in the Georgia, Purdue, and Indiana University (or GAPI) trial: a 12-week multisite, randomized, triple-masked, dose-response, placebo-controlled vitamin D trial. Black and white children in the early stages of puberty (N = 323, 50% male, 51% black) were equally randomized to receive vitamin D3 (0, 400, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/day) for 12 weeks. Fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. Statistical analyses were conducted as intent-to-treat using a mixed effects model. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin (r = −0.140, P = 0.017) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = −0.146, P = 0.012) after adjusting for race, sex, age, pubertal maturation, fat mass, and body mass index. Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased (F > 5.79, P insulin resistance, vitamin D supplementation had no impact on fasting glucose, insulin, or a surrogate measure of insulin resistance over 12 weeks in apparently healthy children.

  18. Differences in preferences for models of consent for biobanks between Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine M; Drake, Bettina F; Gehlert, Sarah; Wolf, Leslie E; DuBois, James; Seo, Joann; Woodward, Krista; Perkins, Hannah; Goodman, Melody S; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are essential resources, and participation by individuals from diverse groups is needed. Various models of consent have been proposed for secondary research use of biospecimens, differing in level of donor control and information received. Data are needed regarding participant preferences for models of consent, particularly among minorities. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 60 women to examine their attitudes about different models of consent. Recruitment was stratified by race (Black/White) and prior biobank participation (yes/no). Two coders independently coded interview transcripts. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10. The majority of Black and White participants preferred "broad" consent (i.e., blanket permission for secondary research use of biospecimens), and the second most preferred model for both groups was "study-specific" consent (i.e., consent for each future research study). The qualitative analysis showed that participants selected their most preferred model for 3 major reasons: having enough information, having control over their sample, and being asked for permission. Least preferred was notice model (i.e., participants notified that biospecimens may be used in future research). Attitudes toward models of consent differed somewhat by race and prior biobank participation. Participants preferred models of consent for secondary research use of biospecimens that provided them with both specific and general information, control over their biospecimens, and asked them to give permission for use. Our findings suggest that it will be important for researchers to provide information about future uses of biospecimens to the extent possible and have an explicit permission step for secondary research use.

  19. Cytomegalovirus infection and risk of Alzheimer disease in older black and white individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Lisa L; Capuano, Ana W; Aiello, Alison E; Turner, Arlener D; Yolken, Robert H; Torrey, E Fuller; Bennett, David A

    2015-01-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is prevalent in older adults and has been implicated in many chronic diseases of aging. This study investigated the relation between CMV and the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). Data come from 3 cohort studies that included 849 participants (mean age [±SD], 78.6 ± 7.2 years; mean education duration [±SD], 15.4 ± 3.3 years; 25% black). A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for detecting type-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses to CMV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) measured in archived serum samples. Of 849 participants, 73.4% had serologic evidence of exposure to CMV (89.0% black and 68.2% white; P risk of AD (relative risk, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.27) and a faster rate of decline in global cognition (estimate [±standard error], -0.02 ± 0.01; P = .03) in models that controlled for age, sex, education duration, race, vascular risk factors, vascular diseases, and apolipoprotein ε4 level. Results were similar in black and white individuals for both incident AD and change in cognitive function and were independent of HSV-1 status. These results suggest that CMV infection is associated with an increased risk of AD and a faster rate of cognitive decline in older diverse populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Relationship between premature mortality and socioeconomic factors in black and white populations of US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R S; Kennelly, J F; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Oh, H J; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J

    2001-01-01

    examined the association of mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators of inequality and segregation among blacks and whites younger than age 65 in 267 US metropolitan areas. The primary aim of the analysis was to operationalize the concept of institutional racism in public health. Socioeconomic indicators were drawn from Census and vital statistics data for 1989-1991 and included median household income; two measures of income inequality; percentage of the population that was black; and a measure of residential segregation. Age-adjusted premature mortality was 81% higher in blacks than in whites, and median household income was 40% lower. Income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient, was greater within the black population (0.45) than within the white population (0.40; p inequality for the total population was significantly correlated with premature mortality (r = 0.33). Black (r = 0.26) and white (r = 0.20) population-specific correlations between income inequality and premature mortality, while still significant, were smaller. Residential segregation was significantly related to premature mortality and income inequality for blacks (r = 0.38 for both); among whites, however, segregation was modestly correlated with premature mortality (r = 0.19) and uncorrelated with income inequality. Regional analyses demonstrated that the association of segregation with premature mortality was much more pronounced in the South and in areas with larger black populations. Social factors such as income inequality and segregation strongly influence premature mortality in the US. Ecologic studies of the relationships among social factors and population health can measure attributes of the social context that may be relevant for population health, providing the basis for imputing macro-level relationships.

  1. Personality and well-being in Black and White South African emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alewyn Nel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last ten years, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI has been developed as an indigenous measurement of personality for the multi-cultural environment of South Africa. The aim of the SAPI is to assess personality in an unbiased and equivalent way. For the purpose of this study, we used an 82-item version of the SAPI which measures nine factors (Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony and Soft-heartedness. Participants and procedure A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the SAPI, the General Health Questionnaire and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. A purposive sample was drawn from Black and White emerging adults (N = 990. We assessed the relationship between personality aspects and well-being across groups in a multiple group structural equation model (SEM using the SPSS and AMOS programs. Results Black emerging adults showed evidence of more individualistic-inclined personality features, while the White emerging adults seem to demonstrate more collectivistic features. In terms of health, the White emerging adults experience more life satisfaction than their Black counterparts. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, facilitating and openness predict well-being among emerging adults. Conclusions This study contributes to expanding the nomological network of the SAPI, and it enhances knowledge pertaining to the link between personality and well-being of emerging adults in South Africa. Understanding which factors contribute to poor mental health and lack of life satisfaction may lead to innovation programmes for emerging adults to assist them in dealing with negative health outcomes possibly associated with living in multicultural contexts.

  2. Associations between Race and Eating Disorder Symptom Trajectories in Black and White Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Wildes, Jennifer E; Cheng, Yu; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological research suggests racial differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. However, no studies have examined associations between race and eating disorder symptom trajectories across youth and adolescence, which is necessary to inform culturally sensitive prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the trajectories of eating disorder symptoms from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether race was associated with trajectory group membership. Data were drawn from 2,305 Black and White girls who participated in a community-based longitudinal cohort study (Pittsburgh Girls Study) examining the development of psychopathology. The child and adult versions of the Eating Attitudes Test assessed self-reported eating disorder symptoms at six time points between ages 9 and 21 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories of dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. Given potential confounds with race and disordered eating, financial strain (i.e., receiving public assistance) and weight were included as covariates. Four to six distinct developmental patterns were found across eating disorder symptoms, including none, increasing, decreasing, or increasing-decreasing trajectories. Black girls had a greater likelihood of being in the decreasing trajectories for dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. White girls were more likely to follow increasing trajectories of dieting and total eating disorder symptom scores compared to Black girls. These results highlight the importance of examining the influence of racial background on eating disorder symptoms and the potential need for differences in the timing and focus of prevention interventions in these groups.

  3. Association of multiple chronic conditions and pain among older black and white adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is often associated with the challenge of navigating daily tasks with a painful chronic medical illness. Yet, there is concern of the number of older adults impacted with more than one chronic condition. Despite the increasing number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and comorbid chronic illnesses, there remains a lack of understanding in how multiple illnesses relate to experiences of pain. To assess the association between multiple chronic conditions and pain, this study aimed to identify clusters of chronic medical conditions and their association with pain among a sample of older Black and White adults diagnosed with diabetes. Methods Two hundred and thirty-six participants responded to a series of questions assessing pain frequency and severity, as well as health and social characteristics. A factor analysis was used to categorize clusters of medical conditions, and multiple regression models were used to examine predictors of pain. Results Seven of the assessed chronic medical conditions loaded on three factors, and accounted for 57.2% of the total variance, with heart disease (factor 1 accounting for 21.9%, musculoskeletal conditions (factor 2 for another 18.4%, and factor 3 (microvascular diseases accounting for a final 16.9% of the variability among the chronic medical conditions. Covariate-adjusted models showed that fewer years of education and higher scores on the microvascular and musculoskeletal conditions factors were associated with higher pain frequency, with the musculoskeletal conditions factor being the strongest predictor. Conclusions Findings from this study compliment existent literature underscoring the prevalence and importance of comorbid diagnoses in relation to pain. Examining health-related factors beyond a single disease diagnosis also provides an opportunity to explore underlying disease co-occurrences that may persist beyond organ system classifications.

  4. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  5. Poor sleep moderates the relationship between daytime napping and inflammation in Black and White men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Karen P; Boylan, Jennifer M; Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-10-01

    To test whether napping was associated with 2 inflammatory markers with known relationships to cardiovascular disease: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Because IL-6 is known to impact central inflammatory processes that relate to sleep regulation, including subjective fatigue, we tested whether this relationship was moderated by sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and self-reported sleep quality. Cross-sectional. A community sample of Black and White men (N=253) completed a week of actigraphy and diary measures of sleep and napping and provided a fasting blood sample. Napping was measured as the proportion of days with at least 30 minutes napped and the average minutes napped per day. Linear regressions adjusted for race, socioeconomic status, employment, body mass index, smoking, medications that affect sleep or inflammation, working the nightshift, and day-sleeping status, followed by interaction terms between napping and sleep duration, efficiency, and quality, respectively. There were no significant main effects of actigraphy- or diary-measured napping on IL-6 or hsCRP. Moderation analyses indicated elevated IL-6 values among men who napped more days (by actigraphy) and demonstrated short sleep duration (P=.03). Moderation analyses also indicated elevated IL-6 among men who demonstrated greater average minutes napped (by actigraphy) and short sleep duration (Pnapping or hsCRP were not significant. Actigraphy-assessed daytime napping is related to higher IL-6 in men who demonstrate worse sleep characteristics. Daytime napping may pose additional risk for inflammation beyond the known risk conferred by short sleep. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for the Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carly; Ravida, Nicole; Curtis, Michelle; Mazzotti, Frank; Durrant, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Of the 934 lizard species evaluated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), at least one-third is threatened with extinction. However, there are no reports of semen cryopreservation efforts for lizards. Invasive Argentine black and white tegus were captured in the Florida Everglades, and sperm was collected postmortem. Initial motility score (IMS; % motile × speed of progression 2 × 100), plasma membrane integrity (IPL), and acrosome integrity (IAC) were recorded. Sperm was diluted in TEST-yolk buffer with a final glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)concentration of 8%, 12%, or 16%, and frozen at 0.3 °C, 1.0 °C, or 6.3 °C/min. At thaw, all variables were expressed as the percentage of initial (%IMS, %IPL, and %IAC). The 0.3 °C freeze rate was more successful than 1.0 °C and 6.3 °C/min in preserving %IMS and %IPL. DMSO preserved %IMS, %IPL, and %IAC better than glycerol. To determine the best overall cryopreservation protocol, a sperm quality index was calculated, giving equal weight to each of the three indicators of cryosurvival. Because there were significant interactions between freeze rate and cryoprotectant concentration, each treatment was compared with all others. The sperm quality index analysis revealed that tegu sperm frozen at 0.3 °C/min with 12% DMSO exhibited the highest postthaw viability compared with all other treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Three Novel Haplotypes of Theileria bicornis in Black and White Rhinoceros in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiende, M Y; Kivata, M W; Jowers, M J; Makumi, J N; Runo, S; Obanda, V; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Kariuki, L; Alasaad, S

    2016-02-01

    Piroplasms, especially those in the genera Babesia and Theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. Due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. This study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel Theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical interventions from 15 rhinoceros were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a nested amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene fragments of Babesia and Theileria. Our study revealed for the first time in Kenya the presence of Theileria bicornis in white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) rhinoceros and the existence of three new haplotypes: haplotypes H1 and H3 were present in white rhinoceros, while H2 was present in black rhinoceros. No specific haplotype was correlated to any specific geographical location. The Bayesian inference 50% consensus phylogram recovered the three haplotypes monophyleticly, and Theileria bicornis had very high support (BPP: 0.98). Furthermore, the genetic p-uncorrected distances and substitutions between T. bicornis and the three haplotypes were the same in all three haplotypes, indicating a very close genetic affinity. This is the first report of the occurrence of Theileria species in white and black rhinoceros from Kenya. The three new haplotypes reported here for the first time have important ecological and conservational implications, especially for population management and translocation programs and as a means of avoiding the transport of infected animals into non-affected areas. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Comparative Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Among Black and White Patients Treated at US Veterans Affairs Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Taisei; Glorioso, Thomas J; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Plomondon, Mary E; Grunwald, Gary K; Bradley, Steven M; Tsai, Thomas T; Waldo, Stephen W; Rao, Sunil V; Banerjee, Subhash; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rene, A Garvey; Wilensky, Robert L; Groeneveld, Peter W; Giri, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Current comparative outcomes among black and white patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system are not known. To compare outcomes between black and white patients undergoing PCI in the VA health system. This study compared black and white patients who underwent PCI between October 1, 2007, and September 30, 2013, at 63 VA hospitals using data recorded in the VA Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking System for Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories (CART-CL) program. A generalized linear mixed model with a random intercept for site assessed the relative difference in odds of outcomes between black and white patients. The setting was integrated institutionalized hospital care. Excluded were all patients of other races or those with multiple listed races and those with missing data regarding race or the diagnostic cardiac catheterization. The dates of analysis were January 7, 2016, to April 17, 2017. Percutaneous coronary intervention at a VA hospital. The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day all-cause readmission rates, 30-day acute kidney injury, 30-day blood transfusion, and 1-year readmission rates for myocardial infarction. In addition, variations in procedural and postprocedural care were examined, including the use of intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, fractional flow reserve measurements, bare-metal stents, postprocedural medications, and radial access. A total of 42 391 patients (13.3% black and 98.4% male; mean [SD] age, 65.2 [9.1] years) satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In unadjusted analyses, black patients had higher rates of 1-year mortality (7.1% vs 5.9%, P < .001) as well as secondary outcomes of 30-day acute kidney injury (20.8% vs 13.8%, P < .001), 30-day blood transfusion (3.4% vs 2.7%, P < .01), and 1-year readmission rates for myocardial infarction (3.3% vs 2.7%, P = .01) compared with white

  9. Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with markers of inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity in black and white community-dwelling adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Lower 25(OHD concentrations are associated with disturbances in metabolic health in both blacks and whites. Whether correcting vitamin D deficiency could offer a beneficial therapy for disease prevention requires further study.

  10. Inequality in Black and White High School Students' Perceptions of School Support: An Examination of Race in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    Supportive relationships with adults at school are critical to student engagement in adolescence. Additional research is needed to understand how students' racial backgrounds interact with the school context to shape their perceptions of school support. This study employed multilevel, latent variable methods with a sample of Black and White students (N = 19,726, 35.8 % Black, 49.9 % male, mean age = 15.9) in 58 high schools to explore variation in perceived caring, equity, and high expectations by student race, school diversity, and socioeconomic context. The results indicated that Black students perceived less caring and equity relative to White students overall, and that equity and high expectations were lower in diverse schools for both Black and White students. Nonetheless, racial disparities were attenuated in more diverse schools. The findings point to the need for intervention to improve perceptions of school support for Black youth and for all students in lower income and more diverse schools.

  11. Population-level correlates of preterm delivery among black and white women in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan L Carmichael

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. METHODS: We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values. Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.

  12. Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors in Blacks and Whites: Dissecting Racial Paradox of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Osei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.

  13. Colours in black and white: the depiction of lightness and brightness in achromatic engravings before the invention of photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavagno, Daniele; Massironi, Manfredo

    2006-01-01

    What is it like to see the world in black and white? In the pioneer days of cinema, when movies displayed grey worlds, was it true that no 'colours' were actually seen? Did every object seen in those projections appear grey in the same way? The answer is obviously no--people in those glorious days were seeing a world full of light, shadows, and objects in which colours were expressed in terms of lightness. But the marvels of grey worlds have not always been so richly displayed. Before the invention of photography, the depiction of scenes in black-and-white had to face some technical and perceptual challenges. We have studied the technical and perceptual constraints that XV-XVIII century engravers had to face in order to translate actual colours into shades of grey. An indeterminacy principle is considered, according to which artists had to prefer the representation of some object or scene features over others (for example brightness over lightness). The reasons for this lay between the kind of grey scale technically available and the kind of information used in the construction of 3-D scenes. With the invention of photography, photomechanical reproductions, and new printing solutions, artists had at their disposal a continuous grey scale that greatly reduces the constraints of the indeterminacy principle.

  14. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Munro, Heather M; Blot, William J; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89), current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17), and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02) had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57) and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99). Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76); however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings identified

  15. Degree of facial and body terminal hair growth in unselected black and white women: toward a populational definition of hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeUgarte, Catherine Marin; Woods, K S; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Azziz, Ricardo

    2006-04-01

    Hirsutism (i.e. facial and body terminal hair growth in a male-like pattern in women) is the principal clinical sign of hyperandrogenism, although its definition remains unclear. The purposes of the present study were to define 1) the degree of facial and body terminal hair, as assessed by the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score, in unselected women from the general population; 2) the effect of race (Black and White) on the same; and 3) the normative cutoff values. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary academic medical center. Participants included 633 unselected White (n = 283) and Black (n = 350) women presenting for a preemployment physical exam. Interventions included history and physical examination. Terminal body hair growth was assessed using the mFG scoring system; nine body areas were scored from 0-4 for terminal hair growth distribution. The mFG scores were not normally distributed; although cluster analysis failed to identify a natural cutoff value or clustering of the population, principal component and univariate analyses denoted two nearly distinct clusters that occurred above and below an mFG value of 2, with the bulk of the scores below. Overall, an mFG score of at least 3 was observed in 22.1% of all subjects (i.e. the upper quartile); of these subjects, 69.3% complained of being hirsute, compared with 15.8% of women with an mFG score below this value, and similar to the proportion of women with an mFG score of at least 8 who considered themselves to be hirsute (70.0%). Overall, there were no significant differences between Black and White women. Our data indicate that the prevalence and degree of facial and body terminal hair growth, as assessed by the mFG score, is similar in Black and White women and that an mFG of at least 3 signals the population of women whose hair growth falls out of the norm.

  16. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Sonderman

    Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings

  17. Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobene, Andrea J; Kindler, Joseph M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Grider, Arthur; Lewis, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes. Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo ( n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide ( r = -0.07), insulin ( r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR ( r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) ( P = 0.06). Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this

  18. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  19. Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Stefanovics, Elina A; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-01-01

    We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling (PPG) and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal levels of gambling in black and white respondents indicate the importance of considering race-related factors in mental health prevention and treatment strategies.  American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Heart Disease Death Rates Among Blacks and Whites Aged ≥35 Years - United States, 1968-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Miriam; Greer, Sophia; Odom, Erika; Schieb, Linda; Vaughan, Adam; Kramer, Michael; Casper, Michele

    2018-03-30

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. 1968-2015. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968-2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968-2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases occurring during the 1970s and 1980s followed by small but steady

  1. Daytime birth and parturition assistant behavior in wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Yang, Le; Xiao, Wen

    2013-03-01

    Few quantitative descriptions of parturition behavior have been reported in wild nonhuman primates because the majority of births occur at night. We have recorded a daytime birth event of a primiparous black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). The partum stage lasted 4 min 30 s, and the female skillfully severed the umbilical cord, ingested the placenta, and held and licked the newborn infant. During this period, the laboring female received delivery assistance from a multiparous female in same one-male unit (OMU) and female juveniles from same OMU showed great interesting during the partum. Our case study suggested that there might be considerable individual variation in birth-related behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Living standards in Black and White: evidence from the heights of Ohio Prison inmates, 1829-1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Thomas N; Carson, Scott Alan

    2008-07-01

    The use of height data to measure living standards is now a well-established method in the economic history literature. Moreover, a number of core findings are widely agreed upon. There are still some populations, places, and times, however, for which anthropometric evidence remains limited. One such example is 19th century African-Americans in the Northern US. Here, we use new data from the Ohio state prison to track heights of Black and White men incarcerated between 1829 and 1913. We corroborate the well-known mid-century height decline among White men. We find that Black men were shorter than White men, throughout the century controlling for a number of characteristics. We also find a pattern of height decline among Black men in mid-century similar to that found for White men.

  3. Stigma and Postpartum Depression Treatment Acceptability Among Black and White Women in the First Six-Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Benn, E K T; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, E A

    2017-07-01

    Objective To measure stigma associated with four types of postpartum depression therapies and to estimate the association between stigma and the acceptance of these therapies for black and white postpartum mothers. Methods Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, this study included 481 black and white women who gave birth in a large urban hospital and answered a series of questions at 6-months postpartum. Survey items included socio demographic and clinical factors, attitudes about postpartum depression therapies and stigma. The associations between race, stigma, and treatment acceptability were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Black postpartum mothers were less likely than whites to accept prescription medication (64 vs. 81%, p = 0.0001) and mental health counseling (87 vs. 93%, p = 0.001) and more likely to accept spiritual counseling (70 vs. 52%, p = 0.0002). Women who endorsed stigma about receipt of postpartum depression therapies versus those who did not were less likely to accept prescription medication, mental health and spiritual counseling for postpartum depression. Overall black mothers were less likely to report stigma associated with postpartum depression therapies. In adjusted models, black women versus white women remained less likely to accept prescription medication for postpartum depression (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72) and stigma did not explain this difference. Conclusions Although treatment stigma is associated with lower postpartum depression treatment acceptance, stigma does not explain the lower levels of postpartum depression treatment acceptance among black women. More research is needed to understand treatment barriers for postpartum depression, especially among black women.

  4. Sexual well-being: a comparison of U.S. black and white women in heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, John; Long, J Scott; McCabe, Janice

    2011-08-01

    In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national probability sample to compare black (n = 251) and white (n = 544) American women, aged 20-65 years, who were in an established heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. We focused on two aspects of their sexual well-being; how a woman evaluated (1) her sexual relationship and (2) her own sexuality. A range of possible determinants of sexual well-being, including demographic factors, physical and mental health, and aspects of the women's recent sexual experiences, were also assessed using Telephone-Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (T-ACASI). We found no significant difference between black and white women in their evaluation of their sexual relationships nor in the independent variables that were correlated with this evaluation. Black women, however, evaluated their own sexuality more positively than white women. In examining the correlates of this evaluation, a woman's rating of her own sexual attractiveness proved to be the strongest predictor, with black women rating themselves significantly more sexually attractive than did the white women. Overall, these findings were consistent with previous findings that, compared to white women, black women in the United States have higher self-esteem and tend towards more independence and individualism.

  5. Understanding racial HIV/STI disparities in black and white men who have sex with men: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.

  6. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis among Black and White men who have sex with men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Charlotte-Paige; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Grey, Jeremy; Sanchez, Travis; Del Rio, Carlos; Peterson, John L; Frew, Paula M; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2017-08-01

    PrEP willingness may be different among black and white men who have sex with men (MSM) given known disparities in HIV incidence, sociodemographic factors, and healthcare access between these groups. We surveyed 482 black and white HIV-negative MSM in Atlanta, GA about their willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and facilitators and barriers to PrEP willingness. Overall, 45% (215/482) of men indicated interest in using PrEP. Engaging in recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) was the only factor significantly associated with PrEP willingness in multivariate analyses (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.13, 2.65). Willing men identified "extra protection" against HIV as the most common reason for interest in using PrEP, whereas unwilling men most commonly cited not wanting to take medication daily, and this reason was more common among white MSM (42.3% of white MSM vs. 28.9% of black MSM, p = 0.04). Most men indicated willingness to use PrEP if cost was <50 dollars/month; however, more black MSM indicated willingness to use PrEP only if cost were free (17.9% of white MSM vs. 25.9% of black MSM, p = 0.03). Overall, these data are useful to scale up PrEP interventions targeting at-risk MSM in Atlanta and highlight the need for implementation of low cost-programs, which will be especially important for black MSM.

  7. Testing the Association Between Traditional and Novel Indicators of County-Level Structural Racism and Birth Outcomes among Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Brittany D; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Tanner, Amanda E; Nichols, Tracy R; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly

    2017-12-07

    Despite decreases in infants born premature and at low birth weight in the United States (U.S.), racial disparities between Black and White women continue. In response, the purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between both traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among Black and White women. We merged individual-level data from the California Birth Statistical Master Files 2009-2013 with county-level data from the United States (U.S.) Census American Community Survey. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine Black-White differences among 531,170 primiparous women across 33 California counties. Traditional (e.g., dissimilarity index) and novel indicators (e.g., Black to White ratio in elected office) were associated with earlier gestational age and lower birth weight among Black and White women. A traditional indicator was more strongly associated with earlier gestational age for Black women than for White women. This was the first study to empirically demonstrate that structural racism, measured by both traditional and novel indicators, is associated with poor health and wellbeing of infants born to Black and White women. However, findings indicate traditional indicators of structural racism, rather than novel indicators, better explain racial disparities in birth outcomes. Results also suggest the need to develop more innovative approaches to: (1) measure structural racism at the county-level and (2) reform public policies to increase integration and access to resources.

  8. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  9. Song and Male Quality in Prairie Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King; W. Koenig

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the songs of male prairie warblers could potentially reveal to female listeners information about the quality of singers, we compared various aspects of prairie warbler song structure and performance to attributes that might reflect a male singer's potential to enhance the fitness of his mate. We found that all the tested male attributes—arrival...

  10. Affirmative Action Application or Black and White in South Africa Higher Education Institutions: Is it the way forward or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiena Maria van der Bank

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We will, demonstrate what affirmative action entails, its origin and the relationship with discrimination and equality. The paper will also highlight the implementation of affirmative action in the Higher Education sector in South Africa.  Affirmative action or black and white are the additional corrective steps which must be taken in order that those who have been historically disadvantage by unfair discrimination before 1994 are able to derive full benefits from an equitable employment environment. While there has been a significant increase in the number of women appointed into management positions, the proportion in relation to the total number of women in senior posts such as those of Vice Chancellors, Deputy-Vice Chancellors and Executive Deans still remains problematic. Considerations should be taken with regard to issues of access, equity and relevance.  Indeed, affirmative action should be located within a rigorous process that will ensure that those who are for example, promoted to senior positions both in private and public sectors are able to demonstrate strategic thinking and action, quality execution of tasks, efficiency and effectiveness in achieving organisational goals.  This will also be followed by a brief South Africa’s case study of different entities (South African Breweries and Sowetan Newspaper.  A comparison of USA’s affirmative action and whether “there is a light at the end of a tunnel – affirmative action” will be done.

  11. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (padvertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (padvertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; padvertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (padvertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  12. The Role of Religiousness on Substance-Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Battle, DuWayne; Pagano, Maria E.; Andrade, Fernando H.; Bradley, Jaclyn C.; Delva, Jorge; Johnson, Shannon M.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares 41 Black and 124 White adolescents at intake and discharge from a residential treatment program for substance-use disorders. Study data were obtained as part of a larger study (N = 195) that sought to assess the relationship of helping behavior and addiction recovery. This post-hoc analysis aims to identify cultural strengths that may be associated with recovery from substance-use disorders among Black adolescents. Using regression analyses and controlling for the severity of substance use and background variables that distinguish racial groups, religious practices and behaviors at intake were examined. Specifically, Black youth and White youth were compared on treatment outcomes, including alcohol or drug use during treatment, drug craving, 12-Step work, and 12-Step helping. The burden of health and socioeconomic disparities at intake did not disproportionately disfavor Black adolescents. Outcomes related to 12-Step measures were similar between Black and White youth. White adolescents reported higher craving scores at discharge, and Black adolescents were more likely to use drugs during treatment. High levels of religiousness at treatment intake were linked to greater 12-Step work and greater 12-Step helping at discharge. High levels of religiousness at intake were not related to drug use during treatment or to craving scores at discharge. The relationship between intake levels of religiousness and treatment-related outcomes did not differ by race. PMID:22970338

  13. Relationships between mastitis and functional longevity in Danish Black and White dairy cattle estimated using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerhof, H J; Madsen, P; Ducrocq, V P; Vollema, A R; Jensen, J; Korsgaard, I R

    2000-05-01

    The relationship between mastitis and functional longevity was assessed with survival analysis on data of Danish Black and White dairy cows. Different methods of including the effect of mastitis treatment on the culling decision by a farmer in the model were compared. The model in which mastitis treatment was assumed to have an effect on functional longevity until the end of the lactation had the highest likelihood, and the model in which mastitis treatment had an effect for only a short period had the lowest likelihood. A cow with mastitis had 1.69 times greater risk of being culled than did a healthy herdmate with all other effects being the same. A model without mastitis treatment was used to predict transmitting abilities of bulls for risk of being culled, based on longevity records of their daughters, and was expressed in terms of risk of being culled. The correlation between the risk of being culled and the national evaluations of the bulls for mastitis resistance was approximately -0.4, indicating that resistance against mastitis was genetically correlated with a lower risk of being culled and, thus, a longer functional length of productive life.

  14. Socioeconomic status and parenting during adolescence in relation to ideal cardiovascular health in Black and White men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Boylan, Jennifer M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Cundiff, Jenny M; Lee, Laisze; Pardini, Dustin A; Jennings, J Richard

    2017-07-01

    American Heart Association (AHA) developed a new metric to evaluate ideal cardiovascular health based on optimal levels of 7 cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors. We evaluated the relationships of parenting characteristics and academic achievement in adolescence in relation to ideal cardiovascular health in midlife men. We measured cardiovascular risk factors in 171 Black and 136 White men and their ideal cardiovascular health score was constructed based on AHA guidelines. When the participants were 13-16 years old, annual measures of parent-child communication, positive relationship, parental monitoring, family cohesion, boys' involvement in family activities, and academic achievement were recorded and averaged. Confirmatory factor analysis of adolescent parenting measures revealed a single Parenting Composite. Multiple linear regressions showed a significant Race by Parenting Composite interaction term, β = -.19, p = .03; better parenting was significantly related to more ideal cardiovascular health in Blacks only, β = -.23, p = .004, which remained after adjustments for adolescent and adult socioeconomic status (SES). Academic achievement was related to ideal cardiovascular health, β = -.13, but was no longer significant after controls for adult SES. Adult SES was a strong correlate of ideal cardiovascular health in Black and White men. Black men exposed to positive parenting during adolescence had more ideal cardiovascular health based on AHA guidelines. Improving academic achievement in adolescence may indirectly benefit adult cardiovascular health through improving adult SES. This is the first study of adolescent family predictors of the extent of ideal cardiovascular health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Ethnic Comparisons in HIV Testing Attitudes, HIV Testing, and Predictors of HIV Testing Among Black and White College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melanie P; Javier, Sarah J; Abrams, Jasmine A; McGann, Amanda Wattenmaker; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2017-08-01

    This study's primary aim was to examine ethnic differences in predictors of HIV testing among Black and White college students. We also examined ethnic differences in sexual risk behaviors and attitudes toward the importance of HIV testing. An analytic sample of 126 Black and 617 White undergraduatestudents aged 18-24 were analyzed for a subset of responses on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) (2012) pertaining to HIV testing, attitudes about the importance of HIV testing, and sexual risk behaviors. Predictors of HIV testing behavior were analyzed using logistic regression. t tests and chi-square tests were performed to access differences in HIV test history, testing attitudes, and sexual risk behaviors. Black students had more positive attitudes toward testing and were more likely to have been tested for HIV compared to White students. A greater number of sexual partners and more positive HIV testing attitudes were significant predictors of HIV testing among White students, whereas relationship status predicted testing among Black students. Older age and history of ever having sex were significant predictors of HIV testing for both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in number of sexual partners or self-reports in history of sexual experience (oral, vaginal, or anal). Factors that influence HIV testing may differ across racial/ethnic groups. Findings support the need to consider racial/ethnic differences in predictors of HIV testing during the development and tailoring of HIV testing prevention initiatives targeting college students.

  16. Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill; Cherepanav, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari

    2013-08-01

    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination compared to white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  17. Daily and annual cycles in thermoregulatory behaviour and cardio-respiratory physiology of black and white tegu lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Colin E; Tattersall, Glenn J; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the manner in which metabolism is suppressed during dormancy in black and white tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae). To this end, heart rate (fH), respiration rate (fR), and deep body temperature (Tb) were continuously monitored in outdoor enclosures by radio-telemetry for nine months. There was a continuous decline in nighttime breathing and heart rate, at constant Tb, throughout the late summer and fall suggestive of an active metabolic suppression that developed progressively at night preceding the entrance into dormancy. During the day, however, the tegus still emerged to bask. In May, when the tegus made a behavioural commitment to dormancy, Tb (day and night) fell to match burrow temperature, accompanied by a further reduction in fH and fR. Tegus, under the conditions of this study, did arouse periodically during dormancy. There was a complex interplay between changes in fH and Tb associated with the direct effects of temperature and the indirect effects of thermoregulation, activity, and changes in metabolism. This interplay gave rise to a daily hysteresis in the fH/Tb relationship reflective of the physiological changes associated with warming and cooling as preferred Tb alternated between daytime and nighttime levels. The shape of the hysteresis curve varied with season along with changes in metabolic state and daytime and nighttime body temperature preferences.

  18. Differences in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black and White daily smokers: the role of smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Religious Engagement in a Risky Family Model Predicting Health in Older Black and White Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W; Haviland, Mark G; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-11-01

    In a structural equation model, associations among latent variables - Child Poverty, Risky Family exposure, Religious Engagement, Negative Social Interactions, Negative Emotionality, and Perceived Physical Health - were evaluated in 6,753 Black and White adults aged 35-106 years (M = 60.5, SD = 13.0). All participants were members of the Seventh-day Adventist church surveyed in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS). Child Poverty was positively associated with both Risky Family exposure (conflict, neglect, abuse) and Religious Engagement (intrinsic religiosity, religious coping, religiousness). Risky Family was negatively associated with Religious Engagement and positively associated with both Negative Social Interactions (intrusive, failed to help, insensitive, rejecting) and Negative Emotionality (depression, negative affect, neuroticism). Religious Engagement was negatively associated with Negative Emotionality and Negative Social Interactions at a given level of risky family. Negative Social Interactions was positively associated with Negative Emotionality, which had a direct, negative effect on Perceived Physical Health. All constructs had indirect effects on Perceived Physical Health through Negative Emotionality. The effects of a risky family environment appear to be enduring, negatively affecting one's adult religious life, emotionality, social interactions, and perceived health. Religious engagement, however, may counteract the damaging effects of early life stress.

  20. Heart Disease Death Rates Among Blacks and Whites Aged ≥35 Years — United States, 1968–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Miriam; Greer, Sophia; Odom, Erika; Schieb, Linda; Vaughan, Adam; Kramer, Michael; Casper, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Problem/Condition Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. Period Covered 1968–2015. Description of System The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968–2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968–2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. Results From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases

  1. Emotions in "Black and White" or Shades of Gray? How We Think About Emotion Shapes Our Perception and Neural Representation of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Nook, Erik C; Narayanan, Sandhya; Shu, Jocelyn; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2016-11-01

    The demands of social life often require categorically judging whether someone's continuously varying facial movements express "calm" or "fear," or whether one's fluctuating internal states mean one feels "good" or "bad." In two studies, we asked whether this kind of categorical, "black and white," thinking can shape the perception and neural representation of emotion. Using psychometric and neuroimaging methods, we found that (a) across participants, judging emotions using a categorical, "black and white" scale relative to judging emotions using a continuous, "shades of gray," scale shifted subjective emotion perception thresholds; (b) these shifts corresponded with activity in brain regions previously associated with affective responding (i.e., the amygdala and ventral anterior insula); and (c) connectivity of these regions with the medial prefrontal cortex correlated with the magnitude of categorization-related shifts. These findings suggest that categorical thinking about emotions may actively shape the perception and neural representation of the emotions in question. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Differences in the Associations between Gambling Problem Severity and Psychiatric Disorders among Black and White Adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Declan T.; Stefanovics, Elina A.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal le...

  3. Going the Distance: Overcoming Challenges in Recruitment and Retention of Black and White Women to a Multi-Site, Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    High recruitment and retention rates are hallmarks of scientifically rigorous longitudinal research. However, recruitment and retention are challenging, especially with elders and minorities. In this article, we discuss strategies that have enabled us to retain over 80% of both Black and White women in a 5-year observational study. To overcome such challenges as staff turnover and introduction of computerized record systems, we developed a time-saving handout, streamlined procedures for docum...

  4. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  5. Social Discrimination and Resiliency are not associated with Differences in Prevalent HIV Infection in Black and White Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Sullivan, Patrick; Millett, Gregorio; Rosenberg, Eli; Salazar, Laura; Di Clemente, Ralph J.; Cooper, Hannah; Kelley, Colleen F.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Frew, Paula; del Rio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations of homophobia, racism, and resiliency with differences in prevalent HIV infection in black and white MSM. Methods The Involve[ment]t study is a cohort of black and white MSM aged 18–39 years in Atlanta, GA designed to evaluate individual, dyadic, and community level factors that might explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Participants were recruited irrespective of HIV serostatus from community-based venues and from Internet ads and were tested for HIV. We assessed respondents’ demographics, whether they had engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) within the past 6 months, and attitudes about perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and personal resiliency. Results Compared to white MSM, black MSM were less likely to report UAI in the past 6 months (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.44–0.80), more likely to be HIV-positive (OR = 5.05, CI = 3.52–7.25) and, among—those HIV-positive—more likely to report not being aware of their HIV infection (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.18–5.65). Greater perceived racism was associated with UAI in the black sample (partial odds ratio [pOR] = 1.48, CI = 1.10–1.99). Overall, perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and resilience were not associated with prevalent HIV infection in our samples. Greater resilience was associated with less perceived homophobia in both black and white samples (Spearman r = −.27, p < .001, for both). Conclusion Future studies of social discrimination at the institutional and network level, than at the individual level, may explain differences in HIV infection in black and white MSM. PMID:24820109

  6. White-black and white-Hispanic differences on fluid and crystallized abilities by age across the 11- to 94-year range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; McLean, J E; Kaufman, A S; Kaufman, N L

    1994-12-01

    Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.

  7. Fast-food intake and diet quality in black and white girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marcia; Affenito, Sandra G; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Khoury, Philip R; Barton, Bruce; Crawford, Patricia; Kronsberg, Shari; Schreiber, George; Obarzanek, Eva; Daniels, Stephen

    2005-07-01

    To examine trends in fast-food consumption and its relationship to calorie, fat, and sodium intake in black and white adolescent girls. A longitudinal multicenter cohort study of the development of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in black and white female adolescents. Data collection occurred annually using a validated 3-day food record and a food-patterns questionnaire. A biracial and socioeconomically diverse group of 2379 black and white girls recruited from 3 centers. Three-day food records and a food-patterns questionnaire were examined for intake of fast food and its association with nutrient intake. We compared patterns of exposure to fast food and its impact on intake of calories, fat, and sodium. Fast-food intake was positively associated with intake of energy and sodium as well as total fat and saturated fat as a percentage of calories. Fast-food intake increased with increasing age in both races. With increasing consumption of fast food, energy intake increased with an adjusted mean of 1837 kcal for the low fast-food frequency group vs 1966 kcal for the highest fast-food frequency group (Pfood frequency group was 34.3% as opposed to 35.8% in the highest fast-food frequency group (Pfood frequency group (Pfood is a determinant of diet quality in adolescent girls. Efforts to reduce fast-food consumption may be useful in improving diet and risk for future cardiovascular disease.

  8. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 9. Comparison of glaucoma outcomes in black and white patients within treatment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    To compare in eyes of black and white patients the progression of glaucoma after failure of medical therapy and upon start of surgical intervention. Cohort study analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. This multicenter study included open-angle glaucoma patients who had failed medical therapy: 451 eyes of 332 black patients, 325 eyes of 249 white patients. Eyes were randomly assigned to an argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT)-trabeculectomy-trabeculectomy (ATT) sequence or a trabeculectomy-ALT-trabeculectomy (TAT) sequence; they had been followed for 7 to 11 years at database closure. Main outcome measures were decrease of visual field (DVF), sustained decrease of visual field (SDVF), decrease of visual acuity (DVA), sustained decrease of visual acuity (SDVA), and failure of first surgical glaucoma intervention. Statistical methods included logistic regression to obtain average adjusted black-white odds ratios for binary outcomes, and Cox regression to estimate adjusted black-white risk ratios for time-to-event outcomes. In the ATT sequence blacks were at lower risk than whites of failure of first intervention (ALT, RR = 0.68, P = 0.040). In the TAT sequence blacks were at higher risk than whites of failure of the first intervention (trabeculectomy, RR = 1.79, P = 0.033), of intraocular pressure > or =18 mm Hg (average OR = 1.41, P = 0.026), and of DVF (average OR = 1.78, P = 0.007). In both treatment sequences, the average number of prescribed medications was greater for blacks than whites (P < or = 0.002). The results support the hypothesis that after failure of medical therapy and upon initiation of surgical intervention, an initial intervention with trabeculectomy retards the progression of glaucoma more effectively in white than in black patients. The data provide a weak suggestion that an initial surgical intervention with ALT retards the progression of glaucoma more effectively in black than in white patients.

  9. Driving while black: a comparison of the beliefs, concerns, and behaviors of black and white Maryland drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, Katrina J; Beck, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration suggests that given the changing demographics of the United States it is important to examine motor vehicle statistics by race and ethnicity. The current study sought to explore differences in traffic safety concerns and driving behaviors between black and white drivers. An annual, anonymous, random-digit-dial telephone survey was used to collect data between 2003 and 2009 from Maryland drivers. Drivers (N = 5503) were assessed regarding their driving behaviors and perceived risk of receiving a traffic violation. Results showed that black drivers perceived a greater likelihood of being stopped for driving under the influence (DUI), for not wearing a seat belt and for speeding than white drivers. These differences were found among drivers with or without a history of being ticketed. Black drivers were also more likely to report a variety of risky driving behaviors than white drivers. However, black drivers were not more likely to report receiving a ticket or citation in the last month after controlling for demographic factors, risky driving behaviors, and geographic region of the state, where traffic enforcement may vary. Findings indicate that black drivers are not more likely to be ticketed, despite perceptual biases that may exist among some drivers. These differences appear to be explained by demographic as well as regional factors. These results highlight the need for more research to understand the potential differences in driving behaviors between racial and ethnic groups. More research is also needed to develop countermeasures for racial and ethnic groups most at risk for motor vehicle violations and crashes.

  10. Habitat selection of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Tibet: implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Huo, Sheng; Xiao, Wen

    2011-04-01

    As anthropogenic habitat changes are often considered a threat to natural ecosystems and wildlife, a sound understanding of the effects of habitat alteration on endangered species is crucial when designing management strategies or performing conservation activities. Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) are categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List and are endemic to the trans-Himalayas in China. At present, there are only 15 groups and 2,500 individuals remaining in the wild, and they are facing intense habitat degradation with selective logging for house building and firewood. Habitat deterioration through wood extraction is occurring at Xiaochangdu, Tibet, where one stable group of R. bieti lives in a marginal habitat in the northernmost part of the species' distribution. To understand the species' response to selective logging in an extremely marginal habitat, data on habitat preference and diet composition of a group of R. bieti were collected at Xiaochangdu from 2003 to 2005. The monkeys used different habitats nonrandomly during the year. The selection index for secondary conifer forest (SC), where selective logging has occurred, was the highest of all habitat types (>1), suggesting that the groups strongly preferred SC. The monkeys fed more on buds/leaves, more on flowers/fruit/seeds, and less on lichen in SC than in primary conifer forest (PC). Dietary diversity was significantly higher in SC than in PC. These results indicate that over the short term, low-intensity disturbances may result in increased foliage diversity that enable groups of R. bieti to survive in this marginal habitat. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Survival by genotype: patterns at Mc1r are not black and white at the White Sands ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, S; Sollmann, R; Calhoun, K; Rothstein, A P; Rosenblum, E B

    2017-01-01

    Measuring links among genotype, phenotype and survival in the wild has long been a focus of studies of adaptation. We conducted a 4-year capture-recapture study to measure survival by genotype and phenotype in the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) at the White Sands ecotone (transition area between white sands and dark soil habitats). We report several unanticipated findings. First, in contrast with previous work showing that cryptic blanched coloration in S. cowlesi from the heart of the dunes is associated with mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r), ecotonal S. cowlesi showed minimal association between colour phenotype and Mc1r genotype. Second, the frequency of the derived Mc1r allele in ecotonal S. cowlesi appeared to decrease over time. Third, our capture-recapture data revealed a lower survival rate for S. cowlesi individuals with the derived Mc1r allele. Thus, our results suggest that selection at the ecotone may have favoured the wild-type allele in recent years. Even in a system where a genotype-phenotype association appeared to be black and white, our study suggests that additional factors - including phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, pleiotropy and gene flow - may play important roles at the White Sands ecotone. Our study highlights the importance of linking molecular, genomic and organismal approaches for understanding adaptation in the wild. Furthermore, our findings indicate that dynamics of natural selection can be particularly complex in transitional habitats like ecotones and emphasize the need for future research that examines the patterns of ongoing selection in other ecological 'grey' zones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Original research: rates of remission, improvement, and progression of urinary incontinence in Asian, Black, and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Mary K; Curhan, Gary C; Resnick, Neil M; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests that race affects the prevalence and incidence of urinary incontinence (UI) in women. But little is known about racial differences in the rates of remission, improvement, and progression of UI in women. We sought to compare changes in UI frequency over two years among Asian, black, and white women with UI. Participants in the Nurses' Health Study and the Nurses' Health Study II responded to mailed questionnaires (in 2000 and 2002, and 2001 and 2003, respectively), giving information on race and the frequency of UI. Prospective analyses were conducted over two years from data gathered on 57,900 women, ages 37 to 79, who had at least monthly UI at baseline. Over the two two-year study periods, black women were significantly more likely than white women to report remission of UI (14% versus 9%, respectively), and Asian women were significantly more likely than white women to report less frequent UI (40% versus 31%, respectively). Improvement was more common in older black women than in older white women, but rates of improvement were comparable between younger black and younger white women. Black women were less likely than white women to report more frequent UI at follow-up (30% versus 34%, respectively), and, after adjusting for health and lifestyle factors, the difference was borderline statistically significant. Changes in the frequency of UI appear to vary by race, even after adjustment for risk factors. These findings may account for some of the previously observed differences in UI prevalence across racial groups. Although UI is a common condition in women of all races, nurses and other clinicians should be aware that its presentation may vary according to race. Such an understanding could increase clinicians' confidence in discussing UI with patients, reducing the possibility that the condition goes unrecognized. epidemiology, progression, race, remission, urinary incontinence.

  13. Factors Contributing to Disparities in Baseline Neurocognitive Performance and Concussion Symptom Scores Between Black and White Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Deitrick, Jamie McAllister

    2017-11-02

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) concussion guidelines state that all NCAA athletes must have a concussion baseline test prior to commencing their competitive season. To date, little research has examined potential racial differences on baseline neurocognitive performance among NCAA athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between Black and White collegiate athletes on baseline neurocognitive performance and self-reported symptoms. A total of 597 collegiate athletes (400 White, 197 Black) participated in this study. Athletes self-reported their race on the demographic section of their pre-participation physical examination and were administered the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) neurocognitive battery in a supervised, quiet room. Controlling for sex, data were analyzed using separate one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) on symptom score, verbal and visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time composite scores. Results revealed significant differences between White and Black athletes on baseline symptom score (F (1,542)  = 5.82, p = .01), visual motor processing speed (F (1,542)  = 14.89, p baseline visual motor processing speed and reaction time. Black athletes reported higher baseline symptom scores compared to Whites. There was no statistical difference between race on verbal memory (p = .08) and that on visual memory (p = .06). Black athletes demonstrated disparities on some neurocognitive measures at baseline. These results suggest capturing an individual baseline on each athlete, as normative data comparisons may be inappropriate for athletes of a racial minority.

  14. Comparison of dietary habits and plans for dietary changes in black and white women seeking bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kendall L; Moore, Carolyn E; Miketinas, Derek C; Champagne, Catherine M

    2018-01-01

    Achieving weight loss after bariatric surgery depends on the individual's ability to sustain lifestyle changes involving dietary modifications. Presurgical dietary assessment is critical to evaluate usual dietary habits and identify the need for intervention before surgery. The objective of this study was to identify usual dietary habits of black and white women seeking bariatric surgery and to examine potential differences between these ethnic groups. An additional aim was to describe participants' plans to change dietary behaviors after surgery. This study examined data from an observational study sponsored by a benefits management group in Louisiana. In this cross-sectional study, a presurgical dietary assessment interview questionnaire collected information on dietary habits. Participants (n = 200) were adult women being screened for bariatric surgery; 54% were white, and 46% were black. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between groups were tested using 2-way analysis of the variance. Participants reported consuming fast food 2.9 ± 2.6 times per week, fried foods 2.1 ± 1.8 times per week, and desserts 3.4 ± 3.2 times per week. Blacks reported more frequent consumption of fast food (P<.01), sugar-sweetened sodas (P<.05), and sugar-sweetened tea (P<.01) compared with whites. Plans for changing dietary behaviors after surgery were similar between ethnic groups. Findings indicated that frequent consumption of fast foods, fried foods, desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages was common among women seeking bariatric surgery. Blacks tended to consume these foods and beverages more often than whites. Current dietary habits and future plans to change dietary behaviors should be addressed before surgery for success. Follow-up studies investigating the assessment instrument's ability to predict dietary adherence and weight loss after surgery are warranted. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Sexy media matter: exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane D; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Pardun, Carol J; Guo, Guang; Kenneavy, Kristin; Jackson, Christine

    2006-04-01

    To assess over time whether exposure to sexual content in 4 mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) used by early adolescents predicts sexual behavior in middle adolescence. An in-home longitudinal survey of 1017 black and white adolescents from 14 middle schools in central North Carolina was conducted. Each teen was interviewed at baseline when he or she was 12 to 14 years old and again 2 years later using a computer-assisted self interview (audio computer-assisted self-interview) to ensure confidentiality. A new measure of each teen's sexual media diet (SMD) was constructed by weighting the frequency of use of 4 media by the frequency of sexual content in each television show, movie, music album, and magazine the teen used regularly. White adolescents in the top quintile of sexual media diet when 12 to 14 years old were 2.2 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse when 14 to 16 years old than those who were in the lowest SMD quintile, even after a number of other relevant factors, including baseline sexual behavior, were introduced. The relationship was not statistically significant for black adolescents after controlling for other factors that were more predictive, including parental disapproval of teen sex and perceived permissive peer sexual norms. Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines accelerates white adolescents' sexual activity and increases their risk of engaging in early sexual intercourse. Black teens appear more influenced by perceptions of their parents' expectations and their friends' sexual behavior than by what they see and hear in the media.

  16. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  17. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  18. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  19. Associations of blood pressure with self-report measures of anger and hostility among black and white men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, L A; Carver, C S; Spitzer, S B; Llabre, M M; Weintraub, J K; Saab, P G; Schneiderman, N

    1989-01-01

    This study examined associations between blood pressure (BP) and dispositional variables pertaining to anger and hostility. Black and White 25- to 44-year old male and female normotensives and unmedicated mild to moderate hypertensives completed four reliable self-report scales--the Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) Scale, the Trait Anger subscale of the State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS-T), and the Cognitive Anger and Somatic Anger subscales of the Cognitive-Somatic Anger Scale--plus the Framingham Anger Scale and the Harburg Anger Scale. They also engaged in three laboratory tasks--Type A Structured Interview (SI), a video game, and a cold pressor task--that elicit cardiovascular reactivity. Ambulatory BP readings at home and at work were also obtained from most subjects. Blacks had significantly higher Ho and lower STAS-T scores than did Whites. Women reported higher levels of somatic anger than did men. White women showed significant positive correlations between STAS-T and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) both at rest in the laboratory and during the SI. Black women revealed significant positive relationships between STAS-T and SBP and DBP at rest in the laboratory and at work as well as with DBP during the cold pressor test. For Black men, cognitive anger and DBP at rest were positively related. In contrast, White men revealed significant negative correlations between Ho scores and SBP at rest and during the video game; these men also showed significant negative relationships between somatic anger and SBP and DBP reactivity during the cold pressor test. Women, but not men, showed significant positive relationships between all four anger measures and ambulatory BP at work. Whereas main effects relating anger and cardiovascular measures were not apparent as a function of race, Blacks demonstrated significantly greater SBP and DBP reactivity than Whites during the cold pressor test, with the converse occurring during the SI. Men demonstrated significantly greater

  20. Lung function decline over 25 years of follow-up among black and white adults in the ARIC study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C; Preisser, John S; Loehr, Laura R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Barr, R Graham; Couper, David J; Hankinson, John L; Hyun, Noorie; Folsom, Aaron R; London, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    Interpretation of longitudinal information about lung function decline from middle to older age has been limited by loss to follow-up that may be correlated with baseline lung function or the rate of decline. We conducted these analyses to estimate age-related decline in lung function across groups of race, sex, and smoking status while accounting for dropout from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We analyzed data from 13,896 black and white participants, aged 45-64 years at the 1987-1989 baseline clinical examination. Using spirometry data collected at baseline and two follow-up visits, we estimated annual population-averaged mean changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) by race, sex, and smoking status using inverse-probability-weighted independence estimating equations conditioning-on-being-alive. Estimated rates of FEV1 decline estimated using inverse-probability-weighted independence estimating equations conditioning on being alive were higher among white than black participants at age 45 years (e.g., male never smokers: black: -29.5 ml/year; white: -51.9 ml/year), but higher among black than white participants by age 75 (black: -51.2 ml/year; white: -26). Observed differences by race were more pronounced among men than among women. By smoking status, FEV1 declines were larger among current than former or never smokers at age 45 across all categories of race and sex. By age 60, FEV1 decline was larger among former and never than current smokers. Estimated annual declines generated using unweighted generalized estimating equations were smaller for current smokers at younger ages in all four groups of race and sex compared with results from weighted analyses that accounted for attrition. Using methods accounting for dropout from an approximately 25-year health study, estimated rates of lung function decline varied by age, race, sex, and smoking status, with largest declines observed among current

  1. Effect of different compound feeds on the fatty acid composition and other quality indicators in the meat of Lithuanian black-and-white bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrukonienė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    Aim and objectives – To evaluate the effect of compound feed on the milk and dairy Black-and white bulls grawing and beef quality, fatty acids composition in the meat and liver, to evaluate meat sensory and textere characteristics. Objectives of the study: 1. to analyze the chemical composition of rapeseed, linseed and sunflower cakes and accordingly that of compound feeds and to determine the content and ratio of fatty acids; 2. to evaluate the growth rate of bulls and carry out contro...

  2. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L

    2018-02-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Discovery and full genome characterization of two highly divergent simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Switzer, William M; Sibley, Samuel D; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Taylor, Bill; Shankar, Anupama; Ting, Nelson; Chapman, Colin A; Friedrich, Thomas C; Goldberg, Tony L; O'Connor, David H

    2013-10-21

    African non-human primates (NHPs) are natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), the zoonotic transmission of which led to the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2. However, our understanding of SIV diversity and evolution is limited by incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling of NHPs, particularly in East Africa. In this study, we screened blood specimens from nine black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza occidentalis) from Kibale National Park, Uganda, for novel SIVs using a combination of serology and "unbiased" deep-sequencing, a method that does not rely on genetic similarity to previously characterized viruses. We identified two novel and divergent SIVs, tentatively named SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2, and assembled genomes covering the entire coding region for each virus. SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 were detected in three and four animals, respectively, but with no animals co-infected. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 form a lineage with SIVcol, previously discovered in black-and-white colobus from Cameroon. Although SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 were isolated from the same host population in Uganda, SIVkcol-1 is more closely related to SIVcol than to SIVkcol-2. Analysis of functional motifs in the extracellular envelope glycoprotein (gp120) revealed that SIVkcol-2 is unique among primate lentiviruses in containing only 16 conserved cysteine residues instead of the usual 18 or more. Our results demonstrate that the genetic diversity of SIVs infecting black-and-white colobus across equatorial Africa is greater than previously appreciated and that divergent SIVs can co-circulate in the same colobine population. We also show that the use of "unbiased" deep sequencing for the detection of SIV has great advantages over traditional serological approaches, especially for studies of unknown or poorly characterized viruses. Finally, the detection of the first SIV containing only 16 conserved cysteines in the extracellular envelope protein

  5. Blood pressure effects of high-dose amlodipine-benazepril combination in Black and White hypertensive patients not controlled on monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2012-06-01

    Black hypertensive patients are more resistant to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor monotherapy than White patients. This resistance can be overcome with the combination of ACE inhibitors with diuretics or calcium-channel blockers (CCBs). The objective of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness of monotherapy with the ACE inhibitor benazepril or the CCB amlodipine and their combination in Black and White hypertensive patients in two separate studies. This was a post hoc analysis of data from two separate studies, pooled because of their similarities, to increase the sample size. Outpatient Black and White hypertensive patients were selected for these studies. In study H2303, 201 patients of both sexes and races, whose mean seated diastolic blood pressure (MSDBP) was ≥95 mmHg after 4 weeks of single-blind treatment with benazepril 40 mg/day, were randomized into two groups. Group 1 received benazepril 40 mg/day and group 2 received amlodipine/benazepril 5/40 mg/day, which was uptitrated to amlodipine/benazepril 10/40 mg/day at week 4 of the study. In study H2304, 812 similar patients, whose MSDBP was ≥95 mmHg after 4 weeks of single-blind treatment with amlodipine 10 mg/day, were randomized into three groups. Group 1 received amlodipine/benazepril 10/20 mg/day, uptitrated to amlodipine/benazepril 10/40 mg/day after 2 weeks. Group 2 received amlodipine/benazepril 10/20 mg/day. Group 3 received amlodipine 10 mg/day. All three groups were followed up for 6 additional weeks. This report presents the results of post hoc analysis of pooled data from two separate but similar studies. Combination therapy resulted in greater lowering of MSDBP and mean seated systolic blood pressure (MSSBP) than monotherapy with either benazepril or amlodipine (p benazepril 10/20 mg/day resulted in greater blood pressure (BP) reductions in White patients than in Black patients (p benazepril 10/40

  6. Leading Causes of Death Contributing to Decrease in Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Populations: United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life

  7. Going the distance: overcoming challenges in recruitment and retention of Black and White women in multisite, longitudinal study of predictors of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Fischer, Ellen P; Spellman, Alisa

    2009-10-01

    High recruitment and retention rates are hallmarks of scientifically rigorous longitudinal research. However, recruitment and retention are challenging, especially with older adults and minorities. In this article, we discuss strategies that have enabled us to retain more than 80% of both Black and White women in a 5-year observational study. To overcome challenges such as staff turnover and introduction of computerized record systems, we developed a time-saving handout, streamlined procedures for documenting contact information, and motivated site staff through weekly personal contact. We responded to problems with mailed privacy consent forms by garnering approval for verbal consent that allowed immediate response to participants' questions. In addition to standard steps to minimize attrition, we encouraged ongoing participation with personal letters following interviews, "refrigerator reminders" of the next interview date, and "missing you" letters following missed appointments. We believe these and other strategies described in this article were responsible for our high retention rate. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Mass imprisonment and the life course revisited: Cumulative years spent imprisoned and marked for working-age black and white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Evelyn J; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 40 years, imprisonment has become a common stage in the life-course for low-skilled and minority men, with implications not only for inequality among adult men but also for inequality more broadly. Unfortunately, all research documenting how increases in imprisonment have transformed the life-course of poor, minority men has neglected to estimate how much time black and white men on average spend imprisoned or marked as an ex-prisoner. In this article, we fill this gap by using multistate life tables to estimate what share of their working lives (18-64) black and white men will spend imprisoned and marked as ex-prisoners. Our estimates imply that white men spend on average 0.33 years of their working lives imprisoned and 2.31 years marked, while black men spend on average 1.79 years of their working lives imprisoned and 11.14 years marked. This implies that black men spend on average one-third of their working lives either imprisoned or having been freed but marked by the penal system. For the 32.2% of black men who ever experience imprisonment (Bonczar, 2003), moreover, these estimates imply that they spend on average 5.56 years imprisoned, corresponding to 13.4% of their working lives. Taken together, these findings imply a dramatic reorientation of the life course for black men, as one-third of the black male population will spend one-seventh of their working life in prison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood risk factors associated with adolescent gun carrying among Black and White males: An examination of self-protection, social influence, and antisocial propensity explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Jordan; Docherty, Meagan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Pardini, Dustin

    2018-04-01

    Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys. Analyses then examined whether racial differences in risk factors accounted for racial differences in gun carrying. Data came from a sample of 485 Black and White boys who were repeatedly assessed from 2nd grade until age 18. Multi-informant data collected across the first 3 years of the study were used to assess neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems. Illegal gun carrying was assessed annually from 5th grade through age 18. Growth curve analyses indicated that children with higher initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement, as well as those who increased in conduct problems across childhood, were more likely to carry a gun prior to age 18. Black boys were also more likely to carry guns than Whites. Racial differences were greatly reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement. Findings suggest that early prevention programs designed to reduce adolescent gun violence (including racial disparities in gun violence) should target boys with severe conduct problems and those who affiliate with delinquent peers during elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  11. Islands in a desert : breeding ecology of the African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, CM; Komdeur, J; Buys, J; Reemer, M; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The continental African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus, like its relative the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, breeds in isolated patches. We studied the mating system of the African Reed Warbler to see whether this species, like the Seychelles Warbler, shows co-operative

  12. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  13. Incidence of nest material kleptoparasitism invlovling cerulean warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly C. Jones; Kirk L. Roth; Kamal Islam; Paul B. Hamel; Carl G. III Smith

    2007-01-01

    document 21 observations of interspecific stealing of nesting material involving Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus/i>), Blue-gray Gnatcatchers (Polioptila caerulea/i>), Northern Parulas (Parula americana/i>), Black-throated Green Warblers (D. virens), American Redstarts (

  14. Understanding Survival And Abundance Of Overwintering Warblers: Does Rainfall Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Dugger; John G Faaborg; Wayne J. Arendt; Keith A. Hobson

    2004-01-01

    We investigated relationships between warbler abundance and survival rates measured on a Puerto Rican wintering site and rainfall patterns measured on the wintering site and in regions where these warblers breed, as estimated using stable-isotope analysis (δD) of feathers collected from wintering birds. We banded birds using constant-effort mist netting...

  15. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Mink (Neovison vison) Skin Reveals the Key Genes Involved in the Melanogenesis of Black and White Coat Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingchao; Xu, Chao; Liu, Zongyue; Yue, Zhigang; Liu, Linling; Yang, Tongao; Cong, Bo; Yang, Fuhe

    2017-09-29

    Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks. Significant differences were not observed in the expression of MC1R and TYR between the two different coat colours, and the expression of ASIP was not detected in the mink skin of either coat colour. The expression levels of KITLG, LEF1, DCT, TYRP1, PMEL, Myo5a, Rab27a and SLC7A11 were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq analysis. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of two coat colours in mink skin. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying skin physiology and melanogenesis in mink and will provide a foundation for future studies.

  17. Determination of Ochratoxin A in Black and White Pepper, Nutmeg, Spice Mix, Cocoa, and Drinking Chocolate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection: Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Bouten, Katrien; Senyuva, Hamide; Stroka, Joerg

    2017-09-01

    A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 25 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 12 European Union (EU) Member States, together with Turkey and Macedonia. Mean recoveries ranged from 71 to 85% for spices and from 85 to 88% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDr values ranged from 5.6 to 16.7% for spices and from 4.5 to 18.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDR values ranged from 9.5 to 22.6% for spices and from 13.7 to 30.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The resulting Horwitz ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1 for spices and from 0.6 to 1.4 for cocoa and drinking chocolate according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.

  18. Attractiveness of black and white modified Shannon traps to phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Brazilian Amazon Basin, an area of intense transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilhante Andreia Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps’ performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Samples were collected once a month during the period August 2013 to July 2015. A sample of females was dissected to test for natural infection by flagellates. A total of 6,309 (864 males and 5,445 females specimens (36 species were collected. Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai (42%, Nyssomyia shawi (36%, and Psychodopygus davisi (13%, together represented 90% of the insects collected. Nyssomyia shawi and Psychodopygus davisi were more attracted by the white color. Specimens of Nyssomyia shawi, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus were found naturally infected by flagellates in the mid and hindgut. This is the first study in Acre state using and comparing both black and white Shannon traps, demonstrating the richness, diversity, and anthropophilic behavior of the phlebotomine species and identifying proven and putative vectors of the etiological agents of leishmaniasis.

  19. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and plain black and white cigarette packaging and advertisements on adults: Evidence from a virtual store experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice; Shafer, Paul; Loomis, Brett; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential impact of banning tobacco displays and mandating plain packaging and cigarette advertisements at the point of sale (POS) on adult outcomes. A virtual convenience store was created with scenarios in which the tobacco product display was either fully visible (status quo) or enclosed behind a cabinet (display ban), and cigarette packs and advertisements were either in full color (status quo) or black and white, text only (plain). A national convenience sample of 1313 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 4 conditions and given a shopping task to complete in the virtual store. Main outcomes were participants' self-reported urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts in the virtual store. Compared with recent quitters in the status quo conditions, recent quitters in the display ban condition had lower urges to smoke (β=-4.82, 95% CI=-8.16--1.49, padvertising at the POS may help reduce adult smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Erratum to: Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari

    2013-08-01

    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination than white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  1. The influence of disturbed habitat on the spatial ecology of Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae), a recent invader in the Everglades ecosystem (Florida, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Page E.; Reed, Robert N.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; McEachern, Michelle A.; Vinci, Joy J.; Craven, Katelin K.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of invasive species is often intensified in disturbed habitat. To optimize control programs, it is necessary to understand how degraded habitat influences the behavior of invasive species. We conducted a radio telemetry study to characterize movement and habitat use of introduced male Argentine black and white tegus (Tupinambis merianae) in the Everglades of southern Florida from May to August 2012 at the core and periphery of the introduced range. Tegus at the periphery moved farther per day (mean 131.7 ± 11.6 m, n = 6) compared to tegus at the core (mean 50.3 ± 12.4 m, n = 6). However, activity ranges were not significantly smaller in the core (mean 19.4 ± 8.4 ha, n = 6) compared to periphery (mean 29.1 ± 5.2 ha, n = 6). Peripheral activity ranges were more linear due to activity being largely restricted to levee habitat surrounded by open water or marsh. Tegus were located in shrub or tree habitat (mean 96%) more often than expected based on random locations (mean 58%), and the percent cover of trees and shrubs was higher in activity ranges (mean 61%) than the general study area (17%). Our study highlighted the ability of tegus to spread across the Florida landscape, especially in linear disturbed habitats where increased movement occurred and in areas of altered hydrology where movement is not restricted by water.

  2. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are correlated with cardiometabolic risk among American black and white adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Samip; Guo, De-Huang; Pollock, Norman K; Petty, Karen; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Gutin, Bernard; Houk, Chris; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2012-05-01

    Low vitamin D status is common among healthy black and white adolescents residing at southern U.S. latitudes with a year-round sunny climate. Thus we aimed to study the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and cardiometabolic risk factors in this population. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy in 701 girls and boys (14-18 years old, 54% blacks, 49% females). Cardiometabolic risk was indexed by adipokines, inflammatory markers, fasting glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP). Controlling for age, sex, race, sexual maturation, season, physical activity, and percent body fat, 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly correlated with adiponectin (r = 0.06, P = 0.05), leptin (r = -0.32, P risk factors, independent of adiposity. Clinical trials addressing the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risk are warranted in adolescents irrespective of their geographical regions.

  3. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Researches on Nutritional Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Interruptions Number and their Duration in the Ration Consumption Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.

  5. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Patton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  6. Direitos sexuais, direitos reprodutivos: concepções de mulheres negras e brancas sobre liberdade Sexual and reproductive rights: the conceptions of black and white women regarding freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Souzas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A saúde reprodutiva relaciona-se ao usufruto da liberdade intrínseca aos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos. A questão central, neste artigo, é como a noção de liberdade se articula à condição social, de gênero, raça/etnia, com o intuito de investigar diferenças de gênero e de raça nas questões reprodutivas de mulheres negras e brancas, em relação à concepção de liberdade. A pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa e aborda questões reprodutivas de mulheres, a partir de um recorte de gênero e raça. Foram entrevistadas 36 mulheres, autoclassificadas brancas e negras (pretas e pardas, em união conjugal há, pelo menos, um ano. Os discursos foram analisados articulando-se raça/etnia e diferentes níveis de escolaridade. No conjunto, observa-se que as condições de vida e saúde reprodutiva de mulheres negras e brancas diferenciam-se em razão das condições socioeconômicas e culturais. Comparativamente, os discursos dos dois grupos podem ser interpretados em dois níveis característicos, da vida privada e do espaço público: enquanto mulheres brancas focam a defasagem das mulheres, no exercício eqüitativo da liberdade em relação aos homens, mas destacam conquistas no mundo do trabalho, mulheres negras pensam a liberdade mais circunscrita à possibilidade de vivência democrática da conjugalidade. As diferenças de discurso em relação à liberdade podem estar relacionadas tanto à questão do racismo no Brasil, historicamente vivenciado por mulheres negras no cotidiano, como às questões especificamente culturais dos dois grupos estudados.Reproductive health is related to the enjoyment of freedom that is intrinsic to sexual and reproductive rights. The core issue, in this article, is how the notion of freedom articulates itself to the social condition of gender, race and ethnicity. To investigate gender and race differences in reproductive issues of black and white women regarding the conception of freedom. The research

  7. Timing of menarche related to carotid artery intima-media thickness in black and white young adult women: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Retention of black and white participants in the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SWOG-coordinated intergroup study S0000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn B; Hermos, John A; Anderson, Karen B; Minasian, Lori; Tangen, Catherine M; Probstfield, Jeffrey F; Cook, Elise D

    2014-12-01

    Disproportionally low retention of minority populations can adversely affect the generalizability of clinical research trials. We determine the overall retention rates for White and Black participants from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and explore participant and site characteristics associated with retention failure (study disengagement) for these groups. A secondary analysis of 28,118 White (age ≥55), and 4,322 Black (age ≥ 50) SELECT participants used multivariate Cox regression to estimate overall retention rates and to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Blacks had higher age-adjusted risk of disengagement than Whites (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.77-2.08). Among Black participants, those ages 50 to 54 were at three times the risk of disengagement than those ≥65 years of age (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.41-5.41). Blacks age ≥65 had 1.6 times the risk of disengagement than Whites age ≥65 (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.38-1.87). By 6 years after randomization, 84% of Whites and 69% of Blacks remained engaged in the study. Current smoking status was an independent risk factor for study disengagement for both White and Black participants. For both groups, sites whose staffs missed SELECT training sessions or who received SELECT Retention and Adherence grants were associated with increased and decreased disengagement risks, respectively. SELECT retention was disproportionately lower for Blacks than for Whites. The observed difference in retention rates for Blacks and Whites and factors identified by race for study disengagement in SELECT may inform retention efforts for future long-term, cancer prevention trials. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Comparing self-reported disease outcomes, diet, and lifestyles in a national cohort of black and white Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Susanne; Herring, Patti; Yancey, Antronette; Beeson, Larry; Butler, Terry; Knutsen, Synnove; Sabate, Joan; Chan, Jacqueline; Preston-Martin, Susan; Fraser, Gary

    2007-07-01

    between blacks and whites nationally.

  10. Black and White Women's Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...

  11. Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for Kirtland’s Warbler Wildlife Management Area (WMA) was signed on September 10, 2009, completing a planning process that...

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery was scanned from historic hard copy images and georeferenced to current imagery. This data is available via map service., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery...

  13. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Digital orthophographs (DOPs) were derived from black and white aerial photographs taken in the spring of 2000. The DOP scale is 1:4800 (1" = 400') rectified to 18" pixels., Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2000. Digital orthophographs (DOPs) were derived from black and white aerial photographs taken...

  14. Racial discrimination & cardiovascular disease risk: my body my story study of 1005 US-born black and white community health center participants (US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Krieger

    Full Text Available To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504 and white (n = 501 participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate, using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination; and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964.Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.28, 2.89 and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07; among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64 and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08. All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score.Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss

  15. El Grupo Cerúleo: Collaboration to assess nonbreeding range of Cerulean Warbler in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel Colorado; Paul Hamel; Amanda Rodewals; Wayne Thogmartin

    2008-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea. Parulidae) has been listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature because of recent population declines. An international, proactive approach to Cerulean Warbler conservation, the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group, was founded in 2001. One of its subcommittees, El Grupo...

  16. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days. Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of

  17. Seres vivos y artefactos: ¿efectos categoriales producto de la ausencia de color en tareas de denominación de dibujos? (Living things and artifacts: categorial effects in black-and-white picture naming tasks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Macarena Martínez-Cuitiño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acquired brain injury may have difficulties in processing a unique semantic category. In patients with the most common semantic deficits, living things is the most commonly compromised domain. Nevertheless, the results of assessing healthy participants are contradictory. Most studies with healthy participants reported better performance with the category of living things, whereas other studies have reported better performance with artifacts, depending on the type of material used. Although researchers generally use black-and-white pictures to assess semantic categories, this kind of material omits an essential perceptual attribute in processing living things: colour. This study assessed a group of young healthy participants to determine differences in naming living things and artifacts in a naming task using black-and-white pictures. The stimuli used were matched according to the major lexical-semantic variables: name agreement, visual complexity, lexical frequency, conceptual familiarity, age of acquisition, number of syllables, and number of phonemes. The results show that healthy participants are more accurate and faster at naming when categorizing artifacts and that artifacts have an advantage over the category living things in which colour is a key attribute (animals and fruits/vegetables. This advantage is lost in relation to the category body parts in which colour is not an essential attribute for their recognition.

  18. Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Endoença Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.

  19. Differential and Combined Effects of Physical Activity Profiles and Prohealth Behaviors on Diabetes Prevalence among Blacks and Whites in the US Population: A Novel Bayesian Belief Network Machine Learning Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi A. Seixas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study assessed the prevalence of diabetes across four different physical activity lifestyles and infer through machine learning which combinations of physical activity, sleep, stress, and body mass index yield the lowest prevalence of diabetes in Blacks and Whites. Data were extracted from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS dataset from 2004–2013 containing demographics, chronic diseases, and sleep duration (N = 288,888. Of the total sample, 9.34% reported diabetes (where the prevalence of diabetes was 12.92% in Blacks/African Americans and 8.68% in Whites. Over half of the sample reported sedentary lifestyles (Blacks were more sedentary than Whites, approximately 20% reported moderately active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks, approximately 15% reported active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks, and approximately 6% reported very active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks. Across four different physical activity lifestyles, Blacks consistently had a higher diabetes prevalence compared to their White counterparts. Physical activity combined with healthy sleep, low stress, and average body weight reduced the prevalence of diabetes, especially in Blacks. Our study highlights the need to provide alternative and personalized behavioral/lifestyle recommendations to generic national physical activity recommendations, specifically among Blacks, to reduce diabetes and narrow diabetes disparities between Blacks and Whites.

  20. Influence of age on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    I studied age-related breeding performance of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island, Seychelles, during 14 years. The annual number of young that fledged is significantly related to territory quality and number of helpers in the breeding group.

  1. Spatial behaviour and food choice of the Garden Warbler Sylvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, we investigated the 50% and 95% kernel density home-range size and overlap as well as food choice of 10 radio-tracked Garden Warblers at Amurum, central Nigeria and Obudu, south-eastern Nigeria. Home-range overlap was estimated using the kernelUD function within the package adehabitat in R. The ...

  2. Densities of Palearctic warblers and Afrotropical species within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Densities of Palearctic warblers and Afrotropical species within the same guild in Sahelian West Africa. Jared M Wilson, Will Cresswell. Abstract. Declines in populations of Palearctic migrants wintering in the Sahel of Africa have been linked to the impacts of climate change and habitat degradation in the region. Despite this ...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho ( Hypergerus atriceps ), Green Hylia ( Hylia prasina ) and Tit-hylia ( Pholidornis rushiae ) ... different points in avian evolution reduces the phylogenetic signal in molecular sequence data, making difficult the reconstruction of relationships among taxa resulting ...

  4. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  5. Adaptive forest management to improve habitats for cerulean warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel

    2006-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, Aves: Parulidae) is a Neotropical migratory bird with a declining population. These birds are a focal species of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Thus, the birds properly may be considered to be a conservation...

  6. United States national prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in black and white middle-age (45- to 64-Year) and older (≥65-Year) adults (from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prineas, Ronald J; Le, Anh; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Howard, Virginia J; Ostchega, Yechiam; Howard, George

    2012-04-15

    A United States national sample of 20,962 participants (57% women, 44% blacks) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study provided general population estimates for electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among black and white men and women. The participants were recruited from 2003 to 2007 by random selection from a commercially available nationwide list, with oversampling of blacks and those from the stroke belt, with a cooperation rate of 49%. The measurement of risk factors and 12-lead electrocardiograms (centrally coded using Minnesota code criteria) showed 28% had ≥1 major ECG abnormality. The prevalence of abnormalities was greater (≥35%) for those ≥65 years old, with no differences between blacks and whites. However, among men <65 years, blacks had more major abnormalities than whites, most notably for atrial fibrillation, major Q waves, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Men generally had more ECG abnormalities than women. The most common ECG abnormalities were T-wave abnormalities. The average heart rate-corrected QT interval was longer in women than in men, similar in whites and blacks, and increased with age. However, the average heart rate was greater in women than in men and in blacks than in whites and decreased with age. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was related to the presence of hypertension, diabetes, blood pressure, and age. In conclusion, black men and women in the United States have a significantly greater prevalence of ECG abnormalities than white men and women at age 45 to 64 years; however, these proportions, although larger, tended to equalize or reverse after age 65. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Natal dispersal patterns are not associated with inbreeding avoidance in the Seychelles Warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, C.; Komdeur, J.; Richardson, D. S.

    In this study, we test whether patterns of territory inheritance, social mate choice and female-biased natal dispersal act as inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler. Our results show that Seychelles warblers do not reduce the likelihood of inbreeding by

  8. Status of the cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) in Northern Alabama, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Carpenter; Eric C. Soehren; Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2005-01-01

    The cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is a Neotropic-Nearctic migratory passerine that breeds in eastern North America and winters in northwestern South America (Dunn and Garrett 1997, Hamel 2000a, 2000b). The northern two-thirds of Alabama historically represented the southernmost extension of the Cerulean Warbler's breeding range, where...

  9. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  10. Predation risk affects trade-off between nest guarding and foraging in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Kats, RKH

    1999-01-01

    The fitness costs of egg loss for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and no time to lay a successful replacement clutch. On the islands of Cousin and Cousine, with equal densities of Seychelles fodies (Foudia

  11. El Grupo Cerúleo: Cooperation for Non-breeding Season Conservation of the Cerulean Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Mehlman; Paul. Hamel

    2010-01-01

    Without collaboration, conservation is impossible for long-distance migrants such as the Cerulean Warbler, a declining forest breeding bird in North America that overwinters in the Andes Mountains of South America. The Cerulean Warbler, one of the fastest declining woodland birds of eastern North America, is considered Vulnerable by BirdLife international, in the...

  12. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  13. How we can learn more about the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.; Keyser, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    A sense of urgency attends the study of species of concern, like the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea). Sharpened by Robbins et al. (1992) and Hamel (1992), such concern prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to commission a status assessment of the Cerulean Warbler (Hamel 2000a). Shortly after the status review was published, a petition (Ruley 2000) was delivered to the USFWS urging that the species be listed as “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The account of the Cerulean Warbler in the Birds of North America series also appeared that year (Hamel 2000b). Substantial attention is currently focused on the species, and the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) was formed in 2002 (see Appendix).This overview consists of two parts. The first, prepared primarily by P.B.H., attempts to summarize current knowledge and suggest productive avenues to pursue in our efforts to understand the biology and conserve populations of Cerulean Warblers. The second, written by D.K.D. and P.D.K., is a summary of the structure and priorities of the CWTG, an organization that can spur and facilitate research and conservation action directed at this species and serve as a model for conservation of other forest birds (Appendix). Further information on Cerulean Warblers and activities of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group can be found on the CWTG website (see Acknowledgments).

  14. Elevational gradient in clutch size of Red-faced Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of life history evolution has benefited from debates regarding the underlying causes, and geographic ubiquity, of spatial patterns in avian clutch sizes. Past studies have revealed that birds lay smaller clutch sizes at higher elevation. However, in most previous studies, investigators have failed to adequately control for elevational differences in breeding phenology. To better understand the elevational gradient in avian clutch size, we need to know how clutch size changes across the entire elevational breeding range of a species (i.e., the shape of the relationship between elevation and clutch size), and whether the elevational gradient in clutch size is merely an artifact of elevational gradients in breeding phenology or breeding season length. We examined the relationship between breeding elevation and clutch size of Red-faced Warblers (Cardellina rubrifrons) along a 1000-m elevational gradient in Arizona. Our objectives were to determine how clutch size changed with elevation, and if the relationship between clutch size and elevation merely reflected elevational changes in breeding season length or phenology. The proportion of 5-egg clutches decreased and the proportion of 3- and 4-egg clutches increased non-linearly with increasing elevation, even after controlling for the elevational gradient in nest initiation date. Thus, average clutch size declined across the elevational breeding range of Red-faced Warblers, but this decline was not due to elevational variation in breeding phenology. Timing of breeding changed, but the duration of the breeding season did not change appreciably across the elevational gradient. Hence, elevational differences in breeding season length or breeding phenology cannot explain why Red-faced Warblers (and perhaps other birds) breeding at higher elevations have smaller clutches.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  16. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  17. Parentage assignment and extra-group paternity in a cooperative breeder : the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Jury, FL; Blaakmeer, K; Komdeur, J; Burke, T

    We describe the development and initial application of a semiautomated parentage testing system in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This system used fluorescently labelled primers for 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in two multiplex loading groups to genotype efficiently over

  18. The song of the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, an island endemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catchpole, C.K.; Komdeur, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a resident, cooperative breeder in a saturated, island environment, whose song structure diners significantly from European marshland Acrocephalus species. The song is transmitted within a more restricted frequency range, that which propagates most

  19. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Komdeur, J

    In cooperative, breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship

  20. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.; Groce, Julie E.; Mcfarland, Tiffany M.; Morrison, Michael L.; Newnam, J. Cal; Snelgrove, R. Todd; Collier, Bret A.; Wilkins, R. Neal

    2012-01-01

    relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species

  1. Regional habitat needs of a nationally listed species, Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Ball

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that affect the distribution and abundance of species is critical to developing effective management plans for conservation. Our goal was to quantify the distribution and abundance of Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, a threatened old-forest associate in Alberta, Canada. The Canada Warbler has declined across its range, including in Alberta where habitat loss and alteration from urban expansion, forestry, and energy development are changing the forest landscape. We used 110,427 point count survey visits from 32,287 unique survey stations to model local-level (150-m radius circular buffers and stand-level (564-m radius circular buffers habitat associations of the Canada Warbler. We found that habitat supporting higher densities of Canada Warblers was locally concentrated yet broadly distributed across Alberta's boreal forest region. Canada Warblers were most commonly associated with older deciduous forest at the local scale, particularly near small, incised streams, and greater amounts of deciduous forest at the stand scale. Predicted density was lower in other forest types and younger age classes measured at the local scale. There was little evidence that local-scale fragmentation (i.e., edges created by linear features influenced Canada Warbler abundance. However, current forestry practices in the province likely will reduce the availability of Canada Warbler habitat over time by cutting old deciduous forest stands. Our results suggest that conservation efforts aimed at Canada Warbler focus on retaining large stands of old deciduous forest, specifically stands adjacent to streams, by increasing the width of deciduous retention buffers along streams during harvest and increasing the size and number of old forest residual patches in harvested stands.

  2. Does fragmentation of wetlands affect gene flow in sympatric Acrocephalus warblers with different migration strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Ceresa, Francesco; Belda, E.J.; Kvist, Laura; Rguibi-Idrissi, Hamid; Monrós González, Juan Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are naturally patchy habitats, but patchiness has been accentuated by the extensive wetlands loss due to human activities. In such a fragmented habitat, dispersal ability is especially important to maintain gene flow between populations. Here we studied population structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of Iberian and North African populations of two wetland passerines, the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus and the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon....

  3. Teacher Burnout in Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses teacher burnout which scholars define as a condition caused by depersonalization, exhaustion, and a diminished sense of accomplishment. A psychological model of how stress leads to burnout describes it as a syndrome resulting from teachers' inability to protect themselves against threats to their self esteem and well-being.…

  4. Sleep in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the ...

  5. Sleep in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Are penguins black-and-white?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczykowski, P.

    1995-03-01

    Contribution of low-energy ''eye'' and ''figure-eight'' quark diagrams to the K → π weak transitions are studied in a hadron-level phenomenological approach. It is shown that these contributions may be estimated by considering meson-cloud effect. If all intermediate mesons under consideration are degenerate only the ''eye'' (low-energy penguin) diagrams is nonvanishing. When allowance is made for smaller mass of pseudoscalar mesons, the contribution of ''figure-eight'' diagrams turns out to enhance the ΔI = 1/2 (suppress the ΔI = 3/2) amplitudes naturally. The overall long-distance-induced enhancement of the ratio of the Δ I = 1/2 amplitudes over the Δ I = 3/2 amplitudes is estimated at around 4-8. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Carpe Diem in Black and White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    This essay looks at Jim Jarmusch's latest film Broken Flowers. As the tile indicates there is breakage in the narrative of an aging Don Juan who upon receiving an anonymous letter that informs him of his having a son he never knew he had embarks on a quest journey that takes him visiting old flames...

  8. Can we explain vagrancy in Europe with the autumn migration phenology of Siberian warbler species in East Russia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozó László

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the autumn migration phenology of nine Siberian breeding songbirds: Thick-billed Warbler (Iduna aedon, Black-browed Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella certhiola, Lanceolated Warbler (L. lanceolata, Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus, Arctic Warbler (Ph. borealis, Dusky Warbler (Ph. fuscatus, Radde’s Warbler (Ph. schwarzi, Two-barred Warbler (Ph. plumbeitarsus and compared the migration dynamic characteristics with their European occurrence time. The study was carried out within the Amur Bird Project in the Russian Far East along the river Amur at Muraviovka Park between 2011 and 2014. The birds were caught with mistnets and ringed with individually numbered rings. For the characterization of the migration, we used timing, the intervals and the peaks of the migration, the percentage of the recaptures and the average time between the first and the last captures. The timing of migration in the studied species differed in the timing, the intervals (30-67 days and the migration peaks (14 August - 17 September.

  9. Modeling the flocking propensity of passerine birds in two Neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Lars Y; Cooper, Robert J; Petit, Lisa J

    2007-08-01

    We examined the importance of mixed-species flock abundance, individual bird home range size, foraging height, and foraging patch characteristics in predicting the propensity for five Neotropical passerine bird species (Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor; Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus; Slate-throated Redstart, Myioborus miniatus; Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla; and Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia) to forage within flocks, rather than solitarily. We used study plots in primary mid-elevation forest and in shade coffee fields in western Panama. We expected that all species would spend as much time as possible flocking, but that the social and environmental factors listed above would limit compatibility between flock movements and individual bird movements, explaining variability in flocking propensity both within and among species. Flocking propensity was well predicted by home range size and flock abundance together, for four of the five species. While flock abundance was uniform across plots, home range sizes varied among species and plots, so that home range size appeared to be the principle factor limiting flocking propensity. Estimates of flock abundance were still required, however, for calculating flocking propensity values. Foraging height and patch characteristics slightly improved predictive ability for the remaining species, M. miniatus. In general, individual birds tended to join flocks whenever one was available inside their home range, regardless of a flock's specific location within the home range. Flocking propensities of individual species were lower in shade coffee fields than in forests, and probably vary across landscapes with variations in habitat. This variability affects the stability and species composition of flocks, and may affect survival rates of individual species.

  10. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 1. A review of the russet bush-warbler Bradypterus seebohmi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Round, P.D.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    The bush-warbler Bradypterus mandelli (Brooks, 1875) was described from Sikkim, and numerous specimens from India were identified with it, but it was synonymised with the brown bush-warbler Bradypterus luteoventris (Hodgson, 1845) in 1881. In 1952, east Asian populations were grouped under the name

  11. Avian response to timber harvesting applied experimentally to manage Cerulean Warbler breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Boves, Than J.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Evans, Andrea; McDermott, Molly E.; Newell, Felicity L.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvesting has been proposed as a management tool to enhance breeding habitat for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining Neotropical–Nearctic migratory songbird that nests in the canopy of mature eastern deciduous forests. To evaluate how this single-species management focus might fit within an ecologically based management approach for multiple forest birds, we performed a manipulative experiment using four treatments (three intensities of timber harvests and an unharvested control) at each of seven study areas within the core Cerulean Warbler breeding range. We collected pre-harvest (one year) and post-harvest (four years) data on the territory density of Cerulean Warblers and six additional focal species, avian community relative abundance, and several key habitat variables. We evaluated the avian and habitat responses across the 3–32 m2 ha−1 residual basal area (RBA) range of the treatments. Cerulean Warbler territory density peaked with medium RBA (∼16 m2 ha−1). In contrast, territory densities of the other focal species were negatively related to RBA (e.g., Hooded Warbler [Setophaga citrina]), were positively related to RBA (e.g., Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]), or were not sensitive to this measure (Scarlet Tanager [Piranga olivacea]). Some species (e.g., Hooded Warbler) increased with time post-treatment and were likely tied to a developing understory, whereas declines (e.g., Ovenbird) were immediate. Relative abundance responses of additional species were consistent with the territory density responses of the focal species. Across the RBA gradient, greatest separation in the avian community was between early successional forest species (e.g., Yellow-breasted Chat [Icteria virens]) and closed-canopy mature forest species (e.g., Ovenbird), with the Cerulean Warbler and other species located intermediate to these two extremes. Overall, our results suggest that harvests within 10–20 m2 ha−1 RBA yield the largest

  12. Modelling the winter distribution of a rare and endangered migrant, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Bruno A; Schäffer, Norbert; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2007-01-01

    . Such model predictions may be useful guidelines to focus further field research on the Aquatic Warbler. Given the excellent model predictions in this study, this novel technique may prove useful to model the distribution of other rare and endangered species, thus providing a means to guide future survey......The Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola is one of the most threatened Western Palearctic passerine species, classified as globally Vulnerable. With its breeding grounds relatively secure, a clear need remains for the monitoring and protection of the migration and wintering grounds of this rare...... and endangered migrant. Recent research has shown that the Aquatic Warbler migrates through northwest Africa in autumn and spring. The wintering grounds are apparently limited to wetlands of sub-Saharan West Africa, with records from only about 20 localities in Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and Ghana. Given the lack...

  13. Biometry and phenology of two sibling Phylloscopus warblers on their circum-Mediterranean migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven; Bensusan, Keith J; Perez, Charles E; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is known as an ecological barrier for numerous migratory birds flying from European breeding grounds to African wintering sites. Birds generally avoid migration over open sea and fly over land. In the Mediterranean Basin, few land bridges or bottlenecks for migratory birds exist. The narrowest are at the western and eastern extremes: the Strait of Gibraltar and Israel. Comparative studies between these locations are extremely rare to date. Therefore, in order to elucidate the differences between the two flyways, we compared data collected simultaneously for two sister leaf warbler species, the Bonelli's Warbler complex, Phylloscopus bonelli and Phylloscopus orientalis, at ringing stations in the western Mediterranean Basin Gibraltar, and the eastern Eilat, Israel. Data on biometrics and passage dates of individuals trapped at Gibraltar and Eilat were used, and it was found that mean arrival date of Western Bonelli's Warblers at Gibraltar was 15 days later than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers at Eilat. Furthermore, Western Bonelli's Warblers had shorter wings than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers. On the other hand, birds in Eilat were in poorer body condition than individuals in Gibraltar. The comparison between geographically distant stop-over sites contributes to furthering our understanding of the development of migration strategies across ecological barriers in sibling species. Our study showed that populations that breed in southwestern Europe migrate through Gibraltar and winter in West Africa are able to accomplish migration in comparatively good body condition. This is in contrast to those that winter in East Africa, migrate through Israel and have to endure the combined challenge of crossing the Sahel, Sahara and Sinai deserts before reaching their breeding grounds across southeast Europe and southwest Asia. Hence, the discrepancies described between the western and the eastern flyway suggest that individuals in the west, in general, migrate

  14. A probabilistic risk assessment for the Kirtland's warbler potentially exposed to chlorpyrifos and malathion during the breeding season and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne Rj; Priest, Colleen D; Olson, Adric D; Teed, R Scott

    2018-03-01

    Two organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos and malathion, are currently undergoing reregistration in the United States and were recently used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as case studies to develop a national procedure for evaluating risks to endangered species. One of the endangered bird species considered by the USEPA was the Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii). The Kirtland's warbler is an endangered migratory species that nests exclusively in young jack pine stands in Michigan and Wisconsin, and winters in the Bahamas. We developed probabilistic models to assess the risks of chlorpyrifos and malathion to Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season and the spring and fall migrations. The breeding area model simulates acute and chronic exposure and risk to each of 10 000 birds over a 60-d period following initial pesticide application. The model is highly species specific with regard to the foraging behavior of Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season. We simulated the maximum application rate and number of applications allowed on the labels for representative use patterns that could be found within 3 km of the breeding areas of Kirtland's warbler. The migration model simulates 10 000 birds during the course of their 12- to 23-d migration between their breeding area and the Bahamas. The model takes advantage of more than a century of observations of when, where, and for how long Kirtland's warblers forage in different habitats during the course of their migration. The data indicate that warblers only infrequently stop over in habitats that could be treated with chlorpyrifos and malathion. The breeding area and migration models resulted in predictions of very low acute and chronic risk for both pesticides to Kirtland's warblers. These results were expected, given that field observations indicate that the Kirtland's warbler has dramatically increased in abundance in recent decades. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018

  15. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2011-08-25

    AIM: Our objective was to identify the distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) in fragmented oak-juniper woodlands by applying a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model to better assist decision-makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection/non-detection surveys of randomly selected (n = 287) patches of potential habitat to evaluate warbler patch-scale presence across the species breeding range. We used a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model with remotely sensed habitat metrics (patch size and landscape composition) to predict patch-scale occupancy of golden-cheeked warblers in the fragmented oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, USA. RESULTS: Our spatially explicit model indicated that golden-cheeked warbler patch occupancy declined from south to north within the breeding range concomitant with reductions in the availability of large habitat patches. We found that 59% of woodland patches, primarily in the northern and central portions of the warbler\\'s range, were predicted to have occupancy probabilities ≤0.10 with only 3% of patches predicted to have occupancy probabilities >0.90. Our model exhibited high prediction accuracy (area under curve = 0.91) when validated using independently collected warbler occurrence data. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a distinct spatial occurrence gradient for golden-cheeked warblers as well as a relationship between two measurable landscape characteristics. Because habitat-occupancy relationships were key drivers of our model, our results can be used to identify potential areas where conservation actions supporting habitat mitigation can occur and identify areas where conservation of future potential habitat is possible. Additionally, our results can be

  16. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  17. Factors affecting golden-cheeked warbler nest survival in urban and rural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate...

  18. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  19. Long-term fitness benefits of egg sex modification by the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    Sex-ratio theory states that if the fitness costs to the parents of producing one offspring's sex relative to the other are higher, parents should discount these costs by producing fewer individuals of the more costly sex. In the co-operatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

  20. Why Seychelles Warblers fail to recolonize nearby islands : unwilling or unable to fly there?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Piersma, T; Kraaijeveld, K; Kraaijeveld-Smit, F; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a rare island endemic which, from 1920 to 1988, occurred only on Cousin Island (29 ha) in the Seychelles. Despite the saturated nature of this population and the possibility of obtaining higher reproductive success on new nearby islands,

  1. Inter-island transfers and population dynamics of Seychelles Warblers Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950s the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300–360

  2. Conserving the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation : a transfer from Cousin Island to Aride Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Bullock, Ian D.; Rands, Michael R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds. Given the vulnerability of one

  3. Direct benefits and the evolution of female-biased cooperative breeding in Seychelles warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Dunn, P.

    2002-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested to be a major selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. We investigated the fitness benefits selecting for cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler, Acroccphalus sechellensis. A microsatellite-based genotyping method was used

  4. The African migration and wintering grounds of the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Norbert; Walther, Bruno A.; Gutteridge, Kim

    2006-01-01

    the edges of backwaters, flood basins, lagoons, lakes, ponds, rivers and wadis. Recent research suggests that at least some Aquatic Warblers may actually winter further south than the present data suggest, in countries such as The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana...

  5. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are

  6. Research on golden-winged warblers: recent progress and current needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry M. Streby; Ronald W. Rohrbaugh; David A. Buehler; David E. Andersen; Rachel Vallender; David I. King; Tom. Will

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in knowledge about Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) in the past decade. Recent employment of molecular analysis, stable-isotope analysis, telemetry-based monitoring of survival and behavior, and spatially explicit modeling techniques have added to, and revised, an already broad base of published...

  7. Basal metabolic rate, food intake, and body mass in cold- and warm-acclimated Garden Warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Oltrogge, M.; Trost, L.

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of whether physiological flexibility in relation to climate is a general feature of the metabolic properties of birds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-raised Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin), long-distance migrants, which normally do not experience great temperature

  8. Seasonal timing of reproduction in a tropical bird, the Seychelles warbler : A field experiment using translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproduction of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a single-island endemic species living close to the equator, is characterized by a pronounced annual rhythm. The bird usually raises only one or two clutches of one egg each per year. Observational data suggest that seasonal changes

  9. Egg mimicry in cuckoos parasitizing four sympatric species of Acrocephalus warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edvardsen, E.; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.; Oien, I. J.; Honza, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 4 (2001), s. 829-837 ISSN 0010-5422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : brood parasitism * egg mimicry * Acrocephalus warblers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.104, year: 2001 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1370116

  10. Is shared male assistance with antiparasitic nest defence costly in the polygynous great reed warbler?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-621 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : great reed warbler * aggressive behaviour * brood parasitism * common cuckoo * mating status Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.068, year: 2013

  11. Conservation planning and accomplishments for protection of Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) nonbreeding habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Skolnik; David Wiedenfeld; Randy Dettmers; Constantino Aucca; Lina Daza; Heidy Valle; Francisco Sornoza; Javier Robayo; David Diaz; Jane Fitzgerald; Daniel Lebbin; Paul B. Hamel

    2012-01-01

    Vital to the work of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group has been the collaboration among members to evaluate population status and coordinate planning for future activities, principally in conservation implementation. Two plans have been produced, one a general strategy for the conservation and management of the species over its entire range, and a more restricted...

  12. Arthropod prey of Wilson's Warblers in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.; Dugger, K.M.; Starkey, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  13. Reed Warbler Hosts Fine-Tune their Defenses to Track Three Decades of Cuckoo Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host’s egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses. PMID:24299407

  14. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch; Sandra Brantley; Richard Fagerlund; Michael D. Means; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    We compared abundance of migrating Willow Flycatchers and Wilson's Warblers to the abundance of arthropods in exotic and native vegetation at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We trapped arthropods using glue-boards in 1996 and 1997 in the same cottonwood, saltcedar, and willow habitats where we mist-netted birds during spring and fall migration. There...

  15. Insights into Wilson's Warbler migration from analyses of hydrogen stable-isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...

  16. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.

    2012-02-15

    Population abundance estimates using predictive models are important for describing habitat use and responses to population-level impacts, evaluating conservation status of a species, and for establishing monitoring programs. The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is a neotropical migratory bird that was listed as federally endangered in 1990 because of threats related to loss and fragmentation of its woodland habitat. Since listing, abundance estimates for the species have mainly relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species\\' breeding range. We first conducted occupancy surveys to determine range-wide distribution. We then conducted standard point-count surveys on a subset of the initial sampling locations to estimate density of males. Mean observed patch-specific density was 0.23 males/ha (95% CI = 0.197-0.252, n = 301). We modeled the relationship between patch-specific density of males and woodland patch characteristics (size and landscape composition) and predicted patch occupancy. The probability of patch occupancy, derived from a model that used patch size and landscape composition as predictor variables while addressing effects of spatial relatedness, best predicted patch-specific density. We predicted patch-specific densities as a function of occupancy probability and estimated abundance of male warblers across 63,616 woodland patches accounting for 1.678 million ha of potential warbler habitat. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, our approach yielded a range-wide male warbler population estimate of 263,339 (95% CI: 223,927-302,620). Our results provide the first abundance estimate using habitat and count data from a sampling design focused on range-wide inference. Managers can use the resulting model as a tool to support conservation planning

  17. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  19. Senescence in the wild: Insights from a long-term study on Seychelles warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Kingma, Sjouke A; Bebbington, Kat; van de Crommenacker, Janske; Spurgin, Lewis G; Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Senescence--the progressive age-dependent decline in performance--occurs in most organisms. There is considerable variation in the onset and rate of senescence between and within species. Yet the causes of this variation are still poorly understood, despite being central to understanding the evolution of senescence. Long-term longitudinal studies on wild animals are extremely well-suited to studying the impact of environmental and individual characteristics (and the interaction between the two) on senescence, and can help us to understand the mechanisms that shape the evolution of senescence. In this review, we summarize and discuss the insights gained from our comprehensive long-term individual-based study of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This species provides an excellent model system in which to investigate the evolution of senescence in the wild. We found that Seychelles warblers show senescent declines in survival and reproduction, and discuss how individual characteristics (body condition, body size) and environmental effects (low- versus high-quality environments) may affect the onset and rate of senescence. Further, we highlight the evidence for trade-offs between early-life investment and senescence. We describe how key cellular and physiological processes (oxidative stress and telomere shortening) underpinning senescence are affected by individual and environmental characteristics in the Seychelles warbler (e.g. food availability, reproductive investment, disease) and we discuss how such physiological variation may mediate the relationship between environmental characteristics and senescence. Based on our work using Seychelles warblers as a model system, we show how insights from long-term studies of wild animals may help unravel the causes of the remarkable variation in senescence observed in natural systems, and highlight areas for promising future research.

  20. Case study: Prioritization strategies for reforestation of minelands to benefit Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E.; Shumar, Matthew B.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2013-01-01

    The central Appalachian landscape is being heavily altered by surface coal mining. The practice of Mountaintop Removal/Valley Fill (MTRVF) mining has transformed large areas of mature forest to non-forest and created much forest edge, affecting habitat quality for mature forest wildlife. The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative is working to restore mined areas to native hardwood forest conditions, and strategies are needed to prioritize restoration efforts for wildlife. We present mineland reforestation guidelines for the imperiled Cerulean Warbler, considered a useful umbrella species, in its breeding range. In 2009, we surveyed forest predicted to have Cerulean Warblers near mined areas in the MTRVF region of West Virginia and Kentucky. We visited 36 transect routes and completed songbird surveys on 151 points along these routes. Cerulean Warblers were present at points with fewer large-scale canopy disturbances and more mature oak-hickory forest. We tested the accuracy of a predictive map for this species and demonstrated that it can be useful to guide reforestation efforts. We then developed a map of hot spot locations that can be used to determine potential habitat suitability. Restoration efforts would have greatest benefit for Cerulean Warblers and other mature forest birds if concentrated near a relative-abundance hot spot, on north- and east-facing ridgetops surrounded by mature deciduous forest, and prioritized to reduce edges and connect isolated forest patches. Our multi-scale approach for prioritizing restoration efforts using an umbrella species may be applied to restore habitat impacted by a variety of landscape disturbances.

  1. Habitat selection of two Acrocephalus warblers breeding in reed beds near Malacky (Western Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Kocian, Ľ.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2004), s. 637-644 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/7197/20; VEGA(SK) 1/0017/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : reed warblers * breeding * habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2004 http://biologia.savba.sk/59_5_04/Prokesova_J.pdf

  2. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (the male's territory. Successful nests had significantly more woody cover (≥9%) within 1 m than failed nests. Our results suggest that cattle grazing at 1.2–2.4 ha of forage/animal unit with periodic mowing can create and maintain these characteristics without interfering with the nesting of Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  3. Population decline of the Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Arendt; S.S. Qian; K. Mineard

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the population density of the globally threatened Elfin-woods Warbler Setophaga angelae within two forest types at different elevations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in north-eastern Puerto Rico. Population densities ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and 0.06–0.26 individuals/ha in palo colorado forest in 2006, with average...

  4. Museum DNA reveals the demographic history of the endangered Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, Lewis G; Wright, David J; van der Velde, Marco; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-11-01

    The importance of evolutionary conservation - how understanding evolutionary forces can help guide conservation decisions - is widely recognized. However, the historical demography of many endangered species is unknown, despite the fact that this can have important implications for contemporary ecological processes and for extinction risk. Here, we reconstruct the population history of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) - an ecological model species. By the 1960s, this species was on the brink of extinction, but its previous history is unknown. We used DNA samples from contemporary and museum specimens spanning 140 years to reconstruct bottleneck history. We found a 25% reduction in genetic diversity between museum and contemporary populations, and strong genetic structure. Simulations indicate that the Seychelles warbler was bottlenecked from a large population, with an ancestral N e of several thousands falling to Seychelles warbler, and our results will inform conservation practices. Reconstructing the population history of this species also allows us to better understand patterns of genetic diversity, inbreeding and promiscuity in the contemporary populations. Our approaches can be applied across species to test ecological hypotheses and inform conservation.

  5. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, J

    2001-10-22

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and, given the short breeding season, no time for a successful replacement clutch. Neighbouring males are the primary threat to a male's genetic paternity. Males minimize their loss of paternity by guarding their mates to prevent them from having extra-pair copulations during their fertile period. Here, I provide experimental evidence that mate-guarding behaviour is energetically costly and that the expression of this trade-off is adjusted to paternity risk (local male density). Free-living males that were induced to reduce mate guarding spent significantly more time foraging and gained significantly better body condition than control males. The larger the reduction in mate guarding, the more pronounced was the increase in foraging and body condition (accounting for food availability). An experimental increase in paternity risk resulted in an increase in mate-guarding intensity and a decrease in foraging and body condition, and vice versa. This is examined using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. This study on the Seychelles warbler offers experimental evidence that mate guarding is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

  6. Comparative nest-site habitat of painted redstarts and red-faced warblers in the Madrean Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Jamie S. Sanderlin; Jose M. Iniguez

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of avian species requires understanding their nesting habitat requirements. We compared 3 aspects of habitat at nest sites (topographic characteristics of nest sites, nest placement within nest sites, and canopy stratification within nest sites) of 2 related species of ground-nesting warblers (Red-faced Warblers, Cardellina rubrifrons, n = 17...

  7. Establishing quantitative habitat targets for a "Critically Endangered" neotropical migrant (golden-cheeked warbler Dendroica chrysoparia) during the non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Carlin C. Chandler; John H. Rappole; Richard B. Chandler; David W. Mehlman

    2012-01-01

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia is a federally endangered Neotropical migrant that inhabits montane pine-oak forests in Mexico and northern Central America during the non-breeding season. Although it is known that Golden-cheeked Warblers are closely associated with ‘encino’ oaks (...

  8. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides, mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi's Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi's Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation

  9. Factors driving territory size and breeding success in a threatened migratory songbird, the Canada Warbler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Tyler Flockhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful conservation of migratory birds demands we understand how habitat factors on the breeding grounds influences breeding success. Multiple factors are known to directly influence breeding success in territorial songbirds. For example, greater food availability and fewer predators can have direct effects on breeding success. However, many of these same habitat factors can also result in higher conspecific density that may ultimately reduce breeding success through density dependence. In this case, there is a negative indirect effect of habitat on breeding success through its effects on conspecific density and territory size. Therefore, a key uncertainty facing land managers is whether important habitat attributes directly influence breeding success or indirectly influence breeding success through territory size. We used radio-telemetry, point-counts, vegetation sampling, predator observations, and insect sampling over two years to provide data on habitat selection of a steeply declining songbird species, the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis. These data were then applied in a hierarchical path modeling framework and an AIC model selection approach to determine the habitat attributes that best predict breeding success. Canada Warblers had smaller territories in areas with high shrub cover, in the presence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, at shoreline sites relative to forest-interior sites and as conspecific density increased. Breeding success was lower for birds with smaller territories, which suggests competition for limited food resources, but there was no direct evidence that food availability influenced territory size or breeding success. The negative relationship between shrub cover and territory size in our study may arise because these specific habitat conditions are spatially heterogeneous, whereby individuals pack into patches of preferred breeding habitat scattered throughout the landscape, resulting in reduced

  10. A hierarchical spatial model of avian abundance with application to Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Knutson, Melinda G.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys collecting count data are the primary means by which abundance is indexed for birds. These counts are confounded, however, by nuisance effects including observer effects and spatial correlation between counts. Current methods poorly accommodate both observer and spatial effects because modeling these spatially autocorrelated counts within a hierarchical framework is not practical using standard statistical approaches. We propose a Bayesian approach to this problem and provide as an example of its implementation a spatial model of predicted abundance for the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) in the Prairie-Hardwood Transition of the upper midwestern United States. We used an overdispersed Poisson regression with fixed and random effects, fitted by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We used 21 years of North American Breeding Bird Survey counts as the response in a loglinear function of explanatory variables describing habitat, spatial relatedness, year effects, and observer effects. The model included a conditional autoregressive term representing potential correlation between adjacent route counts. Categories of explanatory habitat variables in the model included land cover composition and configuration, climate, terrain heterogeneity, and human influence. The inherent hierarchy in the model was from counts occurring, in part, as a function of observers within survey routes within years. We found that the percentage of forested wetlands, an index of wetness potential, and an interaction between mean annual precipitation and deciduous forest patch size best described Cerulean Warbler abundance. Based on a map of relative abundance derived from the posterior parameter estimates, we estimated that only 15% of the species' population occurred on federal land, necessitating active engagement of public landowners and state agencies in the conservation of the breeding habitat for this species. Models of this type can be applied to any data in which the response

  11. Patterns of gene flow and selection across multiple species of Acrocephalus warblers: footprints of parallel selection on the Z chromosome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reifová, R.; Majerová, V.; Reif, J.; Ahola, M.; Lindholm, A.; Procházka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 130 (2016), s. 130 ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Adaptive radiation * Speciation * Gene flow * Parallel adaptive evolution * Z chromosome * Acrocephalus warblers Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  12. Conserving the seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation from Cousin Island to the islands of Aride and Cousine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds.

  13. Seasonal productivity and nest survival of Golden-cheeked Warblers vary with forest type and edge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca G. Peak; Frank R., III Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the demography and habitat requirements of the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is needed for its recovery, including measures of productivity instead of reproductive indices. We report on breeding phenology and demography, calculate model-based estimates of nest survival and seasonal productivity and evaluate...

  14. A proxy of social mate choice in prairie warblers is correlated with consistent, rapid, low-pitched singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Byers; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2015-01-01

    In songbirds, female mate choice may be influenced by how well a male performs his songs. Performing songs well may be especially difficult if it requires maximizingmultiple aspects of performance simultaneously.We therefore hypothesized that, in a population of prairie warblers, the males most attractive to females would be those with superior performance in more than...

  15. Experimental evidence that kin discrimination in the Seychelles warbler is based on association and not on genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Richardson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperative breeding systems driven by kin selection, effective kin-recognition cues are important. Recognition could be achieved by the direct assessment of the genetic relatedness of individuals or by learning through association. In the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, female

  16. Does conspicuous colouration of Magpies Pica pica influence aggressive behaviour in nesting Great Reed Warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2017), s. 108-111 ISSN 0006-3657 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Magpies Pica pica * Great Reed Warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 0.925, year: 2016

  17. [Book review] The Kirtland's Warbler: The Story of a Bird's Fight against extinction and the People Who Saved It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner

    2013-01-01

    The population recovery of Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii) is one of the most fascinating success stories of an endangered species in the past 60 years. As the author states, the story transcends the bird and its environment. By including the human dimension of recovery efforts, this book keeps the reader involved throughout what ends...

  18. Microsatellite DNA markers for delineating population structure and kinship among the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIM L. KING; MICHAEL S. EACKLES; ANNE P. HENDERSON; CAROL I. BOCETTI; DAVE CURRIE; JR WUNDERLE

    2005-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 23 microsatellite DNA markers for the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), a Nearctic/Neotropical migrant passerine. This suite of markers revealed moderate to high levels of allelic diversity (averaging 7.7 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 72%). Genotypic frequencies at 22 of 23 (95%)...

  19. Diet of Wilson's warblers and distribution of arthropod prey in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Dugger, Kate; Starkey, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  20. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  1. Male Kirtland's Warblers' patch-level response to landscape structure during periods of varying population size and habitat amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; John R. Probst

    2009-01-01

    Forest planners must evaluate how spatiotemporal changes in habitat amount and configuration across the landscape as a result of timber management will affect species' persistence. However, there are few long-term programs available for evaluation. We investigated the response of male Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) to 26 years of...

  2. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints: MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences. We used translocations to previously unoccupied islands to experimentally reduce constraints on female social mate choice in the Seychelles warbler ( Acrocephalus sechellensis ), a species in which patterns of MHC-dependent extrapair paternity (EPP), but not social mate choice, have been observed. We find no evidence of MHC-dependent social mate choice in the new populations. Instead, we find that older males and males with more microsatellite heterozygosity are more likely to have successfully paired. Our data cannot resolve whether these patterns in pairing were due to male-male competition or female choice. However, our research does suggest that female Seychelles warblers do not choose social mates using MHC class I to increase fitness. It may also indicate that the MHC-dependent EPP observed in the source population is probably due to mechanisms other than female precopulatory mate choice based on MHC cues.

  3. Radio-transmitters do not affect seasonal productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Gesmundo, Callie; Johnson, Michael K.; Fish, Alexander C.; Lehman, Justin A.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the potential effects of handling and marking techniques on study animals is important for correct interpretation of research results and to effect progress in data-collection methods. Few investigators have compared the reproductive output of radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged songbirds, and no one to date has examined the possible effect of radio-tagging adult songbirds on the survival of their fledglings. In 2011 and 2012, we compared several parameters of reproductive output of two groups of female Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) breeding in Minnesota, including 45 females with radio-transmitters and 73 females we did not capture, handle, or mark. We found no difference between groups in clutch sizes, hatching success, brood sizes, length of incubation and nestling stages, fledging success, number of fledglings, or survival of fledglings to independence. Thus, radio-tags had no measurable impact on the productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers. Our results build upon previous studies where investigators have reported no effects of radio-tagging on the breeding parameters of songbirds by also demonstrating no effect of radio-tagging through the post-fledging period and, therefore, the entire breeding season.

  4. Mercury contamination, a potential threat to the globally endangered aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Aneta Dorota; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Jiguet, Frédéric; Polkowska, Żaneta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered a global concern for humans and wildlife, and although the number of studies dealing with that issue continues to increase, some taxonomic groups such as small passerine birds are largely understudied. In this paper, concentration of mercury in the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) feathers, a globally threatened passerine species, was examined. The concentration differences between two ages and sexes were investigated. The comparison of feathers taken on autumn migrants of two age categories act as a comparison of the species' exposure within the two different areas (European breeding or African wintering grounds). The average Hg concentration for all sampled individuals [2.32 μg/g dw (range 0.38-12.76)] is relatively high, compared with values found in other passerine species. An age difference was found, with first-year individuals displaying higher mercury concentrations than adults. This indicates that birds are exposed to mercury pollution during the breeding season, i.e., in the continental floodplains of eastern Europe. The average Hg concentration in feathers grown on the breeding grounds was 3.88 ± 2.59 μg/g dw, closer to the critical value of 5 μg/g dw, which is considered to impair the health of individuals. The findings suggest that mercury pollution may constitute a threat so far neglected for the endangered aquatic warbler.

  5. Coping with shifting nest predation refuges by European reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Halupka

    Full Text Available Predation, the most important source of nest mortality in altricial birds, has been a subject of numerous studies during past decades. However, the temporal dynamics between changing predation pressures and parental responses remain poorly understood. We analysed characteristics of 524 nests of European reed warblers monitored during six consecutive breeding seasons in the same area, and found some support for the shifting nest predation refuge hypothesis. Nest site characteristics were correlated with nest fate, but a nest with the same nest-site attributes could be relatively safe in one season and vulnerable to predation in another. Thus nest predation refuges were ephemeral and there was no between-season consistency in nest predation patterns. Reed warblers that lost their first nests in a given season did not disperse farther for the subsequent reproductive attempt, compared to successful individuals, but they introduced more changes to their second nest sites. In subsequent nests, predation risk remained constant for birds that changed nest-site characteristics, but increased for those that did not. At the between-season temporal scale, individual birds did not perform better with age in terms of reducing nest predation risk. We conclude that the experience acquired in previous years may not be useful, given that nest predation refuges are not stable.

  6. Nesting ecology of Townsend's warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, Colleen M.; Roby, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) from 1993-1995 in an unfragmented boreal forest along the lower slopes of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. We examined habitat characteristics of nest sites in relation to factors influencing reproductive success. Almost all territory-holding males (98%, n = 40) were successful in acquiring mates. Nest success was 54% (n = 24 nests), with nest survivorship greater during incubation (87%) than during the nestling period (62%). Most nesting failure (80%) was attributable to predation, which occurred primarily during the nestling period. Fifty-five percent of nests containing nestling were infested with the larvae of bird blow-flies (Protocalliphora braueri and P. spenceri), obligatory blood-feeding parasites. The combined effects of Protocalliphora infestation and inclement weather apparently resulted in nestling mortality in 4 of the 24 nests. Nests that escaped predation were placed in white spruce with larger diameter than those lost to predation: nests that escaped blow-fly parasitism were located higher in nest trees and in areas with lower densities of woody shrubs than those that were infested. The availability of potential nest sites with these key features may be important in determining reproductive success in Townsend's Warblers.

  7. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Duarte,; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack,; Michael R. J. Forstner,; M. Clay Green,; Floyd W. Weckerly,

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  8. Hatchling sex ratio and female mating status in the great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Aves, Passeriformes): further evidence for offspring sex ratio manipulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, A.; Prokop, P.; Kašová, M.; Sobeková, Karolina; Kocian, Ľ.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2012), s. 212-217 ISSN 1125-0003 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Great reed warbler * sex ratio * social polygyny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2012

  9. Impact of "Roots" on Black and White Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, K. Kyoon

    1978-01-01

    Racial attitudes, race, and other demographic factors differentiated viewers' perceptions and reactions to the "Roots" series. The effects on teenagers were apparent in the viewers' immediate perceptions of the series, entertainment and information values of the series, and realistic presentation of black history. (JEG)

  10. Measuring eating concerns in Black and White adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Barton, BA; Schumann, BC; Garner, DM; Daniels, [No Value; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB

    Objective: Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Methods: A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower

  11. In black and white: Media's role in shaping public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi Yearn-hong

    2004-01-01

    In a modern, democratic society, the newspaper's role is important and critical in shaping citizens' opinions on nuclear power and other issues. Citizens acquire knowledge on current issues in their society, nation, and the world through newspapers. Today, television and internet media is increasingly becoming more popular among citizens, but newspaper media continues to affect intellectual citizens, policy makers and think tanks. Therefore, assessing major daily newspaper editorials covering nuclear issues and affairs is necessary for their sound bridging between nuclear science and engineering and the public. Bridging the two cultures, science and humanities, is an enormous task for modern democratic society

  12. Race, School, and Seinfeld: Autoethnographic Sketching in Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsted, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…

  13. Black and White College Women's Perceptions of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.

    1999-01-01

    Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)

  14. PROSPECT OF INDONESIA BLACK AND WHITE PEPPERS EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19

  15. Perceptions of marital interaction among black and white newlyweds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, J; Veroff, J; Leber, D

    1993-09-01

    Perceptions of marital interactions were gathered from a representative sample of urban newlywed couples (199 Black and 174 White). A factor analysis of the reports found 6 factors common to husbands and wives: Disclosing Communication, Affective Affirmation, Negative Sexual Interaction, Traditional Role Regulation, Destructive Conflict, and Constructive Conflict. Avoiding Conflict was specific to men and Positive Coorientation was specific to women. Wives reported fewer constructive and more destructive conflict behaviors. Compared with Whites, Blacks reported more disclosure, more positive sexual interactions, and fewer topics of disagreement. They also more often reported leaving the scene of conflict and talking with others more easily than with the spouse. As hypothesized, perceptions that marital interactions affirm one's sense of identity strongly predicted marital well-being. Although regression analyses predicting marital happiness yielded few interactions with race or gender, those that are significant, coupled with race and gender differences in perceiving interaction, suggest taking a contextual orientation to the meaning of marital interaction.

  16. Sex-specific associative learning cues and inclusive fitness benefits in the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D S; Burke, T; Komdeurs, J

    2003-09-01

    In cooperative breeding vertebrates, indirect fitness benefits would be maximized by subordinates that accurately assess their relatedness to group offspring and preferentially help more closely related kin. In the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we found a positive relationship between subordinate-nestling kinship (determined using microsatellite marker genotypes) and provisioning rates, but only for female subordinates. Female subordinates that helped were significantly more related to the nestlings than were nonhelpers, and the decision to help appears to be based on associative learning cues. High levels of female infidelity means that subordinates cannot trust their legitimacy through the male line, consequently they appear to use the continued presence of the primary female, but not the primary male, as a reliable cue to determine when to feed nestlings. By using effective discrimination, female subordinates are able to maximize the indirect benefits gained within a cooperative breeding system otherwise driven primarily by direct breeding benefits.

  17. Differential timing and latitudinal variation in sex ratio of Aquatic Warblers during the autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chrostek, Małgorzata E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Neto, Júlio M.

    2017-12-01

    Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females. In addition, we found male-skewed sex proportions, with a tendency to an equalised ratio in more southern stopover sites. This may indicate a male bias in the global population or different migration strategies of the sexes. Differential migration may cause the age and sex classes to be exposed differently to various threats affecting demographic structure of the species.

  18. Molecular characterization of putative Hepatozoon sp. from the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Kloch, Agnieszka; Migalska, Magdalena; Bielański, Wojciech

    2013-05-01

    We characterized partial sequences of 18S rDNA from sedge warblers infected with a parasite described previously as Hepatozoon kabeeni. Prevalence was 47% in sampled birds.We detected 3 parasite haplotypes in 62 sequenced samples from infected animals. In phylogenetic analyses, 2 of the putative Hepatozoon haplotypes closely resembled Lankesterella minima and L. valsainensis. The third haplotype grouped in a wider clade composed of Caryospora and Eimeria. None of the haplotypes showed resemblance to sequences of Hepatozoon from reptiles and mammals. Molecular detection results were consistent with those from microscopy of stained blood smears, confirming that the primers indeed amplified the parasite sequences. Here we provide evidence that the avian Hepatozoon-like parasites are most likely Lankesterella, supporting the suggestion that the systematic position of avian Hepatozoon-like species needs to be revised.

  19. Contrasting results from GWAS and QTL mapping on wing length in great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Sigeman, Hanna; Stervander, Martin; Tarka, Maja; Ponnikas, Suvi; Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2018-04-15

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits. In migratory birds, wing morphology is such a trait. Our previous work on the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) shows that wing length is highly heritable and under sexually antagonistic selection. Moreover, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis detected a pronounced QTL for wing length on chromosome 2, suggesting that wing morphology is partly controlled by genes with large effects. Here, we re-evaluate the genetic basis of wing length in great reed warblers using a genomewide association study (GWAS) approach based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data. We use GWAS models that account for relatedness between individuals and include covariates (sex, age and tarsus length). The resulting association landscape was flat with no peaks on chromosome 2 or elsewhere, which is in line with expectations for polygenic traits. Analysis of the distribution of p-values did not reveal biases, and the inflation factor was low. Effect sizes were however not uniformly distributed on some chromosomes, and the Z chromosome had weaker associations than autosomes. The level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population decayed to background levels within c. 1 kbp. There could be several reasons to why our QTL study and GWAS gave contrasting results including differences in how associations are modelled (cosegregation in pedigree vs. LD associations), how covariates are accounted for in the models, type of marker used (multi- vs. biallelic), difference in power or a combination of these. Our study highlights that the genetic architecture even of highly heritable traits is difficult to characterize in wild populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  1. Isospora celata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno Pereira; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the orange-crowned warbler Oreothlypis celata (Say) collected in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico at 3,000 metres above sea level. Isospora celata n. sp. has subspheroidal oöcysts, measuring 28.4 × 26.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.2 μm thick. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but oöcyst residuum is present as a compact mass. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 18.2 × 12.8 µm. Stieda body knob-like and sub-Stieda body irregular and barely discernible. Sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the third description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  2. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  3. Age-specific haemosporidian infection dynamics and survival in Seychelles warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Komdeur, Jan; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites may severely impact the fitness and life-history of their hosts. After infection, surviving individuals may suppress the growth of the parasite, or completely clear the infection and develop immunity. Consequently, parasite prevalence is predicted to decline with age. Among elderly individuals, immunosenescence may lead to a late-life increase in infection prevalence. We used a 21-year longitudinal dataset from one population of individually-marked Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to investigate age-dependent prevalence of the GRW1 strain of the intracellular protozoan blood parasite Haemoproteus nucleocondensus and whether infections with this parasite affect age-dependent survival. We analyzed 2454 samples from 1431 individuals and found that H. nucleocondensus infections could rarely be detected in nestlings. Prevalence increased strongly among fledglings and peaked among older first year birds. Prevalence was high among younger adults and declined steeply until ca 4 years of age, after which it was stable. Contrary to expectations, H. nucleocondensus prevalence did not increase among elderly individuals and we found no evidence that annual survival was lower in individuals suffering from an infection. Our results suggest that individuals clear or suppress infections and acquire immunity against future infections, and provide no evidence for immunosenescence nor an impact of chronic infections on survival. PMID:27431430

  4. The impact of conservation-driven translocations on blood parasite prevalence in the Seychelles warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced populations often lose the parasites they carried in their native range, but little is known about which processes may cause parasite loss during host movement. Conservation-driven translocations could provide an opportunity to identify the mechanisms involved. Using 3,888 blood samples collected over 22 years, we investigated parasite prevalence in populations of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) after individuals were translocated from Cousin Island to four new islands (Aride, Cousine, Denis and Frégate). Only a single parasite (Haemoproteus nucleocondensus) was detected on Cousin (prevalence = 52%). This parasite persisted on Cousine (prevalence = 41%), but no infection was found in individuals hatched on Aride, Denis or Frégate. It is not known whether the parasite ever arrived on Aride, but it has not been detected there despite 20 years of post-translocation sampling. We confirmed that individuals translocated to Denis and Frégate were infected, with initial prevalence similar to Cousin. Over time, prevalence decreased on Denis and Frégate until the parasite was not found on Denis two years after translocation, and was approaching zero prevalence on Frégate. The loss (Denis) or decline (Frégate) of H. nucleocondensus, despite successful establishment of infected hosts, must be due to factors affecting parasite transmission on these islands. PMID:27405249

  5. Primary peak and chronic malaria infection levels are correlated in experimentally infected great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Westerdahl, Helena; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-09-01

    Malaria parasites often manage to maintain an infection for several months or years in their vertebrate hosts. In humans, rodents and birds, most of the fitness costs associated with malaria infections are in the short initial primary (high parasitaemia) phase of the infection, whereas the chronic phase (low parasitaemia) is more benign to the host. In wild birds, malaria parasites have mainly been studied during the chronic phase of the infection. This is because the initial primary phase of infection is short in duration and infected birds with severe disease symptoms tend to hide in sheltered places and are thus rarely caught and sampled. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between the parasitaemia during the primary and chronic phases of the infection using an experimental infection approach. We found a significant positive correlation between parasitaemia in the primary peak and the subsequent chronic phase of infection when we experimentally infected great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) with Plasmodium ashfordi. The reason for this association remains to be understood, but might arise from individual variation in exoerythrocytic parasite reservoirs in hosts, parasite antigenic diversity and/or host genetics. Our results suggest that the chronic phase parasitaemia can be used to qualitatively infer the parasitaemia of the preceding and more severe primary phase, which is a very important finding for studies of avian malaria in wild populations.

  6. Emulating natural disturbances for declining late-successional species: A case study of the consequences for Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Newell, Felicity L.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Evans, Andrea; Beachy, Tiffany A.; McDermott, Molly E.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew; Wigley, T. Bently

    2013-01-01

    Forest cover in the eastern United States has increased over the past century and while some late-successional species have benefited from this process as expected, others have experienced population declines. These declines may be in part related to contemporary reductions in small-scale forest interior disturbances such as fire, windthrow, and treefalls. To mitigate the negative impacts of disturbance alteration and suppression on some late-successional species, strategies that emulate natural disturbance regimes are often advocated, but large-scale evaluations of these practices are rare. Here, we assessed the consequences of experimental disturbance (using partial timber harvest) on a severely declining late-successional species, the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), across the core of its breeding range in the Appalachian Mountains. We measured numerical (density), physiological (body condition), and demographic (age structure and reproduction) responses to three levels of disturbance and explored the potential impacts of disturbance on source-sink dynamics. Breeding densities of warblers increased one to four years after all canopy disturbances (vs. controls) and males occupying territories on treatment plots were in better condition than those on control plots. However, these beneficial effects of disturbance did not correspond to improvements in reproduction; nest success was lower on all treatment plots than on control plots in the southern region and marginally lower on light disturbance plots in the northern region. Our data suggest that only habitats in the southern region acted as sources, and interior disturbances in this region have the potential to create ecological traps at a local scale, but sources when viewed at broader scales. Thus, cerulean warblers would likely benefit from management that strikes a landscape-level balance between emulating natural disturbances in order to attract individuals into areas where current structure is

  7. The Effects of Supplementary Food on the Breeding Performance of Eurasian Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Vafidis

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variation can drive population changes requires information linking climate, local conditions, trophic resources, behaviour and demography. Climate change alters the seasonal pattern of emergence and abundance of invertebrate populations, which may have important consequences for the breeding performance and population change of insectivorous birds. In this study, we examine the role of food availability in driving behavioural changes in an insectivorous migratory songbird; the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. We use a feeding experiment to examine the effect of increased food supply on different components of breeding behaviour and first-brood productivity, over three breeding seasons (2012-2014. Reed warblers respond to food-supplementation by advancing their laying date by up to 5.6 days. Incubation periods are shorter in supplemented groups during the warmest mean spring temperatures. Nestling growth rates are increased in nests provisioned by supplemented parents. In addition, nest predation is reduced, possibly because supplemented adults spend more time at the nest and faster nestling growth reduces the period of vulnerability of eggs and nestlings to predators (and brood parasites. The net effect of these changes is to advance the fledging completion date and to increase the overall productivity of the first brood for supplemented birds. European populations of reed warblers are currently increasing; our results suggest that advancing spring phenology, leading to increased food availability early in the breeding season, could account for this change by facilitating higher productivity. Furthermore, the earlier brood completion potentially allows multiple breeding attempts. This study identifies the likely trophic and behavioural mechanisms by which climate-driven changes in invertebrate phenology and abundance may lead to changes in breeding phenology, nest survival and net

  8. Warm springs, early lay dates, and double brooding in a North American migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens. Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.

  9. Autumn phenology and morphometrics in the Garden Warbler Sylvia borin at the Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye B.; Hedenström, Anders; Ottosson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    not significantly vary over the years. Median passage dates were 24 August, 30 August and 2 September for adults, juveniles and birds of unknown age, respectively. Median passage did not change significantly over the years. Among adults, larger individuals passed the observatory earlier than smaller individuals......Trapping and ringing near ecological barriers can provide useful information about the migration strategies of bird species. In this paper we analyzed ringing data of the Garden Warbler, collected within the period of 1950-2008 at the Ottenby Bird Observatory, south-eastern Sweden, and describe...

  10. Long-distance Dispersal Patterns of Male Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea Measured by Stable-hydrogen Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katherine. Girvan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fundamental role played by long-distance dispersal in population dynamics, the mechanisms promoting or inhibiting dispersal by migratory songbirds are poorly understood. We used stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to evaluate several hypotheses related to long-distance dispersal in the Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, a migratory songbird at the center of considerable conservation attention. Feather samples were collected from 103 males throughout the breeding range. We assumed feathers were molted in late summer on the breeding grounds and thus δD values provided an estimate of breeding or hatching location for the previous year. We used a likelihood-based assignment test to estimate the origin of birds the previous year and derived expected δD values for the entire Cerulean Warbler breeding range from precipitation-based maps. Using Bayes' Rule, we also incorporated a prior probability of breeding origin based on estimated rates of site fidelity and survival between breeding seasons. We found that long-distance breeding dispersal by adult male Cerulean Warblers was a fairly common occurrence with 20 of 71 (28.2% individuals originating from a region other than the one they were sampled in. Surprisingly, long-distance natal dispersal was uncommon; only three of 32 (9.4% second-year birds were estimated to have hatched in a region outside their capture region. Young males may be using a form of post-fledging prospecting or conspecific attraction when selecting their first breeding habitats. Populations on the breeding range periphery, such as Ontario and Tennessee, tended to receive fewer long-distance dispersers than did other regions but produced more dispersing individuals than did core regions, suggesting that these areas could act as important sources for other regions. The tendency of a region to produce dispersing individuals was not significantly related to its relative abundance, implying that population abundance is not a

  11. Sex and age differences in site fidelity, food resource tracking, and body condition of wintering Kirtland's Warblers (Setophaga Kirtlandii) in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Patricia K. Lebow; Jennifer D. White; Dave Currie; David N. Ewert

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of nonbreeding migrant birds in relation to variation in food availability has been hypothesized to result from the interaction of dominance hierarchies and variable movement responses, which together may have sex- and age-specific consequences. We predicted that site fidelity, movements, and abundance of Kirtland’s Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii...

  12. Egg discrimination in the Australian reed warbler (Acrocephalus australis) : rejection response toward model and conspecific eggs depending on timing and mode of artificial parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbergen, J; Komdeur, J; Kats, R; Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a coevolutionary arms race between an interspecific brood parasite and its host species, bath are expected to evolve adaptations and counteradaptations. We studied egg discrimination in the Australian warbler (Acrocephalus australis). This species is currently not significantly parasitized by the

  13. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  14. Breeding biology of the Three-striped warbler in Venezuela: A contrast between tropical and temperate parulids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    We document reproductive life history traits of the Three-striped Warbler (Basileuterus tristriatus) from 146 nests in Venezuela and compare our results to data from the literature for other tropical and temperate parulid species. Mean (?? SE) clutch size was 1.96 ?? 0.03 eggs (n = 96) and fresh egg mass was 2.09 ?? 0.02 g. The incubation period was 15.8 ?? 0.2 days (n = 23) and the nestling period was 10.5 ?? 0.3 days (n = 12). Males did not incubate and rarely provided food for females during incubation. Females had 57 ?? 2% (n = 49) nest attentiveness (% of time on the nest incubating), which caused egg temperature to commonly become cold relative to development. Both adults fed nestlings and feeding rates increased with nestling age. The growth rate constant for nestlings based on mass was K 0.490, which is slower than for north temperate warblers. Predation was the primary source of nest failure and only 22% of nests were successful based on a Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.048 ?? 0.006. Our literature review indicates parulids differ strongly in life histories between temperate and tropical/subtropical sites with species in the tropics having, on average, smaller clutches, longer incubation periods, lower nest attentiveness, longer off-bouts, and longer nestling periods. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  15. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-04-21 to 1966-05-28 (NODC Accession 6600712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  16. Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Frank; Kingma, Sjouke A; Hammers, Martijn; Dugdale, Hannah L; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan

    2018-05-11

    1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2.We aim to elucidate the adaptive significance of subordinate between-group dispersal by examining which factors promote such dispersal, whether subordinates gain improved ecological and social conditions by joining a non-natal group, and whether between-group dispersal results in increased lifetime reproductive success and survival. 3.Using a long-term dataset on the cooperatively-breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we investigated 4.how a suite of proximate factors (food availability, group composition, age and sex of focal individuals, population density) promote subordinate between-group dispersal by comparing such dispersers with subordinates that dispersed to a dominant position or became floaters. We then analysed whether subordinates that moved to a dominant or non-natal subordinate position, or became floaters, gained improved conditions relative to the natal territory, and compared fitness components between the three dispersal strategies. 5.We show that individuals that joined another group as non-natal subordinates were mainly female and that, similar to floating, between-group dispersal was associated with social and demographic factors that constrained dispersal to an independent breeding position. Between-group dispersal was not driven by improved ecological or social conditions in the new territory and did not result in higher survival. Instead, between-group dispersing females often became co

  17. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3-7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  18. Effect of Brood Age on Nestling Diet and Prey Composition in a Hedgerow Specialist Bird, the Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of food provided to nestling birds influence their growth and development and offers key insight into the ecological requirements of birds. One bird species whose feeding ecology is poorly understood is the Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria, which utilizes semi-natural shrubby vegetation in agroecosystems. Because Barred Warbler nestlings vary greatly in body mass we hypothesised that diet and prey properties (size, diversity, taxonomic composition, and chitin content and resulting body hardness and digestibility would differ as the nestlings aged. We quantified the diet based on faecal analysis, sampling faecal sacs from the nestlings pooled into three age classes: 2-3 days old, 4-6 d old, and 7-9 d old. Nestlings were provided a wide diversity of food and a strong relationship existed between food characteristics and nestling age. The youngest nestlings (2-3 d old had the lowest values of each dietary characteristic (diversity, number and total biomass of prey, and individual prey weight, that were significantly lower than the oldest nestlings (7-9 d old. Nestlings aged 4-6 d exhibited intermediate dietary characteristics. Differences in dietary composition of the six major food types showed marked differences between the individual broods and age categories. Percentages of the number and biomass of soft-bodied prey were highest in the diet of 2-3 d and 4-6 d old nestlings, and decreased with increasing age, whereas the opposite trend was observed in the percentage of intermediately and heavily chitinised prey. Parent Barred Warblers probably preferentially select soft-bodied prey for the youngest nestlings, and satisfy the greater energy demands of the older ones by providing them with a greater variety of prey containing more chitin, as well as plant food. The provisioning of less-readily digestible prey to older nestlings suggests that as the quality of food decreases the quantity increases, implying that the

  19. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  20. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife

  1. Spatio-temporal variation in territory quality and oxidative status: a natural experiment in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2011-05-01

    1. Fluctuations in the quality of the habitat in which an animal lives can have major consequences for its behaviour and physiological state. In poor-quality habitat with low food availability, metabolically intensive foraging activity is likely to result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, while scarcity of food can lead to a weakening of exogenously derived antioxidant defences. The consequent oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may lead to elevated oxidative stress. 2. Although the link between food availability and oxidative stress has been studied in the laboratory, very little is known about this relationship in the wild. Here, we investigate the association between territory quality (measured through food availability) and oxidative stress in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). 3. Seychelles warblers are insectivorous birds that inhabit a fixed feeding territory year round. Individuals experience profound and rapid local fluctuations in territory quality within these territories, owing to changing patterns of vegetation defoliation resulting from seasonal changes in prevailing wind direction and wind-borne salt spray. 4. As expected, oxidant generation (measured as reactive oxygen metabolites; ROMs) was higher when territory quality was low, but there was no correlation between territory quality and antioxidant capacity (OXY). The negative correlation between territory quality and ROMs was significant between individuals and approached significance within individuals, indicating that the pattern resulted from individual responses to environmental variation. 5. ROMs and OXY levels within individuals were positively correlated, but the relationship between territory quality and ROMs persisted after including OXY as a covariate, implying that oxidative stress occurs in low territory quality conditions. 6. Our results indicate that the oxidative stress balance of an individual is sensitive to relatively short-term changes in territory

  2. Extreme MHC class I diversity in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus); selection patterns and allelic divergence suggest that different genes have different functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; O'Connor, Emily; Sebastian, Alvaro; Migalska, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek; Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech; Ćmiel, Adam; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-05

    Recent work suggests that gene duplications may play an important role in the evolution of immunity genes. Passerine birds, and in particular Sylvioidea warblers, have highly duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which are key in immunity, compared to other vertebrates. However, reasons for this high MHC gene copy number are yet unclear. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) allows MHC genotyping even in individuals with extremely duplicated genes. This HTS data can reveal evidence of selection, which may help to unravel the putative functions of different gene copies, i.e. neofunctionalization. We performed exhaustive genotyping of MHC class I in a Sylvioidea warbler, the sedge warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, using the Illumina MiSeq technique on individuals from a wild study population. The MHC diversity in 863 genotyped individuals by far exceeds that of any other bird species described to date. A single individual could carry up to 65 different alleles, a large proportion of which are expressed (transcribed). The MHC alleles were of three different lengths differing in evidence of selection, diversity and divergence within our study population. Alleles without any deletions and alleles containing a 6 bp deletion showed characteristics of classical MHC genes, with evidence of multiple sites subject to positive selection and high sequence divergence. In contrast, alleles containing a 3 bp deletion had no sites subject to positive selection and had low divergence. Our results suggest that sedge warbler MHC alleles that either have no deletion, or contain a 6 bp deletion, encode classical antigen presenting MHC molecules. In contrast, MHC alleles containing a 3 bp deletion may encode molecules with a different function. This study demonstrates that highly duplicated MHC genes can be characterised with HTS and that selection patterns can be useful for revealing neofunctionalization. Importantly, our results highlight the need to consider the

  3. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Spurgin, Lewis G; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-05-01

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity, and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall, have received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity over a 23-year period in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We found low and stable microsatellite and MHC diversity in the source population and evidence for only a limited loss of either type of diversity in the four new populations. However, we found evidence of significant, but low to moderate, genetic differentiation between populations, with those populations established with fewer founders clustering separately. Stochastic genetic capture (as opposed to subsequent drift) was the main determinant of translocated population diversity. Furthermore, a strong correlation between microsatellite and MHC differentiation suggested that neutral processes outweighed selection in shaping MHC diversity in the new populations. These data provide important insights into how to optimize the use of translocation as a conservation tool. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study. PMID:29522515

  5. On geographic barriers and Pleistocene glaciations: Tracing the diversification of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata) along the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Cuervo, Andrés M; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M. orientalis, M. c. chapmani), and central Peru and Bolivia (M. c. coronata). We found further population structure within M. c. regulus and M. c. coronata, and population structure and complexity of plumage variation within the Ecuador-northern Peru lineage. Time-calibrated trees estimated that most intraspecific variation originated during the Pleistocene; however, this pattern may not be attributed to an increase in diversification rate during that period. We discuss these results in the context of the importance of geographic-ecological barriers in promoting lineage diversification along the Andes and put forward a preliminary taxonomic proposal for major lineages identified in this study.

  6. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.; Marshall, A.P.; Amidon, F.; Williams, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Mariana Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, faces the threats of rapid economic development and the spread of non-native species, particularly a devastating predator, Brown Tree Snake Boiga irregularis. In this paper, we examine the status and trends of the land bird fauna of Saipan Island based on three island-wide surveys conducted in 1982, 1997, and 2007. During this period, the human population on Saipan increased more than four-fold and much of the island has been developed. The surveys employed standard point-transect methods based on Distance Sampling. Remarkably, we found nearly all species of land birds - 11 native species and three introduced species - to be common or abundant. The exception was the Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperouse, a historically rare species that was not observed on the 2007 survey, although it does persist on Saipan and other Mariana islands. A comparison of species densities among the three surveys showed that seven species, mainly fruit and seed-eaters, had increased and three species of insectivorous birds had decreased - Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia, and Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei. Of these three, Nightingale Reed-warbler is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and as an Endangered Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed-warbler densities on Saipan decreased by more than half between 1982 and 2007. Although point transect sampling worked well for this species, density estimates and trends assessment could be improved by reallocating sampling stations among habitats and by more frequent sampling. ?? BirdLife International 2009.

  7. Population and habitat viability assessments for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos: Usefulness to Partners in Flight Conservation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, C.J.; Hatfield, J.S.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos are Neotropical migratory birds that are federally listed as endangered. Recovery plans for both species advise the use of viability modeling as a tool for setting specific recovery and management targets. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment workshops were conducted to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for these species. Results of the workshops were based on modeling demographic and environmental factors, as well as discussions of management issues, management options, and public outreach strategies. The approach is intended to be iterative, and to be tracked by research and monitoring efforts. This paper discusses the consensus-building workshop process and how the approach could be useful to Partners in Flight. Population and Habitat Viability Assessments (PHVA) were used to develop population targets and conservation recommendations for Golden-cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) and Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapillus). This paper explains what PHVAs are, discusses how they are conducted, describes the general results that are produced, and suggests how Partners in Flight (PIF) might use a similar process for bird conservation planning. Detailed results of the assessments are not discussed here; however they can be found elsewhere (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996a, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996b). PHVAs were considered for Golden-cheeked Warblers and Black-capped Vireos because they are controversial, endangered species, and the species? recovery plans list PHVAs as tools to develop recovery recommendations. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) realized that the data needed to perform PHVAs for these species is limited, but that various conservation efforts, such as the Balcones Canyonlands Conservation Plan and other endeavors, were proceeding without benefit of the biological summarization and guidance that a PHVA could provide.

  8. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  9. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  10. Palaeoclimatic events, dispersal and migratory losses along the Afro-European axis as drivers of biogeographic distribution in Sylvia warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Gary; Light, Jessica E

    2011-06-14

    The Old World warbler genus Sylvia has been used extensively as a model system in a variety of ecological, genetic, and morphological studies. The genus is comprised of about 25 species, and 70% of these species have distributions at or near the Mediterranean Sea. This distribution pattern suggests a possible role for the Messinian Salinity Crisis (from 5.96-5.33 Ma) as a driving force in lineage diversification. Other species distributions suggest that Late Miocene to Pliocene Afro-tropical forest dynamics have also been important in the evolution of Sylvia lineages. Using a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis and other methods, we seek to develop a biogeographic hypothesis for Sylvia and to explicitly assess the roles of these climate-driven events. We present the first strongly supported molecular phylogeny for Sylvia. With one exception, species fall into one of three strongly supported clades: one small clade of species distributed mainly in Africa and Europe, one large clade of species distributed mainly in Africa and Asia, and another large clade with primarily a circum-Mediterranean distribution. Asia is reconstructed as the ancestral area for Sylvia. Long-distance migration is reconstructed as the ancestral character state for the genus, and sedentary behavior subsequently evolved seven times. Molecular clock calibration suggests that Sylvia arose in the early Miocene and diverged into three main clades by 12.6 Ma. Divergence estimates indicate that the Messinian Salinity Crisis had a minor impact on Sylvia. Instead, over-water dispersals, repeated loss of long-distance migration, and palaeo-climatic events in Africa played primary roles in Sylvia divergence and distribution.

  11. Assessing the cost of helping: the roles of body condition and oxidative balance in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janske van de Crommenacker

    Full Text Available In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis. In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals

  12. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1964-02-24 to 1964-03-11 (NODC Accession 6400683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  13. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS WARBLER in the Eastern China Sea and other locations in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-09-19 to 1966-09-27 (NODC Accession 6600396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS WARBLER in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the Eastern China Sea...

  14. How a simple and stereotyped acoustic signal transmits individual information: the song of the White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, a common bird of the BrazilianAtlantic forest, emits only one distinct song type in the context of territorial defense. Individual or neighbor-stranger recognition may be more difficult when birds share similar songs. In fact, the analysis of songs of different individuals reveals slight differences in the temporal and the frequency domains. Effectively, a careful examination of the signals of different individuals (21 by 5 complementary methods of analysis reveals first, that one or two gaps in frequency occur between two successive notes at different moments of the song, and second, that their temporal and frequency positions are stereotyped for each individual. Playback experiments confirm these findings. By propagation experiments, we show that this individual information can be only transmitted at short range (O Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, um pássaro comum da Mata Atlântica, emite um único e distintivo tipo de canto para defesa territorial. O reconhecimento individual ou entre vizinho e estranho pode ser mais difícil quando as aves compartilham cantos semelhantes. De fato, a análise dos cantos de diferentes indivíduos revelou ligeiras diferenças nos domínios temporal e das freqüências. Efetivamente, um exame cuidadoso dos sinais de 21 indivíduos diferentes por 5 métodos complementares de análise revelou que, primeiro, um ou dois espaços na série tonal ocorrem entre duas notas sucessivas em determinados momentos do canto e, segundo, ocupam posições em tempo e freqüência estereotipadas para cada indivíduo. Experiências de "play-back" confirmam esses dados. Através de experiências de propagação, mostramos que esta informação individual pode ser transmitida somente a curta distância ( < 100 m na mata. Considerando o tamanho e a repartição dos territórios, este processo de comunicação mostra-se eficiente e bem adaptado.

  15. Spatially explicit models of full-season productivity and implications for landscape management of Golden-winged Warblers in the western Great Lakes Region: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between landscape structure and composition and full-season productivity (FSP) is poorly understood for most birds. For species of high conservation concern, insight into how productivity is related to landscape structure and composition can be used to develop more effective conservation strategies that increase recruitment. We monitored nest productivity and fledgling survival of Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera), a species of high conservation concern, in managed forest landscapes at two sites in northern Minnesota, and one site in southeastern Manitoba, Canada from 2010 to 2012. We used logistic exposure models to identify the influence of landscape structure and composition on nest productivity and fledgling survival. We used the models to predict spatially explicit, FSP across our study sites to identify areas of low relative productivity that could be targeted for management. We then used our models of spatially explicit, FSP to simulate the impact of potential management actions on our study sites with the goal of increasing total population productivity. Unlike previous studies that suggested wetland cover types provide higher quality breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers, our models predicted 14% greater productivity in upland cover types. Simulated succession of a 9-ha grassland patch to a shrubby upland suitable for nesting increased the total number of fledglings produced by that patch and adjacent upland shrublands by 30%, despite decreasing individual productivity by 13%. Further simulated succession of the same patch described above into deciduous forest reduced the total number of fledglings produced to independence on a landscape by 18% because of a decrease in the area available for nesting. Simulated reduction in the cumulative length of shrubby edge within a 50-m radius of any location in our landscapes from 0.6 to 0.3 km increased FSP by 5%. Our models demonstrated that the effects of any single management

  16. A Study of Black and White Men With a Family History of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    l4lbTyp)___ (QO l4lbAge)___ TIPO DE CANCER: 1 COLON 3 SENO 4 CERVIZ 5 PULMONES 6 OVARIOS 7 ENDOMIETPJO V OTRO W DK X RF Q014_lc Su hermana es... 1 su...diagnosticada? (QOl4 -2aAge) - (QOl4-2bAge)____ TIPO DE CANCER: 1 COLON 3 SENO 4 CERVJZ 5 PULMONES 6 OVARIOS 7 ENDOMIETRIO V OTRO W DK X RF QO142c Su...6_aTyp)___ (QO l6laAge)____ (QOl6_lbTyp)___ (QO l6lbAge)___ TWPO DE CANCER: 1 COLON 3 SENO 4 CERVIZ 5 PULMONES 6 OVARIOS 7 ENDOM[ETPJO V OTRO W DK X RF

  17. An Appalachian portrait : black and white in Montgomery County, Virginia, before the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Montgomery County, Virginia, is a southern Appalachian county founded in 1776. Throughout the county's antebellum history, as with most other regions of the South, four major population groups were visibly present. There were slaves, free blacks, white slaveowners, and white non-slaveowners. Little research has previously been conducted on the antebellum people of the Appalachian South. This work is a social history consisting of cross tabulations of data found in the county...

  18. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Cranial Capacity in Black and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Osborne, R. Travis

    1995-01-01

    Data from 236 pairs of black twins and white twins aged 13-17 years were used to examine genetic and environmental factors influencing cranial size, an indirect estimate of brain volume. Genetic factors are required to account for the phenotypic variance in cranial capacity. (SLD)

  20. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Dahl, Ronald E; Owens, Jane F; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica

    2012-10-01

    Poor sleep may play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes risk. Yet few studies of sleep and insulin resistance have focused on the important developmental period of adolescence. To address this gap, we examined the association of sleep and insulin resistance in healthy adolescents. Cross-sectional. Community setting in one high school. 245 (137 African Americans, 116 males) high school students. Participants provided a fasting blood draw and kept a sleep log and wore a wrist actigraph for one week during the school year. Participants' families were from low to middle class based on family Hollingshead scores. Total sleep time across the week averaged 7.4 h by diary and 6.4 h by actigraph; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ([HOMA-IR] unadjusted) averaged 4.13. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference showed that the shorter the sleep, the higher the HOMA-IR, primarily due to sleep duration during the week. No evidence was found for long sleep being associated with elevated HOMA-IR. Fragmented sleep was not associated with HOMA-IR but was associated with glucose levels. Reduced sleep duration is associated with HOMA-IR in adolescence. Long sleep duration is not associated. Interventions to extend sleep duration may reduce diabetes risk in youth.

  1. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  2. Young, Depressed, and Black: A Comparative Exploration of Depressive Symptomatology among Black and White Collegiate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Robinson, Ruthie

    2018-01-01

    This comparative study explored the rates of depression and psychosocial correlates for 369 collegiate White and Black females. Women between the ages of 18 and 25 were recruited to participate in this anonymous online survey. Black females reported significantly greater amounts of depressive symptomatology (M = 24.61) in comparison to the White…

  3. Black and White Parents' Willingness to Seek Help for Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Idia B; Hardin, Robin; Decker, Kristina; Arnold, Trisha; Howell, Kathryn H; Phares, Vicky

    2018-01-01

    Understanding social and environmental factors that contribute to parental help-seeking intentions is an important step in addressing service underutilization for children in need of treatment. This study examined factors that contribute to parents' intentions to seek formal and informal help for child psychopathology (anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]). A total of 251 parents (N = 128 mothers, N = 123 fathers; 49% Black, 51% White) read 3 vignettes describing children with anxiety, ADHD, and no diagnosis. Measures of problem recognition, perceived barriers, and formal (pediatricians, psychologists, teachers) and informal (religious leaders, family/friends, self-help) help seeking were completed. Four separate hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine parental help-seeking likelihood from formal and informal sources for internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Predictors were socioeconomic status, parent race, age, and sex, parent problem recognition (via study vignettes), and perceived barriers to mental health service utilization. Mothers were more likely than fathers to seek help from pediatricians, psychologists, teachers, and religious leaders for child anxiety and pediatricians, religious leaders, and self-help resources for child ADHD. Black parents were more likely to seek help from religious leaders and White parents were more likely to use self-help resources. Problem recognition was associated with greater intentions to seek help from almost all formal and informal sources (except from friends/family). Understanding factors that contribute to parental help seeking for child psychopathology is critical for increasing service utilization and reducing the negative effects of mental health problems. This study highlights the importance of decreasing help-seeking barriers and increasing problem recognition to improve health equity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Not just black and white: peer victimization and the intersectionality of school diversity and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sycarah; Middleton, Kyndra; Ricks, Elizabeth; Malone, Celeste; Briggs, Candyce; Barnes, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Although bullying is a prevalent issue in the United States, limited research has explored the impact of school diversity on types of bullying behavior. This study explores the relationship between school diversity, student race, and bullying within the school context. The participants were African American and Caucasian middle school students (n = 4,581; 53.4% female). Among the participants, 89.4% were Caucasian and 10.6% were African American. The research questions examined the relationship between school diversity, student race and bullying behaviors, specifically race-based victimization. The findings suggested that Caucasian middle school students experience more bullying than African American students generally, and specifically when minorities in school settings. Caucasian students also experienced almost three times the amount of race-based victimization than African American students when school diversity was held constant. Interestingly, African American students experienced twice the amount of race-based victimization than Caucasian students when in settings with more students of color. The present study provides insight into bullying behaviors across different contexts for different races and highlights the need to further investigate interactions between personal and environmental factors on the bulling experiences of youth.

  5. Differences in preferences for models of consent for biobanks between Black and White women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katherine M.; Drake, Bettina F.; Gehlert, Sarah; Wolf, Leslie E.; DuBois, James; Seo, Joann; Woodward, Krista; Perkins, Hannah; Goodman, Melody S.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are essential resources, and participation by individuals from diverse groups is needed. Various models of consent have been proposed for secondary research use of biospecimens, differing in level of donor control and information received. Data are needed regarding participant preferences for models of consent, particularly among minorities. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 60 women to examine their attitudes about different models of consent. Recruitment was ...

  6. Survey of aflatoxins in retail samples of whole and ground black and white peppercorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzahan, N; Jalili, M; Jinap, S

    2009-01-01

    A total of 126 local and imported samples of commercial white and black pepper in Malaysia were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). An acetonitrile-methanol-water (17 : 29 : 54; v/v) mixture was used as a mobile phase and clean-up was using an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Seventy out of 126 (55.5%) samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins, although only low levels of aflatoxins were found ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 ng g(-1). Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence of contamination and was found in all contaminated samples. There was a significant difference between type of samples and different brands (p < 0.05). The results showed black peppers were more contaminated than white peppers.

  7. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, HIV/ AIDS perceived severity, HIV/AIDS prevention barriers and HIV risk behaviour. Further, bivariate analysis gave negative significant relations among age at onset of puberty, age at first vaginal intercourse, correct condom use knowledge, subjective norms, intention to use condoms and HIV risk behaviour. Regression analysis indicated that for subjective norm to use condoms, less intention for condom use, less condom use knowledge and younger age of first vaginal intercourse were predictive for HIV/AIDS risk behaviour. HIV prevention intervention programmes should include the identified factors and cultural diversity.

  8. Analytical studies into radiation-induced starch damage in black and white peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Sharif, M.M.; Barabassy, S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop detection methods of radiation treatment, ground black pepper samples equilibrated to water activity levels of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 a w , respectively, were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 0, 4, 8, 16 or 32 kGy, and their damaged starch content, reduced sugar content and alcohol induced turbidity of their aqueous extracts were investigated. The colorimetric method and the alcohol-induced turbidity showed statistically significant increase of starch damage at 4 kGy or higher dose levels. However, all investigated analytical indices of starch radio-depolymerization were changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the gelatinized suspensions of spices reported previously. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. Personality and well-being in Black and White South African emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, Jan Alewyn; Adams, B.G.; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Laher, Sumaya; Louw, Johann; Makhale, Lerato M.; Naude, Luzelle; Tadi, Florance

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the last ten years, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) has been developed as an indigenous measurement of personality for the multi-cultural environment of South Africa. The aim of the SAPI is to assess personality in an unbiased and equivalent way. For the purpose of this

  10. Accuracy of Black and White College Students' In-Group and Out-Group Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Carey S.

    1996-01-01

    Examined accuracy of black and of white students' in-group and out-group stereotypes by comparing judgments of stereotypicality and dispersion of black and of white first-year college students (N=100) with stereotypicality and dispersion of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Consistent with social identity theory,…

  11. Body Dissatisfaction and Characteristics of Disordered Eating among Black and White Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…

  12. Computer Ethics: A Slow Fade from Black and White to Shades of Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Theresa A.; Carlisle, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The expanded use of teaching case based analysis based on current events and news stories relating to computer ethics improves student engagement, encourages creativity and fosters an active learning environment. Professional ethics standards, accreditation standards for computer curriculum, ethics theories, resources for ethics on the internet,…

  13. Analytical studies into radiation-induced starch damage in black and white peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.M.; Farkas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the apparent viscosity of heat-generalized suspensions of untreated and irradiated pepper samples has been investigated. There was a close linear correlation between the logarithm of ''fluidity'' (reciprocal of the apparent viscosity) and the reciprocal absolute temperature of the measurement. The slope of the regression line (the temperature dependence of fluidity) increased with the radiation dose. Gelatinization thermograms of aqueous suspensions of ground pepper samples were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature characteristics of heat-gelatinization endotherms showed no significant differences between untreated and irradiated samples. A calorimetric method for damaged starch, the estimation of reducing power, and the alcohol-induced turbidity of aqueous extracts showed statistically significant increases of starch damage at doses higher than 4 kGy. These indices of starch-depolymerization have been changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the heat-gelatinized suspensions. (author)

  14. Organisational justice rules as determinants of black and white employees' fairness perceptions of personnel selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Jong

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the South African population may lead to opinions that test fairness is not a pure empirical problem, but requires certain subjective value judgements. The aim of this study was to identify applicants' underlying reasons for evaluating a selection technique as being fair/unfair. These fairness perceptions were analysed by means of the organisational justice theory. The total sample consisted of 328 mature university students (M = 30,6 all of whom had work experience. The analyses comprised two sets of comparisons. The first set involved Black (uninformed and White (uninformed groups. The second comparison involved informed versus uninformed black students. Exposure to the subjects Strategic Personnel Management and/or undergraduate Industrial Psycohology, in which the nature and value of various selection techniques are studied, constituted the variable'being informed'. It was hypothesised that the Black (uninformed and the White (uninformed groups would perceive the value of the 11 justice rules for the total fairness perception across the ten selection techniques differently. Substantial support was found for this hypothesis. The same hypothesis was investigated for the Black (informed and the Black (uninformed groups, but no significant differences were found to support the latter hypothesis. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of South African selection practices. Opsomming Die diversiteit van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking mag daartoe lei dat persepsies van die billikheid van verskillende personeelkeuringtegnieke op n verskeidenheid van subjektiewe waarde-oordele gegrond word. Dit is die doel van hierdie ondersoek om die onderliggende redes waarvolgens kandidate keuringtegnieke as billik/onbillik evalueer, te identifiseer. Die kandidate se billikheidpersepsies van tien keuringtegnieke is aan die hand van die organisatoriese billikheidteorie ontleed. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 328 volwasse universiteitstudente (M = 30,6 jaar wat almal oor werkervaring beskik het. Die ontledings het twee stelle vergelykings behels. Die eerste stel het Swart (oningeligte en Wit (oningeligte groepe vergelyken die tweede het oningeligte versus ingeligte swart studente vergelyk. Blootstelling aan die vakke Strategiese Personeelbestuur en/of voorgraadse Bedryfsielkunde, waarin die aard en nut van verskeie keuringtegnieke behandel word, het die veranderlike 'ingeligtheid' gespesifiseer. Die hipotese is gestel dat die Swart (oningeligte en Wit (oningeligte groepe die waarde wat hulle aan die 11 billikheidreels ten opsigte van die billikheid van die keuringtegnieke heg, verskillend sal evalueer. Die resultate het hierdie hipotese gesteun. Dieselfde hipotese is ondersoek vir die Swart (ingeligte en Swart (oningeligte groepe, maar geen beduidende verskille is gevind om die laasgenoemde hipotese te ondersteun nie. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek in terme van keuringpraktyke in Suid-Afrika.

  15. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    K. Peltzer

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, ...

  16. Heroin in brown, black and white: structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility "black tar" heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced HIV prevalence. BTH is associated with soft tissue infections caused by Clostridium bacteria. Source and type of heroin are structural factors in the risk environment of heroin users: source dictates distribution and type predicts practice. How specific types of heroin are used and with what risk is therefore distributed geographically. Continued flux in the heroin market and its effects on the risk environment for drug users deserves further attention.

  17. Pathways Linking Childhood SES and Adult Health Behaviors and Psychological Resources in Black and White Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Cundiff, Jenny M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Pardini, Dustin A; Matthews, Karen A

    2018-03-13

    Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32. SES was measured annually in childhood (ages 7-9) and again in adulthood (age 32) using the Hollingshead index. Parenting was assessed annually (ages 13-16) using caregivers' and boys' self-report of supervision, communication, and expectations for their son's future. Health behaviors (cigarette and alcohol use, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity) and psychological resources (optimism, purpose in life, self-mastery, and self-esteem) were assessed in adulthood (age 32). Structural equation modeling showed that higher childhood SES was associated with more positive parenting in adolescence and higher adult SES. Higher childhood SES was indirectly associated with healthier behaviors and higher psychological resources in adulthood through pathways involving positive parenting during adolescence and SES in adulthood. Findings were consistent in both racial groups. Positive parenting in adolescence was an important pathway in understanding associations among childhood SES and health behaviors and psychological resources in adulthood. Low childhood SES was prospectively associated with healthier behaviors and greater psychological resources in part through more positive parenting in adolescence.

  18. Black-and-White Thinkers and Colorful Problems: Intellectual Differentiation in Experiential Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rachel; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2011-01-01

    To be effective, experiential educators need to understand the developmental characteristics of their students so that they can tailor their programs to their capabilities. Often, their primary population consists of teens or college students. Recognizing that learning is a primary objective of experiential education programs, experiential…

  19. Attention and Achievement Exhibited by Middle- and Lower Class Black and White Elementary School Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Vernon C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Although there were social class and race differences in achievement and intelligence test scores, no relationship was found between attending and these variables. There was a significant correlation between the intelligence and achievement test scores, but no evidence that the relationship was different for the different groups. (Author/MV)

  20. Possibility of death sentence has divergent effect on verdicts for Black and White defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Jack; Martin, Karin D; Kahn, Kimberly B

    2015-12-01

    When anticipating the imposition of the death penalty, jurors may be less inclined to convict defendants. On the other hand, minority defendants have been shown to be treated more punitively, particularly in capital cases. Given that the influence of anticipated sentence severity on verdicts may vary as a function of defendant race, the goal of this study was to test the independent and interactive effects of these factors. We conducted a survey-embedded experiment with a nationally representative sample to examine the effect on verdicts of sentence severity as a function of defendant race, presenting respondents with a triple murder trial summary that manipulated the maximum penalty (death vs. life without parole) and the race of the defendant. Respondents who were told life-without-parole was the maximum sentence were not significantly more likely to convict Black (67.7%) than White (66.7%) defendants. However, when death was the maximum sentence, respondents presented with Black defendants were significantly more likely to convict (80.0%) than were those with White defendants (55.1%). The results indicate that the death penalty may be a cause of racial disparities in criminal justice, and implicate threats to civil rights and to effective criminal justice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Black and white body mass index values in developing nineteenth century Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about late 19th and early 20th century BMIs on the US Central Plains. Using data from the Nebraska state prison, this study demonstrates that the BMIs of dark complexioned blacks were greater than for fairer complexioned mulattos and whites. Although modern BMIs have increased, late 19th and early 20th century BMIs in Nebraska were in normal ranges; neither underweight nor obese individuals were common. Farmer BMIs were consistently greater than those of non-farmers, and farm labourer BMIs were greater than those of common labourers. The BMIs of individuals born in Plains states were greater than for other nativities, indicating that rural lifestyles were associated with better net current biological living conditions.

  2. Supervision Provided to Indigenous Australian Doctoral Students: A Black and White Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The number of Indigenous Australians completing doctoral qualifications is disparately below their non-Indigenous contemporaries. Whilst there has been a steady increase in Indigenous completions in recent years, significant work remains to redress the imbalance. Supervision has been identified as a primary influencer of the likely success of…

  3. The black-and-white world: Towards the history of dual typologies of nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts at formulating a dichotomous classification of nations and nationalisms have proliferated in the relevant literature over a long period of time. In this study some of the most influential instances of dual typologies of nationalisms are selected for interpretation and analysis. The examples include Renan's under­standing of differences between the "French" and the "German" concepts of nation; Kohn's distinction between "eastern" and "western" nationalisms; a revision of Kohn's dichotomy suggested by J. Plamenatz; and a more recent version of dual typology propounded by L. Greenfield. By reconstructing the views of the selected theorists of nationalism, at the basis of all these typologies a dichotomous division into "civic" and "ethnic" nationalism is identified. Critical objections to this fundamental dual division are articulated at two levels. At the first, historical level, a socio-political contextualization of dual typologies points to their practical, political-ideological purposes. At the second, conceptual level, and drawing on the ideas of R. Brubaker, the author discusses analytical and normative weaknesses of the usual distinction between "civic" and "ethnic" nationalism.

  4. Black and white Australia, 1770-1970. A History of Dispossession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appetiti, Emanuela

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the contact/impact between Aborigines and Europeans, generated by the coming of the British First Fleet to Australia in 1770, and the further European Settlement. It will outline the changing attitudes of White Australians towards Aboriginal Australians, passing from the initial violence of the colonisation, to the paternalism and protective feeling which characterized the first years of this century. It will then define the policy of forcible assimilation and that of integration, which shaped the years between the 1940's and the end of the 1970's.

    El propósito de este artículo es estudiar el contacto/impacto que tuvo lugar en Australia entre aborígenes y europeos, generado por la llegada de la Primera Flota Británica en 1770 y la posterior colonización europea de esas tierras. El trabajo se centra en las actitudes cambiantes de los Australianos blancos con respecto a los aborígenes, que pasaron desde la violencia inicial al principio de la colonización, al paternalismo y sentimientos protectores que caracterizaron los primeros años del siglo XX. Finalmente se analiza la política de asimilación e integración forzosa asumida en el período que se extiende entre las décadas del 40 y el 70 de este siglo.

  5. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, Eric J.; Faber, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of scientific studies in recent years have investigated disparate exposure to ecological hazards in American society. Working from an environmental justice perspective, this body of research consistently reveals that poor communities of color are most likely to bear a disproportionate burden of negative externalities. These studies utilize a wide range of research methodologies, including various indicators of ecological hazards (e.g., proximity to waste sites, industrial emissions, ambient air quality), but few, if any, utilize composite measures to approximate cumulative environmental impact. Consequently, the environmental justice (EJ) literature is characterized by a failure to effectively measure overall impact from an extensive range of ecological hazards. Limitations on available data make this a serious problem for present and future studies. We argue that cumulative measures of environmental impact can play an important role in furthering our understanding of environmental injustices in the United States. In this study of Massachusetts, we develop and implement such a cumulative measure of negative environmental impacts. By controlling for the density and severity of ecological hazardous sites and facilities within every community in the state, we demonstrate that exposure patterns take a generally linear distribution when analyzed by race and class. So, while our results reaffirm previous findings that low-income communities and communities of color bear significantly greater ecological burdens than predominantly White and more affluent communities, our findings also suggest that environmental injustices exist on a remarkably consistent continuum for nearly all communities. In other words, as the minority population and lower-income composition of a community increases, correspondingly, so does cumulative exposure to environmental hazards. In this respect, communities which are more racially mixed and of moderate income status that are not typically identified as meeting EJ criteria (in demographic terms) also face more significant ecological hazards. Thus, the strict bifurcation of communities into categories of Environmental Justice and Non-Environmental Justice is problematic, and poses a serious dilemma for policy makers, public health officials, and community activists. To overcome this challenge requires the adoption of a cumulative environmental justice impact assessment (CEJIA), which in addition to the demographic characteristics of a community, also takes into account the total environmental burden and related health impacts upon residents. Furthermore, through the adoption of the precautionary principle, source reduction, and alternative forms of ''cleaner'' production, environmental justice advocates must work for policies which reduce the environmental threat for the full range of communities, as well as their own

  6. "Expressive Cool" and the Paradox of Black and White Males' Neighborhood Socialization toward Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores how linkages between adolescents' educational attitudes and achievement vary according to race, expressive culture, and neighborhood collective socialization qualities. Specifically, the study examines (a) racial differences in how males' educational attitudes relate to their academic performance (i.e.,…

  7. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.

  8. Black and white Australia, 1770-1970. A History of Dispossession

    OpenAIRE

    Appetiti, Emanuela

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the contact/impact between Aborigines and Europeans, generated by the coming of the British First Fleet to Australia in 1770, and the further European Settlement. It will outline the changing attitudes of White Australians towards Aboriginal Australians, passing from the initial violence of the colonisation, to the paternalism and protective feeling which characterized the first years of this century. It will then define the policy of forc...

  9. Statistical characteristics of breakthrough discoveries in science using the metaphor of black and white swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.

    2017-12-01

    A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.

  10. Approaches to capturing the Black and White Tegu Salvator merianae (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Vieira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of traps is extremely important in several types of ecological studies, and may assist in the capture of individuals in areas that are difficult to access. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of wooden (Schramm versus "Tomahawk" traps to capture Salvator merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839 lizards. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Field data were collected from August 2013 to March 2015, during the reproductive period of the species. The study involved two types of baited traps: i "Tomahawk", made of galvanized steel; and ii Schramm, a wooden trap. The capture rate of the Schramm wooden traps was 1.63 individuals/day, and of the "Tomahawk" was 0.36 individuals/day. These results are important for researchers working with large lizards and may help to increase sampling efficiency for these organisms.

  11. Approaches to capturing the Black and White Tegu Salvator merianae (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Renata C.; Oliveira,Arthur S. de; Fagundes,Nelson J.R.; Verrastro,Laura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of traps is extremely important in several types of ecological studies, and may assist in the capture of individuals in areas that are difficult to access. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of wooden (Schramm) versus "Tomahawk" traps to capture Salvator merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) lizards. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Field data were collected from August 2013 to March 2015, during the reproductive period of th...

  12. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  13. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Mary

    1997-01-01

    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  14. "The black and white of it": Barbara Grier editing and publishing women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enszer, Julie R

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, lesbian-feminist writing and publishing expressed new theoretical insights about race and envisioned new, intersectional identities. Using texts published and edited by Grier in The Ladder and subsequent Ladder anthologies published by Diana Press, archival documents from Diana Press, and the Grier-Naiad Press papers, this article explores Grier's editorial practices and compares Grier's work to other lesbian-feminist editors and publishers to illuminate different generational understandings of racial-ethnic and class formations within lesbianism and feminism and highlight some of the strategies that White publishers like Grier utilized to realize a vision of multicultural publishing.

  15. The Perennial Debate: Nature, Nurture, or Choice? Black and White Americans' Explanations for Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Gelman, Susan A.; Feldbaum, Merle; Sheldon, Jane P.; Petty, Elizabeth M.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three common explanations for human characteristics: genes, the environment, and choice. Based on data from a representative sample of White and Black Americans, respondents indicated how much they believed each factor influenced individual differences in athleticism, nurturance, drive, math ability, violence, intelligence, and sexual orientation. Results show that across traits: 1) Black respondents generally favor choice and reject genetic explanations, whereas White respondents indicate less causal consistency; 2) although a sizeable subset of respondents endorse just one factor, most report multiple factors as at least partly influential; and 3) among White respondents greater endorsement of genetic explanations is associated with less acceptance of choice and the environment, although among Black respondents a negative relationship holds only between genes and choice. The social relevance of these findings is discussed within the context of the attribution, essentialism and lay theory literature. The results underscore the need to consider more complex and nuanced issues than are implied by the simplistic, unidimensional character of the nature/nurture and determinism/free will debates — perennial controversies that have significance in the current genomic era. PMID:20072661

  16. Beyond Black and White: How White, Male, College Students See Their Asian American Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2014-01-01

    This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…

  17. Associations of Short Sleep and Shift Work Status with Hypertension among Black and White Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirnova E. Ceïde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short sleepers (<6 hrs who worked the non-day-shift were at greater likelihood of reporting hypertension and if these associations varied by individuals’ ethnicity. Methods. Analysis was based on the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS. A total of 59,199 American adults provided valid data for the present analyses (mean age = 46.2±17.7 years; 51.5% were female. Respondents provided work schedule and estimated habitual sleep durations as well as self-report of chronic conditions. Results. Of the sample, 30.8% reported a diagnosis of hypertension, 79.1% reported daytime shift work, 11.0% reported rotating shift work, and 4.0% reported night shift work. Logistic regression analysis showed that shift work was significantly associated with hypertension among Blacks [OR = 1.35, CI: 1.06–1.72. P<0.05], but not among Whites [OR = 1.01, CI: 0.85–1.20, NS]. Black shift workers sleeping less than 6 hours had significantly increased odds of reporting hypertension [OR = 1.81, CI: 1.29–2.54, P<0.01], while their White counterparts did not [OR = 1.17, CI: 0.90–1.52, NS]. Conclusions. Findings suggest that Black Americans working the non-day-shift especially with short sleep duration have increased odds of reporting hypertension.

  18. Job Attitudes of Black and White Workers: Male Blue-Collar Workers in Six Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzell, Raymond A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A 74-item attitude questionnaire was administered in six companies to 101 black and 87 white male blue-collar employees holding similar jobs in the same company. Differences between the two ethnic groups were not marked, both in terms of job satisfaction and in other respects. (Author)

  19. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  20. 13th : THE BLACK AND WHITE OF THE AMERICAN PRISON SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Shamasha, Marim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine what facts the documentary 13th presents and how they are portrayed filmically. By conducting, both, a discourse analysis and a neoformalist film analysis those two factors can be fully examined. And by later adding the three theoretical perspectives of discourse analysis, hegemony, and neoformalist film theory, the results of the analyses can be discussed in a way that covers both the narrative part of the film and the aesthetic and stylistic ones.The...

  1. Work Status, Work Satisfaction, and Blood Pressure Among Married Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, Louise S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study examined blood pressure levels of married women in relation to such work-related variables as work load, satisfaction with work, reported strain, and evaluated performance. Differences in work load were unrelated to blood pressure levels. However, currently unemployed working women had lower levels. (Author)

  2. Do health care needs of indigent Mexican-American, black, and white adolescents differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, S B; Fujii, C; Shragg, G P; Rice, L; Morgan, M; Felice, M E

    1990-03-01

    Few studies have addressed the specific health care needs of Mexican-American adolescents. This 2-year study assessed the routine health care needs and incidence of chronic illness among 279 Mexican-American, 233 white, and 333 black indigent adolescents enrolled in a vocational training program. Mexican-Americans were more likely to have a positive purified protein derivative tuberculin test and acne/eczema requiring treatment. Blacks were more likely to have incomplete immunizations and thyroid disorders, while whites were more likely to have musculoskeletal conditions and require family planning services and psychiatric intervention for mental health disorders. Although no difference in incidence of chronic illness was noted, our data suggests that routine health care needs may differ among indigent Mexican-American, white, and black adolescents.

  3. CONCEPT AND MODELS FOR EVALUATION OF BLACK AND WHITE SMOKE COMPONENTS IN DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BLYANKINSHTEIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for measuring exhaust smoke opacity has been developed, which allows estimating the differentiated components forming black exhaust and those forming white smoke. The method is based on video recording and special software for processing the video recording data. The flow of the diesel exhaust gas is visualised using the digital camera, against the background of the screen, on a cut of an exhaust pipe, and with sufficient illumination of the area. The screen represents standards of whiteness and blackness. The content of the black components (soot is determined by the degree of blackening of the white standard in the frames of the video, and the content of whitish components (unburned fuel and oil, etc. is determined by the degree of whitening of black standard on the frames of the video. The paper describes the principle and the results of testing the proposed method of measuring exhaust smoke opacity. We present an algorithm for the frame-by-frame analysis of the video sequence, and static and dynamic mathematical models of exhaust opacity, measured under free-acceleration of a diesel engine.

  4. Heroin in brown, black and white: Structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Methods Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Results Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility “black tar” heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced HIV prevalence. BTH is associated with soft tissue infections caused by Clostridium bacteria. Conclusion Source and type of heroin are structural factors in the risk environment of heroin users: source dictates distribution and type predicts practice. How specific types of heroin are used and with what risk is therefore distributed geographically. Continued flux in the heroin market and its effects on the risk environment for drug users deserves further attention. PMID:18945606

  5. Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Locus of Control in Black and White Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Harold J.; Bridgeman, Brent

    1976-01-01

    This investigation examines the relationship between fifth graders' scores on Coopersmith's Self Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by race and sex. (GO)

  6. A Study of Black and White Men with a Family History of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bastani, Roshan

    1999-01-01

    ... (52 African Americans, 39 Caucasian, 29 Hispanic, 20 Filipino). In addition, we have pilot tested our recruitment procedures, contact materials and the telephone survey with 80 prostate cancer cases (20 per ethnic group...

  7. Tough or Tender: (Dis)Similarities in White College Students' Perceptions of Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Roxanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Although intersectional theory and empirical evidence suggest that race impacts how women are perceived, there is a dearth of research on how the dominant culture stereotypes Black women compared to White women. The current study addresses this gap using an intersectional framework to investigate White college students' stereotypes of Black and…

  8. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  9. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Jessy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  10. Shades of Grey: Iapetus' Secrets Aren't Just Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, K. S.; Barker, E. S.; Vilas, F.; Owen, T.

    2003-01-01

    Until the Cassini mission flies to the Saturnian satellite Iapetus, we are limited to ground-based data and Voyager I and II flyby data to puzzle together the secrets of this moon that displays extreme albedo contrasts. Iapetus' leading side is carbon black with an albedo of 0.081; its trailing side is brilliant ice with an albedo of 0.41. Very few moderate-resolution visible/near IR spectra of Iapetus exist. New spectra of both the leading and trailing sides covering a wavelength range of 0.575 - 1.03 micron were taken in 2000. The new leading side spectra fail to match spectra of either Vilas et al. or Bell et al. in both inflections and slope (where slope is defined here as change in reflectance with changing wavelength). The new spectra do, however, appear to match Buratti et al.'s spectrum of the leading side.

  11. SYMPATHETIC NEURAL AND HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES DURING COLD PRESSOR TEST IN ELDERLY BLACKS AND WHITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S.; Best, Stuart A.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.; Hendrix, Joseph M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The sympathetic response during the cold pressor test (CPT) has been reported to be greater in young blacks than whites, especially in those with a family history of hypertension. Since blood pressure (BP) increases with age, we evaluated whether elderly blacks have greater sympathetic activation during CPT than age-matched whites. BP, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Qc), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured during supine baseline, 2-min CPT, and 3-min recovery in 47 elderly [68±7 (SD) yrs] volunteers (12 blacks, 35 whites). Baseline BP, HR, Qc, or MSNA did not differ between races. Systolic and diastolic BP (DBP) and HR increased during CPT (all P0.05). Qc increased during CPT and up to 30 sec of recovery in both groups, but was lower in blacks than whites. MSNA increased during CPT in both groups (both P<0.001); the increase in burst frequency was similar between groups, while the increase in total activity was smaller in blacks (P=0.030 for interaction). Peak change (Δ) in DBP was correlated with Δ total activity at 1 min into CPT in both blacks (r=0.78, P=0.003) and whites (r=0.43, P=0.009), while the slope was significantly greater in blacks (P=0.007). Thus, elderly blacks have smaller sympathetic and central hemodynamic (e.g., Qc) responses, but a greater pressor response for a given sympathetic activation during CPT than elderly whites. This response may stem from augmented sympathetic vascular transduction, greater sympathetic activation to other vascular bed(s), and/or enhanced non-adrenergically mediated vasoconstriction in elderly blacks. PMID:27021009

  12. Toll-like receptor variation in the bottlenecked population of the Seychelles warbler: computer simulations see the 'ghost of selection past' and quantify the 'drift debt'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, D L; Phillips, K P; Richardson, D S; van Oosterhout, C

    2017-07-01

    Balancing selection can maintain immunogenetic variation within host populations, but detecting its signal in a postbottlenecked population is challenging due to the potentially overriding effects of drift. Toll-like receptor genes (TLRs) play a fundamental role in vertebrate immune defence and are predicted to be under balancing selection. We previously characterized variation at TLR loci in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), an endemic passerine that has undergone a historical bottleneck. Five of seven TLR loci were polymorphic, which is in sharp contrast to the low genomewide variation observed. However, standard population genetic statistical methods failed to detect a contemporary signature of selection at any TLR locus. We examined whether the observed TLR polymorphism could be explained by neutral evolution, simulating the population's demography in the software DIYABC. This showed that the posterior distributions of mutation rates had to be unrealistically high to explain the observed genetic variation. We then conducted simulations with an agent-based model using typical values for the mutation rate, which indicated that weak balancing selection has acted on the three TLR genes. The model was able to detect evidence of past selection elevating TLR polymorphism in the prebottleneck populations, but was unable to discern any effects of balancing selection in the contemporary population. Our results show drift is the overriding evolutionary force that has shaped TLR variation in the contemporary Seychelles warbler population, and the observed TLR polymorphisms might be merely the 'ghost of selection past'. Forecast models predict immunogenetic variation in this species will continue to be eroded in the absence of contemporary balancing selection. Such 'drift debt' occurs when a gene pool has not yet reached its new equilibrium level of polymorphism, and this loss could be an important threat to many recently bottlenecked populations. © 2017

  13. Effects of asymmetric nuclear introgression, introgressive mitochondrial sweep, and purifying selection on phylogenetic reconstruction and divergence estimates in the Pacific clade of Locustella warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetski, Sergei V; Semenov, Georgy; Red'kin, Yaroslav A; Sotnikov, Vladimir N; Fadeev, Igor V; Koblik, Evgeniy A

    2015-01-01

    When isolated but reproductively compatible populations expand geographically and meet, simulations predict asymmetric introgression of neutral loci from a local to invading taxon. Genetic introgression may affect phylogenetic reconstruction by obscuring topology and divergence estimates. We combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from one mtDNA and 12 nuDNA loci with analysis of gene flow among 5 species of Pacific Locustella warblers to test for presence of genetic introgression and its effects on tree topology and divergence estimates. Our data showed that nuDNA introgression was substantial and asymmetrical among all members of superspecies groups whereas mtDNA showed no introgression except a single species pair where the invader's mtDNA was swept by mtDNA of the local species. This introgressive sweep of mtDNA had the opposite direction of the nuDNA introgression and resulted in the paraphyly of the local species' mtDNA haplotypes with respect to those of the invader. Тhe multilocus nuDNA species tree resolved all inter- and intraspecific relationships despite substantial introgression. However, the node ages on the species tree may be underestimated as suggested by the differences in node age estimates based on non-introgressing mtDNA and introgressing nuDNA. In turn, the introgressive sweep and strong purifying selection appear to elongate internal branches in the mtDNA gene tree.

  14. Composition of Bacterial Assemblages in Different Components of Reed Warbler Nests and a Possible Role of Egg Incubation in Pathogen Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanja B Brandl

    Full Text Available Bacteria play a central role in animal health. Yet, little is known about the acquisition of bacteria and the extent to which bacteria are acquired from different environmental sources. For example, bird nests host diverse bacteria associated with the eggs, nestlings and nesting material, but previous research has typically focussed on only a limited number of nest components at a time. It therefore remains unknown to what extent bacteria are transmitted between these components. Using both molecular and culture techniques, we characterised nest-associated bacterial assemblages throughout the entire nesting cycle of reed warblers by sampling bacteria on eggs before and during incubation, within nestling faeces, and on the nesting material of post-breeding nests. We found that bacterial assemblages clustered by nest component. Yet some overlap existed between nest components, suggesting that bacterial transmission across components is likely to occur. Eggs and nestlings from the same nest harboured more similar bacteria than expected by chance, suggesting an influence of environment or genetics on bacterial assemblages. Bacterial loads were not lower on incubated eggs. Instead, incubation was associated with a change in the structure of assemblages, including a decrease in potentially-harmful Gram-negative bacteria. In addition we show for the first time, that incubation is associated with the complete extinction of harmful haemolytic bacteria. Overall, our study appears to be the first to demonstrate differences in bacterial assemblages between bird nest components. In addition, we highlight the complexity of nest bacterial assemblages and provide new insights into the benefits of incubation.

  15. Multiple plumage traits convey information about age and within-age-class qualities of a canopy-dwelling songbird, the Cerulean Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Ben

    2014-01-01

    Colorful plumage traits in birds may convey multiple, redundant, or unreliable messages about an individual. Plumage may reliably convey information about disparate qualities such as age, condition, and parental ability because discrete tracts of feathers may cause individuals to incur different intrinsic or extrinsic costs. Few studies have examined the information content of plumage in a species that inhabits forest canopies, a habitat with unique light environments and selective pressures. We investigated the information content of four plumage patches (blue-green crown and rump, tail white, and black breast band) in a canopy-dwelling species, the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), in relation to age, condition, provisioning, and reproduction. We found that older males displayed wider breast bands, greater tail white, and crown and rump feathers with greater blue-green (435–534 nm) chroma and hue than males in their first potential breeding season. In turn, older birds were in better condition (short and long term) and were reproductively superior to younger birds. We propose that these age-related plumage differences (i.e. delayed plumage maturation) were not a consequence of a life history strategy but instead resulted from constraints during early feather molts. Within age classes, we found evidence to support the multiple messages hypothesis. Birds with greater tail white molted tails in faster, those with more exaggerated rump plumage (lower hue, greater blue-green chroma) provisioned more, and those with lower rump blue-green chroma were in better condition. Despite evidence of reliable signaling in this species, we found no strong relationships between plumage and reproductive performance, potentially because factors other than individual differences more strongly influenced fecundity.

  16. Influenza Virus Serology at the Human-Animal Interface : From black and white to shades of grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Freidl (Gudrun)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractZoonoses, i.e. diseases that are transmissible from animals to humans, have received increasing scientific and public attention in recent years. A comprehensive literature review identified 60% of human pathogens as zoonotic, of which 12% constitute so-called ‘emerging infectious

  17. Race Differences in Diet Quality of Urban Food-Insecure Blacks and Whites Reveals Resiliency in Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol and cigarette use, and comorbid diseases. The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p = 0.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p race stratified analyses revealed that Blacks participating in SNAP showed diminished associations of food insecurity with diet quality. Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race.

  18. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  19. Personality and behavior prediction and consistency across cultures: A multimethod study of Blacks and Whites in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Sekaja, Lusanda; Laher, Sumaya

    2018-03-01

    The cross-cultural universality of behavior's consistency and predictability from personality, assumed in trait models though challenged in cultural psychological models, has usually been operationalized in terms of beliefs and perceptions, and assessed using single-instance self-reports. In a multimethod study of actual behavior across a range of situations, we examined predictability and consistency in participants from the more collectivistic Black ethnic group and the more individualistic White group in South Africa. Participants completed personality questionnaires before the behavior measurements. In Study 1, 107 Black and 241 White students kept diaries for 21 days, recording their behaviors and the situations in which they had occurred. In Study 2, 57 Black and 52 White students were video-recorded in 12 situations in laboratory settings, and external observers scored their behaviors. Across both studies, behavior was predicted by personality on average equally well in the 2 groups, and equally well when using trait-adjective- and behavior-based personality measures. The few cultural differences in situational variability were not in line with individualism-collectivism; however, subjective perceptions of variability, operationalized as dialectical beliefs, were more in line with individualism-collectivism: Blacks viewed their behavior as more variable than Whites. We propose drawing a distinction between subjective beliefs and objective behavior in the study of personality and culture. Larger cultural differences can be expected in beliefs and perceptions than in the links between personality and actual behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Understanding the Different Realities, Experience, and Use of Self-Esteem between Black and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Portia E.

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent females possess higher self-esteem than any other racial or ethnic adolescent female group. This article tests two popular empirically supported explanations for Black high self-esteem: "contingency of self-esteem theory" and the "locus of control model". This article builds on past research to illustrate the specific…

  1. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  2. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.

  3. Obesity and the development of insulin resistance and impaired fasting glucose in black and white adolescent girls - A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, DJ; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Cohen, RM; Harlan, LC; Morrison, JA

    Objective-Age at onset of type 2 diabetes has decreased during the past 20 years, especially in black women. Studies of factors associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in preadolescent and adolescent populations are essential to understanding diabetes development. Research Design and

  4. Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Schreiber, G; Crawford, PB; Voorhees, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between timing of sexual maturation and eating disorders symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Data were collected over 10 years for a cohort of 1,213 Black girls and 1,166 White girls who were either 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Annually, girls'

  5. Examining impulsivity as a moderator of the relationship between body shame and bulimic symptoms in Black and White young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M K; Lin, Stacy L; Alvarez, Alexandra; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2015-06-01

    Impulsivity has been linked to bulimic symptomatology in a number of studies; however, few have examined this relationship among Black women. We investigated the correlations between impulsivity and bulimic symptoms, and tested impulsivity as a moderator of the body shame/bulimic symptoms relationship among a sample of female undergraduates (N=276; 97 Blacks, 179 Whites). These participants provided data on body shame, impulsivity, and bulimic symptoms (EDE-Q binge eating frequency, BULIT-R, EDI-Bulimia). Among Blacks, impulsivity was significantly positively associated with all bulimic symptoms measures; among Whites, impulsivity was only positively correlated with binge eating frequency. Furthermore, among Blacks, the combination of high body shame and high impulsivity was associated with the highest levels of bulimic symptoms; these findings were not observed among Whites. This study highlights the importance of impulsivity and body shame in identifying bulimic symptomatology among Black women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dominance hierarchy and social relationships in a group of captive black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang-Wei; Sun, Qing-Lei; Li, Bao-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Different types of dominance hierarchies reflect different social relationships in primates. In this study, we clarified the hierarchy and social relationships in a one-male unit of captive Rhinopithecus bieti observed between August 1998 and March 1999. Mean frequency of agonistic behaviour among adult females was 0.13 interactions per hour. Adult females exhibited a linear hierarchy with a reversal of 10.9%, indicating an unstable relationship; therefore, R. bieti appears to be a relaxed/tolerant species. The lack of a relationship between the agonistic ratio of the adult male towards adult females and their ranks indicated that males did not show increased aggression towards low-ranking females. Differentiated female affiliative relationships were loosely formed in terms of the male, and to some extent influenced by female estrus, implying that relationships between the male and females is influenced by estrus and not rank alone. A positive correlation between the agonistic ratio of adult females and their ranks showed that the degree to which one female negatively impacted others decreased with reduction in rank. Similarly, a positive correlation between the agonistic ratio of females and differences in rank suggests that a female had fewer negative effects on closely ranked individuals than distantly ranked ones. These data indicate that rank may influence relationships between females. A steeper slope of regression between the agonistic ratio and inter-female rank differences indicated that the extent of the power difference in high-ranking females exerting negative effects on low-ranking ones was larger during the mating season than the birth season, suggesting that rank may influence the mating success of females.

  7. Some factors in condom use amongst first-year Nigerian University students and black and white South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Oladimeji, Yetunde

    2004-04-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 213 sexually active first-year Nigerian university students and 150 Black and 150 White South African adults. Nigerian students gave 90% correct answers on 6 of the 10 items of a measure of condom knowledge (M = 6.1). The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about putting a condom on just before ejaculation (37%), the use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom (29%), and when to take off a condom (28%). For the South African sample utility of the Health Belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action for HIV prevention could be confirmed by intention to use condoms. Race and preventive benefits were predictive for current condom use. Findings have relevant implications for developing culturally diverse HIV intervention programs if confirmed with larger diverse groups.

  8. Macro-economic conditions and infant health: a changing relationship for black and white infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    We study whether the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant health, infant mortality and maternal characteristics in the United States has changed over the years 1980-2004. We use microdata on births and deaths for years 1980-2004 and find that the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant mortality and birthweight changes over time and is stronger for blacks than whites. For years 1980-1989 increases in the state unemployment rate are associated with a decline in infant mortality among blacks, an effect driven by mortality from gestational development and birth weight, and complications of placenta while in utero. In contrast, state economic conditions are unrelated to black infant mortality in years 1990-2004 and white infant mortality in any period, although effects vary by cause of death. We explore potential mechanisms for our findings and, including mothers younger than 18 in the analysis, uncover evidence of age-related maternal selection in response to the business cycle. In particular, in years 1980-1989 an increase in the unemployment rate at the time of conception is associated with fewer babies born to young mothers. The magnitude and direction of the relationship between business cycles and infant mortality differs by race and period. Age-related selection into motherhood in response to the business cycle is a possible explanation for this changing relationship.

  9. Obesity Status and Body Satisfaction: Are There Differences between African American College Females at Black and White Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Bonds, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were to 1) assess obesity status and body satisfaction among African American college students, and 2) to compare differences in these variables between students at a predominantly white university (PWU) and a historically black college and university (HBCU). Four hundred and two undergraduate females completed a…

  10. STUDY OF ROMANIAN BLACK AND WHITE BREED PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES FROM BISTRIŢA-NĂSĂUD COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MURESAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to highlight the main cattle productive features of Romanian Black Spotted breed, raised for milk production in Bistrita-Năsăud county. A number of 386 milk cows were taken into research which produced a total of 1194 lactations. Production and reproduction data were obtained through the official control of milk production, the existing databases at UARZ units (origin, reproduction and production from the named county and there were taken, processed and statistically interpreted. In Bistrita-Năsăud Romanian Black Spotted cows achieved performances between 1047 kg of milk and 17196 kg of milk, with an average production on normal lactation of 4212 kg of milk, and 4846 kg of milk on total lactation.

  11. Does Parenting Explain the Effects of Structural Conditions on Children's Antisocial Behavior? A Comparison of Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jane D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data on black children and white children over age six and their mothers (from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) indicate no racial differences in total effects of poverty and single parenthood on parenting practices (affection and spanking). Parenting practices were reciprocally related to child's antisocial behavior for whites, but did not…

  12. The convergence of lung cancer rates between blacks and whites under the age of 40, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemal, Ahmedin; Center, Melissa M; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer rates in the United States have been consistently higher in blacks than in whites at all ages in men and at younger ages in women. However, since the 1970s, smoking initiation decreased more rapidly among blacks than whites. We examined trends in lung cancer rates for white and black young adults (ages 20-39) from 1992 to 2006 using joinpoint models and black-to-white rate ratios by sex. Lung cancer death rates in 20- to 39-year-olds significantly decreased in all groups but was much steeper for blacks than for whites. From 1992 to 1994 and 2004 to 2006, the black-to-white mortality rate ratio (95% confidence interval) decreased from 2.16 (1.90-2.44) to 1.28 (1.05-1.55) for men and from 1.47 (1.25-1.71) to 0.97 (0.78-1.19) for women. A similar convergence was observed in the lung cancer incidence rates. These findings suggest that if current smoking trends in the young continue, racial differences in overall lung cancer rates in men will be eliminated in the next 40 to 50 years.

  13. Dealing with diversity: middle-class family households and the issue of 'black' and 'white' schools in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterman, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    The urban middle classes often celebrate the diversity of their neighbourhood. As soon as they have children, however, the desire to display symbolic capital may conflict with the need to reproduce cultural capital through the educational system. In the ethnically diverse Amsterdam schooling

  14. Individual, social environmental, and physical environmental influences on physical activity among black and white adults: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Brownson, Ross C; Clark, Eddie M; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2006-02-01

    Social ecological models suggest that conditions in the social and physical environment, in addition to individual factors, play important roles in health behavior change. Using structural equation modeling, this study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of physical activity to examine theorized direct and indirect effects of individual (e.g., motivation and self-efficacy), social environmental (e.g., social support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood quality and availability of facilities). A community-based sample of adults (N = 910) was recruited from 2 public health centers (67% female, 43% African American, 43% motivation for physical activity, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the physical environment. Results indicated that (a) perceptions of the physical environment had direct effects on physical activity, (b) both the social and physical environments had indirect effects on physical activity through motivation and self-efficacy, and (c) social support influenced physical activity indirectly through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For all forms of activity, self-efficacy was the strongest direct correlate of physical activity, and evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between self-efficacy and intensity of physical activity. Findings from this research highlight the interactive role of individual and environmental influences on physical activity.

  15. RACE DIFFERENCES IN DIET QUALITY OF URBAN FOOD-INSECURE BLACKS AND WHITES REVEALS RESLIENCY IN BLACKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J.; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Methods Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1,741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004–2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol, and cigarette use, and co-morbid diseases. Results The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p=.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad-hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p quality. Conclusions Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP, and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race. PMID:27294760

  16. Selected Differences in the Life Chances of Black and White in the United States. Research Group One, Report No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Howard J.

    Tabular data presented in this report comprise: total and black population of the U.S. for every census period from 1790 to 1970, the 50 cities with the largest black population for 1970, an index of residential segregation for 1960, selected views of age and sex, life and death, the educational profile of white and black in 1970, family income…

  17. Geographic distribution of dementia mortality: elevated mortality rates for black and white Americans by place of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M Maria; Kosheleva, Anna; Wadley, Virginia G; Weiss, Christopher; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that patterns of elevated stroke mortality among those born in the United States Stroke Belt (SB) states also prevailed for mortality related to all-cause dementia or Alzheimer Disease. Cause-specific mortality (contributing cause of death, including underlying cause cases) rates in 2000 for United States-born African Americans and whites aged 65 to 89 years were calculated by linking national mortality records with population data based on race, sex, age, and birth state or state of residence in 2000. Birth in a SB state (NC, SC, GA, TN, AR, MS, or AL) was cross-classified against SB residence at the 2000 Census. Compared with those who were not born in the SB, odds of all-cause dementia mortality were significantly elevated by 29% for African Americans and 19% for whites born in the SB. These patterns prevailed among individuals who no longer lived in the SB at death. Patterns were similar for Alzheimer Disease-related mortality. Some non-SB states were also associated with significant elevations in dementia-related mortality. Dementia mortality rates follow geographic patterns similar to stroke mortality, with elevated rates among those born in the SB. This suggests important roles for geographically patterned childhood exposures in establishing cognitive reserve.

  18. Blacks and whites in the Cuba have equal prevalence of hypertension: confirmation from a new population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The excess burden of hypertension among blacks has been a prominent feature of the heath disparities literature, and many scientists presume it to be a stable and inevitable phenomenon. The underlying causes of this disparity can only be disentangled in a setting in which the population does not experience racial stratification of socioeconomic opportunities. While such conditions of racial equality remain uncommon, they may be approximated in Cuba, a country with a persistent policy of social inclusion over the last 5 decades. Methods We report on a 2010–2011 stratified probability sample of those aged 15–74 years from the urban population of Cienfuegos in central Cuba. A total of 1496 adults (880 women and 616 men) were recruited and assessed for blood pressure and anthropometrics according to standardized protocols, as well as medication use, educational attainment and observed skin tone (dichotomized into “black” and “white”). Weighted tabular and regression analyses were conducted to estimate adjusted prevalences of hypertension (> 140/90 mmHg) and adjusted prevalence odds ratios for contrasts between the two skin color groups. Results Mean pressures were higher for men than for women, but overall did not differ importantly between racial groups. About half of all diagnosed hypertensive men were on medication, a proportion that did not vary by racial group. For women, however, adjusted prevalence was somewhat higher among blacks, and treatment and control rates were also somewhat advantaged for white women. Conclusions Overall, skin color was unrelated to mean blood pressure or hypertensive status in this population, although among women specifically some racial advantage appears evident in adjusted prevalence and control, and should be investigated further. The overall null result suggests that Cuba may exemplify the social conditions in which racial excess in hypertension, characteristic of much of the western world, is not a necessary reality. PMID:23433343

  19. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE DRINKING BEHAVIOUR IN MULTIPAROUS ROMANIAN BLACK AND WHITE COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GAVOJDIAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some aspects of drinking behaviour in thecold-season. The study was carried out on 10 multiparous cows, housed in a tiedstanchion barn 24 hours per day. During the experiments the following behaviouraspects were monitored: the number of drinking periods per 24 hours and drinkingfrequency. When cows were fed twice a day the average number of drinking periodswas 11, and when cows were fed tree times per day, the average number of drinkingperiods per cow was 12.2 per day. The highest frequency of drinking period in thefirst part of the experiment (one with two meals per day was registered at 10:00and 18:00-19:00 h. When the forages were administrated in three meals three peakswere registered, between 09:00, 15:00 and 20:00 h. During the night time,consumption of water was very low.

  20. Who Works Among Older Black and White, Well-Functioning Adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronica N. Rooks PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to examine social, economic, and health factors related to paid work in well-functioning older adults and if and how these factors vary by race. Method: We used sex-stratified logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine cross-sectional data in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition cohort study. The sample included 3,075 community-dwelling Black (42% and White adults aged 70 to 79 at baseline. Results: Multinomial logistic regression analyses show Black men were more likely to work full-time, and Black women were more likely to work part-time. Men with ≥US$50,000 family income were more likely to work full-time. Men with better physical functioning were more likely to work full- and part-time. Women with ≥US$50,000 family income and fewer chronic diseases were more likely to work full-time. Women who were overweight and had fewer chronic diseases were more likely to work part-time. Discussion: Results suggest that well-functioning, older Black adults were more likely to work than their White counterparts, and working relates to better health and higher income, providing support for a productive or successful aging perspective.

  1. The relationship of nitric oxide synthesis capacity, oxidative stress, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio in black and white men: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mels, Catharina M C; Huisman, Hugo W; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Atzler, Dorothee; Böger, Rainer H; Ware, Lisa J; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate substrate availability and increased nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels attenuate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas increased vascular oxidative stress may lead to inactivation of NO. We compared markers of NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress in a bi-ethnic male population. Inter-relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress markers were investigated. NO synthesis capacity markers (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and oxidative stress markers (serum peroxides, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase) were measured. Black men displayed higher blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (all p creatinine ratio. In white men, albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with ADMA (R (2) = 0.18; β = 0.39; p creatinine ratio displayed a favorable NO synthesis capacity. This may be counteracted by increased inactivation of NO, although it was not linked to vascular or renal phenotypes. In white men, reduced NO synthesis capacity may lower NO bio-availability, thereby influencing the albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

  2. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical activity self-management advice. Participants who reported being given medical advice for each specific diabetes self-management behaviors were 4-8 times more likely to report performing the corresponding behaviors, independent of race. These results supported the ecological model with certain caveats. Conclusions Providing standard medical advice appears to lead to diabetes self-management behaviors as reported by adults across the United States. Moreover, it does not appear that race/ethnicity influenced reporting performance of the standard diabetes self-management behavior. Longitudinal studies evaluating patient-provider communication, medical advice and diabetes self-management behaviors are needed to clarify our findings.

  3. Changes in self-esteem in black and white girls between the ages of 9 and 14 years - The NHLBI growth and health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, KM; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Crawford, P; Schreiber, GB; Similo, SL; Waclawiw, M; Striegel-Moore, R

    Purpose: We examined changes in self-esteem and feelings of competence with physical appearance and social acceptance over approximately 5 years in 1166 white and 1213 black girls, aged 9 and 10 years at baseline. Methods: Maturation stage and body mass index (BMI) were assessed annually. Biennially

  4. Measuring Race and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Campus Climate and Intentions to Leave College: An Analysis in Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2013-01-01

    Student perceptions of campus climate environments and intentions to leave college were examined for 391 participants. Differences by race were found for perceptions of the campus climate being cold and uncaring and for expectations to encounter racism in college. Perceptions of campus climate were related to African American students' intent to…

  5. Exploring the "Obesity Paradox" as a Correlate of Cognitive and Physical Function in Community-dwelling Black and White Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jeannine S; Abel, Willie Mae; McCoy, Katryna; Wilkins, Consuelo H

    2017-01-01

    The obesity paradox has been documented in aged populations, yet it remains unclear if this paradox persists for physical and cognitive outcomes in community-dwelling older adult populations. Our study examines associations between body mass index (BMI) classification, cognitive function, and physical function. We also investigate whether these associations are modified by race or age. Cross-sectional study. Senior residential sites and community centers in Saint Louis, Missouri. Study participants included 331 adults, aged >55 years. Age was stratified into young-old (aged 55-74 years) and older (aged ≥75 years). Physical function was measured using the mini-Physical Performance Test (mini-PPT) and grip strength. Cognitive function was assessed with the Short Blessed Test (SBT) and the Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) performance. Older adults who were obese had significantly better cognitive flexibility (TMT-B) performance than normal weight older adults (P=.02), and this association was not influenced by age or race. Adiposity was not associated with psychomotor speed (TMT-A), general cognition (SBT), or measures of physical function (Ps>.05). In a diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults, we found partial support for the controversial obesity paradox. Our results suggest excess adiposity may be protective for executive function processes. Future research is needed to examine the underlying physiological processes linking adiposity to executive function in older adults.

  6. Behavioral reactivity to acute stress among Black and White women with type 2 diabetes: The roles of income and racial discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Schumann, Kristina P; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Wagner, Julie

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated relationships of income and self-reported racial discrimination to diabetes health behaviors following an acute stressor. A total of 77 diabetic women (51% Black, 49% White) completed a laboratory public speaking stressor. That evening, participants reported same-day eating, alcohol consumption, and medication adherence; physical activity was measured with actigraphy, and the next morning participants reported sleep quality. Measures were repeated on a counterbalanced control day. There was no mean level difference in health behaviors between stressor and control days. On stressor day, lower income predicted lower physical activity, sleep quality, and medication adherence, and higher racial discrimination predicted more eating and alcohol consumed, even after accounting confounders including race and control day behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A desigualdade no “topo”: empregadores negros e brancos no mercado de trabalho brasileiro = Inequality on the top: black and white employers in Brazilian job market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes, Jordão Horta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Os empregadores, em razão de sua posição no binômio capital-trabalho, ocupariam provavelmente estratos de remuneração mais alta. No entanto, há desníveis de rendimentos, como ocorre entre trabalhadores brancos e negros, em que estes se tornam empregadores preponderantemente em setores menos privilegiados e ocupações com alto índice de informalidade, em pequenos empreendimentos com menor estabilidade. Este artigo a apresenta um breve perfil de empregadores negros e brancos no Brasil; b demonstra as desigualdades de inserção na estrutura do mercado de trabalho e c mensura os diferenciais médios de renda a fim de determinar o peso de fatores produtivos e da discriminação racial sobre a renda média dos empregadores estratificados por raça e sexo. Com base na análise quantitativa, empregando o método de decomposição de Oaxaca-Blinder, sustenta-se que existe uma diferença significativa de rendimentos entre estratos orientados por raça e sexo de empregadores que não pode ser creditada unicamente a fatores associados, como nível de escolaridade, experiência ou diferentes inserções ocupacionais, mas provém de um resíduo não explicado que é atribuído à discriminação de raça ou sexo

  8. Document Image Processing: Going beyond the Black-and-White Barrier. Progress, Issues and Options with Greyscale and Colour Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendley, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of digital document image processing focuses on issues and options associated with greyscale and color image processing. Topics include speed; size of original document; scanning resolution; markets for different categories of scanners, including photographic libraries, publishing, and office applications; hybrid systems; data…

  9. Genetic correlations of clinical mastitis and feet and legs problems with milk yield and type traits in Dutch Black and White dairy cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.; Hellinga, I.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Direct selection for decreased disease incidence is difficult given low hsuperscript 2s and the absence of disease recording. Genetic correlations between diseases and type traits indicate possibilities for indirect selection; however, correlations often include experimentally instead of routinely

  10. The Costs of Living as an Outsider Within: An Analysis of the Mentoring Relationships and Career Success of Black and White Women in the Corporate Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Beard, Stacy D.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of business graduates (154 white women and 41 black women) investigated the impact of race on mentoring and career success for women. Results indicated no statistical difference in the amount of mentoring reported by black or white respondents. (Author/JOW)

  11. Where Do We Stand? Views of Racial Conflict by Vietnamese American High-School Students in a Black-and-White Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Peter N.; Kaplan, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative research conducted with 14 Vietnamese American students in Boston (Massachusetts) shows that social exclusion and racial conflict are daily realities. Perspectives of these students challenge the validity of the dominant black-white model that defines public understanding of race relations. (SLD)

  12. Associations between microsatellite polymorphism within the macrophage expressed lysozyme (mLys gene and milk Indices Properties in Polish Black-and-White Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Walczak-Wójciak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed in the years 1998–2000 on two farms located near to Vistula Lowlands. The experimental materials were comprised of 52 daughters of bull Paran, among which 21 possessed the mLys-mic 7 allele and 31 – the mLys-mic 3 allele. The serum and whey bacteriolytic activity of the lysozyme, concentrations of selected mineral elements, technological properties of milk at successive the first lactation stages (30, 100, 150 and 200 days, somatic cell count and bacterial count were investigated in this study. The results obtained indicate that Lys-mic polymorphism has low suitability as a marker for milk production capacity in cows. The lysozyme gene, treated as a mastitis resistance factor, showed no effects on somatic cell count and bacterial count. Further investigations, conducted not only during the first lactation, but also during the next lactation in a herd threatened by a variety of pathogenic factors, would be carried to validate this Lys-mic gene polymorphism on mastitis resistance.

  13. Not everything is black and white: color and behavioral variation reveal a continuum between cryptic and aposematic strategies in a polymorphic poison frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willink, Beatriz; Brenes-Mora, Esteban; Bolaños, Federico; Pröhl, Heike

    2013-10-01

    Aposematism and crypsis are often viewed as two extremes of a continuum of visual conspicuousness to predators. Theory predicts that behavioral and coloration conspicuousness should vary in tandem along the conspicuousness spectrum for antipredator strategies to be effective. Here we used visual modeling of contrast and behavioral observations to examine the conspicuousness of four populations of the granular poison frog, Oophaga granulifera, which exhibits almost continuous variation in dorsal color. The patterns of geographic variation in color, visual contrast, and behavior support a gradient of overall conspicuousness along the distribution of O. granulifera. Red and green populations, at the extremes of the color distribution, differ in all elements of color, contrast, and behavior, strongly reflecting aposematic and cryptic strategies. However, there is no smooth cline in any elements of behavior or coloration between the two extremes. Instead populations of intermediate colors attain intermediate conspicuousness by displaying different combinations of aposematic and cryptic traits. We argue that coloration divergence among populations may be linked to the evolution of a gradient of strategies to balance the costs of detection by predators and the benefits of learned aversion. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Comparison of telomere length in black and white teachers from South Africa: the sympathetic activity and ambulatory blood pressure in Africans study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Malan, Nico T; Hamer, Mark; Malan, Leoné

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk. The black South African population is witnessing a tremendous increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, part of which might be explained through urbanization. We compared telomere length between black South Africans and white South Africans and examined which biological and psychosocial variables played a role in ethnic difference in telomere length. We measured leukocyte telomere length in 161 black South African teachers and 180 white South African teachers aged 23 to 66 years without a history of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Age, sex, years having lived in the area, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hypertension, body mass index, dyslipidemia, hemoglobin A1c, C-reactive protein, smoking, physical activity, alcohol abuse, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and work stress were considered as covariates. Black participants had shorter (median, interquartile range) relative telomere length (0.79, 0.70-0.95) than did white participants (1.06, 0.87-1.21; p < .001), and this difference changed very little after adjusting for covariates. In fully adjusted models, age (p < .001), male sex (p = .011), and HIV positive status (p = .023) were associated with shorter telomere length. Ethnicity did not significantly interact with any covariates in determining telomere length, including psychosocial characteristics. Black South Africans showed markedly shorter telomeres than did white South African counterparts. Age, male sex, and HIV status were associated with shorter telomere length. No interactions between ethnicity and biomedical or psychosocial factors were found. Ethnic difference in telomere length might primarily be explained by genetic factors.

  15. Lower extremity physical performance and hip bone mineral density in elderly black and white men and women : cross-sectional associations in the Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taaffe, Dennis R; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Visser, Marjolein; Volpato, Stefano; Nevitt, Michael C; Cauley, Jane A; Tylavsky, Frances A; Harris, Tamara B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by declines in physical capacity and bone mineral density (BMD), both of which contribute to increased risk for fracture. However, it is unclear if these factors coexist or are independent in elderly people, and if a relationship does exist, whether it varies by

  16. The association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and metabolic risk factors in black and white South African women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Cindy; Evans, Juliet; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Olsson, Tommy; Goedecke, Julia H

    2018-01-01

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with metabolic risk, however it is unclear whether the relationship is confounded by racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status (SES), lifestyle factors or central adiposity. The aims of the study was, (1) to investigate whether hsCRP levels differ by race/ethnicity; (2) to examine the race/ethnic-specific associations between hsCRP, HOMA-IR and serum lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C)]; and (3) to determine whether race/ethnic-specific associations are explained by SES, lifestyle factors or waist circumference (WC). The convenience sample comprised 195 black and 153 white apparently health women, aged 18-45 years. SES (education, assets and housing density) and lifestyle factors (alcohol use, physical activity and contraceptive use) were collected by questionnaire. Weight, height and WC were measured, and fasting blood samples collected for hsCRP, glucose, insulin, and lipids. Black women had higher age- and BMI-adjusted hsCRP levels than white women ( p  = 0.047). hsCRP was associated with HOMA-IR ( p  C (p C ( p  C in white women, and inversely associated with HDL-C in black women. Higher hsCRP was also associated with higher TC in white women and lower TC in black women. Furthermore, when adjusting for SES and lifestyle factors, the associations between hsCRP, and TC and TG, remained, however the associations between hsCRP, and HDL-C and LDL-C, were no longer significant. Although circulating hsCRP may identify individuals at increased metabolic risk, the heterogeneity in these associations between racial/ethnic groups highlights the need for prospective studies investigating the role of hsCRP for risk prediction in different populations.

  17. The impact of sociodemographic factors and PSA screening among low-income Black and White men: data from the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, K A; Zhao, Z; Bi, Y; Acquaye, J; Holmes, A; Blot, W J; Fowke, J H

    2017-12-01

    Variation in PSA screening is a potential source of disparity in prostate cancer survival, particularly among underserved populations. We sought to examine the impact of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on receipt of PSA testing among low-income men. Black (n=22 167) and White (n=9588) men aged ⩾40 years completed a baseline questionnaire from 2002 to 2009 as part of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Men reported whether they had ever received PSA testing and had testing within the prior 12 months. To evaluate the associations between SES, race and receipt of PSA testing, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from the multivariable logistic models where age, household income, insurance status, marital status, body mass index and educational level were adjusted. Black men were younger, had a lower income, less attained education and were more likely to be unmarried and uninsured (all PPSA testing rose from 50 more likely than Blacks to have received testing. Lower SES was significantly associated with less receipt of PSA testing in both groups. After adjustment for SES, White men had significantly lower odds of PSA testing (OR 0.81; 95% CI: 0.76-0.87). Greater PSA testing among White than Black men over the age of 50 years in this low-income population appears to be mainly a consequence of SES. Strategies for PSA screening may benefit from tailoring to the social circumstances of the men being screened.

  18. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in primary staging of prostate carcinoma. Preliminary results on differences between black and white South-Africans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Lengana, Thabo; Vorster, Mariza; Lawal, Ismaheel; Ebenhan, Thomas [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Maes, Alex [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); KULAK, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Pathology, Kortrijk (Belgium); Zeevaart, JanRijn [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Radiochemistry, The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation SOC Ltd (Necsa), Pelindaba, Pretoria (South Africa); Wiele, Christophe van de [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); University Ghent, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2018-02-15

    The incidence of prostate cancer is 60% higher and the mortality rate is two- to three-times greater in black versus white men. We report on differences in {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging findings in 77 black South-African (BSAs) and 18 white South-African (WSAs) treatment-naive primary prostate carcinoma (PPC) patients. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging findings were compared to histological, biochemical and morphological imaging data. Patients were grouped into three Gleason grade groups (GG), GG 1 (scores 3 + 3 and 3 + 4), GG2 (scores 4 + 3 and 4 + 4) and GG3 (scores 9 and 10), and the PSA difference among the groups was determined. Inter-racial difference in SUVmax of the primary tumor as well as its correlation with serum PSA were also determined. Ninety-three out of 95 PPC where readily identified on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging. Median PPC SUVmax and serum PSA values proved significantly higher (p = 0.033 and p = 0.003) in GG3 patients (median 16.4 and 180 ng/ml) when compared to GG1 patients (median 9.6 and 25.1 ng/ml) or GG2 patients (median 8.8 and 46.2 ng/ml). SUVmax significantly correlated with serum PSA-values (r = 0.377 (p = 0.0001)). Age, frequency of lymph node involvement and distant metastases, and GGs (p ≥ 0.153) were similar in BSAs and WSAs, both median serum PSA-values as well as SUVmax values proved significantly higher in BSAs when compared to WSAs, respectively, 81.6 ng/ml versus 14.5 ng/ml (p = 0.0001) and 11.9 versus 4.38 (p = 0.004). Moreover, Gleason-score normalized median SUVmax values proved 2.5 times higher in BSAs when compared to WSAs (p = 0.005). SUVmax values proved significantly related to GG and to be significantly higher in BSAs when compared to WSAs. Also, SUVmax significantly correlated with serum PSA values, which was significantly higher in BSAs when compared with WSAs. (orig.)

  19. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Incident Cognitive Impairment in Black and White Older Adults: The Health ABC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Laurel; Houston, Denise K; Wilson, Valerie K; Lovato, James; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Cauley, Jane A; Harris, Tamara; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Sink, Kaycee M

    2018-01-01

    Using data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we examined whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were associated with prevalent or incident cognitive impairment. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2,786 older adults and categorized as 1.5 standard deviations below race and education specific means on either digit symbol substitution test or modified mini-mental state test. Logistic regression determined the odds of cognitive impairment at baseline and year 5 by 25(OH)D category. 25(OH)D concentrations were D concentrations D concentrations D concentrations ≥30 ng/mL. Low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with twofold higher odds of prevalent cognitive impairment in blacks.

  20. Analysis of morphological variability and heritability in the head of the Argentine Black and White Tegu (Salvator merianae): undisturbed vs. disturbed environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Carolina; Giri, Federico; Siroski, Pablo; Amavet, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    The heterogeneity of biotic and abiotic factors influencing fitness produce selective pressures that promote local adaptation and divergence among different populations of the same species. In order for adaptations to be maintained through evolutionary time, heritable genetic variation controlling the expression of the morphological features under selection is necessary. Here we compare morphological shape variability and size of the cephalic region of Salvator merianae specimens from undisturbed environments to those of individuals from disturbed environments, and estimated heritability for shape and size using geometric morphometric and quantitative genetics tools. The results of these analyzes indicated that there are statistically significant differences in shape and size between populations from the two environments. Possibly, one of the main determinants of cephalic shape and size is adaptation to the characteristics of the environment and to the trophic niche. Individuals from disturbed environments have a cephalic region with less shape variation and also have a larger centroid size when compared to individuals from undisturbed environments. The high heritability values obtained for shape and size in dorsal view and right side view indicate that these phenotypic characters have a great capacity to respond to the selection pressures to which they are subjected. Data obtained here could be used as an important tool when establishing guidelines for plans for the sustainable use and conservation of S. merianae and other species living in disturbed areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Skull shape differentiation of black and white olms (Proteus anguinus anguinus and Proteus a. parkelj): an exploratory analysis with micro-CT scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanović, A.; Aljančič, G.; Artzen, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    We performed an exploratory analysis of the morphology of the cranium in the white olm (Proteus anguinus anguinus) and the black olm (P. a. parkelj) with micro-CT scanning and geometric morphometrics. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) was used as an outgroup. The black olm falls outside the white

  2. Direct-to-consumer advertising in black and white: racial differences in placement patterns of print advertisements for health products and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, LaVera M; Hisaw, Lisa; Illes, Judy

    2009-01-01

    If direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) increases consumer participation in healthcare, then it may provide a useful strategy for addressing health disparities, in part, where patient-level barriers have contributed to such disparities. However, this presumes equitable access to DTCA. Using mixed methods, we explored advertisement patterns in matched African American and general audience magazines across a range of genres and ad types. Results suggest no significant differences in ad frequencies by race. However other meaningful categorical and qualitative differences were found, suggesting that advertisers may fall short in maximizing DTCA as an adjunctive strategy for empowering populations at risk for health disparities.

  3. The American Family in Black and White: A Post-Racial Strategy for Improving Skills to Promote Equality. NBER Working Paper No. 16841

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary America, racial gaps in achievement are primarily due to gaps in skills. Skill gaps emerge early before children enter school. Families are major producers of those skills. Inequality in performance in school is strongly linked to inequality in family environments. Schools do little to reduce or enlarge the gaps in skills that are…

  4. "Six Packs and Big Muscles, and Stuff like That". Primary School-Aged South African Boys, Black and White, on Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the salience of sport in the lives of eight-year-old and nine-year-old South African primary school boys. Drawing on ethnographic and interview data, I argue that young boys' developing relationship with sport is inscribed within particular gendered, raced and classed discourses in South Africa. Throughout the paper I show…

  5. Intellectual Classification of Black and White Children in Special Education Programs Using the WISC-III and the Cognitive Assessment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Third Edition) and the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) with 78 special education students found that the WISC-III identified more children, especially more black children, as having mental retardation. Results imply that the problem of disproportionate identification of black children…

  6. Food insecurity and self-reported hypertension among Hispanic, black, and white adults in 12 states, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Shalon M; Njai, Rashid S; Siegel, Paul Z

    2014-09-18

    Food insecurity is positively linked to risk of hypertension; however, it is not known whether this relationship persists after adjustment for socioeconomic position (SEP). We examined the association between food insecurity and self-reported hypertension among adults aged 35 or older (N = 58,677) in 12 states that asked the food insecurity question in their 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire. After adjusting for SEP, hypertension was more common among adults reporting food insecurity (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.36). Our study found a positive relationship between food insecurity and hypertension after adjusting for SEP and other characteristics.

  7. Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.

  8. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Obesity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in black and white 9- and 10-year-old girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Sprecher, D; McMahon, RP; Schreiber, GB; Khoury, PR

    It has been hypothesized that the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated in part through its inverse relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Obesity is inversely correlated with HDL-C, and HDL-C has been shown to be protective

  10. Effects of acute and chronic stress on the L-arginine nitric oxide pathway in black and white South Africans: the sympathetic activity and ambulatory blood pressure in Africans study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Manja; Hamer, Mark; Malan, Nicolaas T; Schlaich, Markus P; Lambert, Gavin W; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Boeger, Rainer H; Malan, Leoné

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of stress on effectors of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) system including the endogenous inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Black (n = 168) and white (n = 206) South African teachers were exposed to a mental and a physical stressor for 1 minute, respectively. Serum samples for determination of l-arginine, NO metabolites, ADMA, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were obtained at rest and during stress exposure. Perception of task stressfulness was assessed on a 7-point Likert scale, and psychological distress was estimated by the General Health Questionnaire. Black South Africans exhibited higher resting levels of NO metabolites (adjusted mean [standard error of the mean] = 11.3 [1.3] versus 3.9 [1.1] μmol/l, p stress were evident for NO metabolites (blacks versus whites: 5.94 [1.55] versus -0.74 [1.25] μmol/l, p = .004) and SDMA (blacks versus whites: -0.02 [0.01] versus 0.02 [0.01] μmol/l, p = .004). Ethnicity-by-psychological distress interaction for stress responses was found for l-arginine/ADMA ratio (p = .027). The l-arginine/NO system is affected by psychosocial distress with higher susceptibility in black South Africans. This interaction may contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease risk in black South Africans.

  11. Pre-teen insulin resistance predicts weight gain, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes at age 18-19 y : a 10-y prospective study of black and white girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Horn, Paul S.; Schreiber, George B.; Wang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identifying early pre-teen predictors of adolescent weight gain and the development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at age 18-19 y could provide avenues for prevention. Objective: We evaluated possible pre-teen predictors for development of IFG, T2DM, and

  12. Can It Really Be This Black and White? An Analysis of the Relative Importance of Ethnic Group and Other Sociodemographic Factors to Patterns of Drug Use and Related Risk among Young Londoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred regular users of illegal drugs, aged 16-20, were recruited by peers in ten further education colleges across inner London. Data collected by self-completion questionnaire are presented on patterns of cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, stimulant and other drug use among White, Black and Asian ethnic groups. Multiple and logistic regression…

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Serotype Infantis Strains Isolated from a Captive Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a Cohabitant Black and White Tegu (Tupinambis merianae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Coura, Fernanda M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Pessanha, Angela T; Pereira, Felipe L; Leal, Carlos A G; Heinemann, Marcos B; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Santos, Renato L

    2016-01-21

    The draft genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis isolates are reported here. One of the strains was isolated from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with colitis. The second strain was isolated from a reptile that inhabited the same premises. Whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that these isolates were not clonal. Copyright © 2016 Paixão et al.

  14. Fitness consequences of cooperative breeding in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David; Burke, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive fitness benefits have been suggested as the selective force behind the evolution of cooperative breeding. Assessing the benefits accrued to individual males and females is crucial to understanding the sex-specific helping behavior observed in many cooperatively breeding species. We

  15. Population predictions for Seychelles warblers in novel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, Jo; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David; Sutherland, William J.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for population ecology is to be able to predict population sizes in novel conditions, as in those following habitat loss or translocation. To do this successfully, we show here that it is necessary to understand the behavioral basis of dispersal decisions as they affect fitness.

  16. Experimental evidence for innate predator recognition in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Thor; Richardson, David S.; Blaakmeer, Karen; Komdeur, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation is a major determinant of fitness in birds and costly nest defence behaviours have evolved in order to reduce nest predation. Some avian studies have suggested that predator recognition is innate whereas others hate stressed the importance: of learning. However, none of these studies

  17. Effects of reed cutting on density and breeding success of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpacaeus and sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1999-01-01

    The management of reedbeds for birds is often a controversial issue in discussions between conservationists, reed harvesters and managers. At the same time, data on the density and nesting success of birds in cut and uncut reed are scarce. This paper presents the results of a study on the density

  18. Effects on forest birds of DDT used for gypsy moth control in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Pough, R.H.

    1946-01-01

    1. Systematic censuses of the birds on three 40-acre tracts of forest near Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, were made between May 1 and June 27, 1945, to determine the breeding populations....2. Between May 24 and June 1 a 600-acre area enclosing the first (Mile Square) was sprayed by airplane with DDT in oil solution at 5 pounds per acre. On June 9 a 350-acre area enclosing the second tract (Maple Lake) was sprayed with 1pound of DDT per acre. The third tract (Check) was not treated....3. Within 48 hours after treatment of the Mile Square tract, five sick birds were found with symptoms of DDT poisoning, and all died. Two other dead birds were found, and two nests apparently were abandoned. Species involved were red-eyed vireo (3), black-and-white warbler, black-throated blue warbler (nest abandoned), ovenbird (bird died, nest abandoned), redstart, and scarlet tanager....Within 48 hours after application of DDT to the final portion of the tract (on June 1) the population of living birds appeared to have been much reduced, and this condition continued. Before spraying the population total for all species was 1.6 pairs (3.2 birds) per acre. Three days after spraying had been completed there were only two singing males in the entire area; but on June 13 the estimated population was 0.5 bird per acre.....4. After DDT was applied to the Maple Lake tract, careful watch was kept for changes in the bird population and as to nest conditions there and on the Check tract. The apparent total reduction for all species in the Maple Lake tract was from 2.7 pairs to 2.6 pairs per acre; and in the Check tract from 2.7 pairs to 2.4 pairs per acre. Neither these changes nor the observed abandonment of nests and nestling mortality could be attributed to use of DDT.

  19. 76 FR 66954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...). black lemur (Eulemur macaco). brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia...). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variagata). red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). black lemur (Eulemur...

  20. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  1. Combination of three-dimensional laser scanning and digital photogrammetric shoot for fixing and measurement of architectural monuments

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Tiurin; S.G. Tihonov

    2010-01-01

    Several variants of architectural monument fixing using photogrammetric method are considered: black-and-white and colour three-dimensional point models; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in format SPO; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in standard raster formats. For different aims authors recommend corresponding data formats.

  2. A desigualdade invisível: o papel da classe social na criação dos filhos em famílias negras e brancas Invisible inequality: the role of social class in raising children from black and white families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Lareau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de a vida familiar ter um impacto importante nas oportunidades de vida dos filhos, os mecanismos pelos quais os pais transmitem essas vantagens ainda não são totalmente compreendidos. Uma coleta de dados, realizada por meio de ferramentas etnográficas, com crianças brancas e negras de, aproximadamente, 10 anos de idade mostra os efeitos da classe social nas interações dentro de casa. Pais de classe média participam de um cultivo orquestrado (concerted cultivation, ao tentar cultivar os talentos dos filhos através de atividades de lazer organizadas e intensa racionalização. A classe trabalhadora e os pais pobres promovem um crescimento natural (natural growth, oferecendo condições para que os filhos possam crescer, mas deixando as atividades de lazer para as próprias crianças. Estes pais também usam diretivas em vez de racionalização. Os filhos da classe média, tanto brancos como negros, recebem um sentimento emergente de direito através de sua vida familiar. A raça teve muito menos impacto do que a classe econômica. Além disso, as diferenças na lógica cultural de criação ofereceram aos pais e aos filhos recursos distintos no momento de interação com profissionais de instituições dominantes e com outros adultos fora do ambiente familiar. Os filhos da classe média ganharam individualmente vantagens insignificantes, mas cumulativamente importantes. As classes trabalhadoras e pobres não apresentaram o mesmo sentimento de direito ou suas vantagens. No entanto, algumas áreas da vida familiar pareceram ser livres dos efeitos de classe social.Although family life has an important impact on children's chances in life, the mechanisms through which parents transmit advantages are imperfectly understood. An ethnographic data set of white and black children around 10 years old shows the effects of social class on interactions at home. Middle-class parents engage in concerted cultivation by attempting to foster children's talents through organized leisure activities and extensive reasoning. Working-class and poor parents engage in the accomplishment of natural growth, providing the conditions under which children can grow, but leaving leisure activities to children themselves. These parents also use commands rather than reasoning. Middle-class children, both white and black, gain an emerging sense of entitlement from their family life. Race had much less impact than social class. Also, differences in a cultural logic of raising children gave parents and their children differential resources to draw on in their interactions with professionals from dominant classes and other adults outside home. Middle-class children gained individually insignificant but cumulatively important advantages. Working-class and poor children did not display the same sense of entitlement or advantages. Some areas of family life appeared immune from the effects of social class, however.

  3. Evolution in Australasian mangrove forests: multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the Gerygone warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád S Nyári

    Full Text Available The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae. The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci. Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster.

  4. Rescue of the Seychelles warbler on Cousin Island, Seychelles : The role of habitat restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Pels, MD; Pels, Mariëtte D.

    Management policies to save threatened species are not always successful, often due to the lack of a scientific basis and evaluation of the species response. We describe the ecological studies and the conservation actions taken between 1985 and 1992 on Cousin Island (29 ha, Seychelles) to safeguard

  5. Parental care in the multi-brooded Black-throated Blue Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk W Stodola; Eric T Linder; David A Buehler; Kathleen E Franzreb; Robert J. Cooper

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing reproductive output often entails a trade-off between energy spent on current breeding attempts and that saved for future reproductive opportunities. For species with biparental care, energy spent on the current breeding attempt represents not only a trade-off with future breeding opportunities but also an interaction with the energetic effort of one’s mate...

  6. Evaluation of Mist-net Sampling as an Index to Productivity in Kirtland's Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnathan Bart; Cameron Kepler; Paul Sykes; Carol Bocetti

    1999-01-01

    Many applied and theoretical investigations require information on how productivity varies in time and space (Temple and Wiens 1989, DeSante 1995). Examples include studies of habitat quality, population trends, life-history tactics, and metapopulation dynamics. From a demographic perspective, reproductivity is the number of young, counted at a given time of year,...

  7. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi’s Warbler Locustella luscinioides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neto, J. M.; Arroyo, J. L.; Bargain, B.; Monrós, J. S.; Mátrai, N.; Procházka, Petr; Zehtindjiev, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), e38497 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cross-species amplification * Iberian glacial refugium * Extra-pair paternity * Population-structure * Genetic differentiation * Microsatellite loci * Software * Mitochondrial diversification * Bird Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  8. Moulting and wintering grounds of Marsh Warblers Acrocephalus palustris: evidence from stable isotopes and ring recoveries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Kralj, J.; Pearson, D. J.; Yohannes, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-200 ISSN 0001-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bird migration * feather stable isotopes * ring recoveries * stopover * migratory connectivity * δ13C * δ15N Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  9. Cross-continental migratory connectivity and spatiotemporal migratory patterns in the great reed warbler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Procházka, Petr; El-Arabany, N.; Tarka, M.; Ilieva, M.; Hahn, S.; Honza, Marcel; de la Puente, J.; Bermejo, A.; Gürsoy, A.; Bensch, S.; Zehtindjiev, P.; Hasselquist, D.; Hansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2016), s. 756-767 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Light-level geolocators * Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Bird migration * Palearctic passerines * Wintering ground * Migrant birds * Wide tracking * Complete molt * Annual cycle * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  10. Breeding success and brood parasitism affect return rate and dispersal distances in the great reed warbler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Trnka, A.; Baslerová, P.; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2015), s. 1845-1853 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404; GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Adult survival * Breeding care * Fidelity * Host-parasite interaction * Polygyny * Social status Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2015

  11. Timing of natal nests is an important factor affecting return rates of juvenile Great Reed Warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnovcová, Kateřina; Koleček, Jaroslav; Požgayová, Milica; Jelínek, Václav; Šulc, Michal; Steidlová, Petra; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 1 (2018), s. 183-190 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Juvenile condition * Juvenile survival * Local dispersal distances * Natal philopatry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  12. Airborne laser altimetry and multispectral imagery for modeling Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven E. Sesnie; James M. Mueller; Sarah E. Lehnen; Scott M. Rowin; Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Robust models of wildlife population size, spatial distribution, and habitat relationships are needed to more effectively monitor endangered species and prioritize habitat conservation efforts. Remotely sensed data such as airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and digital color infrared (CIR) aerial photography combined with well-designed field studies can help fill these...

  13. Intraspecific variation in the wing shape and genetic differentiation of Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus in Croatia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kralj, J.; Procházka, Petr; Fainová, Drahomíra; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Tutiš, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2010), s. 51-58 ISSN 0001-6454 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : wing morphology * migration * microsatellites * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2010

  14. Male Seychelles warblers use territory budding to maximize lifetime fitness in a saturated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Edelaar, P

    2001-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping at the nest and budding off part of the natal territory have been advanced as strategies to increase fitness in an environment that is saturated with territories. The importance of helping or territory budding as a determinant of lifetime reproductive

  15. Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drives morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Marki, Petter Z; Christidis, Les

    2018-04-01

    Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here, we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric and sympatric complexes. In addition, we investigated whether morphological similarities between species are related to environmental factors at fine scale (foraging niche) and/or large scale (climate). Contrary to that predicted by the competition hypothesis, we did not find a significant correlation between the morphological similarities found between species and their degree of range overlap. Comparative modeling based on both a priori and data-driven identification of selective regimes suggested that foraging niche is a poor predictor of morphological variability in acanthizids. By contrast, our results indicate that climatic conditions were an important factor in the formation of morphological variation. We found a significant negative correlation between species scores for PC1 (positively associated to tarsus length and tail length) and both temperature and precipitation, whereas PC2 (positively associated to bill length and wing length) correlated positively with precipitation. In addition, we found that species inhabiting the same region are closer to each other in morphospace than to species outside that region regardless of genus to which they belong or its foraging strategy. Our results indicate that the conservative body form of acanthizids is one that can work under a wide variety of environments (an all-purpose morphology), and the observed interspecific similarity is probably driven by the common response to environment.

  16. Survey of the Golden-Cheeked Warbler on Fort Hood in Support of NEPA Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or...contained 3 nestlings , which was the same number of fledglings observed being fed by both adults for at least 3 weeks within its territory. The sec- ond...nest was found on 17 May 2006 with a female incubating. Observa- tions were made of both adults feeding an unknown number of nestlings but the final

  17. Pre-ovulation control of hatchling sex ratio in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Magrath, MJL; Krackow, S

    2002-01-01

    Females of some bird species have a high degree of control over the sex ratio of their offspring at laying. Although several mechanisms have been put forward to explain how females might control the sex of their eggs, virtually nothing is known. As females are the heterogametic sex in birds,

  18. Factors affecting reed warbler risk of brood parasitism by the common cuckoo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clarke, A. L.; Oien, I. J.; Honza, Marcel; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2001), s. 534-538 ISSN 0004-8038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cuculus canorus * nests Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2001 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4089817

  19. Survival of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus clutches in relation to nest position

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Oein, I. J.; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, c. 1 (1998), s. 104-108 ISSN 0006-3657 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/93/2241 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.534, year: 1997 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bto/ bird /1998/00000045/00000001/451104

  20. Nest defence, enemy recognition and nest inspection behaviour of experimentally parasitized Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Grim, T.; Čapek Jr., Miroslav; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2004), s. 256-263 ISSN 0006-3657 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/P046; GA AV ČR IAA6093203; GA MŠk VS96019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cuculus canorus * brood parasitism * eggs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2004 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bto/ bird /2004/00000051/00000003/art00009

  1. Within- and between-season repeatability of eggshell colouration in the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Požgayová, Milica

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2012), s. 91-96 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * eggs hell coloration * repeatability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.020, year: 2012

  2. Nest as an extended phenotype signal of female quality in the great reed warbler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2016), s. 428-437 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca * cross-fostering experiment * male reproductive success * cuckoos Cuculus canorus * egg color * sexual selection * clutch size * Acrocephalus arundinaceus * functional significance * Pygoscelis antarctica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  3. Choosing suitable hosts: common cuckoos Cuculus canorus parasitize great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus of high quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polačiková, Lenka; Procházka, Petr; Cherry, M. I.; Honza, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2009), s. 879-891 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Cuckoo * Host quality * Host selection * Spectrophotometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.193, year: 2009

  4. Distribution and Habitat Use of Swainson's Warblers in Eastern and Northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Bednarz; Petra Stiller-Krehel; Brian Cannon

    2005-01-01

    Systematic surveys of hardwood forests along the Buffalo National River, the St. Francis Sunken Lands Wildlife Management Area, St. Francis National Forest, Bayou Meto Wildlife Management Area, and the White River National Wildlife Refuge in eastern and northern Arkansas were undertaken between 5 April and 30 June 2000 and 2001 to document current status, distribution...

  5. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is not locally adapted to its reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avilés, J. M.; Vikan, J. R.; Fossoy, F.; Antonov, A.; Moksnes, A.; Roskaft, E.; Shykoff, J.A.; Moller, A. P.; Jensen, H.; Procházka, Petr; Stokke, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2011), s. 314-325 ISSN 1010-061X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : coevolution * geographical mosaic * local adaptation * mimicry * specialization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.276, year: 2011

  6. Breeding in the monsoon : semi-annual reproduction in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Daan, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Despite the absence of pronounced changes in day length, there is considerable climatological seasonality in the tropics. Its expression can be complex like in the monsoon climate of the Indian Ocean Islands. The land mass distribution on both sides of the equator leads to seasonal changes in

  7. Delineating large-scale migratory connectivity of reed warblers using integrated multistate models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Hahn, S.; Rolland, S.; van der Jeugd, H.; Csörgő, T.; Jiguet, F.; Mokwa, T.; Liechti, F.; Vangeluwe, D.; Korner-Nievergelt, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-40 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * band encounter data * bird migration * loop migration * migratory connectivity * ring recovery data * ring recovery model * species distribution * survival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  8. Parent presence, delayed dispersal, and territory acquisition in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, C.; Richardson, D. S.; Komdeur, J.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of parents in the natal territory may play an important, but often overlooked, role in natal dispersal and the consequent acquisition of a territory. Living with parents in a territory may confer a fitness advantage to subordinates through, for example, the nepotistic behavior of the

  9. Evidence that helping at the nest does not result in territory inheritance in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Edelaar, Pim

    2001-01-01

    In an environment that has a shortage of territories, helping to rear younger siblings ('alloparenting') is proposed to facilitate territory acquisition in two ways: (i) through group augmentation that leads to an increase of the territory with subsequent partial inheritance (budding); and (ii)

  10. Birds of a feather winter together: migratory connectivity in the Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Hobson, K. A.; Karcza, Z.; Kralj, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2008), s. 141-150 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * migratory connectivity * migratory divide * ringing recoveries * stable isotopes Sub ject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2008

  11. Diversity Issues in the Army as Perceived by Army Students at the United States Army War College

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Cecil

    1997-01-01

    .... This flag issue, as well as other class discussions on social and domestic programs, highlighted significant differences of opinion between Blacks and Whites on equal opportunity, affirmative action...

  12. Hopeless solicitation? Host-absent vocalization in the common cuckoo has no effect on feeding rate of reed warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šicha, Václav; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2007), s. 147-152 ISSN 0289-0771 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * begging * brood parasitism * cuckoo * food provisioning * vocalization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w13261705p747606/fulltext.pdf

  13. Assessment of oak wilt threat to habitat of the golden-cheeked warbler, an endangered species, in central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Appel; Kim S. Camilli

    2010-01-01

    A major epidemic of oak wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, has been killing trees in Central Texas for at least 40 years. This has created large and expanding canopy gaps in the vast, homogenous live oak woodlands (Quercus fusiformis Small) in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas. The changes in stand...

  14. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Groce, Julie E.; Morrison, Michael L.; Newnam, John C.; Campomizzi, Andrew J.; Farrell, Shannon L.; Mathewson, Heather A.; Snelgrove, Robert T.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Wilkins, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    -makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection

  15. Great Reed Warbler singing behavior and conspicuous song structures are not nest-location cues for the Common Cuckoo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Miroslav; Petrusková, T.; Šebelíková, Z.; Serrano, J. C.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 4 (2017), s. 925-933 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-12262S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * Eavesdropping * Host activity hypothesis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  16. Offspring sex ratio variation in relation to brood size and mortality in a promiscuous species: the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyrcz, A.; Sauer-Gurth, H.; Tkadlec, Emil; Wink, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 2 (2004), s. 269-280 ISSN 0019-1019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : adaptive modification * birds * reproduction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2004

  17. Latitudinal gradients in the productivity of European migrant warblers have not shifted northwards during a period of climate change.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eglington, S; Juliard, R; Gargallo, G; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Pearce Higgins, J; Baillie, S.R.; Robinson, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim As global temperatures have increased, many species distributions have exhibited polewards shifts, a trend that is predicted to continue in future decades. However, the mechanisms underlying such shifts are not well understood. Here we quantify the impact of large-scale variation in temperature

  18. High synchrony of egg laying in common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moskát, C.; Barta, Z.; Hauber, M. E.; Honza, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2006), s. 159-167 ISSN 0394-9370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605 Grant - others:OTKA(HU) T29570; OTKA(HU) T48397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : adaptation * brood parasitism * laying pattern * multiple parasitism * reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2006 http://ejour-fup.unifi.it/index.php/eee/article/viewFile/1140/1085

  19. Nest defence in a cuckoo host: great reed warblers risk themselves equally for their own and parasitic chicks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Šicha, Václav; Požgayová, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 147, 5-6 (2010), s. 741-756 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * chick discrimination * cuckoo * mobbing * nest defence * nestlingnestling recognition * parental investment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010

  20. Mixed effects of geolocators on reproduction and survival of Cerulean Warblers, a canopy-dwelling, long-distance migrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas W. Raybuck; Jeffrey L. Larkin; Scott H. Stoleson; Than J. Boves

    2017-01-01

    Light-level geolocators, miniature devices used for tracking avian migration over the full annual cycle, are being widely deployed on small migratory passerines. However, the effects of carrying geolocators on the breeding biology of songbirds are unclear, and variable species- and guild-specific conclusions have been drawn regarding their effects on return rates (...

  1. The variability of territorial behavior of Sylvia warblers depending on the habitats structure of and population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matantseva Maria Valer

    2017-09-01

    The research was conducted partially under the theme № 0221-2014-0037 "The dynamics of the fauna of birds and mammals of the Russian European North in conditions of intensive anthropogenic and climate changes: monitoring, management and conservation of biodiversity" (№ АААА-А17-117022850042-8, and partially with the support of RFBR (projects №№ 06-05-64368, 12-04-31872, and 15-05-03493.

  2. Conflicting short and long-term management goals: Fire effects in endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina M. Andruk; Norma L. Fowler

    2015-01-01

    Decades of fire suppression have significantly altered the vegetation structure and composition of savannas, woodlands, and forests. The presence of endangered species and other species of conservation concern in these fire-suppressed systems makes re-introducing fire more challenging. In oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, we are presented with the challenge of re...

  3. No effects of a feather mite on body condition, survivorship, or grooming behavior in the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowling, DK; Richardson, DS; Komdeur, J; Dowling, Damian K.; Richardson, David S.; Czeschlik, T.

    A common assumption of studies examining host-symbiont interactions is that all symbiotic organisms are parasitic. Feather mites are widespread symbionts of birds that do not appear to deplete the host of any vital resources. Instead they feed on the oily secretions that cover the feathers and the

  4. Assessing the Cost of Helping : The Roles of Body Condition and Oxidative Balance in Seychelles Warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.; Rands, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress

  5. First insights into the migration route and migratory connectivity of the Paddyfield Warbler using geolocator tagging and stable isotope analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brlík, Vojtěch; Ilieva, M.; Lisovski, S.; Voigt, C. C.; Procházka, Petr

    (2018) ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bird migration * Indo-European flyway * Light-level geolocation * Migration direction Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  6. Spatio-temporal variation in territory quality and oxidative status : a natural experiment in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S.; Nussey, Dan

    P>1. Fluctuations in the quality of the habitat in which an animal lives can have major consequences for its behaviour and physiological state. In poor-quality habitat with low food availability, metabolically intensive foraging activity is likely to result in increased generation of reactive oxygen

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... download print versions of the PSA. Black and White 7 x 10 (PDF, 204KB) 7 x 5 (PDF, 212KB) Small (PDF, 451 KB) Color 7 x 10 (PDF, 717KB) 7 x 5 ( ... You can download print versions of the PSA. Color (PDF, 2.3 MB) Black and White (PDF, 1.1 MB) Web Banner We have ...

  8. Black-White Differences in Cognitive Processing: A Study of the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive Theory of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes; Matto, Holly C.; Aquilino, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have typically found a mean difference of about 15 points between Blacks and Whites on traditional measures of intelligence. Some have argued that the difference between Blacks and Whites would be smaller on measures of cognitive processing. This study examined Black (n = 298) and White (n = 1,691) children on Planning, Attention,…

  9. Gross morphology betrays phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Fregin, Silke

    2011-01-01

    .). Superficial morphological similarity to cisticolid warblers has previously clouded the species true relationship. Detailed morphology, such as facial bristles and claw and footpad structure, also supports a closer relationship to Cettiidae and some other non-cisticolid warblers....

  10. Using stable hydrogen isotopes (delta2H) and ring recoveries to trace natal origins in a Eurasian passerine with a migratory divide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Van Wilgenburg, S. L.; Neto, J. M.; Yosef, R.; Hobson, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2013), s. 541-550 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508; GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus * autumn migration * sedge warblers * population declines * willow warblers * dispersal Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research ... You can download print versions of the PSA. Black and White 7 x 10 (PDF, 204KB) 7 ...

  12. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  13. Colour in Learning from Film and TV: A Survey of the Research with Some Indications for Future Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen M.

    1976-01-01

    Sixteen studies from 1944 to 1974 are reviewed. The overall conclusion is that there is no marked difference in learning from color or black and white film or television. This may be due to the insensitivity of our instruments. (BD)

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... Department of Radiology, Kalafong Hospital, University of Pretoria. Van Zyl DG .... ultrasonographers were trained and certified as CIMT sonographers by ..... South Africa among black and white school teachers. (mean age 45 ...

  15. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the host. .... BE, Drewes LR (2003). Molecular features, regulation and ... Dynamics of ruminal volatile fatty acids in black and white bulls before and after feeding ...

  16. Construction and calibration of solar radiometers: pyranometer and pyrheliometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, J.F.; Passos, E.F.; Souza, M.F. de

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the construction and development of solar radiometers and discusses some characteristic parameters such as linearity, sensitivity and time constant, using an Eppley black-and-white pyranometer as reference. (author) [pt

  17. Rahvusooper taastas Estonia balli traditsiooni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Aastavahetusballi operetikavast "Suudluste valss", USA koreograaf-lavastaja Russell Adamsoni dzhässikavast "Black and White" Rahvusooperis Estonia. Kontserdisaalis mängivad tantsuks Rahvusooperi sümfooniaorkester Andres Mustoneni juhatusel ja ansambel Modern Fox

  18. Racial Differences in the Perception of Contraception Option Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robert J.; Gold, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    More than 600 never-married college students completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward 10 contraceptive options. Results were analyzed separately for Blacks and Whites, and then for males and females. Findings are discussed. (MT)

  19. History of the modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    The book treats the following topics: structure and motion of the sky - classical astronomy, origin of astrophysics, macrocosm - microcosm, and techniques and organization of research. 86 black-and-white and 15 color plates are included

  20. CRED Fish Observations from Stereo Video Cameras on a SeaBED AUV collected around Tutuila, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black and white imagery were collected using a stereo pair of underwater video cameras mounted on a SeaBED autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and deployed around...