Ratusnik, David L.; Koenigsknecht, Roy A
Six speech and language clinicians, 3 black and 3 white, administered the Goodenough Drawing Test (1926) to 144 preschoolers. The 4 groups, lower-socioeconomic black and white and middle-socioeconomic black and white, were equally divided by sex. The biracial clinical setting was shown to influence test scores in black preschool age children.…
Holm, Isak Winkel
of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...
Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we...... present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...
Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing.
Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing. © 2011 ACM.
Kalz, M. (2010, 22 January). Personal Learning Environments in Black and White. Presentation provided during the workshop "Informal Learning and the use of social software in veterinary medicine" of the Noviceproject (http://www.noviceproject.eu), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Rene, Antonio A.; Clifford, Patrick R.
Overviews vital statistics data, emphasizing differences in health status between the Black and White populations with respect to specific diseases and mortality. Discusses major causes of death among US Blacks. (GC)
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I
to exist in the frequency of which several skin diseases occur among blacks and whites. A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors....
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I
This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear ...
Perry, W. E.
Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic plate, when sandwiched between pair of conventional light polarizers, forms electrically controlled coverter for television camera. Assembly can be used with camera at remote site to enable camera to transmit color or black and white signal on command.
Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J
Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.
Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.
Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101
. The narrative draws heavily on the myth of Don Juan, who after having scored a host of women has to pay for his sins. But while the narrative also draws on all sorts of other representations of Don Juanism, from biblical intertextual references to Mozart's Don Giovanni, and thus relies on a plot development...
Williams, Charles; And Others
Investigated whether prejudicial attitudes of Black and White counselors affected their verbal communication and written discrimination responses to Black and White clients. Results indicated that prejudicial attitudes of Black and White counselors had no significant relationship to their levels of responding skills to Black and White clients.…
Miguel, V.; Benet, J.; Coello, J.; Calatayud, A.; Martínez, A.
Slip Line Field is a numerical method applied for modelling plane-strain processes. This method has been successfully checked properly for sheet drawing. Flange deformation in deep drawing is considered without change in thickness. A drawing mechanical test has been developed in order to reproduce the flange stresses state in sheet strips with the rolling direction selected. The fundamentals of this test, and some experimental results obtained from it, have been presented previously in different Congresses. In this work, an algorithm based on SLF has been implemented and theoretical results evaluated for different conditions. The algorithm have been applied to a mild DDQ steel and to a DDQ AISI 304 stainless steel. Theoretical and experimental results are compared. A good concordance in them has been found out under some conditions. One of the most important aspects is that it must not be considered tensile material properties but a modified behavior under multiaxial conditions.
Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M
Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).
Houston, Lawrence N.
A questionnaire was administered to 1,142 Black and White university students of both sexes in an effort to determine the relationship between eroticism, romanticism and sexual identity. Results indicated that males were more erotic, females more romantic, and that the discrepancy was greater for Blacks than for Whites. (Author/CM)
Maxwell, G Larry; Allard, Jay; Gadisetti, Chandramouli V R; Litzi, Tracy; Casablanca, Yovanni; Chandran, Uma; Darcy, Kathleen M; Levine, Douglas A; Berchuck, Andrew; Hamilton, Chad A; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I
Previous studies suggest that differences in molecular features of endometrial cancers between racial groups may contribute to the poorer survival in Blacks. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether gene expression among endometrial cancers is different between Blacks and Whites. Fresh frozen tumors from 25 Black patients were matched by stage, grade, and histology to endometrial cancer specimens from 25 White patients. Each case was macrodissected to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 75% cancer cellularity. A subset of 10 matched pairs was also prepared using laser microdissection (LMD) to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 95% cancer cells. Total RNA isolated from each sample was analyzed using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and binary class comparison analyses. Unsupervised analysis of the 50 endometrial cancers failed to identify global gene expression profiles unique to Black or White patients. In a subset analysis of 10 matched pairs from Blacks and Whites prepared using LMD and macrodissection, unsupervised analysis did not reveal a unique gene expression profile associated with race in either set, but associations were identified that relate to sample preparation technique, histology and stage. Our microarray data revealed no global gene expression differences and identified few individual gene differences between endometrial cancers from Blacks and Whites. More comprehensive methods of transcriptome analysis could uncover RNAs that may underpin the disparity of outcome or prevalence of endometrial cancers in Blacks and Whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To determine communication conflict style differences in black and white subjective cultures, 123 black and 180 white university students were administered the Organizational Communication Conflict Instrument (OCCI), a scale measuring the three conflict management styles: control (confrontation); nonconfrontation; and solution-orientation. Results…
Eastern black and white colobus monkeys, or guerezas (Colobus guereza), are among the few primate species that have traditionally been regarded as not being adversely affected by habitat degradation. This view was recently challenged by von Hippel et al. (2000) who, using data from short-term censuses in 1992 and ...
Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans. K. Peltzer. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 115-118). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i3.9074 · AJOL African Journals Online.
Young, Rosalie F.; And Others
The effects of stress on the psychosocial well-being of older persons have been well documented. Research on stress among the aged has generally considered recent life events as salient stressors in late life and has focussed on older persons without regard to racial differences. Interviews were conducted with 400 elderly black and white residents…
Nollen, Nicole; Kaur, Harsohena; Pulvers, Kim; Choi, Won; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Li, Chaoyang; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Cultural differences have been found in body image perceptions among Black and White adolescents, however little is known about the factors associated with perceptions of an ideal body size (IBS). This study examined differences in correlates of IBS among 265 Black (116 girls and 62 boys) and White (63 girls and 24 boys) adolescents. IBS for White…
Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH
Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to
Tyler, Kenneth; Love, Keisha; Brown, Carrie; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Thomas, Deneia; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined relationships between home-based communal activities and beliefs and student reports of various achievement correlates with 290 black and white undergraduates. MANOVA procedures examined differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, identified motivation, motivation to know, and amotivation and scores on Home Communalism Measure…
Wright, Stephen W.
A color-change reaction is described in which two colorless solutions are combined to afford a black mixture. Two more colorless solutions are combined to afford a white mixture. The black and white mixtures are then combined to afford a clear, colorless solution. The reaction uses chemicals that are readily available on the retail market: vitamin C, tincture of iodine, vinegar, ammonia, bleach, Epsom salt, and laundry starch.
Byrne, J. M.; Brown, M. B.; Peacock, K.
Climate denialism is distinct from a merely skeptical attitude towards generally accepted views in climate science. But drawing the line between them takes care—there are similarities between skepticism and denial, including a shared reluctance to accept conclusions that nearly all qualified scientists take to be well-justified. Here we will explore both how to draw the line, and how to effectively communicate the differences between denial and skepticism. Identifying which of these two terms best describes someone's attitude turns on whether they reject a generally accepted view based on a `high threshold' for acceptance of conclusions in general, or from a preference that the conclusion in question be false. In most cases, denialism manifests in disregard and mistreatment of evidence, including selective quotation, credulous endorsement of bad sources and incredulous rejection of good sources. Historically, current accepted views became dominant as alternatives were excluded and arguments supporting current views accumulated. The accumulated record of evidence and successful application of those views sets a high bar for proposed alternatives to them. Pure skeptics may refuse to endorse generally accepted views without rejecting or distorting the strong evidence for those views, and typically support policy responses based on the implications of that evidence. But deniers who reject scientific conclusions reject the evidence for those views while endorsing views that a true skeptic would regard as less plausible and well-supported than the accepted views. Thus motivated cognition is the key to defining denial. Pascal's famous argument for belief in God illustrates the problem: even assuming God's existence to be extremely improbable, the expected value of believing is far higher than the expected value of disbelieving. But Pascal's argument undermines its own methodology: without reasons to rely on beliefs as reliable guides to successful action, cost
McEachern, Michelle; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Klug, Page E.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.; Reed, Robert N.
An established population of Tupinambis merianae (Black and White Tegu) in southeastern Florida threatens the Everglades ecosystem. Understanding the behavioral ecology of Black and White Tegus could aid in management and control plans. Black and White Tegus are seasonally active and brumate during the winter in their native range, but brumation behavior is largely unstudied in either the native or the invasive range. We describe the first observations of Black and White Tegu brumation in southeastern Florida after monitoring 5 free-ranging, adult male Black and White Tegus through an inactive season using radiotelemetry and automated cameras. Duration of brumation averaged 137 days, beginning in September and ending by February. One of the 5 Black and White Tegus emerged to bask regularly during brumation, which to our knowledge represents the first documented instance of a free-ranging Black and White Tegu basking during brumation. These preliminary findings provide a basis for future research of brumation behavior.
Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.; Woods, Krystle C.
Drawing upon feminist analyses of double jeopardy and the cult of true womanhood, we examine race, rank, sexual harassment frequency, and psychological distress for Black and White female military personnel (N= 7,714). Results indicated that White women reported more overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and crude behavior, whereas Black…
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Munk-Lund, Steen; Gjøl, Mikkel
Two novel and robust techniques for wireframe drawing are proposed. Neither suffer from the well-known artifacts associated with the standard two pass, offset based techniques for wireframe drawing. Both methods draw prefiltered lines and produce high-quality antialiased results without super...
While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221
Tue, S. J.; Chiang, John Y.
Lines and junctions are principal features for a line image. The spatial relationships established among them are usually employed in applications such as OCR and architectural blueprint vectorization. The conventional thinning techniques often suffered the pitfall of spurious junction points that are crucial features to derive. The liability of the shape of the skeleton resulting from multiple fork points connected through several short branches will impeded the further recognition stage. In this paper, a new approach which differentiates from the conventional thinning algorithm in vectorizing a raster line image is presented. This vectorization algorithm takes the ensemble of pixels within the line segments collectively as legitimate candidates in deciding the vectorized representation. This method can not only segment the lines and junctions but also construct their spatial relationships. A maximal inscribing circle (MIC) concept is introduced to derive the directions of line segments. An iterative procedure is developed to identify each line segment and the corresponding junctions. Experimental studies comparing the performance of a conventional thinning method with that of our MIC algorithm are performed using the flow diagram and logical diagram as test images. The results demonstrate that our approach is computation efficient, robust and may render optimal multi-pixel-width vectorized line representation at user's discretion.
Full Text Available Vectorization is the conversion process of a raster image representation into a vector representation. The contemporary commercial vectorization software applications do not provide sufficiently high quality outputs for such images as do mechanical engineering drawings. Line width preservation is one of the problems. There are applications which need to know the line width after vectorization because this line attribute carries the important semantic information for the next 3D model generation. This article describes the algorithm that is able to recover line width of individual lines in the vectorized engineering drawings. Two approaches are proposed, one examines the line width at three points, whereas the second uses a variable number of points depending on the line length. The algorithm is tested on real mechanical engineering drawings.
Halloran, Donna R; Marshall, Nicole E; Kunovich, Robert M; Caughey, Aaron B
Our objective was to explore the trends in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) for black and white teenagers over time and the association between elevated BMI and outcomes based on race. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton infants (n = 38,158) born to black (34%) and white (66%) teenagers (teenagers with elevated prepregnancy BMI increased significantly from 17-26%. White and black overweight and obese teenagers were more likely to have pregnancy-related hypertension than normal-weight teenagers; postpartum hemorrhage was increased only in obese black teenagers, and infant complications were increased only in overweight and obese white teenagers. Because the percentage of elevated prepregnancy BMI has increased in white teenagers, specific risks for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in the overweight and obese teenagers varies by race. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Edwards, Thomas G.
"I liked to grab things on the graphics and see it first hand, see what we were doing on the problem. It makes more sense." These words were from a student who completed a series of lessons on lines of best fit. She made this comment after comparing a hands-on approach using a strand of spaghetti with a high-tech approach using a calculator. To…
Few, April L.
Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…
Franko, Debra L; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Barton, Bruce A; Schumann, Barbara C; Garner, David M; Daniels, Stephen R; Schreiber, George B; Crawford, Patricia B
Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower reading levels. However, little is known about the validity of this instrument. The current study reports on the factor structure of an early version of the EDI-C using nonclinical samples of 1,073 White and 1,155 Black girls (ages 11-12). Factor analysis resulted in an eight-factor solution for each group that included a weight concerns factor and an emotional distress factor. For Black girls only, the positively worded items from the Body Dissatisfaction subscale loaded on a separate factor. Four of five factors were similar to the original EDI subscales (Bulimia, Interpersonal Distrust, Maturity Fears, and Perfectionism), although the latter was unique to White girls. The factor structure was generally similar for Black and White girls, although the separate body satisfaction factor and lack of shared variance for the perfectionism factor for Black girls suggest that EDI data obtained from ethnic minority samples may need to be interpreted cautiously. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 179-189, 2004.
Clark, D O
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated and compared the prevalence of disability and institutionalization in 1982, 1984, and 1989 among the older Black and White populations of the United States. METHODS: Data on over 1100 Blacks and 14,000 Whites in each of a series of three National Long Term Care Surveys were used. RESULTS: Diverging trends for Blacks and Whites led to statistically significant increases in the age- and sex-adjusted odds of disability (19%) and institutionalization (31%) for Blacks relative to Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Black and White disparities in disability appear to have widened, while disparities in institutionalization appear to have narrowed during the decade of the 1980s. PMID:9096549
Using Program Transformations to I)erime I ine-I)ra ing Algorithms 1. Introduction Many computer graphics devices use "line-drawing algorithms" to...that should be illuminated to display a line. Simplicity and speed the the key design criteria for line-draAing algorithms, because the computations are...ing algorithm is to enumerate those pixels that lie closest to the true linc, the mathenatical line from (0.0) to (dx. d.v). Figurc I illustrites a
Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche’; Pardini, Dustin A.
The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of ea...
Richard, A.; Rohrmann, S.; Zhang, L.; Eichholzer, M.; Basaria, S.; Selvin, E.; Dobs, A. S.; Kanarek, N.; Menke, A.; Nelson, W. G.; Platz, E. A.
Sex steroid hormones are associated with chronic diseases and mortality with risk associations that differ between racial and ethnic groups. However, it is currently unclear whether sex steroid hormone levels differ between black and white men. The aim of this study was to assess racial variation in circulating testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol levels in men. We searched PubMed for articles comparing circulating hormones in black and white men....
Yoo, Hoi J.; Crevier, Daniel; Lepage, Richard; Myler, Harley R.
We describe procedures that extract line drawings from digitized gray level images, without use of domain knowledge, by modeling preattentive and perceptual organization functions of the human visual system. First, edge points are identified by standard low-level processing, based on the Canny edge operator. Edge points are then linked into single-pixel thick straight- line segments and circular arcs: this operation serves to both filter out isolated and highly irregular segments, and to lump the remaining points into a smaller number of structures for manipulation by later stages of processing. The next stages consist in linking the segments into a set of closed boundaries, which is the system's definition of a line drawing. According to the principles of Gestalt psychology, closure allows us to organize the world by filling in the gaps in a visual stimulation so as to perceive whole objects instead of disjoint parts. To achieve such closure, the system selects particular features or combinations of features by methods akin to those of preattentive processing in humans: features include gaps, pairs of straight or curved parallel lines, L- and T-junctions, pairs of symmetrical lines, and the orientation and length of single lines. These preattentive features are grouped into higher-level structures according to the principles of proximity, similarity, closure, symmetry, and feature conjunction. Achieving closure may require supplying missing segments linking contour concavities. Choices are made between competing structures on the basis of their overall compliance with the principles of closure and symmetry. Results include clean line drawings of curvilinear manufactured objects. The procedures described are part of a system called VITREO (viewpoint-independent 3-D recognition and extraction of objects).
Neeti Daryal; Vinod Kumar
Vectorization, i.e. raster-to-vector conversion is heart of graphics recognition problems, as it deals with converting the scanned image to a vector form suitable for further analysis. Many vectorization methods have been designed. This paper deals with the method of raster-to-vector conversion which proposed for capturing line drawing images. .In the earliest works on vectorization, only one kind of method was introduced. The proposed algorithm combines the features of thinning method and me...
Goldstein, E B; Fink, S I
These experiments show that observers can selectively attend to one of two stationary superimposed pictures. If superimposed line drawings are presented to observers who are told to attend to one line drawing in the pair and to ignore the other line drawing in the pair, then a subsequent recognition test in which the pictures are presently singly, the attended picture in each pair is recognized much more frequently than the unattended picture in each pair. This selective recognition occurs both with large (11 degrees-22 degrees) displays in which observers are free to make eye movements during a 3-sec exposure and with small (1 degree) displays in which observers are instructed to fixate steadily on a point during a 1-sec exposure. The results of the steady fixation experiments show that in the absence of eye movements, attention to one of two superimposed stimuli can cause an observer to remember the attended image and not to remember the other, clearly visible, unattended image in a superimposed pair.
Rogers, Wendy A; Walker, Mary Jean
Biological dysfunction is regarded, in many accounts, as necessary and perhaps sufficient for disease. But although disease is conceptualized as all-or-nothing, biological functions often differ by degree. A tension is created by attempting to use a continuous variable as the basis for a categorical definition, raising questions about how we are to pinpoint the boundary between health and disease. This is the line-drawing problem. In this paper, we show how the line-drawing problem arises within "dysfunction-requiring" accounts of disease, such as those of Christopher Boorse and Jerome Wakefield. We then provide several detailed examples to establish that biological dysfunction cannot provide a boundary. We examine potential ways of resolving the line-drawing problem, either by dropping one of the claims that generates it, or by appealing to additional criteria. We argue that two of these options are plausible, and that each of these can be applied with regard to different diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Parnell, Kathy; And Others
White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…
This was an exploratory study to seek out who certain inmates relate to and reveal themselves to. It investigated the similarities and the differences of self-disclosure between a select group of Black and white inmates incarcerated at Marion Federal Penitentiary, Marion, Illinois. (Author)
Morelli, Patricia H.
Knowledge of individual differences of victim responses to and recovery from rape is necessary in order to provide for each victim's individual needs. Black women may be exposed to more violence in their culture and may be treated differently than white women. These differences may lead to different recovery patterns between black and white rape…
Rogers, Charles R; Robinson, Cendrine D; Arroyo, Cassandra; Obidike, Ogechi Jessica; Sewali, Barrett; Okuyemi, Kolawole S
The homeless represent an extremely disadvantaged population that fare worse than minority groups in access to preventive services and health, and minority groups fare worse than Whites. Early detection screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) saves lives, but empirical data about CRC screening practices among homeless Blacks and Whites are limited. Psychosocial risk factors may serve as a barrier to CRC screening completion among homeless Black individuals. A secondary data analysis of a randomized clinical trial for smoking cessation among homeless smokers was conducted to determine whether psychosocial factors and sociodemographic factors were more highly associated with CRC screening uptake among homeless Blacks than among their White counterparts. Study participants ( N = 124) were surveyed on their CRC screening status, sociodemographic variables, and psychosocial correlate measures including anxiety, depression, hopelessness, depression severity, and perceived stress. Associations between these factors were examined with logistic regression. White participants who were currently disabled/unable to work were 6.2 times more likely to ever receive CRC screening than those who were employed. Black participants with public health insurance coverage were 90% less likely to ever obtain CRC screening than participants without health insurance. Black and White participants had similar levels of anxiety symptoms, depression, and hopelessness, yet depression was the only psychosocial variable negatively associated with CRC screening status. Black and White participants with symptoms of depression were 58% less likely to complete screening than those without depression. Mental health risk and sociodemographic factors may serve as barriers to CRC screening among homeless Blacks and Whites.
Wing, Jean Yonemura
This study of diverse Asian American students at a racially integrated public high school illustrates that the achievement gap is a multi-racial problem that cannot be well understood solely in terms of the trajectories of Black and white students. Asian American students demonstrated a high academic profile on average, but faced difficulties and…
Wittmer, Joe; Ferinden, Fred
This study compares perceptions of the interpersonal school climate as viewed by black and white teachers. Differences do exist between the two groups regarding the teacher versus different type student andon the teacher versus self. No differences exist in perception of the principal or as to how students should learn. (Author/KJ)
Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary
Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…
Patterson, E.T.; And Others
Scores of Black and White alcoholics were compared using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Profile differences were not clinically meaningful. However, comparative scores may not rule out racial test bias since better adjustment was indicated for Blacks by the Family Environment Scale. (RC)
Examines the differences in how Black and White viewers process messages based on the race of television characters representing five occupations. Notes that findings from male college students suggest that Black viewers have better recall of Black occupational characters than White characters on television. Reveals evidence that both Black and…
Burns, Robert; Nichols, Linda O.; Graney, Marshall J.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Lummus, Allan
This study compared Black (n = 97) and White (n = 143) family caregivers regarding the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive assessments of Alzheimer's patients from the Memphis site of the NIA/NINR Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH) randomized clinical trial. Black and White caregivers' subjective…
Using a conceptual stress development model that treats informal supports and competency as potential mediators, examined outcomes of caregiving in samples of black and white caregivers. A perceived lack of informal supports and a sense of incompetency exacerbated stress among black caregivers but had no effects among the white caregivers. (RJM)
Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH
Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were
Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.; Guilbault, Michael
This study examined the relationship between participation in school-based sports and drug use among Black and White high school students, using data from participants in the National Educational Longitudinal Survey of 1988 (NELS, NCES, 1988) and follow-up surveys in 1990 and 1992. While previous research produced inconsistent results, the present…
Poran, Maya A.
Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…
Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ
Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.
Gover, Kristie S.
An identified gap in the literature associated with college student alcohol use is the exploration of the problem based on ethnicity, specifically possible differences in use between Black and White college students. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in alcohol use for Black and White college students at a small private…
The automatic analysis and retrieval of technical line drawings is hindered by many challenges such as: the large amount of contextual clutter around the symbols within the drawings, degradation, transformations on the symbols in drawings, large databases of drawings and large alphabets of symbols. The core tasks required for the analysis of technical line drawings are: symbol recognition, spotting and retrieval. The current systems for performing these tasks have poor performance due t...
Salm Ward, Trina C; Robb, Sara Wagner; Kanu, Florence A
To examine: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of bed-sharing among non-Hispanic Black and White infants in Georgia, and (2) differences in bed-sharing and sleep position behaviors prior to and after the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2005 recommendations against bed-sharing. Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data were obtained from the Georgia Department of Public Health. Analysis was guided by the socioecological model levels of: Infant, Maternal, Family, and Community/Society within the context of race. Data from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to address the first objective and from 2000 to 2004 and 2006 to 2011 to address the second objective. Rao-Scott Chi square tests and backward selection unconditional logistic regression models for weighted data were built separately by race; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 6595 (3528 Black and 3067 White) cases were analyzed between 2004 and 2011. Significantly more Black mothers (81.9 %) reported "ever" bed-sharing compared to White mothers (56 %), p Blacks, the final model included infant age, pregnancy intention, number of dependents, and use of Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Services. For Whites, the final model included infant age, maternal age, financial stress, partner-related stress, and WIC. When comparing the period 2000-2004 to 2006-2011, a total of 10,015 (5373 Black and 4642 White cases) were analyzed. A significant decrease in bedsharing was found for both Blacks and Whites; rates of non-supine sleep position decreased significantly for Blacks but not Whites. Continued high rates of bed-sharing and non-supine sleep position for both Blacks and Whites demonstrate an ongoing need for safe infant sleep messaging. Risk profiles for Black and White mothers differed, suggesting the importance of tailored messaging. Specific research and practice implications are identified and described.
M.A. This dissertation attempts to understand the different meanings attached to lesbian identities by comparing the experiences of black and white lesbian women living in South Africa. Literature of the experiences of black lesbian women, especially in South Africa, is plentiful. Thus, by including white lesbian women in the sample, this dissertation begins to fill a gap in literature and provide some insights into an overall experience of lesbian identity in South Africa. In-depth interv...
Niederwerder, Megan C; Stalis, Ilse H; Campbell, Gregory A; Backues, Kay A
Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in the gastric tissues of four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is an uncommon disease described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. These cystic spaces can occur in any location along the gastrointestinal tract as well as within the associated connective and lymphatic tissues. The exact cause of this disease is unknown. The four black and white ruffed lemurs described in this case series were captive born and had been housed in zoological institutions at two separate locations. Three of the four cases were female lemurs, and two of the affected lemurs were directly related. The individual disease presentations spanned a 5-yr time period. Two lemurs presented dead with no premonitory signs, whereas the other two lemurs presented with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and nonspecific signs of weakness. Gastric pneumatosis, diagnosed either grossly or histopathologically in each of these four lemurs, is described as a subset of PCI in which cystic spaces are localized to the stomach wall. Significant eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate was identified on histopathology of gastric tissues and found to be associated with the cystic lesions in each lemur. No classic etiology, such as a fungal infection or a parasitic infection, was identified as the cause of the eosinophilic gastritis. This case series demonstrates that gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis may be a significant gastrointestinal disease in black and white ruffed lemurs.
Hong, OiSaeng; Lusk, Sally L; Ronis, David L
The purpose of the study is to determine whether there are ethnic differences in predictors of hearing protection behavior between Black and White workers. The Predictors of Use of Hearing Protection Model (PUHPM) derived from Pender's Health Promotion Model (Pender, 1987) was used as a conceptual model. A total of 2,119 (297 Blacks, 1,822 Whites) were included in the analysis. Internal consistency of instrument items was assessed using theta reliability estimates. Significant predictors of the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs) for Black and White workers and differences in predictors between the two groups were examined using multiple regression with interaction terms. Ethnic differences in scale or individual item scores were assessed using chi-square and t-test analyses. Different factors influenced hearing protection behavior among Black and White workers. The model was much less predictive of Blacks' hearing protection behavior than Whites' (R2 = .12 vs. .36). Since the PUHPM was not as effective in predicting hearing protection behavior for Blacks as for Whites, future studies are needed to expand the PUHPM through qualitative study and to develop culturally appropriate models to identify factors that better predict hearing protection behavior as a basis for developing effective interventions.
Fischer, Mary J
As homeownership has been expanding in the United States over the past several decades, residential segregation between blacks and whites has been declining in most metropolitan areas. However, the degree to which the residential patterns of new homebuyers have mirrored these overall trends in segregation and how the massive increase in home buying has related to changes in segregation has remained largely unexplored. This paper examines the segregation of new black homebuyers from white households, new white homebuyers from black households, and black and white households from each other using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data from 1992 to 2010 merged with data from the Census and ACS. I find that black homebuyers are less segregated from white households than black homeowners overall and black households in general, providing evidence in support of the spatial assimilation model that would predict better outcomes for homeowners. Also consistent with the spatial assimilation perspective, I found in the multivariate models that increased income parity between blacks and whites and growth in black lending are associated with average declines in black/white household segregation from 1990 to 2010. Although subprime lending was not associated with overall changes in segregation, metropolitan areas with higher percentages of loans to blacks from subprime lenders experienced increases in segregation of both black homeowners from white households as well as white owners from black households. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7180] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``On Line: Drawing Through the Twentieth Century'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``On Line: Drawing Through the Twentieth Century...
Schulte, Christopher M.
Invoking Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's configuration of minor literature, the author of this case study theorizes the drawing practice of a young boy (Carter) as a process of becoming-minor. Critical to this theorization is the creation and activation of a semblance between Brent and Marjorie Wilson's (1977) treatment of the…
Cushing, Andrew C; Kollias, George; Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Streeter, Renee; Ahou-Madi, Noha
An adult intact male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) suffered recurrent bouts of urethral blockage over a 3-yr period caused by calcium phosphate (apatite form) uroliths. Surgical intervention was required in two of the three instances. Various attempts at medical management failed to control formation of the stones, and the underlying etiology remains unclear. In addition, there have been consistent, multiple, unchanging renal mineralizations over the course of the case. Medical management failed to significantly alter the urinary pH; although, to date, no further problems have been noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first known report of calcium phosphate stones in a prosimian species.
Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.
The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal
Stahura, J M
"This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns." excerpt
Full Text Available Background: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale is one of the most widely used tools to measure depressive symptoms in epidemiological studies. Given the importance of cross-racial measurement equivalence of CES-D scale for research, we performed confirmatory factor analysis of 12 - item CES-D in a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults in the United States.Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001-2003. A total number of 3,570 Blacks (African Americans and 891 non-Hispanic Whites were included in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the 12-item CES-D scale using multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM.Results: For both Blacks and Whites, best fitting model was found to be the 3-factor model, indicating invariance of factor structure between Blacks and Whites. Statistically different fit of the models with and without constraints indicated lack of invariance of factor loadings between Blacks and Whites. Some of the positive (i.e. as good, and hopeful and interpersonal (i.e. people were unfriendly items showed poor loadings, even in the 3- factor solution that allowed separate domains for positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems. Despite the good fit of our final model, more items (i.e. as good, hopeful, keeping mind, and everything effort had poor loadings in Blacks than Whites (i.e. as good.Conclusion: There is invariance in factor structure but lack of invariance in factor/item loadings among Blacks and Whites. These findings have implications for cross-racial studies of depressive symptoms using CES-D among Blacks and Whites. Further research is warranted to scrutinize the role of socio-economics and culture in explaining lack of invariance of CES-D scale between Blacks and Whites.
Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale is one of the most widely used tools to measure depressive symptoms in epidemiological studies. Given the importance of cross-racial measurement equivalence of the CES-D scale for research, we performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the 12-item CES-D in a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults in the United States. We used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. A total number of 3570 Blacks (African-Americans) and 891 non-Hispanic Whites were included in the present study. CFA was carried out on the 12-item CES-D scale using multi-group structural equation modeling. For both Blacks and Whites, the best fitting model was found to be the 3-factor model, indicating invariance of factor structure between Blacks and Whites. A statistically different fit of the models with and without constraints indicated lack of invariance of factor loadings between Blacks and Whites. Some of the positive (i.e., " as good " and " hopeful ") and interpersonal (i.e., " people were unfriendly ") items showed poor loadings, even in the 3-factor solution that allowed separate domains for positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems. Despite the good fit of our final model, more items (i.e., " as good ," " hopeful ," " keeping mind ," and " everything effort ") had poorer loadings in Blacks than Whites (i.e., " as good "). There is invariance in factor structure but lack of invariance in factor/item loadings between Blacks and Whites. These findings have implications for cross-racial studies of depressive symptoms using CES-D scale among Blacks and Whites. Further research is warranted to scrutinize the role of socioeconomics and culture in explaining the lack of invariance of the CES-D scale between Blacks and Whites.
Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) plays an essential role in many computer vision applications ranging from image compression to deep learning. In this work, we spot the light on a new application where CSC can effectively serve, namely line drawing analysis. The process of drawing a line drawing can be approximated as the sparse spatial localization of a number of typical basic strokes, which in turn can be cast as a non-standard CSC model that considers the line drawing formation process from parametric curves. These curves are learned to optimize the fit between the model and a specific set of line drawings. Parametric representation of sketches is vital in enabling automatic sketch analysis, synthesis and manipulation. A couple of sketch manipulation examples are demonstrated in this work. Consequently, our novel method is expected to provide a reliable and automatic method for parametric sketch description. Through experiments, we empirically validate the convergence of our method to a feasible solution.
Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L
We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fite, Paula J; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A
The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of early risk factors accounted for racial differences related to any juvenile arrest, as well as differences in violence- and theft-related arrests. However, increased exposure to early risk factors did not explain race differences in drug-related arrests. Minimal support was found for the hypothesis that a differential sensitivity to risk factors accounts for disproportionate rate of minority male arrests. In sum, most racial discrepancies in juvenile male arrests were accounted for by an increased exposure to childhood risk factors. Specifically, Black boys were more likely to display early conduct problems and low academic achievement and experience poor parent-child communication, peer delinquency, and neighborhood problems, which increased their risk for juvenile arrest. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Emuren, Leonard; Chauhan, Suneet; Vroman, Richard; Beydoun, Hind
To evaluate the presence of racial disparities in infant mortality rates and assess risk factors for infant death among black and white populations in Hampton Roads, Virginia. A retrospective study with secondary analyses of linked birth/death certificate data was conducted using a sample of 201,610 live-born infants and 1659 infant deaths identified between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008 in Hampton Roads. Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were significantly (P black compared with white populations. Racial disparities were noted whereby black infants were significantly (P black infants dying in the first year of life than white infants. Among blacks, the odds of infant death were inversely related to maternal education. Among whites, the odds of infant death declined with increasing parity. Among black and white populations, history of child death, presence of maternal morbidities and the Kotelchuck Maternal Utilization of Prenatal Care Index were key determinants of infant death. Black infants are at higher odds of dying compared with white infants in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Continued efforts should target prenatal care, preterm delivery, and low-birth-weight infants and neonates to reduce infant mortality rates.
Brédart, Serge; Cornet, Alyssa; Rakic, Jean-Marie
Color deficient (dichromat) and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A'), response bias (B"D), response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses) among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.
Miall, R Chris; Gowen, Emma; Tchalenko, John
We report a functional imaging study of drawing cartoon faces. Normal, untrained participants were scanned while viewing simple black and white cartoon line drawings of human faces, retaining them for a short memory interval, and then drawing them without vision of their hand or the paper. Specific encoding and retention of information about the faces were tested for by contrasting these two stages (with display of cartoon faces) against the exploration and retention of random dot stimuli. Drawing was contrasted between conditions in which only memory of a previously viewed face was available versus a condition in which both memory and simultaneous viewing of the cartoon were possible, and versus drawing of a new, previously unseen, face. We show that the encoding of cartoon faces powerfully activates the face-sensitive areas of the lateral occipital cortex and the fusiform gyrus, but there is no significant activation in these areas during the retention interval. Activity in both areas was also high when drawing the displayed cartoons. Drawing from memory activates areas in posterior parietal cortex and frontal areas. This activity is consistent with the encoding and retention of the spatial information about the face to be drawn as a visuo-motor action plan, either representing a series of targets for ocular fixation or as spatial targets for the drawing action.
Terry, Danielle L.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Kate B.
Alcohol use among college students has received nationwide recognition as a public health concern. The primary aim of this study was to explore students' opinions of when drinking crosses the line from acceptable to unacceptable. This study used qualitative methods to: (a) examine unappealing aspects of drinking by relationship type…
Stoinski, T S; Drayton, L A; Price, E E
Although many studies have examined social learning capabilities in apes and monkeys, experiments involving prosimians remain largely absent. We investigated the potential for social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs using a two-action foraging task. Eight individuals were divided into two experimental groups and exposed to conspecifics using one of two techniques to access food. Subjects were then given access to the apparatus and their retrieval techniques were recorded and compared. All subjects made their first retrieval using the technique they observed being demonstrated, and there were significant differences between the two groups in their overall response patterns. These results suggest that prosimians are capable of social learning and that additional long-term field studies may reveal the presence of behavioural traditions similar to those found in other primates.
Strick, Madelijn; Stoeckart, Peter F; Dijksterhuis, Ap
It is a common research finding that conscious thought helps people to avoid racial discrimination. These three experiments, however, illustrate that conscious thought may increase biased face memory, which leads to increased judgment bias (i.e., preferring White to Black individuals). In Experiments 1 and 2, university students formed impressions of Black and White housemate candidates. They judged the candidates either immediately (immediate decision condition), thought about their judgments for a few minutes (conscious thought condition), or performed an unrelated task for a few minutes (unconscious thought condition). Conscious thinkers and immediate decision-makers showed a stronger face memory bias than unconscious thinkers, and this mediated increased judgment bias, although not all results were significant. Experiment 3 used a new, different paradigm and showed that a Black male was remembered as darker after a period of conscious thought than after a period of unconscious thought. Implications for racial prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B
The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ben Ayed, Karim; Latiri, Imed; Dore, Eric; Tabka, Zouhair
This study examined leg muscle power of young male Tunisian black and white football players and extended the analysis to determine whether there is a relationship between cycling peak power output (PPO) and some field tests. A total of 113 children (white group (WG) = n = 56; black group (BG) = n = 57) participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included age, body mass (BM), height, leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and leg muscle volume (LMV). Cycling PPO was measured including a force-velocity test. Peak power output (PPO; W and W/kg), Fopt (optimal braking force), and Vopt (optimal velocity) were significantly higher in the WG compared with the BG (p force-velocity test as explanatory factors showed that 33% of the variance of PPO of BG was explained by qualitative factors that may be related to cycling skill, muscle composition, and socioeconomic and training status.
Fitzgerald, Sheila T; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Suchday, Sonia; Ewart, Craig K
This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that characteristics of work that contribute to job strain also increase anger in young service-sector workers. A new measure of anger directed at coworkers, supervisors, and customers was regressed on job strain indices (job control, coworker and supervisor support, dissatisfaction) in models that controlled for dispositional negative affect and work status. Results in a sample of 230 young Black and White men and women revealed that low levels of job control and social support, and high levels of job dissatisfaction, were independently associated with increased work-related anger. Moreover, social support moderated the impact of low job control on anger directed at coworkers. Findings indicate that anger experienced at work may be an early marker of job stress, which has been prospectively related to cardiovascular disease.
Ames, Steven C; Stevens, Susanna R; Werch, Chudley E; Carlson, Joan M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Kiros, Gebre-Egziabher; Kershaw, Josephine; Patten, Christi A; Ebbert, Jon O; Offord, Kenneth P
This study explored the association of alcohol and tobacco use among college students. A survey was administered in 2004 to 2,189 Black and White students from the southeastern United States. The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use, tobacco use characteristics according to level of alcohol consumed, and percentage of students using tobacco according to type of alcoholic beverages consumed were evaluated. The interaction of race and gender with alcohol and tobacco use was explored. Our findings extend prior investigations that have found alcohol use associated with smoking and suggest attention be paid to the relation of alcohol to other forms of tobacco. Racial and gender differences are highlighted. This study was funded by Mayo Clinic. The study's limitations were noted.
Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.
The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944
Campbell, Joshua D; Lathan, Christopher; Sholl, Lynette; Ducar, Matthew; Vega, Mikenah; Sunkavalli, Ashwini; Lin, Ling; Hanna, Megan; Schubert, Laura; Thorner, Aaron; Faris, Nicholas; Williams, David R; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; van Hummelen, Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States in all ethnic and racial groups. The overall death rate from lung cancer is higher in black patients than in white patients. To compare the prevalence and types of somatic alterations between lung cancers from black patients and white patients. Differences in mutational frequencies could illuminate differences in prognosis and lead to the reduction of outcome disparities by more precisely targeting patients' treatment. Tumor specimens were collected from Baptist Cancer Center (Memphis, Tennessee) over the course of 9 years (January 2004-December 2012). Genomic analysis by massively parallel sequencing of 504 cancer genes was performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, Massachusetts). Overall, 509 lung cancer tumors specimens (319 adenocarcinomas; 142 squamous cell carcinomas) were profiled from 245 black patients and 264 white patients. The frequencies of genomic alterations were compared between tumors from black and white populations. Overall, 509 lung cancers were collected and analyzed (273 women [129 black patients; 144 white patients] and 236 men [116 black patients; 120 white patients]). Using 313 adenocarcinomas and 138 squamous cell carcinomas with genetically supported ancestry, overall mutational frequencies and copy number changes were not significantly different between black and white populations in either tumor type after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Furthermore, specific activating alterations in members of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/Raf pathway including EGFR and KRAS were not significantly different between populations in lung adenocarcinoma. These results demonstrate that lung cancers from black patients are similar to cancers from white patients with respect to clinically actionable genomic alterations and suggest that clinical trials of targeted therapies could significantly benefit patients in both groups.
Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T.; Coull, Brent A.; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V.; Waterman, Pamela D.
Background Scant research has analyzed the health impact of abolition of Jim Crow (ie, legal racial discrimination overturned by the US 1964 Civil Rights Act). Methods We used hierarchical age–period–cohort models to analyze US national black and white premature mortality rates (death before 65 years of age) in 1960–2009. Results Within a context of declining US black and white premature mortality rates and a persistent 2-fold excess black risk of premature mortality in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states, analyses including random period, cohort, state, and county effects and fixed county income effects found that, within the black population, the largest Jim Crow-by-period interaction occurred in 1960–1964 (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 1.15 [95% confidence interval = 1.09–1.22), yielding the largest overall period-specific Jim Crow effect MRR of 1.27, with no such interactions subsequently observed. Furthermore, the most elevated Jim Crow-by-cohort effects occurred for birth cohorts from 1901 through 1945 (MRR range = 1.05–1.11), translating to the largest overall cohort-specific Jim Crow effect MRRs for the 1921–1945 birth cohorts (MRR ~ 1.2), with no such interactions subsequently observed. No such interactions between Jim Crow and either period or cohort occurred among the white population. Conclusion Together, the study results offer compelling evidence of the enduring impact of both Jim Crow and its abolition on premature mortality among the US black population, although insufficient to eliminate the persistent 2-fold black excess risk evident in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states from 1960 to 2009. PMID:24825344
Kell, K P; Judd, S E; Pearson, K E; Shikany, J M; Fernández, J R
Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17,062 black (34·6%) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, racial group and geographic region were used to examine adherence to five emergent dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, southern and alcohol/salads) according to four levels each of individual education, household income and community-level SES. Further models assessed adherence to these dietary patterns by racial group, and an overall model including both racial groups examined whether the relationships between SES and adherence to these dietary patterns differed among black and white participants. For all the three measures of SES, higher SES had been associated with greater adherence to plant-based and alcohol/salads patterns, but lower adherence to sweets/fats and southern patterns. Statistically significant differences between black and white participants were observed in the associations between household income and adherence to alcohol/salads, individual education and adherence to plant-based and sweets/fats, and community SES and adherence to convenience patterns. As adherence to dietary patterns has been shown to be associated with health outcomes in this population (e.g. stroke), the present study offers valuable insight into behavioural and environmental factors that may contribute to health disparities in the diverse US population.
Otiende, Moses Y; Kivata, Mary W; Makumi, Joseph N; Mutinda, Mathew N; Okun, Daniel; Kariuki, Linus; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer
A huge effort in rhinoceros conservation has focused on poaching and habitat loss as factors leading to the dramatic declines in the endangered eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Nevertheless, the role disease and parasite infections play in the mortality of protected populations has largely received limited attention. Infections with piroplasmosis caused by Babesia bicornis and Theileria bicornis has been shown to be fatal especially in small and isolated populations in Tanzania and South Africa. However, the occurrence and epidemiology of these parasites in Kenyan rhinoceros is not known. Utilizing 18S rRNA gene as genetic marker to detect rhinoceros infection with Babesia and Theileria, we examined blood samples collected from seven rhinoceros populations consisting of 114 individuals of black and white rhinoceros. The goal was to determine the prevalence in Kenyan populations, and to assess the association of Babesia and Theileria infection with host species, age, sex, location, season and population mix (only black rhinoceros comparing to black and white rhinoceros populations). We did not detect any infection with Babesia in the sequenced samples, while the prevalence of T. bicornis in the Kenyan rhinoceros population was 49.12% (56/114). White rhinoceros had significantly higher prevalence of infection (66%) compared to black rhinoceros (43%). The infection of rhinoceros with Theileria was not associated with animal age, sex or location. The risk of infection with Theileria was not higher in mixed species populations compared to populations of pure black rhinoceros. In the rhinoceros studied, we did not detect the presence of Babesia bicornis, while Theileria bicornis was found to have a 49.12% prevalence with white rhinoceros showing a higher prevalence (66%) comparing with black rhinoceros (43%). Other factors such as age, sex, location, and population mix were not found to
Isabelle R. Miousse
Full Text Available LINE-1 (L1 is the most abundant mammalian transposable element that comprises nearly 20% of the genome, and nearly half of the mammalian genome has stemmed from L1-mediated mobilization. Expression and retrotransposition of L1 are suppressed by complex mechanisms, where the key role belongs to DNA methylation. Alterations in L1 methylation may lead to aberrant expression of L1 and have been described in numerous diseases. Accumulating evidence clearly indicates that loss of global DNA methylation observed in cancer development and progression is tightly associated with hypomethylation of L1 elements. Significant progress achieved in the last several years suggests that such parameters as L1 methylation status can be potentially utilized as clinical biomarkers for determination of the disease stage and in predicting the disease-free survival in cancer patients. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on L1 methylation, with specific emphasis given to success and challenges on the way of introduction of L1 into clinical practice.
Jødal, Lars; Eskild-Jensen, Anni; Brøchner-Mortensen, Jens
of cases on the "problematic" data. CONCLUSIONS: Correct drawing of the line is important for correct determination of relative kidney function. The new method 3 gives accurate and precise results in both normal and "problematic" cases. The method is quick and independent of the operator.......BACKGROUND: When individual kidney function is determined by renography, the Rutland-Patlak plot is used in the calculations. In the so-called uptake phase the plot is a straight line, but the duration of this phase may differ from patient to patient. A good method for drawing the correct line...... in the Rutland-Patlak plot should take into account that data may show unusual behaviour or be noisy. AIM: To find a method for the line-drawing that gives reliable results on all groups of data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 63 consecutive renographies routinely made at the department...
Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.
A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way mirror.…
Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L
This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Neerhof, H.J.; Madsen, P.; Ducrucq, V.; Vollema, A.R.; Jensen, I.; Korsgaard, I.R.
The relationship between mastitis and functional longevity was assessed with survival analysis on data of Danish Black and White dairy cows. Different methods of including the effect of mastitis treatment on the culling decision by a farmer in the model were compared. The model in which mastitis
Sprecher, DL; Morrison, JA; Simbartl, LA; Schreiber, GB; Sabry, ZI; Biro, FM; Barton, BA
Objective: To define racial differences in lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in girls aged 9 to 10 years. Design: Baseline analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting: Three clinical sites. Subjects: A total of 1871 black and white girls, aged 9 to 10 years, with complete maturation data
abstractThis article offers insights into how black and white TV sets were sold in France from 1948 to the mid 80s. During this period, the black and white television set shifted from being an expensive and breakable technical object to a commonplace, mass consumer durable good. The article
Background. Controversy exists over the cause of disparate circulating 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD) between black and white Americans. Objective: To determine whether there are differences in total and directly measured free 25OHD between black and white American adults and to assess the degree to w...
Farran, E K; Dodd, G F
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have poor drawing ability. Here, we investigated whether colour could be used as a facilitation cue during a drawing task. Participants with WS and non-verbal ability matched typically developing (TD) children were shown line figures presented on a 3 by 3 dot matrix, and asked to replicate the figures by drawing on an empty dot matrix. The dots of the matrix were either all black (control condition), or nine different coloured dots (colour condition). In a third condition, which also used coloured dots, participants were additionally asked to verbalise the colours of the dots prior to replicating the line drawings (colour-verbal condition). Performance was stronger in both WS and TD groups on the two coloured conditions, compared with the control condition. However, the facilitation effect of colour was significantly weaker in the WS group than in the TD group. Replication of oblique line segments was less successful than replication of non-oblique line segments for both groups; this effect was reduced by colour facilitation in the TD group only. Verbalising the colours had no additional impact on performance in either group. We suggest that colour acted as a cue to individuate the dots, thus enabling participants to better ascertain the spatial relationships between the parts of each figure, to determine the start and end points of component lines, and to determine the correspondence between the model and their replication. The reduced facilitation in the WS group is discussed in relation to the effect of oblique versus non-oblique lines, the use of atypical drawing strategies, and reduced attention to the model when drawing the replication. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Neiffer, D L; Klein, E C
A 14.5-yr-old, male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegatus variegatus) presented for acute enlargement of the left testicle and hemiscrotum. Physical examination also revealed poor pelage quality with short guard hairs, sparse undercoat, and areas of alopecia. Increased aggression was also reported. A unilateral, open orchiectomy was performed, with the left testicle, epidydymis, associated vaginal tunic, and attached spermatic cord removed. Microscopic evaluation was consistent with an interstitial cell tumor, with many morphologic features similar to this neoplasm in people. No overt histopathologic criteria of malignancy were present. Following orchiectomy, gradual improvement in pelage quality was noted and was considered almost normal by 5 mo postoperative. In contrast with the aggressive preoperative behavior, the lemur was extremely submissive for 3 mo following the surgery. Gradual return to normal behavior and social status occurred over the next 2 mo. Multiple follow-up examinations and radiographs revealed no evidence of metastasis, and biopsy of the remaining testicle 4 mo later revealed no evidence of neoplasia. Serial measurements of testosterone and estradiol revealed levels within the range of those for other ruffed lemurs, as were repeated measurements taken of the remaining testicle. At 19 mo postoperative, the lemur had a coat quality considered nearly normal and maintained its historical social position in the lemur group without abnormal aggressive behavior.
Wyner, Y M; Amato, G; Desalle, R
A character-based phylogenetic species concept approach was used to examine conservation unit status for three wild populations of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia vareigata variegata, from Betampona (N = 3), Manombo (N = 6), and Ranomafana (N = 14), Madagascar. Population aggregation analysis was performed on 548 bp from the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Twenty-one diagnostic sites were found to differentiate the Betampona (northern) population from the Manombo/Ranomafana (southern) populations. Additionally, individuals from the North American captive population (N = 11) and from Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (N = 6) were examined for the same mtDNA fragment. The captive animals more closely resembled the southern populations and the Parc Ivoloina animals were more similar to the northern population. However, the inclusion of these ex situ animals reduced the number of diagnostic sites differentiating the northern and southern populations. Our genetic data were used to assess the ongoing management strategy for reintroducing individuals into the Betampona population and for introducing new founders into the ex situ population. This study demonstrates the utility of combining genetic information with a consideration of conservation priorities in evaluating the implementation of management strategies.
Pereira, M E; Seeligson, M L; Macedonia, J M
A stable social group of 7 semifree-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) was studied for 4 months to catalog the behavioral repertoire of this species. Observations focussed on particular aspects of behavior were conducted before and after this 4-month period to supplement information gathered. Behavior in 11 major categories is detailed: postures, terrestrial locomotion, arboreal locomotion, feeding behavior, vocalizations, scent-marking, affinitive social behavior, agonistic social behavior, play behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. Ruffed lemurs frequently used body positions and locomotor patterns unusual among lemurids, including bipedal hanging and long-descent leaps. These behaviors reinforce dental evidence that Varecia are among the most frugivorous of the Malagasy lemurs. Low intragroup cohesion, infrequent social interaction, and antiphonal use of several long-distance vocalizations suggest that ruffed lemurs naturally exhibit fission-fusion sociality. Social structure based on interindividual familiarity probably extends across foraging parties for several of the diurnally active lemurs; however, thus far only Varecia seems likely to exhibit fission-fusion sociality analogous to that seen in spider monkeys and chimpanzees.
Lieberman, David; Holub, Jennifer; Moravec, Matthew; Eisen, Glenn; Peters, Dawn; Morris, Cynthia
Context Compared to whites, Black men and women have a higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer and may develop cancer at a younger age. Colorectal cancer screening might be less effective in Blacks, if there are racial differences in the age-adjusted prevalence and location of cancer precursor lesions. Objectives To determine and compare the prevalence rates and location of polyp(s) >9mm in asymptomatic Blacks and whites who receive colonoscopy screening. Design, Setting, and Patients Colonoscopy data were prospectively collected from 67 practice sites in the United States using a computerized endoscopic report generator from 2004–2005. Data were transmitted to a central data repository, where all asymptomatic whites (n = 80,061) and Blacks (n = 5464) who received screening colonoscopy were identified. Main outcome measures Prevalence and location of polyp(s) >9mm, adjusted for age, gender, and family history of colorectal cancer in a multivariate analysis. Results Both Black men and women had a higher prevalence of polyp(s) >9mm (7.7 versus 6.2%; p 9mm (OR 1.133; 95% CI 0.93,1.38). However, in a sub-analysis of patients over age 60 years, proximal polyps >9mm were more likely in Black men (p = 0.026) and women (p9mm, and Black over age 60 years are more likely to proximal polyps >9mm. PMID:18812532
Kanaya, Alka M; Wassel Fyr, Christina; Vittinghoff, Eric; Havel, Peter J; Cesari, Matteo; Nicklas, Barbara; Harris, Tamara; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve R
Adiponectin may influence the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Because body composition and adiponectin levels vary by race, we examined the relationship of adiponectin with prevalent and incident CHD in a cohort of older Black and White adults. We conducted a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study at two U.S. clinical centers. Participants included 3075 well-functioning adults between ages 70 and 79 yr enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Prevalent CHD was defined as history of myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary transluminal angioplasty, angina, or major electrocardiogram abnormalities. After excluding those with prevalent CHD, incident CHD was defined as hospitalized myocardial infarction or CHD death. At baseline, 602 participants (19.6%) had CHD. During 6 yr of follow-up, 262 (10.6%) incident CHD events occurred. Whites had higher median adiponectin than Blacks (12 vs. 8 microg/ml, P Blacks, a doubling of adiponectin was associated with a 40% higher risk of both prevalent CHD (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.78) and incident CHD (hazards ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87) after adjusting for explanatory variables. High circulating concentrations of adiponectin were associated with higher risk of CHD in older Blacks, even accounting for traditional CHD risk factors.
Full Text Available The aim of work was to determine the content of selected elements in the glass from color and black and white television (TV sets. The amount of back taken TV sets in the Czech Republic increases annualy, which is associated with higher production of the waste glass. Currently there is 1.4 television sets for each household and the number of it should increase in future, because of higher standard of living and new technologies used. Waste glass treatment or landfilling may present, because of composition of the waste glass threat to the environment. One of the indicators of the polution from waste glass is leachate analysis, which can show us the content of hazardous substances in the waste glass, which can be released to the environment. A qualitative analysis of leachate samples was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results showed concentration of potencionaly hazardous substances contained in leachate samples. This was especially content of aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, tin and zinc. Results of analyzes of the aqueous extract of glass were confronted with the limits specified in the currently valid legislation. Based on the results there is clear that in the case of landfilling of the glass from television sets, there is possibility of the contamination of landfill leachate by the elements, which are presented in the glass.
Muscat, Joshua E; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D; Richie, John P
The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X+1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2-0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, Pwhites.
Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim of this study was to determine some aspect of drinking behavior of the cows in 24 hours that were divided into 3 day periods (intervals: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-21:00 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During the experiments, the following drinking behavior aspects were determined: the number of drinkings and the length of drinking periods per 24 hours, in the fibrous-succulents administration order of forages (O1 and succulents-fibrous order (O2. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the daily periods had an influence on the number of drinkings and drinking length, the lowest number of drinkings occurred during the night interval I3 (4.20 and the highest number together with the longest drinking period occurred in the second interval I2 (12.47 and 1062.50 seconds. In both administration order of forages ( O1 and O2 there were a very significant differences (p<0.001 between I1 and I2 in favour of I2, between I1 and I3 in favour of I1 and between I2 and I3 in favour of I2, for number of drinkings periods and for length of drinking periods.
Hanson, P; Magnusson, S P; Sorensen, H; Simonsen, E B
The anatomy of the psoas major muscle (PMA) in young black and white men was studied during routine autopsies. The forensic autopsies included 44 fresh male cadavers (21 black, 23 white) with an age span of 14 to 25 y. The range for weight was 66-76 kg and for height 169-182 cm. The PMA was initially measured in its entire length before measuring the diameter and circumference at each segmental level (L1-S1). At each segmental level, the calculated anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was more than 3 times greater in the black group compared with the white (P psoas minor muscle (PMI) was absent in 91% of the black subjects, but only in 13% of the white subjects. These data show that the PMA is markedly larger in black than white subjects. The marked race specific difference in the size of the PMA may have implications for hip flexor strength, spine function and race specific incidence in low back pathology, and warrants further investigation.
To investigate the influence of bleaching treatments on keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of bleached human hair (black and white human hair) was directly analyzed without isolating the cuticle and cortex, using Raman spectroscopy. The S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of virgin white human hair decreased, while the S-O band intensity at 1040 cm(-1), assigned to cysteic acid, increased by performing the bleaching treatment. Especially, the S-O band intensity of the cuticle region increased remarkably compared with that of the cortex region. Also, the amide III (unordered) band intensity in the cortex region increased, indicating that some of the proteins existing throughout the cortex region changed to the random coil form. Moreover, it has been found that the S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of the cortex region of the virgin black human hair decreased remarkably, while the S-O band intensity increased significantly compared with that of the virgin white human hair by performing the bleaching treatment. From these experiments, we concluded that the melanin granules including metal ions act as a decomposition accelerator for the oxidizing agent, thereby leading to a higher level of disulfide (-SS-) group cleavage in the black human hair compared with that of the white human hair. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jalili, M.; Jinap, S.; Noranizan, M.A.
Irradiation is an important means of decontamination of food commodities, especially spices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) for decontaminating ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ), B 2 (AFB 2 ), G 1 (AFG 1 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) residues in artificially contaminated black and white pepper samples. The moisture content of the pepper samples was set at 12% or 18%, and the applied gamma dose ranged from 5 to 30 kGy. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column (IAC) chromatography. Both the gamma irradiation dose and moisture content showed significant effects (P<0.05) on mycotoxin reduction. The maximum toxin reductions, found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy, were 55.2%, 50.6%, 39.2%, 47.7% and 42.9% for OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. - Highlights: ► The effect of gamma ray on the reduction of AFs and OTA in pepper was investigated. ► The gamma dose and moisture showed significant effects on mycotoxin reduction. ► The maximum reduction was found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy gamma ray. ► The method, even at 30 kGy and 18% moisture, failed to destroy total of mycotoxins.
Keith, NiCole R; Clark, Daniel O; Stump, Timothy E; Callahan, Christopher M
To compare concurrent criterion validity of the Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) Survey, a new fitness measure, between black and white race, gender, and health literacy groups. Cross-sectional. Midwest urban primary care center and commercial fitness center. One hundred one black, white, male, and female primary care patients aged ≥40 years. Measures included demographics, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the SRFit Survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. The BodPod determined percentage of body fat. Body mass index was calculated. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations between corresponding physical tests and SRFit survey items. Correlations between physical tests and SRFit items ranged from r = .52 to .76 (ρ = .41-.85) in males, r = .40 to .79 (ρ = .33-.80) in females, r = .45 to .79 (ρ = .53-.82) in blacks, and r = .49 to .77 (ρ = .33-.82) in whites. Correlations were r = .58 (ρ = .58) to r = .77 (ρ = .79) in persons with low health literacy and r = .50 to .79 (ρ = .39-.85) among persons with moderate to high health literacy. SRFit shows similar concurrent validity across race, gender, and health literacy subgroups.
Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first hundred days of lactation. The aim ofthis study was to measure the main aspects that characterized the excretion behaviour (defecation of the cows in 24hours that were divided into 3 day periods: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-2:001 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During theexperiments, the following defecation behaviour aspects were determined: total number of defecations, number ofdefecations in the three intervals, number of defecations according to administration order of forages (fibroussucculentsand succulents-fibrous. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the differencesbetween intervals I1-I2 and I1-I3 were statistically very significant (p< 0.01. In fibrous – succulent order thedefecation were 0.69 higher than in succulent- fibrous order (p< 0.01. Total number of defecation resulted bysumming the defecation from the three intervals, was 14.67 in the first administration order (fibrous-succulent and12.61 in the second administration order (succulent-fibrous.
Liu, Jianzhuang; Cao, Liangliang; Li, Zhenguo; Tang, Xiaoou
In previous optimization-based methods of 3D planar-faced object reconstruction from single 2D line drawings, the missing depths of the vertices of a line drawing (and other parameters in some methods) are used as the variables of the objective functions. A 3D object with planar faces is derived by finding values for these variables that minimize the objective functions. These methods work well for simple objects with a small number N of variables. As N grows, however, it is very difficult for them to find expected objects. This is because with the nonlinear objective functions in a space of large dimension N, the search for optimal solutions can easily get trapped into local minima. In this paper, we use the parameters of the planes that pass through the planar faces of an object as the variables of the objective function. This leads to a set of linear constraints on the planes of the object, resulting in a much lower dimensional nullspace where optimization is easier to achieve. We prove that the dimension of this nullspace is exactly equal to the minimum number of vertex depths which define the 3D object. Since a practical line drawing is usually not an exact projection of a 3D object, we expand the nullspace to a larger space based on the singular value decomposition of the projection matrix of the line drawing. In this space, robust 3D reconstruction can be achieved. Compared with two most related methods, our method not only can reconstruct more complex 3D objects from 2D line drawings, but also is computationally more efficient.
Schmidt, Debra A; Iambana, R Bernard; Britt, Adam; Junge, Randall E; Welch, Charles R; Porton, Ingrid J; Kerley, Monty S
The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of crude protein, fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, nonstructural carbohydrates, and gross energy in plant foods consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium concentrations were also determined. A total of 122 samples from 33 plant families and more than 60 species were collected and analyzed for their nutritional content. The specific nutrient needs of black and white ruffed lemurs are unknown, but quantifying the nutritional composition of the foods they consume in the wild will help nutritionists and veterinarians formulate more appropriate diets for captive ruffed lemurs. This information will also supply information on how man-induced habitat changes affect the nutritional composition of foods consumed by free-ranging lemurs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
LaNoue, Marianna; Harvey, Abby; Mautner, Dawn; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin
The factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale remains in question. Additionally, research on health belief differences between Black and White respondents suggests that the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale may not be invariant. We reviewed the literature regarding the latent variable structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the three-factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and analyzed between-group differences in the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control structure and means across Black and White respondents. Our results indicate differences in means and structure, indicating more research is needed to inform decisions regarding whether and how to deploy the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control appropriately.
Tomiyama, A Janet; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Rehkopf, David H; Laraia, Barbara A
One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, which consists of 2,379 Black and White girls across a span of socioeconomic status. The girls were assessed longitudinally from ages 10 to 19. Higher levels of stress during the 10 years predicted significantly greater increases in BMI over time compared to lower levels of stress. This relationship was significantly stronger for Black compared to White girls. Psychological stress is a modifiable risk factor that may moderate early racial disparities in BMI.
Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla
This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.
Rosenberg, Alana; Groves, Allison K; Blankenship, Kim M
Despite knowledge of racial bias for drug-related criminal justice involvement and its collateral consequences, we know less about differences between Black and White drug offenders. We compare 243 Blacks and White non-violent drug offenders in New Haven, CT for demographic characteristics, substance use, and re-entry services accessed. Blacks were significantly more likely to have sales and possession charges, significantly more likely to prefer marijuana, a less addictive drug, and significantly less likely to report having severe drug problems. For both races, drug treatment was the most common service accessed through supervision. These comparisons suggest different reasons for committing drug-related crimes and thus, different reentry programming needs. While drug treatment is critical for all who need it, for racial justice, we must also intervene to address other needs of offenders, such as poverty alleviation and employment opportunities.
Baden, Andrea L; Brenneman, Rick A; Louis, Edward E
This study presents the first detailed morphometric measurements of wild caught black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) from the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and aims to quantify the morphological variation present throughout their recognized range. One hundred and forty-four adult and juvenile individuals from 15 sites were sampled for 20 cranial, dental and postcranial morphometric and body mass measurements. Data were collected from an equal number of male and female individuals sampled across seasons over a 7-year period (1999-2002, 2004-2006). Results indicate that adult body mass and morphometric measurements varied between sexes across sites; however, the only significant intersexual difference found was that females possessed, on average, longer tails than males. Contrary to previous studies, significant seasonal variation could not be detected in either male or female body mass or testicular volume (i.e., breeding vs. nonbreeding, food-scarce vs. food-abundant seasons). Measurements did, however, vary significantly by site and subspecies, though clinal variation could not explain these differences. The introduced population from Nosy Mangabe exhibited significantly lower body mass and overall body length than all other populations; however, this distinction may not have been attributable to natural variation, and may have instead resulted from the ecologically restrictive habitat (e.g., unusually high lemur population densities, limited food resources, ecological isolation) of this introduced population. Finally, although fore-to-hindlimb, brachium-to-thigh and hindlimb indices were comparable to previous values, forelimb indices calculated here deviate significantly from previous reports, placing V. variegata within the upper range of lemurid taxa. It is currently unknown whether this is an artifact of sampling methods (i.e., live vs. skeletal specimens) or whether this is an avenue that warrants further investigation.
Jan Alewyn Nel
Full Text Available Background In the last ten years, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI has been developed as an indigenous measurement of personality for the multi-cultural environment of South Africa. The aim of the SAPI is to assess personality in an unbiased and equivalent way. For the purpose of this study, we used an 82-item version of the SAPI which measures nine factors (Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony and Soft-heartedness. Participants and procedure A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the SAPI, the General Health Questionnaire and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. A purposive sample was drawn from Black and White emerging adults (N = 990. We assessed the relationship between personality aspects and well-being across groups in a multiple group structural equation model (SEM using the SPSS and AMOS programs. Results Black emerging adults showed evidence of more individualistic-inclined personality features, while the White emerging adults seem to demonstrate more collectivistic features. In terms of health, the White emerging adults experience more life satisfaction than their Black counterparts. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, facilitating and openness predict well-being among emerging adults. Conclusions This study contributes to expanding the nomological network of the SAPI, and it enhances knowledge pertaining to the link between personality and well-being of emerging adults in South Africa. Understanding which factors contribute to poor mental health and lack of life satisfaction may lead to innovation programmes for emerging adults to assist them in dealing with negative health outcomes possibly associated with living in multicultural contexts.
Tamara A. Baker
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is often associated with the challenge of navigating daily tasks with a painful chronic medical illness. Yet, there is concern of the number of older adults impacted with more than one chronic condition. Despite the increasing number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and comorbid chronic illnesses, there remains a lack of understanding in how multiple illnesses relate to experiences of pain. To assess the association between multiple chronic conditions and pain, this study aimed to identify clusters of chronic medical conditions and their association with pain among a sample of older Black and White adults diagnosed with diabetes. Methods Two hundred and thirty-six participants responded to a series of questions assessing pain frequency and severity, as well as health and social characteristics. A factor analysis was used to categorize clusters of medical conditions, and multiple regression models were used to examine predictors of pain. Results Seven of the assessed chronic medical conditions loaded on three factors, and accounted for 57.2% of the total variance, with heart disease (factor 1 accounting for 21.9%, musculoskeletal conditions (factor 2 for another 18.4%, and factor 3 (microvascular diseases accounting for a final 16.9% of the variability among the chronic medical conditions. Covariate-adjusted models showed that fewer years of education and higher scores on the microvascular and musculoskeletal conditions factors were associated with higher pain frequency, with the musculoskeletal conditions factor being the strongest predictor. Conclusions Findings from this study compliment existent literature underscoring the prevalence and importance of comorbid diagnoses in relation to pain. Examining health-related factors beyond a single disease diagnosis also provides an opportunity to explore underlying disease co-occurrences that may persist beyond organ system classifications.
Bodell, Lindsay P; Wildes, Jennifer E; Cheng, Yu; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D
Epidemiological research suggests racial differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. However, no studies have examined associations between race and eating disorder symptom trajectories across youth and adolescence, which is necessary to inform culturally sensitive prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the trajectories of eating disorder symptoms from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether race was associated with trajectory group membership. Data were drawn from 2,305 Black and White girls who participated in a community-based longitudinal cohort study (Pittsburgh Girls Study) examining the development of psychopathology. The child and adult versions of the Eating Attitudes Test assessed self-reported eating disorder symptoms at six time points between ages 9 and 21 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories of dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. Given potential confounds with race and disordered eating, financial strain (i.e., receiving public assistance) and weight were included as covariates. Four to six distinct developmental patterns were found across eating disorder symptoms, including none, increasing, decreasing, or increasing-decreasing trajectories. Black girls had a greater likelihood of being in the decreasing trajectories for dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. White girls were more likely to follow increasing trajectories of dieting and total eating disorder symptom scores compared to Black girls. These results highlight the importance of examining the influence of racial background on eating disorder symptoms and the potential need for differences in the timing and focus of prevention interventions in these groups.
Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.
Zhu, Yue; Sorkin, John D; Dwyer, Diane; Groves, Carmela; Steinberger, Eileen K
Blacks have the highest incidence of and death from prostate cancer in the United States. Screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may decrease mortality. Repeated testing allows for the calculation of PSA velocity (change of PSA over time), which may be a more clinically useful test for prostate cancer than a single PSA measurement. The objective of this study was to examine whether blacks were as likely as whites to report having had repeated PSA testing. The Maryland Cancer Survey 2006 was a population-based, random-digit-dialed statewide survey on cancer screening and risk behaviors of adults aged 40 years or older. We analyzed self-reported information on repeated PSA testing (2 PSA tests in the preceding 3 years) for 1,721 black and white men. We used logistic regression to estimate the effect of race and age on repeated PSA testing, adjusting for other covariates. Sixty-five percent of men reported ever having had a PSA test; 41% had repeated PSA testing in the past 3 years. Blacks aged 40 to 49 were more likely to report having repeated PSA testing than whites in this age group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.5). Blacks aged 60 to 69 were less likely to report repeated PSA testing than whites (AOR, 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.8). No difference was seen by race among men aged 50 to 59 and men aged 70 or older. Repeated PSA testing was associated with living in an urban area and with having higher education, health insurance, a family history of prostate cancer, and having discussed cancer screening with a doctor. Self-reported repeated PSA testing differed by age and race, being higher among blacks aged 40 to 49 and lower among blacks aged 60 to 69, compared with whites in their respective age groups.
Otiende, M Y; Kivata, M W; Jowers, M J; Makumi, J N; Runo, S; Obanda, V; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Kariuki, L; Alasaad, S
Piroplasms, especially those in the genera Babesia and Theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. Due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. This study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel Theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical interventions from 15 rhinoceros were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a nested amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene fragments of Babesia and Theileria. Our study revealed for the first time in Kenya the presence of Theileria bicornis in white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) rhinoceros and the existence of three new haplotypes: haplotypes H1 and H3 were present in white rhinoceros, while H2 was present in black rhinoceros. No specific haplotype was correlated to any specific geographical location. The Bayesian inference 50% consensus phylogram recovered the three haplotypes monophyleticly, and Theileria bicornis had very high support (BPP: 0.98). Furthermore, the genetic p-uncorrected distances and substitutions between T. bicornis and the three haplotypes were the same in all three haplotypes, indicating a very close genetic affinity. This is the first report of the occurrence of Theileria species in white and black rhinoceros from Kenya. The three new haplotypes reported here for the first time have important ecological and conservational implications, especially for population management and translocation programs and as a means of avoiding the transport of infected animals into non-affected areas. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Since all light from the sun, which is still dominated by the first light of the sky or the sun. World time gave even at their disposal. They do people, he must realize that, albeit in different forms in the light. the main source of artificial light until it has never been changed. Poetry actually crushed under the light, will be written. He said the poet who want to reach an unknown time, the intention is to go on the road as close to divine theology. Take under the influence of the environment as a soul the dust of the poem depends to spread the spirit of all known. That's why we look at our poets, they move beyond what we see at a glance. The sense of light known by everyone. Special meaning is a reflection of the property. İknci Yeni, has witnessed a time of poetic intensity in the Turkish poetry tradition. Different trends in the world, has seen a time when the break occurred. All transitions have very different reactions in the human world of poets exception. Turgut Uyar, then all the values of the semi-urban stuck together as a personality we can say that to their climate. Light is a double value illuminating or decision they want to see him. Besides the special general sense, it also carries a qualified sense. Particularly striking is filled with black and white images load. White is interesting to carry the same attributes in the black space of the tragic point. This Turgut Uyar, adds a different dimension to the meaning of the poem.
Bowdon, Megan; Marcovitz, Pamela; Jain, Susanna K; Boura, Judith; Liroff, Kaitlin G; Franklin, Barry A
Few data are available regarding the impact of exercise interventions in black women at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Women ≥18 years without known CVD with ≥1 coronary risk factor were enrolled in a community-based exercise program ≥3 days per/week for ≥30 min/session for 6 months. Exercise training intensity ~50[FIGURE DASH]80% of functional capacity, using heart rate (HR) and/or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) as the primary intensity modulators. Pre-versus post conditioning quality of life (QOL) assessments (depression and level of daytime sleepiness), dietary fat intake, Duke Activity Status Index (DASI score), changes in cardiovascular efficiency (systolic/diastolic blood pressure [SBP/DBP], HR, RPE during a standardized submaximal workload), and anthropometric measures, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, were evaluated. Of 556 volunteers, 143 were excluded, leaving 413 women (222 white, 191 black; mean ± SD age = 61 ± 9) who met compliance criteria. Both groups demonstrated significant (P <0.05) post-conditioning decreases in BMI, waist circumference, resting SBP/DBP, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, reductions in HR, SBP/DBP, and RPE at a fixed submaximal workload, and in fat screener, depression, and sleep scores. DASI scores increased significantly (P <0.0001) for both groups, signifying increases in self-reported functional capacity. Although 87 women (21%) experienced a musculoskeletal injury/discomfort during the program, there were no exercise-related cardiovascular events. A progressive moderate-to-vigorous exercise intervention without preliminary exercise testing elicited comparable improvements in coronary risk factors, anthropometric and QOL measures, and cardiovascular efficiency in 'at risk' black and white women. These adaptations were achieved at exercise levels below those recommended in contemporary physical activity guidelines.
DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Ferira, Ashley J; Laing, Emma M; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hall, Daniel B; McCabe, George P; Martin, Berdine R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Warden, Stuart J; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, Richard D
Vitamin D supplementation trials with diabetes-related outcomes have been conducted almost exclusively in adults and provide equivocal findings. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response of vitamin D supplementation on fasting glucose, insulin, and a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in white and black children aged 9–13 years, who participated in the Georgia, Purdue, and Indiana University (or GAPI) trial: a 12-week multisite, randomized, triple-masked, dose-response, placebo-controlled vitamin D trial. Black and white children in the early stages of puberty (N = 323, 50% male, 51% black) were equally randomized to receive vitamin D3 (0, 400, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/day) for 12 weeks. Fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. Statistical analyses were conducted as intent-to-treat using a mixed effects model. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin (r = −0.140, P = 0.017) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = −0.146, P = 0.012) after adjusting for race, sex, age, pubertal maturation, fat mass, and body mass index. Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased (F > 5.79, P insulin resistance, vitamin D supplementation had no impact on fasting glucose, insulin, or a surrogate measure of insulin resistance over 12 weeks in apparently healthy children.
Hankerson, Sidney H.; Fenton, Miriam C.; Geier, Timothy J.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Objective Racial differences in the clinical nature of major depressive disorder (MDD) could contribute to treatment disparities, but national data with large samples are limited. Our objective was to examine black-white differences in clinical characteristics and treatment for MDD from one of the largest, national community samples of US adults. Methods Non-Hispanic black and white adults (n = 32 752) from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions produced data on 1866 respondents who met criteria for MDD based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) in the preceding 12 months. Outcome measures were depressive symptoms, comorbid psychiatric and medical disorders, disability, and treatment. Results Blacks with MDD had significantly higher odds of initial insomnia, early-morning awakening, and restlessness than whites. Odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–3.14), obesity (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.45–2.69), and liver disease (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.20–11.30) were higher among blacks than whites. In unadjusted models, blacks had greater impairment than whites in social and physical functioning. However, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics eliminated these differences. Blacks were less likely than whites to receive outpatient services (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36–0.72) and be prescribed medications for MDD, but were more likely to receive emergency room and inpatient treatment. Conclusions We found few racial differences in depressive symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, and disability after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Blacks’ lower utilization of ambulatory treatment for MDD and greater medical comorbidity, emergency department use, and hospitalization suggests that management of MDD among blacks should be emphasized in primary care or other settings where treatment is more accessible. PMID:21999032
Kobayashi, Taisei; Glorioso, Thomas J; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Plomondon, Mary E; Grunwald, Gary K; Bradley, Steven M; Tsai, Thomas T; Waldo, Stephen W; Rao, Sunil V; Banerjee, Subhash; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rene, A Garvey; Wilensky, Robert L; Groeneveld, Peter W; Giri, Jay
Current comparative outcomes among black and white patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system are not known. To compare outcomes between black and white patients undergoing PCI in the VA health system. This study compared black and white patients who underwent PCI between October 1, 2007, and September 30, 2013, at 63 VA hospitals using data recorded in the VA Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking System for Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories (CART-CL) program. A generalized linear mixed model with a random intercept for site assessed the relative difference in odds of outcomes between black and white patients. The setting was integrated institutionalized hospital care. Excluded were all patients of other races or those with multiple listed races and those with missing data regarding race or the diagnostic cardiac catheterization. The dates of analysis were January 7, 2016, to April 17, 2017. Percutaneous coronary intervention at a VA hospital. The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day all-cause readmission rates, 30-day acute kidney injury, 30-day blood transfusion, and 1-year readmission rates for myocardial infarction. In addition, variations in procedural and postprocedural care were examined, including the use of intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, fractional flow reserve measurements, bare-metal stents, postprocedural medications, and radial access. A total of 42 391 patients (13.3% black and 98.4% male; mean [SD] age, 65.2 [9.1] years) satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In unadjusted analyses, black patients had higher rates of 1-year mortality (7.1% vs 5.9%, P < .001) as well as secondary outcomes of 30-day acute kidney injury (20.8% vs 13.8%, P < .001), 30-day blood transfusion (3.4% vs 2.7%, P < .01), and 1-year readmission rates for myocardial infarction (3.3% vs 2.7%, P = .01) compared with white
Jennifer L. Jackson
Conclusions: Lower 25(OHD concentrations are associated with disturbances in metabolic health in both blacks and whites. Whether correcting vitamin D deficiency could offer a beneficial therapy for disease prevention requires further study.
Taylor, Orlando; Ferguson, Dianna
This investigation concerned specific verbal and nonverbal sources of communication problems between blacks and whites in the U.S. Army. Special reference was made to the problems which lead to misinterpretations and social offensiveness. (SW)
Jacob, M R
Observes that although HMO expectations continue to expand with an increase of responsibilities for the pastoral counselor, the benefits have not maintained pace with the responsibilities. Asks, "Where and how does the pastoral counselor draw the line of personal limits? When limitations are set, how does the pastoral counselor represent the ethical values of the profession and the religious community?" Argues that there are subjective and objective considerations and judgements needed to test the ethics of where and how such limitations are established.
Jiang, Zao; Hu, Jun'an; Liu, Jiren; Liu, Xiaoming
The run-graph is an efficient base representation of line drawing images, which is firstly proposed by Monagan and Roosli. It saves a large amount of memory space for storing a line drawing image whereas preserves all raster information of the original image, and the mapping of the image into a run-graph is bijective. It delivers the topological information of the image by constructing node area and edge areas. In this paper, we present an improved run-graph scheme with all efficiencies of the original run- graph preserved based on practices of run-graph representation. The improvements are mainly in two respects: (1) introducing an incline coefficient for judging the short run-length, which is equivalent to be capable to adjust the skew degree of the image, or change the position of a turning point. The characteristic of run-graph generation with the inclined coefficient is studied, and thus presents a simple method for deleting the redundancy turning points. (2) Presenting definitions of a protruding noise and a concave noise and their deleting methods. The experimental example confirms that the given scheme improves the accuracy of the mapping of the topological structure of a line drawing image into node and edge areas of run-graph representation. It provides an efficient information representation for furthermore processing and recognition.
Kozhimannil, Katy B; Muoto, Ifeoma; Darney, Blair G; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M
In 2011, Oregon implemented a policy that reduced the state's rate of early (before 39 weeks' gestation) elective (without medical need) births. This analysis measured differential policy effects by race, examining whether Oregon's policy was associated with changes in non-Hispanic Black-White disparities in early elective cesarean and labor induction. We used Oregon birth certificate data, defining prepolicy (2008-2010) and postpolicy (2012-2014) periods, including non-Hispanic Black and White women who gave birth during these periods (n = 121,272). We used longitudinal spline models to assess policy impacts by race and probability models to measure policy-associated changes in Black-White disparities. We found that the prepolicy Black-White differences in early elective cesarean (6.1% vs. 4.3%) were eliminated after policy implementation (2.8% vs. 2.5%); adjusted models show decreases in the odds of elective early cesarean among Black women after the policy change (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.00; p = .050) and among White women (adjusted odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.93; p = .006). Adjusted probability models indicated that policy implementation resulted in a 1.75-percentage point narrowing (p = .011) in the Black-White disparity in early elective cesarean. Early elective induction also decreased, from 4.9% and 4.7% for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women to 3.8% and 2.5%, respectively; the policy was not associated with a statistically significant change in disparities. A statewide policy reduced racial disparities in early elective cesarean, but not early elective induction. Attention to differential policy effects by race may reveal changes in disparities, even when that is not the intended focus of the policy. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tomiyama, AJ; Puterman, E; Epel, ES; Rehkopf, DH; Laraia, BA
Background: One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. Purpose: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Methods: Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood...
Coyle, Karin K.; Kirby, Douglas B.; Marín, Barbara V.; Gómez, Cynthia A.; Gregorich, Steven E.
Objectives. This study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of Draw the Line/Respect the Line, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors among middle school adolescents. Methods. The randomized controlled trial involved 19 schools in northern California. A cohort of 2829 sixth graders was tracked for 36 months. Results. The intervention delayed sexual initiation among boys, but not girls. Boys in the intervention condition also exhibited significantly greater knowledge than control students, perceived fewer peer norms supporting sexual intercourse, had more positive attitudes toward not having sex, had stronger sexual limits, and were less likely to be in situations that could lead to sexual behaviors. Psychosocial effects for girls were limited. Conclusions. The program was effective for boys, but not for girls. PMID:15117710
Full Text Available Book review: Chomsky N. A New Generation Draws the Line: Humanitarian Intervention and the “Responsibility to Protect” Today.Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2012. 176 p. The book under review examines controversial norm of “humanitarian intervention”. It clearly demonstrates that the norm was used selectively and with different argumentations in various situations. Noam Chomsky has managed to present a fair and balanced account of positive and negative aspects of humanitarian interventions as well as provide thought-provoking policy recommendations for improving human rights protection.
Suzan L Carmichael
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. METHODS: We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values. Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.
Zavagno, Daniele; Massironi, Manfredo
What is it like to see the world in black and white? In the pioneer days of cinema, when movies displayed grey worlds, was it true that no 'colours' were actually seen? Did every object seen in those projections appear grey in the same way? The answer is obviously no--people in those glorious days were seeing a world full of light, shadows, and objects in which colours were expressed in terms of lightness. But the marvels of grey worlds have not always been so richly displayed. Before the invention of photography, the depiction of scenes in black-and-white had to face some technical and perceptual challenges. We have studied the technical and perceptual constraints that XV-XVIII century engravers had to face in order to translate actual colours into shades of grey. An indeterminacy principle is considered, according to which artists had to prefer the representation of some object or scene features over others (for example brightness over lightness). The reasons for this lay between the kind of grey scale technically available and the kind of information used in the construction of 3-D scenes. With the invention of photography, photomechanical reproductions, and new printing solutions, artists had at their disposal a continuous grey scale that greatly reduces the constraints of the indeterminacy principle.
Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar
Supportive relationships with adults at school are critical to student engagement in adolescence. Additional research is needed to understand how students' racial backgrounds interact with the school context to shape their perceptions of school support. This study employed multilevel, latent variable methods with a sample of Black and White students (N = 19,726, 35.8 % Black, 49.9 % male, mean age = 15.9) in 58 high schools to explore variation in perceived caring, equity, and high expectations by student race, school diversity, and socioeconomic context. The results indicated that Black students perceived less caring and equity relative to White students overall, and that equity and high expectations were lower in diverse schools for both Black and White students. Nonetheless, racial disparities were attenuated in more diverse schools. The findings point to the need for intervention to improve perceptions of school support for Black youth and for all students in lower income and more diverse schools.
Rowan, Zachary R
Efforts to understand peer influence among adolescents have established the robust relationship between having substance using peers and future substance use. Still, research suggests that peer influence affects different types of adolescents in different ways. Black adolescents may be less susceptible to friends compared to white adolescents and possess stronger family-orientation, suggesting that siblings may affect deviance of Black adolescents whereas friends will have a minimal impact. This study used data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to evaluate the relative strength of best friend and siblings' influence as risk factors for Black and White adolescents' alcohol and cigarette use. Approximately 182 Black sibling pairs (37 % male) and 657 white sibling pairs (46 % male) that ranged in ages from 11 to 19 were in the longitudinal analyses for the current study. The findings demonstrated that sibling and best friends' substance use explained white adolescents' cigarette and alcohol use, whereas Black adolescents' cigarette and alcohol use was predominantly explained by siblings' substance use. Ultimately, the results indicated the nuanced role that two types of peers have in explaining variation in substance use across Black and White adolescents.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.
Rosen, David L.; Hammond, Wizdom P.; Wohl, David A.; Golin, Carol E.
U.S. prisons have a court-affirmed mandate to provide health care to prisoners. Given this mandate, we sought to determine whether use of prison health care was equitable across race using a nationally-representative sample of Black and White male state prisoners. We first examined the prevalence of health conditions by race. Then, across all health conditions and for each of 15 conditions, we compared the proportion of Black and White male prisoners with the condition who received health care. For most conditions including cancer, heart disease, and liver-related disorders, the age-adjusted prevalence of disease among Blacks was lower than among Whites (p<.05). Blacks were also modestly more likely than Whites to use health care for existing conditions (p<.05), particularly hypertension, cerebral vascular accident/brain injury, cirrhosis, flu-like illness, and injury. The observed racial disparities in health and health care use are different from those among non-incarcerated populations. PMID:22643475
X. Y. Fu
Full Text Available Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes in western China is one of the most famous World Cultural Heritage Sites, known for its glorious Chinese Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. However, it has been suffering from damage and degradation caused by man-made and natural factors. In this article, we present a novel line-drawing enhanced interactive system for digital restoration of damaged murals in Mogao Grottoes. Our system consists of four components, namely data pre-processing, damaged area selection, line-drawing segmentation, and mural restoration. Each component is a hybrid of efficient algorithms and user interactions. We introduce the infrastructure and process of using our system, from data capture and collection, database establishment, to interactive restoration. We conduct a user study with 15 participants who have varied experiences with and skills on repairing murals and editing images. Results and feedback suggest that our system can achieve satisfactory restoration results without overburdening the users. It can benefit both experts trained in restoration and amateurs interested in cultural heritage conservation.
Sinclair, H C; Frieze, I H
As noted by Schaum and Parrish (1995), stalking blurs the boundaries between normal courtship and obsessive behavior. Consequently, stalking proves an elusive phenomenon to define and to study. Where does courtship end and stalking begin? To address this question, 197 women and 44 men from the University of Pittsburgh who had loved someone who did not love them in return were surveyed about their feelings and actions in response to this rejection. Factor analyses revealed six groupings of behaviors in response to unrequited courtship: approach, surveillance, intimidation, harming oneself, verbal abuse/mild physical harm, and extreme physical harm. Approach behavior was reported to be used more often by men, but there were no significant differences between men and women in the self-reported prevalence of other types of courtship behaviors. Correlations reveal that feelings of anger and depression were the most common predictors of violent behavior for both men and women. Pursuer-perceptions of what behaviors connoted "going too far" in pursuit of a relationship proved unreliable. However, when pursuers were asked whether their love interest was afraid of them, fear was a reaction perceived in response to intimidation. Although it is likely that pursuer perceptions of where to draw the line would differ from the view of the love object, these results suggest that engaging in intimidation would be an appropriate place to draw the line between courtship and stalking.
Fu, X. Y.; Han, Y.; Sun, Z. J.; Ma, X. J.; Xu, Y. Q.
Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes in western China is one of the most famous World Cultural Heritage Sites, known for its glorious Chinese Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. However, it has been suffering from damage and degradation caused by man-made and natural factors. In this article, we present a novel line-drawing enhanced interactive system for digital restoration of damaged murals in Mogao Grottoes. Our system consists of four components, namely data pre-processing, damaged area selection, line-drawing segmentation, and mural restoration. Each component is a hybrid of efficient algorithms and user interactions. We introduce the infrastructure and process of using our system, from data capture and collection, database establishment, to interactive restoration. We conduct a user study with 15 participants who have varied experiences with and skills on repairing murals and editing images. Results and feedback suggest that our system can achieve satisfactory restoration results without overburdening the users. It can benefit both experts trained in restoration and amateurs interested in cultural heritage conservation.
Full Text Available Visuospatial attention and short-term memory allow us to prioritize, select, and briefly maintain part of the visual information that reaches our senses. These cognitive abilities are quantitatively accounted for by Bundesen’s theory of visual attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990. Previous studies have suggested that TVA-based assessments are sensitive to inter-individual differences in spatial bias, visual short-term memory capacity, top-down control, and processing speed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with various neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, most neuropsychological assessments of attention and executive functions, including TVA-based assessment, make use of alphanumeric stimuli and/or are performed verbally, which can pose difficulties for individuals who have troubles processing letters or numbers. Here we examined the reliability of TVA-based assessments when stimuli are used that are not alphanumeric, but instead based on line-drawings of fruits and vegetables. We compared five TVA parameters quantifying the aforementioned cognitive abilities, obtained by modeling accuracy data on a whole/partial report paradigm using conventional alphabet stimuli versus the food stimuli. Significant correlations were found for all TVA parameters, indicating a high parallel-form reliability. Split-half correlations assessing internal reliability, and correlations between predicted and observed data assessing goodness-of-fit were both significant. Our results provide an indication that line-drawings of fruits and vegetables can be used for a reliable assessment of attention and short-term memory.
Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.
Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…
Lobene, Andrea J; Kindler, Joseph M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Grider, Arthur; Lewis, Richard D
Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes. Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo ( n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide ( r = -0.07), insulin ( r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR ( r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) ( P = 0.06). Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this
DeUgarte, Catherine Marin; Woods, K S; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Azziz, Ricardo
Hirsutism (i.e. facial and body terminal hair growth in a male-like pattern in women) is the principal clinical sign of hyperandrogenism, although its definition remains unclear. The purposes of the present study were to define 1) the degree of facial and body terminal hair, as assessed by the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score, in unselected women from the general population; 2) the effect of race (Black and White) on the same; and 3) the normative cutoff values. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary academic medical center. Participants included 633 unselected White (n = 283) and Black (n = 350) women presenting for a preemployment physical exam. Interventions included history and physical examination. Terminal body hair growth was assessed using the mFG scoring system; nine body areas were scored from 0-4 for terminal hair growth distribution. The mFG scores were not normally distributed; although cluster analysis failed to identify a natural cutoff value or clustering of the population, principal component and univariate analyses denoted two nearly distinct clusters that occurred above and below an mFG value of 2, with the bulk of the scores below. Overall, an mFG score of at least 3 was observed in 22.1% of all subjects (i.e. the upper quartile); of these subjects, 69.3% complained of being hirsute, compared with 15.8% of women with an mFG score below this value, and similar to the proportion of women with an mFG score of at least 8 who considered themselves to be hirsute (70.0%). Overall, there were no significant differences between Black and White women. Our data indicate that the prevalence and degree of facial and body terminal hair growth, as assessed by the mFG score, is similar in Black and White women and that an mFG of at least 3 signals the population of women whose hair growth falls out of the norm.
Jennifer S Sonderman
Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings
Sun, Lei; Fan, Xiucai; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Sun, Haisheng; Liu, Chonghuai
The color of berry skin is an important economic trait for grape and is essentially determined by the components and content of anthocyanins. The fruit color of Chinese wild grapes is generally black, and the profile of anthocyanins in Chinese wild grapes is significantly different from that of Vitis vinifera . However, V. davidii is the only species that possesses white berry varieties among Chinese wild grape species. Thus, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to compare the difference of transcriptional level in black and white V. davidii , in order to find some key genes that are related to anthocyanins accumulation in V. davidii . The results of anthocyanins detection revealed that 3,5- O -diglucoside anthocyanins is the predominant anthocyanins in V. davidii . It showed obvious differences from V. vinifera in the profile of the composition of anthocyanins. The transcriptome sequencing by Illumina mRNA-Seq technology generated an average of 57 million 100-base pair clean reads from each sample. Differential gene expression analysis revealed thousands of differential expression genes (DEGs) in the pairwise comparison of different fruit developmental stages between and within black and white V. davidii . After the analysis of functional category enrichment and differential expression patterns of DEGs, 46 genes were selected as the candidate genes. Some genes have been reported as being related to anthocyanins accumulation, and some genes were newly found in our study as probably being related to anthocyanins accumulation. We inferred that 3AT (VIT_03s0017g00870) played an important role in anthocyanin acylation, GST4 (VIT_04s0079g00690) and AM2 (VIT_16s0050g00910) played important roles in anthocyanins transport in V. davidii . The expression of some selected DEGs was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study investigated the transcriptomic profiles of berry skin from black and white spine grapes at three fruit developmental
Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
Barry, Declan T; Stefanovics, Elina A; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling (PPG) and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal levels of gambling in black and white respondents indicate the importance of considering race-related factors in mental health prevention and treatment strategies. American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Mustillo, Sarah A; Hendrix, Kimber L; Schafer, Markus H
As a stigmatizing condition, obesity may lead to the internalization of devalued labels and threats to self-concept. Modified labeling theory suggests that the effects of stigma may outlive direct manifestations of the discredited characteristic itself. This article considers whether obesity's effects on self-concept linger when obese youth enter the normal body mass range. Using longitudinal data from the National Growth and Health Study on 2,206 black and white girls, we estimated a parallel-process growth mixture model of body mass linked to growth models of body image discrepancy and self-esteem. We found that discrepancy was higher and self-esteem lower in formerly obese girls compared to girls always in the normal range and comparable to chronically obese girls. Neither body image discrepancy nor self-esteem rebounded in white girls despite reduction in body mass, suggesting that the effects of stigma linger. Self-esteem, but not discrepancy, did rebound in black girls.
Gebreab, Samson Y.; Diez Roux, Ana V.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is one of the major contributors to racial disparities in health in the United States (US). We examined spatial heterogeneity in black–white differences in CHD mortality across the US and assessed the contributions of poverty and segregation. We used county-level, age-adjusted CHD mortality rates for blacks and whites in the continental US between 1996 and 2006. Geographically weighted regression was employed to assess spatial heterogeneity. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in black–white differences in CHD mortality (median black–white difference 17.7 per 100,000, 25th–75th percentile (IQR): 4.0, 34.0, P value for spatial non-stationarity racial disparities in CHD mortality. Additional research to identify the individual and contextual factors that explain the local variations in racial disparities is warranted. PMID:22835483
Ding, Wei; Yang, Le; Xiao, Wen
Few quantitative descriptions of parturition behavior have been reported in wild nonhuman primates because the majority of births occur at night. We have recorded a daytime birth event of a primiparous black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). The partum stage lasted 4 min 30 s, and the female skillfully severed the umbilical cord, ingested the placenta, and held and licked the newborn infant. During this period, the laboring female received delivery assistance from a multiparous female in same one-male unit (OMU) and female juveniles from same OMU showed great interesting during the partum. Our case study suggested that there might be considerable individual variation in birth-related behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Dyke, Miriam; Greer, Sophia; Odom, Erika; Schieb, Linda; Vaughan, Adam; Kramer, Michael; Casper, Michele
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. 1968-2015. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968-2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968-2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases occurring during the 1970s and 1980s followed by small but steady
Gaide, N; Pelandakis, M; Robveille, C; Albaric, O; Jouvion, G; Souchon, M; Risler, A; Abadie, J
A mature male, black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) died in a zoological garden after a 4-day history of lethargy and non-responsive convulsions. Necropsy and histopathological examinations revealed acute necrotizing and haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis with intralesional amoebas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype was identified as the causative agent of the brain lesion, based on amplification and sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The presence of free-living amoebas in water and mud from the lemur's environment was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. The two predominant genera, representing 80% of isolated amoebas, were Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. All Acanthamoeba isolates belonged to the T4 genotype. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a meningoencephalitis due to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype in Lemuridae with concurrent analysis of pathological tissues and environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baden, Andrea L; Webster, Timothy H; Kamilar, Jason M
Ruffed lemurs (genus Varecia) are often described as having a flexible social organization, such that both cohesive (low fission-fusion dynamics) and fluid (high fission-fusion dynamics) grouping patterns have been observed. In ruffed lemur communities with high fission-fusion dynamics, group members vary in their temporal and spatial dispersion throughout a communally defended territory. These patterns have been likened to those observed in several haplorrhine species that exhibit the most fluid types of fission-fusion social organization (e.g., Pan and Ateles). To substantiate and further refine these claims, we describe the fission-fusion dynamics of a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) community at Mangevo, an undisturbed primary rainforest site in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We collected instantaneous group scan samples from August 2007-December 2008 (4,044 observation hours) to study and characterize patterns of subgroup size, composition, cohesion, and social association. In 16 consecutive months, we never found all members of the community together. In fact, individuals spent nearly half of their time alone. Subgroups were small, cohesive, and typically of mixed-sex composition. Mixed-sex subgroups were significantly larger, less cohesive, and more common than either male-only or female-only subgroups. Subgroup dynamics were related to shifts in climate, phenology of preferred fruit species, and female reproductive state. On average, association indices were low. Males and females were equally gregarious; however, adult male-male associations were significantly weaker than any other association type. Results presented herein document striking differences in fission-fusion dynamics between black-and-white ruffed lemurs and haplorrhines, while also demonstrating many broad-scale similarities to haplorrhine taxa that possess the most fluid fission-fusion societies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Benn, E K T; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, E A
Objective To measure stigma associated with four types of postpartum depression therapies and to estimate the association between stigma and the acceptance of these therapies for black and white postpartum mothers. Methods Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, this study included 481 black and white women who gave birth in a large urban hospital and answered a series of questions at 6-months postpartum. Survey items included socio demographic and clinical factors, attitudes about postpartum depression therapies and stigma. The associations between race, stigma, and treatment acceptability were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Black postpartum mothers were less likely than whites to accept prescription medication (64 vs. 81%, p = 0.0001) and mental health counseling (87 vs. 93%, p = 0.001) and more likely to accept spiritual counseling (70 vs. 52%, p = 0.0002). Women who endorsed stigma about receipt of postpartum depression therapies versus those who did not were less likely to accept prescription medication, mental health and spiritual counseling for postpartum depression. Overall black mothers were less likely to report stigma associated with postpartum depression therapies. In adjusted models, black women versus white women remained less likely to accept prescription medication for postpartum depression (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72) and stigma did not explain this difference. Conclusions Although treatment stigma is associated with lower postpartum depression treatment acceptance, stigma does not explain the lower levels of postpartum depression treatment acceptance among black women. More research is needed to understand treatment barriers for postpartum depression, especially among black women.
Patrick S Sullivan
Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.
Miller, Byron; Taylor, John
Stress research shows that race, socioeconomic status (SES), and family context significantly impact an adolescent's psychological well-being, yet little is known about the mediating effects of family context on racial and SES differences in depressive symptoms among Black and White youth. We investigate these associations using a sample of 875…
Full Text Available Attempts at formulating a dichotomous classification of nations and nationalisms have proliferated in the relevant literature over a long period of time. In this study some of the most influential instances of dual typologies of nationalisms are selected for interpretation and analysis. The examples include Renan's understanding of differences between the "French" and the "German" concepts of nation; Kohn's distinction between "eastern" and "western" nationalisms; a revision of Kohn's dichotomy suggested by J. Plamenatz; and a more recent version of dual typology propounded by L. Greenfield. By reconstructing the views of the selected theorists of nationalism, at the basis of all these typologies a dichotomous division into "civic" and "ethnic" nationalism is identified. Critical objections to this fundamental dual division are articulated at two levels. At the first, historical level, a socio-political contextualization of dual typologies points to their practical, political-ideological purposes. At the second, conceptual level, and drawing on the ideas of R. Brubaker, the author discusses analytical and normative weaknesses of the usual distinction between "civic" and "ethnic" nationalism.
Johnson, Arthur T
"Moderation in all things" is a popular saying that many of us have heard all our lives. Still, a good number of people seem to have forgotten the sentiment behind this advice. Instead of looking for the good that exists within the bad and the bad that dwells within the good, people are choosing to line up behind one extreme or another. Nuances are being ignored in favor of strong positions on either side of the middle. This has led inevitably to polarization, partisanship, and balkanization in our society. For some reason, moderation has been forgotten.
Crawford, Graham C; Puschner, Birgit; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Dunker, Freeland
Serum and whole blood samples from 64 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), aged 6 mo to 32 yr, were analyzed to survey mineral and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. All animals were fed a commercial primate food and a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Specific commercial diet information was available for 52 animals that were fed one of 10 different diets. Data analysis showed no differences in the analytes attributable to sex or access to natural ultraviolet light. Serum phosphorus (range: 1.4-3.1 mmol/L) was significantly higher and retinol (range: 0.38-1.23 micromol/L) was significantly lower in young animals (Varecia rubra), a closely related species. Selenium (range: 3.5-7.7 micromol/L) was within the range expected for a mammal, but higher than concentrations reported in wild V rubra. Zinc (range: 9.2-62.7 micromol/L) was similar to concentrations reported in V. rubra. Calcidiol (range: <12.5-144.8 nmol/L) and retinol (range: 0.38-2.95 micromol/L) were both lower and higher than concentrations reported in V. rubra. Lower serum calcidiol concentration correlated with lower commercial dietary vitamin D3. Alpha-tocopherol (range: 1.2-17.6 micromol/L) and y-tocopherol (range: 0.3-3.9 micromol/L) were within a range expected in a captive frugivorous primate but higher than concentrations found in wild V. rubra.
Folsom, A R; Sprafka, J M; Luepker, R V; Jacobs, D R
We assessed beliefs about the symptoms, causes, and prevention of cardiovascular disease in population-based surveys of black and white Twin Cities adults in 1985-86. Whites had a generally higher awareness of heart attack symptoms than did blacks; 72% of blacks and 85% of whites mentioned chest pain as a likely symptom. Sixty-five percent of blacks and 76% of whites correctly offered at least one of the three major, modifiable risk factors (smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol in blood or diet) as likely causes of cardiovascular disease. However, less than 5% of respondents mentioned all three major risk factors. The most frequent response offered as a cause was stress/worry (54% of blacks, 51% of whites). Individuals with higher educational levels generally responded more correctly than those with less education. After accounting for differences in educational level, blacks demonstrated a higher awareness of hypertension as a risk factor, whereas whites were more knowledgeable about smoking and cholesterol. In light of the high percentage of adults still lacking awareness about cardiovascular risk, public education about prevention should continue. Such efforts are broadly desirable but may be most effectively targeted toward minorities and groups with less education, in whom awareness is low and risk of disease is high.
Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W; Haviland, Mark G; Fraser, Gary E
In a structural equation model, associations among latent variables - Child Poverty, Risky Family exposure, Religious Engagement, Negative Social Interactions, Negative Emotionality, and Perceived Physical Health - were evaluated in 6,753 Black and White adults aged 35-106 years (M = 60.5, SD = 13.0). All participants were members of the Seventh-day Adventist church surveyed in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS). Child Poverty was positively associated with both Risky Family exposure (conflict, neglect, abuse) and Religious Engagement (intrinsic religiosity, religious coping, religiousness). Risky Family was negatively associated with Religious Engagement and positively associated with both Negative Social Interactions (intrusive, failed to help, insensitive, rejecting) and Negative Emotionality (depression, negative affect, neuroticism). Religious Engagement was negatively associated with Negative Emotionality and Negative Social Interactions at a given level of risky family. Negative Social Interactions was positively associated with Negative Emotionality, which had a direct, negative effect on Perceived Physical Health. All constructs had indirect effects on Perceived Physical Health through Negative Emotionality. The effects of a risky family environment appear to be enduring, negatively affecting one's adult religious life, emotionality, social interactions, and perceived health. Religious engagement, however, may counteract the damaging effects of early life stress.
Fowke, Jay H; Munro, Heather; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J; Penson, David F
A higher prevalence of moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has been reported among African Americans, but the separate effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on LUTS severity are unclear. We investigated the roles of education, income, marital status, and source of health insurance on LUTS reporting among black and white U.S. men. A prospective cohort within the Southern Community Cohort Study The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was completed during follow-up by 2488 white men and 4188 black men. Multivariable linear and logistic regression methods were used to compare IPSS scores and LUTS severity by race and SES after adjusting for age, duration of follow-up, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment, source of recruitment, smoking status, BMI, mode of follow-up ascertainment, and prior diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia. Overall IPSS scores and the prevalence of moderate/severe LUTS were not significantly associated with race. Instead, higher IPSS scores were significantly associated (p Education was also marginally associated with IPSS scores (p = 0.06) among black men. Furthermore, moderate/severe LUTS onset was significantly associated with a household income less than $15,000/year (OR = 1.56 (1.23, 1.96)) and having private health insurance (OR = 0.79 (0.67, 0.93)). Social or behavioral factors related to SES affect LUTS reporting, and suggests a potential affect on BPH diagnosis.
Li, Jin-Fa; He, Yu-Chao; Huang, Zhi-Pang; Wang, Shuang-Jin; Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Zhao, Juan-Jun; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei
Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V" style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.
Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A
The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F
E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (pWhites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (pWhites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; pWhites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.
Christiena Maria van der Bank
Full Text Available We will, demonstrate what affirmative action entails, its origin and the relationship with discrimination and equality. The paper will also highlight the implementation of affirmative action in the Higher Education sector in South Africa. Affirmative action or black and white are the additional corrective steps which must be taken in order that those who have been historically disadvantage by unfair discrimination before 1994 are able to derive full benefits from an equitable employment environment. While there has been a significant increase in the number of women appointed into management positions, the proportion in relation to the total number of women in senior posts such as those of Vice Chancellors, Deputy-Vice Chancellors and Executive Deans still remains problematic. Considerations should be taken with regard to issues of access, equity and relevance. Indeed, affirmative action should be located within a rigorous process that will ensure that those who are for example, promoted to senior positions both in private and public sectors are able to demonstrate strategic thinking and action, quality execution of tasks, efficiency and effectiveness in achieving organisational goals. This will also be followed by a brief South Africa’s case study of different entities (South African Breweries and Sowetan Newspaper. A comparison of USA’s affirmative action and whether “there is a light at the end of a tunnel – affirmative action” will be done.
Dunham, Noah T; Lambert, Alexander L
Examining the relationships among foraging behavior, food mechanical properties, and masticatory morphology is a bourgeoning research topic among behavioral ecologists and functional morphologists. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which leaf toughness influences foraging efficiency with regard to ingestion rate, masticatory investment, and masticatory rate. Diet and feeding data were collected on adults from three groups of Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya, from July 2014 to December 2015. Ingestion rates were estimated by counting the number of items consumed during feeding bouts and multiplying this value by the mean mass of a particular food item. The number of mastications was also counted during 3-5 minute focal periods. Mechanical toughness of commonly eaten young leaves (n = 27 species) and mature leaves (n = 13 species) was recorded using a toughness tester equipped with a razor blade. Ingestion rates (g/min) negatively correlated with leaf toughness (r(2) = 0.73; p toughness (r(2) = 0.72; p toughness values (r(2) = 0.09; p = 0.07). Our findings highlight the degree to which toughness values can vary among leaves and how this variation can dramatically influence ingestion rates and chewing efficiency in black and white colobus monkeys. Studies that link food mechanical properties with oral processing behaviors will ultimately provide important context for understanding craniofacial and dentognathic traits in primates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wohl, David A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.
Purpose We compared mortality rates among state prisoners and other state residents to identify prisoners’ healthcare needs Methods We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1995-2005 to estimate all-cause and cause-specific death rates among Black and White male prisoners aged 20-79 years, and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the expected number based on death rates among state residents Results The all-cause SMR of Black prisoners was 0.52 (95%CI: 0.48 0.57), with fewer deaths than expected from accidents, homicides, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The all-cause SMR of White prisoners was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.25) with fewer deaths than expected for accidents, but more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis, liver disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, and HIV. Conclusions Mortality of Black prisoners was lower than that of Black state residents for both traumatic and chronic causes of death. Mortality of White prisoners was lower than that of White state residents for accidents, but higher for several chronic causes of death. Future studies should investigate the effect of prisoners’ pre-incarceration and in-prison morbidity, the prison environment, and prison healthcare on prisoners’ patterns of mortality. PMID:21737304
Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to determine the consumption speed of forages (g⁄min. and consumption indices (quantity and consumption duration of forages, administered in two portions, to Romanian Black and White cows. The administration order of forages (fibrous-succulents (O1 and succulents-fibrous (O2 order, the number of portion (P1 and P2 and number of feeding (F1 and F2 were the experimental variants. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the administration order of forages had an influence on the speed consumption, when was given before silage (O1, hay had a higher consumption speed (41.35 g/min decreasing to 31.41 g/min when hay was fed after the silage (O2. For silage the consumption speed was 190.33 g/min in O1 and increased to 228.87 g/min when was given before hay (O2. Between portion 1 (P1 and portion 2 (P2, the significant difference (p<0.001 was for silage consumption speed in favour portion P2. Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the consumption speed of the feedstuffs, as well as the amount consumed, was higher in the first feeding F1 than in the second feeding F2.
Sellers, Sherrill; Cherepanav, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari
We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination compared to white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.
Sumerlin, J R; Privette, G; Bundrick, C M
In this analysis of racial confounds in the study of homelessness and self-actualization, 100 black and 71 white homeless men from a mission and a street environment were compared to test the hypothesis that the prototypes of black and white homeless men are different. Discriminant analysis of items from the Short Index of Self-actualization of Jones and Crandall, willingness to use services, history of homelessness, and self-reported health ratings correctly classified 83.6% of black and white homeless men (Wilks' lambda = .46, p < .0001). The prototypic black homeless person and the prototypic white homeless person have strong differences so race must be evaluated in studies of such groups.
Satpute, Ajay B; Nook, Erik C; Narayanan, Sandhya; Shu, Jocelyn; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N
The demands of social life often require categorically judging whether someone's continuously varying facial movements express "calm" or "fear," or whether one's fluctuating internal states mean one feels "good" or "bad." In two studies, we asked whether this kind of categorical, "black and white," thinking can shape the perception and neural representation of emotion. Using psychometric and neuroimaging methods, we found that (a) across participants, judging emotions using a categorical, "black and white" scale relative to judging emotions using a continuous, "shades of gray," scale shifted subjective emotion perception thresholds; (b) these shifts corresponded with activity in brain regions previously associated with affective responding (i.e., the amygdala and ventral anterior insula); and (c) connectivity of these regions with the medial prefrontal cortex correlated with the magnitude of categorization-related shifts. These findings suggest that categorical thinking about emotions may actively shape the perception and neural representation of the emotions in question. © The Author(s) 2016.
Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry
In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and
Differences in the Associations between Gambling Problem Severity and Psychiatric Disorders among Black and White Adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Barry, Declan T.; Stefanovics, Elina A.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal le...
Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Sullivan, Patrick; Millett, Gregorio; Rosenberg, Eli; Salazar, Laura; Di Clemente, Ralph J.; Cooper, Hannah; Kelley, Colleen F.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Frew, Paula; del Rio, Carlos
Objectives To examine associations of homophobia, racism, and resiliency with differences in prevalent HIV infection in black and white MSM. Methods The Involve[ment]t study is a cohort of black and white MSM aged 18–39 years in Atlanta, GA designed to evaluate individual, dyadic, and community level factors that might explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Participants were recruited irrespective of HIV serostatus from community-based venues and from Internet ads and were tested for HIV. We assessed respondents’ demographics, whether they had engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) within the past 6 months, and attitudes about perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and personal resiliency. Results Compared to white MSM, black MSM were less likely to report UAI in the past 6 months (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.44–0.80), more likely to be HIV-positive (OR = 5.05, CI = 3.52–7.25) and, among—those HIV-positive—more likely to report not being aware of their HIV infection (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.18–5.65). Greater perceived racism was associated with UAI in the black sample (partial odds ratio [pOR] = 1.48, CI = 1.10–1.99). Overall, perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and resilience were not associated with prevalent HIV infection in our samples. Greater resilience was associated with less perceived homophobia in both black and white samples (Spearman r = −.27, p < .001, for both). Conclusion Future studies of social discrimination at the institutional and network level, than at the individual level, may explain differences in HIV infection in black and white MSM. PMID:24820109
Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Hernández-Figueroa, Jesús David; Hernández-Calderón, Beatriz Del Carmen; Saavedra, Margarita
Postmenopause is mainly characterized by a reduction of ovarian hormones, which is accompanied by a major incidence of physical disorders and mood swings. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that phytoestrogens could be used to ameliorate these alterations associated with menopause. However, the phytoestrogen effects on anxiety in rats with long-term absence of ovarian hormones, is unknown. Consequently, in the present study the authors compared the anxiolytic-like effect of phytoestrogen genistein (0.25, 0.5 y 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in Wistar rats with 12-weeks postovariectomy in the black and white model and in the open field test, and it was compared with diazepam (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). In the black and white model, genistein (0.5 y 1.0 mg/kg) and diazepam reduced the latency to enter and increased the time spent into the white compartment; also, significantly increased frequency and time spent in exploration toward white compartment was seen, as compared with the control group (phormones in the black and white model, supporting the hypotheses that phytoestrogens could be used to ameliorate anxiety associated with menopause.
Schmidt, Marcia; Affenito, Sandra G; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Khoury, Philip R; Barton, Bruce; Crawford, Patricia; Kronsberg, Shari; Schreiber, George; Obarzanek, Eva; Daniels, Stephen
To examine trends in fast-food consumption and its relationship to calorie, fat, and sodium intake in black and white adolescent girls. A longitudinal multicenter cohort study of the development of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in black and white female adolescents. Data collection occurred annually using a validated 3-day food record and a food-patterns questionnaire. A biracial and socioeconomically diverse group of 2379 black and white girls recruited from 3 centers. Three-day food records and a food-patterns questionnaire were examined for intake of fast food and its association with nutrient intake. We compared patterns of exposure to fast food and its impact on intake of calories, fat, and sodium. Fast-food intake was positively associated with intake of energy and sodium as well as total fat and saturated fat as a percentage of calories. Fast-food intake increased with increasing age in both races. With increasing consumption of fast food, energy intake increased with an adjusted mean of 1837 kcal for the low fast-food frequency group vs 1966 kcal for the highest fast-food frequency group (Pfood frequency group was 34.3% as opposed to 35.8% in the highest fast-food frequency group (Pfood frequency group (Pfood is a determinant of diet quality in adolescent girls. Efforts to reduce fast-food consumption may be useful in improving diet and risk for future cardiovascular disease.
Overdorff, Deborah J; Erhart, Elizabeth M; Mutschler, Thomas
Although many Malagasy lemurs are thought to be female dominant and to have female feeding priority, to date the relationship between these behaviors has been rigorously established only in Lemur catta, and other ways that females might achieve feeding priority have not been examined closely. Erhart and Overdorff [International Journal of Primatology 20:927-940, 1999] suggested that one way female primates achieve feeding priority is to initiate and lead groups to food, thereby gaining access to the food first and positively influencing their food intake compared to other group members. Here we describe female dominance patterns and potential measures of feeding priority in two groups of black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) that were observed over a 15-month period in southeastern Madagascar. We predicted that the females would 1) be consistently dominant to males, 2) lead groups to food sources more often than males, and 3) have higher feeding rates compared to males when they arrived at food sources first. The results were dissimilar between the study groups. During the study, the oldest adult female in group 1 died. There was no evidence for female dominance in this group, and the remaining (likely natal) female did not lead the group more often, nor did she have a higher food intake than males. Group 1 dispersed shortly after the time frame reported here. In contrast, the resident female in group 2 was dominant to group males (based on agonistic interactions), led the group to food sources more often, and experienced a higher food intake when she arrived first at a food source. How these patterns vary over time and are influenced by the number of females in groups, group stability, food quality, and reproductive condition will be examined in future analyses. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Crawford, Graham
Lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. When excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. The pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. Tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissue biopsy and histologic examination, or quantitated by chemical analysis of biopsy tissue, However, expense and risk associated with anesthesia and surgery prevent routine use of tissue biopsy to assess iron status. A noninvasive means of assessing total body iron stores is needed to monitor iron stores in lemurs to determine whether dietary modification is preventing excessive iron deposition, and to monitor potential therapies such as phlebotomy or chelation. Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, cats, and pigs. Serum ferritin is considered the best serum analyte to predict total body iron stores in these species and is more reliable than serum iron or total iron binding capacity, both of which may be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy or excess including hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease, and drug administration. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin in lemurs. The assay uses polyclonal rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies in a sandwich arrangement. Ferritin isolated from liver and spleen of a black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was used as a standard. Ferritin standards were linear from 0 to 50 microg/L. Recovery of purified ferritin from lemur serum varied from 95% to 110%. The within-assay variability was 4.5%, and the assay-to-assay variability for three different samples ranged
McLean, Kendall L; Moore, Carolyn E; Miketinas, Derek C; Champagne, Catherine M
Achieving weight loss after bariatric surgery depends on the individual's ability to sustain lifestyle changes involving dietary modifications. Presurgical dietary assessment is critical to evaluate usual dietary habits and identify the need for intervention before surgery. The objective of this study was to identify usual dietary habits of black and white women seeking bariatric surgery and to examine potential differences between these ethnic groups. An additional aim was to describe participants' plans to change dietary behaviors after surgery. This study examined data from an observational study sponsored by a benefits management group in Louisiana. In this cross-sectional study, a presurgical dietary assessment interview questionnaire collected information on dietary habits. Participants (n = 200) were adult women being screened for bariatric surgery; 54% were white, and 46% were black. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between groups were tested using 2-way analysis of the variance. Participants reported consuming fast food 2.9 ± 2.6 times per week, fried foods 2.1 ± 1.8 times per week, and desserts 3.4 ± 3.2 times per week. Blacks reported more frequent consumption of fast food (Psurgery were similar between ethnic groups. Findings indicated that frequent consumption of fast foods, fried foods, desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages was common among women seeking bariatric surgery. Blacks tended to consume these foods and beverages more often than whites. Current dietary habits and future plans to change dietary behaviors should be addressed before surgery for success. Follow-up studies investigating the assessment instrument's ability to predict dietary adherence and weight loss after surgery are warranted. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van den Beukel, Tessa O; de Goeij, Moniek C M; Dekker, Friedo W; Siegert, Carl E H; Halbesma, Nynke
Studies performed in the United States showed that blacks progress from CKD to ESRD faster than do whites. Possible explanations are differences in health care system factors. This study investigated whether progression is also faster in a universal health care system, where all patients receive comparable care. Data from the PREdialysis PAtient REcord study, a multicenter follow-up study of patients with CKD who started predialysis care in The Netherlands (1999-2011), were analyzed. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for starting renal replacement therapy (RRT), and linear mixed models were used to compare renal function decline (RFD) between blacks and whites. To explore possible mechanisms, analyses were adjusted for patient characteristics. At initiation of predialysis care, blacks (n=49) were younger and had more diabetes mellitus, higher proteinuria levels, and a higher estimated GFR than whites (n=946). Median follow-up time in months was similar (blacks: 13.9 [boundaries of interquartile range (IQR), 5.3 to 19.5]; whites: 13.1 [IQR, 5.1 to 24.0]). For blacks compared with whites, the crude HR for starting RRT within the first 15 months was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 1.34) and from 15 months onward, 1.93 (95% CI, 1.02 to 3.68), which increased after adjustment. RFD was faster by 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.32) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per month in blacks compared with whites. Blacks receiving predialysis care in a universal health care system have faster disease progression than whites, suggesting that health care system factors have a less influential role than had been thought in explaining black-white differences.
Des Roches, S; Sollmann, R; Calhoun, K; Rothstein, A P; Rosenblum, E B
Measuring links among genotype, phenotype and survival in the wild has long been a focus of studies of adaptation. We conducted a 4-year capture-recapture study to measure survival by genotype and phenotype in the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) at the White Sands ecotone (transition area between white sands and dark soil habitats). We report several unanticipated findings. First, in contrast with previous work showing that cryptic blanched coloration in S. cowlesi from the heart of the dunes is associated with mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r), ecotonal S. cowlesi showed minimal association between colour phenotype and Mc1r genotype. Second, the frequency of the derived Mc1r allele in ecotonal S. cowlesi appeared to decrease over time. Third, our capture-recapture data revealed a lower survival rate for S. cowlesi individuals with the derived Mc1r allele. Thus, our results suggest that selection at the ecotone may have favoured the wild-type allele in recent years. Even in a system where a genotype-phenotype association appeared to be black and white, our study suggests that additional factors - including phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, pleiotropy and gene flow - may play important roles at the White Sands ecotone. Our study highlights the importance of linking molecular, genomic and organismal approaches for understanding adaptation in the wild. Furthermore, our findings indicate that dynamics of natural selection can be particularly complex in transitional habitats like ecotones and emphasize the need for future research that examines the patterns of ongoing selection in other ecological 'grey' zones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, Jane D; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Pardun, Carol J; Guo, Guang; Kenneavy, Kristin; Jackson, Christine
To assess over time whether exposure to sexual content in 4 mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) used by early adolescents predicts sexual behavior in middle adolescence. An in-home longitudinal survey of 1017 black and white adolescents from 14 middle schools in central North Carolina was conducted. Each teen was interviewed at baseline when he or she was 12 to 14 years old and again 2 years later using a computer-assisted self interview (audio computer-assisted self-interview) to ensure confidentiality. A new measure of each teen's sexual media diet (SMD) was constructed by weighting the frequency of use of 4 media by the frequency of sexual content in each television show, movie, music album, and magazine the teen used regularly. White adolescents in the top quintile of sexual media diet when 12 to 14 years old were 2.2 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse when 14 to 16 years old than those who were in the lowest SMD quintile, even after a number of other relevant factors, including baseline sexual behavior, were introduced. The relationship was not statistically significant for black adolescents after controlling for other factors that were more predictive, including parental disapproval of teen sex and perceived permissive peer sexual norms. Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines accelerates white adolescents' sexual activity and increases their risk of engaging in early sexual intercourse. Black teens appear more influenced by perceptions of their parents' expectations and their friends' sexual behavior than by what they see and hear in the media.
Full Text Available In this research, drawing skills -free drawing works and periodical rules drawing works- of the 14-age-group students at the 8th grade in secondary schools and those in level II. in Private Education Practice Centre have been compared, in regards to some variations. With the extent of research, at Şeker Secondary school special training centre in Meram district in Konya Province, training exercise with a group of 14 students, 7 of whom are mentally retarded ones was conducted using direct teaching method, for 2 lesson time per week for different drawing task for each topic. Using direct teaching method during the second part of the education year 2012-2013 for being 2-lesson-time (40'+40' per week, totally 4 weeks, 4 lesson-time the studies of the researcher under his observation were evaluated in terms of both educational and design principles, with performance evaluation forms. In this research, documentary analysing method, one of the abstract research methods, has been used. In this research ,7 different drawing tasks were made under the topic of line, point, colour, stain and tissue. In this research, in two different topics, 'Free Drawing Works' and ' Periodical -Ruler Drawing Works' have been performed by using thin-medium-thick fiber tip pens. Performance assessments forms along with the curriculum were designed for each activity and were composed of pedagogical targets and artistic notifications under the extent of research. In these forms pedagogical targets and artistic notifications expected from pupils were assessed through filling in ''Yes-No'' boxes with “X”.
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2004. Black and white 0.82 feet pixel resolution leaf-off ortho imagery that covers the state...
Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, One meter black and white digital orthophotographs created in concert with the U.S.G.S., Published in 1992, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 1992. One meter black and white digital orthophotographs created in concert with the U.S.G.S..
Waidzunas, Thomas John
This dissertation examines the construction of scientific knowledge about "sexual orientation," as it has emerged within debates over reorientation therapies in the United States from the 1950s to the present. Experts struggling over reorientation in this context have been preoccupied with the sexualities of white men, and consequently, have constructed sexual subjectivities intertwined with particular notions of white American masculinity. Drawing on science studies, sexuality studies, and s...
Mirabelli, Maria C; Preisser, John S; Loehr, Laura R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Barr, R Graham; Couper, David J; Hankinson, John L; Hyun, Noorie; Folsom, Aaron R; London, Stephanie J
Interpretation of longitudinal information about lung function decline from middle to older age has been limited by loss to follow-up that may be correlated with baseline lung function or the rate of decline. We conducted these analyses to estimate age-related decline in lung function across groups of race, sex, and smoking status while accounting for dropout from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We analyzed data from 13,896 black and white participants, aged 45-64 years at the 1987-1989 baseline clinical examination. Using spirometry data collected at baseline and two follow-up visits, we estimated annual population-averaged mean changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) by race, sex, and smoking status using inverse-probability-weighted independence estimating equations conditioning-on-being-alive. Estimated rates of FEV1 decline estimated using inverse-probability-weighted independence estimating equations conditioning on being alive were higher among white than black participants at age 45 years (e.g., male never smokers: black: -29.5 ml/year; white: -51.9 ml/year), but higher among black than white participants by age 75 (black: -51.2 ml/year; white: -26). Observed differences by race were more pronounced among men than among women. By smoking status, FEV1 declines were larger among current than former or never smokers at age 45 across all categories of race and sex. By age 60, FEV1 decline was larger among former and never than current smokers. Estimated annual declines generated using unweighted generalized estimating equations were smaller for current smokers at younger ages in all four groups of race and sex compared with results from weighted analyses that accounted for attrition. Using methods accounting for dropout from an approximately 25-year health study, estimated rates of lung function decline varied by age, race, sex, and smoking status, with largest declines observed among current
D.R. Gasper (Des)
markdownabstractABSTRACT Faced with massive crises in the 1990s, such as in Rwanda-Zaire, aid agencies have had to make ethical and strategic choices of great magnitude. One approach seeks to compare goods and bads from agencies’ involvement, and to specify a 'bottom line' beneath which bads
Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Pescosolido, Bernice A
In the 1990s, sociologists began to rethink the failure of utilization models to explain whether and why individuals accessed formal treatment systems. This effort focused on reconceptualizing the underlying assumptions and processes that shaped utilization patterns. While we have built a better understanding of how social networks structure pathways to care and how disadvantaged sociocultural groups face substantial barriers to treatment, we have less understanding of the larger cultural context in which individuals recognize and respond to symptoms. Drawing from recent innovations in the sociology of culture, we develop the concept of "cultural mapping" to describe if and how individuals discriminate among different available sources of formal treatment. Using data from the 1996 Mental Health Module of the General Social Survey, we compare Americans' willingness to recommend providers in the general medical and specialty mental health sectors. The results indicate that, despite unrealistically high levels of endorsement, individuals do discriminate between providers based on their evaluation of the problem, underlying causes, and likely consequences. While perceived severity leads individuals to suggest any type of formal care, problems attributed to biological causes are directed to general or specialty medical providers (doctors, psychiatrists, and hospitals); those matching symptoms for schizophrenia or seen as eliciting violence are allocated to the specialty mental health sector (psychiatry, mental hospital); and those seen as being caused by stress are sent to nonmedical mental health providers (i.e., counselors). These findings help to explain inconsistencies in previous utilization studies, and they suggest the critical importance of maintaining a dialogue between medical sociology and the sociology of culture.
Crawford, Graham C; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Dunker, Freeland H; Garner, Michael M; Sargent, Eva L
Serum samples from 63 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were analyzed to survey serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin levels. Data analysis showed no differences in these analytes attributable to sex, but significantly higher levels of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in older animals. The survey data were examined in light of two black and white ruffed lemurs that were treated for iron overload with serial phlebotomies. Prior to therapy, both phlebotomized lemurs had excess hepatic iron deposition, but had serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin below the upper limits observed in the survey animals, suggesting that some clinically normal animals included in the survey may have accumulated excess systemic iron. Serial phlebotomy therapy reduced serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in both animals. Three years after the conclusion of therapy in the one remaining case, serum iron and transferrin saturation have risen substantially, whereas serum ferritin has risen slightly. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin may be useful predictors of systemic iron stores in this species, though the correlation between these parameters and systemic iron stores needs to be determined.
Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L
Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Han, Jun-xiang; Cheng, Yu-lin; Tu, Wen-bin; Zhan, Ting-Yan; Cheng, Ying-liang
Black TiO2 has triggered scientific interest due to its unique properties such as enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic activity. In this paper, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been carried out in concentrated sodium silicate electrolyte. Silica-based black and white TiO2 coatings respectively have been obtained by controlling the oxidation time. The black coating, which was formed with a short treatment time, shows good corrosion resistance and the black appearance can be attributed to the presence of Ti2+ and Ti3+ in the coating. The lower valence titanium ions are absent in the white coatings and they also contain relatively higher Na content compared to the black coatings. The white coatings have great surface roughnesses and super hydrophilicity. The bonding strengths of the black and white coatings on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are ∼14.4 and 4.3 MPa, respectively. The vanadium contributes little to the black appearance of the coating on Ti6Al4V alloy, since the same phenomena occur for the PEO of a pure titanium substrate.
Interactive plotting package using the 6600 CDC and DTC 300/S terminal. [PLOT, LINE, TEXT 1, AXIS, V LINE, H LINE, BOX, ORDER for drawing graphs in FORTRAN extended version 4 for CDC 6600 and DTC 300/S terminal
Bozzo, S.R.; Galdos, F.; Hakoopian, R.
This plotting package contains routines found useful for drawing graphs. Written in FORTRAN EXTENDED version 4 as used on a CDC 6600 computer, the interactive package uses a DTC 300/S terminal as the output device. The routines included in the package are PLOT, TEXT1, LINE, and AXIS. 1 table.
Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).
Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A
Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth
Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life
The feeding behaviour and diet of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was investigated in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar. The highly frugivorous diet of this subspecies was confirmed - feeding on fruits accounting for 92.0% of feeding records. Most feeding at Betampona was observed at 10-25 m above the forest floor amongst flexible, small (0.5-5.0 cm diameter) and oblique/horizontal (0-45 degrees ) supports. The Varecia spent on average 21.7% (+/- 1.5) of their daily activity budget feeding and employ a variety of postures that enable them to harvest fruits in the rain forest canopy. The suspensory postures were the most important in allowing Varecia to compete with other smaller-bodied frugivores. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
Naturally occurring cerebral nematodiasis due to Baylisascaris larval migration in two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) and suspected cases in three emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).
Campbell, G A; Hoover, J P; Russell, W C; Breazile, J E
During September and October 1992, two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were housed in an outdoor wire enclosure at the Tulsa Zoological Park. The following February and April, both lemurs developed head tilt and ataxia, and they were euthanized. Necropsy revealed multifocal malacia of the white matter of the pons, cerebellum, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar peduncles. Nematode larvae consistent with Baylisascaris spp. were observed in the brain of one lemur. A retrospective study revealed three cases of ataxia in emus (Dromaius novaeholloandiae) that were previously housed in the same enclosure. Archival paraffin-embedded tissue from one emu revealed tractlike foci of malacia within the white matter of the cerebellum. Circumstantial evidence, including the observation of numerous raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the vicinity, and the presence of numerous Baylisascaris. procyonis in the intestine of a single trapped raccoon implicate this roundworm as the pathologic agent in the lemurs.
Brooks, Kevin R; Gwinn, O Scott
Faces of individuals with African and European heritage (henceforth referred to as Black and White respectively) feature two major differences: those of skin tone and morphological characteristics. Although considerations of perceived race are important to various psychological subdisciplines, to date the relative influence of morphological versus photometric characteristics has not been investigated. We attempted to influence the perceived racial typicality of a central target face by manipulating perceived skin tone using the well-known lightness contrast illusion. As expected, ratings of skin tone were influenced by surround faces, yet ratings of perceived racial typicality were not, suggesting a dissociation between the two judgments. Surprisingly, skin tone contributes little to perceived race, leaving facial morphology as the dominant cue. These results may shed light on failures to find effects of racial typicality in studies of prejudice where judgments were based on photographs with altered skin tone alone.
Nelson, Eliza L; O'Karma, Jaime M; Ruperti, Felicia S; Novak, Melinda A
Previous studies in human and chimpanzee infants have identified a predictive relationship between early rightward head orientation and later right hand use. Data from lemurs suggest a leftward bias in hand preference, but there are no data on head positioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head and hand preferences in the black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). Ruffed lemurs rotate the head vertically during chewing in a behavior called head-tilting. Frequency of head-tilting and bouts of unimanual hand use were measured during normal feeding in a semi-free-ranging population of lemurs. Subjects were provisioned at feeding platforms twice daily with fresh fruits, vegetables, and other food items. Sampling was spontaneous and all observations were videotaped. No group-level bias was found for head-tilting, but a left hand bias emerged for hand use. A positive relationship was found between direction of head-tilting preference and direction of hand use preference such that left head-tilts increased as left hand use increased. Furthermore, left head-tilts increased as the degree of hand preference lateralization increased. When the hand used to bring food to the mouth just before head-tilting was examined, there was a strong bias for the left hand to precede left head-tilts. For right head-tilts, however, lemurs were equally likely to use either hand before head-tilting. Overall a strong relationship was found between the left hand and left head-tilting in black and white ruffed lemurs, suggesting a common link between these behaviors. However, the direction of bias was different from that seen in human and chimpanzee studies. Additional studies on patterns of laterality would be informative for understanding how laterality has changed across the primate order and the adaptive significance of laterality in primates.
Beardslee, Jordan; Docherty, Meagan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Pardini, Dustin
Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys. Analyses then examined whether racial differences in risk factors accounted for racial differences in gun carrying. Data came from a sample of 485 Black and White boys who were repeatedly assessed from 2nd grade until age 18. Multi-informant data collected across the first 3 years of the study were used to assess neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems. Illegal gun carrying was assessed annually from 5th grade through age 18. Growth curve analyses indicated that children with higher initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement, as well as those who increased in conduct problems across childhood, were more likely to carry a gun prior to age 18. Black boys were also more likely to carry guns than Whites. Racial differences were greatly reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement. Findings suggest that early prevention programs designed to reduce adolescent gun violence (including racial disparities in gun violence) should target boys with severe conduct problems and those who affiliate with delinquent peers during elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; Moreno-Manteca, Blanca; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique
The aim of the present case-control study was to determine--using the 10 most recent annual listings of the most beautiful black and white people--whether any common, measurable esthetic parameter could be extracted from both groups. A total of 80 women (40 white and 40 black), who had been included in the list of People magazine's 100 most beautiful people during the previous 10 years, were selected. Lateral photographs of all 80 subjects were obtained from Internet databases, oriented, and sized. A modified photogrammetric analysis was performed on the lateral view of each subject to obtain the angle and proportion measurements. Differences between the 2 groups were compared with 95% significance using the Student t test for independent samples. Facial similarities in the 2 ethnic groups were observed for the angle of the inferior facial third, labiomental angle, angle of facial convexity, and cervicomental angle. These results point to a similar conformation of the lower part of the face in relation to the neck that was shared by both groups of beautiful women. Additionally, both groups showed similar results for the lower lip projection. Likewise, similar proportional measurements were found for the upper lip proportion, notwithstanding differences in protrusion. Modern society is changing the classic concept of facial beauty because of globalization and the prevalence of multiethnic communities in the developed world. Independently of ethnic origin, beautiful women tend to have similar facial features that are a mixture of both black and white features. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Coull, Brent A; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V; Waterman, Pamela D
Scant research has analyzed the health impact of abolition of Jim Crow (ie, legal racial discrimination overturned by the US 1964 Civil Rights Act). We used hierarchical age-period-cohort models to analyze US national black and white premature mortality rates (death before 65 years of age) in 1960-2009. Within a context of declining US black and white premature mortality rates and a persistent 2-fold excess black risk of premature mortality in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states, analyses including random period, cohort, state, and county effects and fixed county income effects found that, within the black population, the largest Jim Crow-by-period interaction occurred in 1960-1964 (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 1.15 [95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.22), yielding the largest overall period-specific Jim Crow effect MRR of 1.27, with no such interactions subsequently observed. Furthermore, the most elevated Jim Crow-by-cohort effects occurred for birth cohorts from 1901 through 1945 (MRR range = 1.05-1.11), translating to the largest overall cohort-specific Jim Crow effect MRRs for the 1921-1945 birth cohorts (MRR ~ 1.2), with no such interactions subsequently observed. No such interactions between Jim Crow and either period or cohort occurred among the white population. Together, the study results offer compelling evidence of the enduring impact of both Jim Crow and its abolition on premature mortality among the US black population, although insufficient to eliminate the persistent 2-fold black excess risk evident in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states from 1960 to 2009.
Peterson, Caryn E; Khosla, Shaveta; Jefferson, Gina D; Davis, Faith G; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Freels, Sally; Johnson, Timothy P; Hoskins, Kent; Joslin, Charlotte E
National trends show dramatic increases in the incidence of HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) among black and white males. Using cases identified through the National Cancer Data Base, we assessed factors associated with HPV 16- or 16/18 positive HNSCCs among non-Hispanic black and white males diagnosed in the U.S. between 2009 and 2013. This sample included 21,524 HNSCCs with known HPV status. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression. Compared to those with HPV-negative tumors, male patients diagnosed with HPV-positive HNSCCs were non-Hispanic white, younger at diagnosis, lived in zip-code areas with higher median household income and higher educational attainment, had private health insurance and no reported comorbidities at diagnosis. Although the risk of HPV-positive HNSCCs increased with measures of higher area-level socioeconomic status, the effect was stronger for non-Hispanic black males (RR Adjusted =1.76, 95% CI 1.49-2.09) than for whites (RR Adjusted =1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16). The peak age for diagnosis of HPV-positive HNSCCs occurred in those diagnosed at 45-49 years (RR Adjusted =1.57, 95% CI 1.42-1.73). Oropharyngeal tumors were strongly associated with HPV-positivity (RR Adjusted =4.32, 95% CI 4.03-4.63). In the analysis restricted to oropharyngeal anatomic sites, similar patterns persisted. In our analysis, measures of economic advantage were associated with an increased risk of HPV-positive HNSCCs. In order to develop effective interventions, greater understanding of the risk factors for HPV-positive HNSCCs is needed among both high-risk males and their healthcare providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Annang, Lucy; Walsemann, Katrina M; Maitra, Debeshi; Kerr, Jelani C
Education has long been considered a protective factor against sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents; however, few have explored this association and determined differences across racial/ethnic groups of young adult females on a national scale. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the association between education and STI diagnosis among a national sample of black and white young adult females and (2) examine racial differences in this association. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to assess the association between education and chlamydia, gonorrhea, and/or trichomoniasis (self-reported and assay-diagnosed) in 2001-2002 using logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for risk behaviors, education was inversely associated with any assay-diagnosed STI, but this association was nonsignificant among black women for self-reported STI. Additionally, black females enrolled in, or who graduated from, college had significantly higher predicted probabilities of having an STI (12.4% self-reported; 13.4% assay-diagnosed) compared with white females who had less than a high school diploma (6.4% self-reported; 2.3% assay-diagnosed). Educational status was not uniformly protective against STIs for black and white females in this sample. Particularly for young black women, other factors may play a more prominent role in determining STI risk. Social determinants, such as education, should be viewed as important factors associated with STI prevalence, but their differential impact on various racial/ethnic groups should also be considered when addressing the disproportionate rates of STIs in the U.S.
JM van Rooyen
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to make use of a quantitative and qualitative approach comparing the systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS of hypertensive black and white African men by using RAS equilibrium analysis. Materials and methods: This sub-study involved 23 black (n = 15 and white (n = 8 hypertensive men aged 39.5–41 years, living in the North West Province of South Africa. The RAS-Fingerprinting was determined with LC-MS/MS quantification of angiotensin peptides. Blood pressure and other variables were determined with known methods. Results: The main finding of this study was the significant lower Ang I (<5.0 and 45.1 pg/ml; p = 0.005 and Ang II (15.6 and 123.9 pg/ml; p ⩽ 0.001 encountered in the hypertensive black African men compared to their white counterparts. Levels of Ang 1-5 (downstream metabolite of Ang 1-7 (1.8 and 3.0 pg/ml, were detected in black and white hypertensive men, respectively. Conclusions: The observed differences between circulating RAS components, which are reflected via equilibrium angiotensin levels, point to a distinctive molecular regulation of the RAAS in the two study cohorts. The increased peripheral resistance observed in hypertensive black individuals might take over a dominant role in control of blood pressure in this study population. A novel highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method resolved the issue of peptide recovery variations during sample preparation by using internal standards for each individual angiotensin metabolite.
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Véronique Ducret is a consultant social psychologist specialising in cases of harassment. She is author of the work'Pour une entreprise sans harcèlement sexuel', and has given several seminars on the subject at CERN. Her talk will be given in French, in the main auditorium at 14:00 on 31 May.
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Harassment takes many forms, some more obvious than others. At first glance, you may think that cases of sexual harassment would be clear-cut, but often there is misunderstanding as to what is unacceptable behaviour. The golden rule is always to put yourself in the other person's shoes. What is important is not necessarily what you intend, but how it is received. A harmless joke to some may be deeply offensive to others. Other forms of harassment, such as moral harassment or 'mobbing' and exclusion are equally pernicious, equally damaging, and also not always clear-cut. In some cases, the perpetrators may not realise the impact of their actions. Following an introduction by the CERN Director of Administration, Jan van der Boon, Ducret's symposium wil...
Picture-book reading provides an effective intervention context for young children learning spoken language and may also be appropriate for teaching the use of augmentative and alternative communication to children with severe intellectual disabilities. This study reports on a group intervention using a semiscripted book reading routine implemented by a teacher in a classroom for students with severe intellectual disabilities. Student use of line drawings was observed over the course of the intervention. Students' abilities to match words, line drawings, book illustrations, and real objects were assessed weekly. There were differences between baseline and intervention performances for all students, and these differences were particularly noticeable for one student.
Kondo, Minako; Mori, Toshiko; Makino, Kenichiro; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji
A 54-year-old art teacher, experienced a right putaminal hemorrhage, and thereafter suffered severe left hemiplegia and unilateral spatial neglect, and was transferred to the rehabilitation department of the University Hospital 1 month after the onset. Although the unilateral spatial neglect was improving, the patient was unable to paint the left quarter of a watercolor, but there was no error in line drawing. The occurrence of errors only in a watercolor suggests that the neural process for painting a watercolor is different from that of line drawing.
Griffith, Julie; Dietz, Aimee; Weissling, Kristy
The purpose of this study was to examine how the interface design of an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device influences the communication behaviors of people with aphasia during a narrative retell task. A case-series design was used. Four narratives were created on an AAC device with combinations of personally relevant (PR) photographs, line drawings (LDs), and text for each participant. The narrative retells were analyzed to describe the expressive modality units (EMUs) used, trouble sources experienced, and whether trouble sources were repaired. The researchers also explored the participants' perceived helpfulness of the interface features. The participants primarily used spoken EMUs to retell their narratives. They relied on PR photographs more frequently than LDs; however, they reported both picture types to be equally helpful. Text was frequently used and reported as helpful by all 4 people with aphasia. Participants experienced similar rates of trouble sources across conditions; however, they displayed unique trends for successful repairs of trouble sources. For narrative retells, LDs may serve as an effective visual support when PR photographs are unavailable. Individual assessment is necessary to determine the optimum combination of supports in AAC systems for people with aphasia.
Children are drawing inventors. Their art is certainly not what most adults think of as drawing. Almost instinctively, kids know that drawing is everywhere--that they can draw with almost anything, and that innumerable surfaces can be converted for art use. Teaching drawing is showing interest and enthusiasm for kids' drawing inventions--instead…
Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.
Song, Xingchao; Xu, Chao; Liu, Zongyue; Yue, Zhigang; Liu, Linling; Yang, Tongao; Cong, Bo; Yang, Fuhe
Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks. Significant differences were not observed in the expression of MC1R and TYR between the two different coat colours, and the expression of ASIP was not detected in the mink skin of either coat colour. The expression levels of KITLG, LEF1, DCT, TYRP1, PMEL, Myo5a, Rab27a and SLC7A11 were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq analysis. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of two coat colours in mink skin. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying skin physiology and melanogenesis in mink and will provide a foundation for future studies.
Determination of Ochratoxin A in Black and White Pepper, Nutmeg, Spice Mix, Cocoa, and Drinking Chocolate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection: Collaborative Study.
Cubero-Leon, Elena; Bouten, Katrien; Senyuva, Hamide; Stroka, Joerg
A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 25 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 12 European Union (EU) Member States, together with Turkey and Macedonia. Mean recoveries ranged from 71 to 85% for spices and from 85 to 88% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDr values ranged from 5.6 to 16.7% for spices and from 4.5 to 18.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDR values ranged from 9.5 to 22.6% for spices and from 13.7 to 30.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The resulting Horwitz ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1 for spices and from 0.6 to 1.4 for cocoa and drinking chocolate according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.
Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F
HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.
Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Huo, Sheng; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei
Found in the Trans-Himalayas of north-west Yunnan and south-east Tibet, the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) is one of the world's most endangered primates. A recent survey indicates that only 15 groups with 2500 individuals remain in the wild. However, the Tibetan Xiaochangdu group may be the only equilibrium group in the field since the last investigation in 1988. To evaluate the effects of traditional culture and socioeconomic activity on biodiversity conservation of R. bieti, we conducted a case study in the Honglaxueshan National Nature Reserve in southeast Tibet from June 2003 to May 2005. Interviews, direct observations, and analysis of socioeconomic data indicated major advantages to the conservation of R. bieti, which included that: 1) traditional culture mainly depended on raising livestock and collecting non-timber products rather than forest planting of Tibetan highland barley; 2) religious beliefs, against to kill any wildlife living on the sacred mountain, were mainly influenced by Tibetan Buddhism; and 3) bigger household numbers were induced by the polyandrous marriage system, which resulted in lower per capita resource consumption than smaller ones.
Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M
To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parikh, Samip; Guo, De-Huang; Pollock, Norman K; Petty, Karen; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Gutin, Bernard; Houk, Chris; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin
Low vitamin D status is common among healthy black and white adolescents residing at southern U.S. latitudes with a year-round sunny climate. Thus we aimed to study the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and cardiometabolic risk factors in this population. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy in 701 girls and boys (14-18 years old, 54% blacks, 49% females). Cardiometabolic risk was indexed by adipokines, inflammatory markers, fasting glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP). Controlling for age, sex, race, sexual maturation, season, physical activity, and percent body fat, 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly correlated with adiponectin (r = 0.06, P = 0.05), leptin (r = -0.32, P risk factors, independent of adiposity. Clinical trials addressing the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risk are warranted in adolescents irrespective of their geographical regions.
Sellers, Sherrill L; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari
We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination than white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.
This article divides into two roughly equal parts, both of which aim to address the "act" rather than the "art" of drawing. The second part focuses on a theoretical discussion of drawing. The first bears on a number of themes including the role of drawing in colonial history, drawing and data collection, and drawing and memory.…
Full Text Available A saúde reprodutiva relaciona-se ao usufruto da liberdade intrínseca aos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos. A questão central, neste artigo, é como a noção de liberdade se articula à condição social, de gênero, raça/etnia, com o intuito de investigar diferenças de gênero e de raça nas questões reprodutivas de mulheres negras e brancas, em relação à concepção de liberdade. A pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa e aborda questões reprodutivas de mulheres, a partir de um recorte de gênero e raça. Foram entrevistadas 36 mulheres, autoclassificadas brancas e negras (pretas e pardas, em união conjugal há, pelo menos, um ano. Os discursos foram analisados articulando-se raça/etnia e diferentes níveis de escolaridade. No conjunto, observa-se que as condições de vida e saúde reprodutiva de mulheres negras e brancas diferenciam-se em razão das condições socioeconômicas e culturais. Comparativamente, os discursos dos dois grupos podem ser interpretados em dois níveis característicos, da vida privada e do espaço público: enquanto mulheres brancas focam a defasagem das mulheres, no exercício eqüitativo da liberdade em relação aos homens, mas destacam conquistas no mundo do trabalho, mulheres negras pensam a liberdade mais circunscrita à possibilidade de vivência democrática da conjugalidade. As diferenças de discurso em relação à liberdade podem estar relacionadas tanto à questão do racismo no Brasil, historicamente vivenciado por mulheres negras no cotidiano, como às questões especificamente culturais dos dois grupos estudados.Reproductive health is related to the enjoyment of freedom that is intrinsic to sexual and reproductive rights. The core issue, in this article, is how the notion of freedom articulates itself to the social condition of gender, race and ethnicity. To investigate gender and race differences in reproductive issues of black and white women regarding the conception of freedom. The research
Donadeo, Brett C; Kerr, Katherine R; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S
Data on captive diets for black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) are limited. Information on food items used, inclusion amounts, and the chemical composition of diets is needed to improve the management of nutrition-related health problems seen in captive lemurs (e.g., obesity) that have not been reported in their wild counterparts. To determine the ingredient and nutrient composition of diets for captive V. variegata, U.S. zoological institutions were surveyed. Chemical composition of reported diets was estimated using Nutritionist Pro™ (Axxya Systems, Stafford, Texas 77477, USA), and these values were compared numerically to wild lemur diets from the literature. Institutions included from six to greater than 30 different ingredients in their diets, including fruits (0.0-84.1%), vegetables (7.5-70.0%), greens (1.0-28.5%), and commercially available feeds (1.5-68.6%). Nutrient concentrations of captive diets ranged as follows: dry matter (DM), 14.5-67.6%; organic matter, 93.1-97.2% DM basis (DMB); crude protein, 7.9-23.9% DMB; fat, 2.0-6.5% DMB; total dietary fiber, 10.1-28.1% DMB; and N-free extract, 38.9-74.4% DMB. Captive diets had lower fat and total dietary fiber and higher protein and N-free extract compared to wild fruit items from Madagascar. Reducing the amount of fruit in captive diets for V. variegata would be expected to decrease digestible carbohydrate content and increase fiber content of these diets, which has implications for the prevalence of obesity in captive animals.
Attractiveness of black and white modified Shannon traps to phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the Brazilian Amazon Basin, an area of intense transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; de Ávila, Márcia Moreira; de Souza, Jailson Ferreira; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Sábio, Priscila Bassan; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Godoy, Rodrigo Espindola; Melchior, Leonardo Augusto Kohara; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; de Oliveira Cardoso, Cristiane; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi
In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps' performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Samples were collected once a month during the period August 2013 to July 2015. A sample of females was dissected to test for natural infection by flagellates. A total of 6,309 (864 males and 5,445 females) specimens (36 species) were collected. Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai (42%), Nyssomyia shawi (36%), and Psychodopygus davisi (13%), together represented 90% of the insects collected. Nyssomyia shawi and Psychodopygus davisi were more attracted by the white color. Specimens of Nyssomyia shawi, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus were found naturally infected by flagellates in the mid and hindgut. This is the first study in Acre state using and comparing both black and white Shannon traps, demonstrating the richness, diversity, and anthropophilic behavior of the phlebotomine species and identifying proven and putative vectors of the etiological agents of leishmaniasis. © A.F. Brilhante et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.
Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice; Shafer, Paul; Loomis, Brett; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew
We examined the potential impact of banning tobacco displays and mandating plain packaging and cigarette advertisements at the point of sale (POS) on adult outcomes. A virtual convenience store was created with scenarios in which the tobacco product display was either fully visible (status quo) or enclosed behind a cabinet (display ban), and cigarette packs and advertisements were either in full color (status quo) or black and white, text only (plain). A national convenience sample of 1313 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 4 conditions and given a shopping task to complete in the virtual store. Main outcomes were participants' self-reported urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts in the virtual store. Compared with recent quitters in the status quo conditions, recent quitters in the display ban condition had lower urges to smoke (β=-4.82, 95% CI=-8.16--1.49, p<0.01). Compared with current smokers in the status quo conditions, smokers in the display ban conditions were less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes in the virtual store (OR=0.05, 95% CI=0.03-0.08, P<0.01). Smokers exposed to plain packs and ads were significantly less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.20-0.47, P<0.01) than those exposed to color packs and ads. Policies that ban the display of tobacco products or require plain packaging and advertising at the POS may help reduce adult smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Smith, Kevin W; Carney, Dana R; Bennett, Gary G; Williams, David R; Thornhill, Gisele; Freeman, Elmer R
To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504) and white (n = 501) participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate), using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination); and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964). Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 2.89) and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07); among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64) and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08)). All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score. Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss implications
Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S
The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Johnson, B Delia; Rutledge, Thomas; Bittner, Vera; Whittaker, Kerry S; Krantz, David S; Cornell, Carol E; Eteiba, Wafia; Handberg, Eileen; Vido, Diane; Bairey Merz, C Noel
Black women are less likely to be evaluated and treated for anginal symptoms, despite a higher premature cardiac mortality rate compared to white women. Our objective was to compare angina symptoms in black versus white women regarding (1) angina symptoms characterization; (2) relationship with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) relationship with subsequent mortality. A cohort of 466 women (69 black and 397 white) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia and without prior history of CAD completed symptom checklists. Four symptom clusters (CHEST, UPPER, STOMACH, and TYPICAL TRIGGERS) were derived by factor analysis. All angiograms were analyzed by core lab. Mortality data over 10 years were obtained from National Death Index. (1) Black women had lower mean CHEST cluster scores (0.60±0.30 vs. 0.73±30, p=0.002), but higher STOMACH scores (0.41±0.25 vs. 0.30±0.25, p=0.011) than white women. (2) Prevalence and severity of CAD did not differ in black and white women and was not predicted by symptom cluster scores. (3) All-cause mortality rates were 24.9% in blacks versus 14.5% in whites, p=0.007; and cardiovascular mortality 22.5% vs.8.8%, p=0.001. Symptom clusters were not predictive of adverse events in white women. However, black women with a low TYPICAL score had significantly higher mortality compared to those with a high TYPICAL score (43% vs. 10%, p=0.006). Among women undergoing coronary angiography, black women report fewer chest-related and more stomach-related symptoms, regardless of presence or severity of CAD, and these racial symptom presentation differences are linked with the more adverse prognosis observed in the black women. Atypical symptom presentation may be a barrier to appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment and contribute to poorer outcomes for black women.
Gibson, Ann L; Holmes, Jason C; Desautels, Richard L; Edmonds, Lyndsay B; Nuudi, Laura
New, vertical, 8-electrode bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) analyzers provide detailed body-composition and nutritional information within 2 min. This is the first report on BIS's accuracy in predicting relative fatness [percentage body fat (%BF)] in a heterogeneous sample according to a multicomponent model criterion. We compared %BF measurements from 2 BIS devices with those from a multicomponent model in a sample of Hispanic, black, and white adults. Equal numbers of apparently healthy men and women (n = 75 of each) from each racial-ethnic group, diverse in body mass index and age, volunteered. Reference %BF (%BF(4C)) was computed by using a 4-component (4C) model with total bone mineral content obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, body density from underwater weighing with measured residual lung volume, and total body water from traditional BIS. Estimations from InBody 720 (%BF(720)) and InBody 320 (%BF(320)) BIS analyzers were validated against %BF(4C). The %BF(720) (r = 0.85, SEE = 5.19%BF) and %BF(320) (r = 0.84, SEE = 5.17%BF) correlations were significant (P < 0.05) in the men; main effects were nonsignificant. Correlations for %BF(720) (r = 0.88, SEE = 4.85%BF) and %BF(320) (r = 0.89, SEE = 4.82%BF) also were significant in the women (P < 0.05); there was a main effect for method but not race-ethnicity. There were no sex-specific overestimations or underestimations at the extremes of the distributions. BIS estimates of %BF(4C) were well correlated in men and women. There were no significant methodologic differences in the men. The %BF(4C) was significantly underestimated by %BF(720) and %BF(320) in the women.
Eva C Wikberg
Full Text Available A growing body of evidence shows within-population variation in natal dispersal, but the effects of such variation on social relationships and the kin composition of groups remain poorly understood. We investigate the link between dispersal, the kin composition of groups, and proximity patterns in a population of black-and-white colobus (Colobus vellerosus that shows variation in female dispersal. From 2006 to 2011, we collected behavioral data, demographic data, and fecal samples of 77 males and 92 females residing in eight groups at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. A combination of demographic data and a genetic network analysis showed that although philopatry was female-biased, only about half of the females resided in their natal groups. Only one group contained female-female dyads with higher average relatedness than randomly drawn animals of both sexes from the same group. Despite between-group variation in female dispersal and kin composition, female-female dyads in most of the study groups had higher proximity scores than randomly drawn dyads from the same group. We conclude that groups fall along a continuum from female dispersed, not kin-based, and not bonded to female philopatric, kin-based, and bonded. We found only partial support for the predicted link between dispersal, kin composition, and social relationships. In contrast to most mammals where the kin composition of groups is a good predictor of the quality of female-female relationships, this study provides further support for the notion that kinship is not necessary for the development and maintenance of social bonds in some gregarious species.
Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin
This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...
This article draws heavily on the author's critical autobiography: "Eileen Adams: Agent of Change." It presents evidence of the value of drawing as a medium for learning, particularly in art and design, and argues that drawing is a useful educational tool. The premise is that drawing makes you think. This article explains various…
Abramowicz, Aneta; Klatzky, Roberta L; Lederman, Susan J
Sighted blindfolded individuals can successfully classify basic facial expressions of emotion (FEEs) by manually exploring simple 2-D raised-line drawings (Lederman et al 2008, IEEE Transactions on Haptics 1 27-38). The effect of training on classification accuracy was assessed by sixty sighted blindfolded participants (experiment 1) and by three adventitiously blind participants (experiment 2). We further investigated whether the underlying learning process(es) constituted token-specific learning and/or generalization. A hybrid learning paradigm comprising pre/post and old/new test comparisons was used. For both participant groups, classification accuracy for old (ie trained) drawings markedly increased over study trials (mean improvement --76%, and 88%, respectively). Additionally, RT decreased by a mean of 30% for the sighted, and 31% for the adventitiously blind. Learning was mostly token-specific, but some generalization was also observed for both groups. The sighted classified novel drawings of all six FEEs faster with training (mean RT decrease = 20%). Accuracy also improved significantly (mean improvement = 20%), but this improvement was restricted to two FEEs (anger and sadness). Two of three adventitiously blind participants classified new drawings more accurately (mean improvement = 30%); however, RTs for this group did not reflect generalization. Based on a limited number of blind subjects, our results tentatively suggest that adventitiously blind individuals learn to haptically classify FEEs as well as, or even better than, sighted persons.
Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery was scanned from historic hard copy images and georeferenced to current imagery. This data is available via map service., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.
NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery...
Full Text Available To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504 and white (n = 501 participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate, using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination; and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964.Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.28, 2.89 and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07; among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64 and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08. All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score.Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension and its contribution to cardiovascular disease risk makes it imperative to identify factors that may help prevent this disorder. Extensive biological and biochemical data suggest that plasma ascorbic acid may be such a factor. In this study we examined the association between plasma ascorbic acid concentration and blood pressure (BP in young-adult women. Methods Participants were 242 Black and White women aged 18–21 yr from the Richmond, CA, cohort of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. We examined the associations of plasma ascorbic acid with BP at follow-up year 10, and with change in BP during the previous year. Results In cross-sectional analysis, plasma ascorbic acid at year 10 was inversely associated with systolic BP and diastolic BP after adjusting for race, body mass index, education, and dietary intake of fat and sodium. Persons in the highest one-fourth of the plasma ascorbic acid distribution had 4.66 mmHg lower systolic BP (95% CI 1.10 to 8.22 mmHg, p = 0.005 and 6.04 mmHg lower diastolic BP (95% CI 2.70 to 9.38 mmHg, p = 0.0002 than those in the lowest one-fourth of the distribution. In analysis of the change in BP, plasma ascorbic acid was also inversely associated with change in systolic BP and diastolic BP during the previous year. While diastolic blood pressure among persons in the lowest quartile of plasma ascorbic acid increased by 5.97 mmHg (95% CI 3.82 to 8.13 mmHg from year 9 to year 10, those in the highest quartile of plasma vitamin C increased by only 0.23 mmHg (95% CI -1.90 to +2.36 mmHg (test for linear trend: p Conclusion Plasma ascorbic acid was found to be inversely associated with BP and change in BP during the prior year. The findings suggest the possibility that vitamin C may influence BP in healthy young adults. Since lower BP in young adulthood may lead to lower BP and decreased incidence of age-associated vascular events in
Cooper, Dale J; Scammell, Brigitte E; Batt, Mark E; Palmer, Debbie
The impracticalities and comparative expense of carrying out a clinical assessment is an obstacle in many large epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a series of electronic self-reported line drawing instruments based on the modified Beighton scoring system for the assessment of self-reported generalised joint hypermobility. Five sets of line drawings were created to depict the 9-point Beighton score criteria. Each instrument consisted of an explanatory question whereby participants were asked to select the line drawing which best represented their joints. Fifty participants completed the self-report online instrument on two occasions, before attending a clinical assessment. A blinded expert clinical observer then assessed participants' on two occasions, using a standardised goniometry measurement protocol. Validity of the instrument was assessed by participant-observer agreement and reliability by participant repeatability and observer repeatability using unweighted Cohen's kappa (k). Validity and reliability were assessed for each item in the self-reported instrument separately, and for the sum of the total scores. An aggregate score for generalised joint hypermobility was determined based on a Beighton score of 4 or more out of 9. Observer-repeatability between the two clinical assessments demonstrated perfect agreement (k 1.00; 95% CI 1.00, 1.00). Self-reported participant-repeatability was lower but it was still excellent (k 0.91; 95% CI 0.74, 1.00). The participant-observer agreement was excellent (k 0.96; 95% CI 0.87, 1.00). Validity was excellent for the self-report instrument, with a good sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81, 0.91) and excellent specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00). The self-reported instrument provides a valid and reliable assessment of the presence of generalised joint hypermobility and may have practical use in epidemiological studies.
without being able to visualize it in drawing. Architectural design, in other words, to a large extent happens through drawing. Hence, to neglect drawing skills is to neglect an important capacity to create architectural design. While the current-day argument for the depreciation of drawing skills...... is that computers can represent graphic ideas both faster and better than most medium-skilled draftsmen, drawing in design is not only about representing final designs. In fact, several steps involving the capacity to draw lie before the representation of a final design. Not only is drawing skills an important...... prerequisite for learning about the nature of existing objects and spaces, and thus to build a vocabulary of design. It is also a prerequisite for both reflecting and communicating about design ideas. In this paper, a taxonomy of notation, reflection, communication and presentation drawing is presented...
Drawing Futures brings together international designers and artists for speculations in contemporary drawing for art and architecture. Despite numerous developments in technological manufacture and computational design that provide new grounds for designers, the act of drawing still plays a central role as a vehicle for speculation. There is a rich and long history of drawing tied to innovations in technology as well as to revolutions in our philosophical understanding of the world. In re...
Wilkinson, Krista M; Dennis, Nancy A; Webb, Christina E; Therrien, Mari; Stradtman, Megan; Farmer, Jacquelyn; Leach, Raevynn; Warrenfeltz, Megan; Zeuner, Courtney
Visual aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) consists of books or technologies that contain visual symbols to supplement spoken language. A common observation concerning some forms of aided AAC is that message preparation can be frustratingly slow. We explored the uses of fMRI to examine the neural correlates of visual search for line drawings on AAC displays in 18 college students under two experimental conditions. Under one condition, the location of the icons remained stable and participants were able to learn the spatial layout of the display. Under the other condition, constant shuffling of the locations of the icons prevented participants from learning the layout, impeding rapid search. Brain activation was contrasted under these conditions. Rapid search in the stable display was associated with greater activation of cortical and subcortical regions associated with memory, motor learning, and dorsal visual pathways compared to the search in the unpredictable display. Rapid search for line drawings on stable AAC displays involves not just the conceptual knowledge of the symbol meaning but also the integration of motor, memory, and visual-spatial knowledge about the display layout. Further research must study individuals who use AAC, as well as the functional effect of interventions that promote knowledge about array layout.
In a time of computer aided design, computer graphics and parametric design tools, the art of design drawing is in a state of neglect. But design and drawing are inseparably linked in ways which often go unnoticed. Essentially, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of designs without...... and better than most medium-skilled draftsmen, drawing in design is not only about representing final designs. In fact, several steps involving the capacity to draw lie before the representation of a final design. Not only is drawing skills a prerequisite for learning about the nature of existing objects...... and thus to build a vocabulary of design. It is also a prerequisite for both reflecting and communicating about design ideas. In this paper, a taxonomy of notation, reflection, communication and presentation drawing is presented, discussed and exemplified. The paper is theoretical in nature, discussing...
"Only when we move do we see the chains" - Rosa Luxemburg Bad drawing / paper cell is a site-specific drawing performance commissioned for The Prison Drawing Project, Scarborough jail, Yorkshire, presented as a film grafted onto the space that is the cell. It takes the notion of drawing as an act of covering and form of measurement, in an immersive act of attempted liberation. Measuring using rolls of paper, the film chronicles what could be seen as a bad day wallpapering a space, no ass...
For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use. TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable. • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files. • Name your figure files with ”Fig” and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps. Line Art. • Definition: Black and white graphic with no ...
Dale J. Cooper
Full Text Available Abstract Background The impracticalities and comparative expense of carrying out a clinical assessment is an obstacle in many large epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a series of electronic self-reported line drawing instruments based on the modified Beighton scoring system for the assessment of self-reported generalised joint hypermobility. Methods Five sets of line drawings were created to depict the 9-point Beighton score criteria. Each instrument consisted of an explanatory question whereby participants were asked to select the line drawing which best represented their joints. Fifty participants completed the self-report online instrument on two occasions, before attending a clinical assessment. A blinded expert clinical observer then assessed participants’ on two occasions, using a standardised goniometry measurement protocol. Validity of the instrument was assessed by participant-observer agreement and reliability by participant repeatability and observer repeatability using unweighted Cohen’s kappa (k. Validity and reliability were assessed for each item in the self-reported instrument separately, and for the sum of the total scores. An aggregate score for generalised joint hypermobility was determined based on a Beighton score of 4 or more out of 9. Results Observer-repeatability between the two clinical assessments demonstrated perfect agreement (k 1.00; 95% CI 1.00, 1.00. Self-reported participant-repeatability was lower but it was still excellent (k 0.91; 95% CI 0.74, 1.00. The participant-observer agreement was excellent (k 0.96; 95% CI 0.87, 1.00. Validity was excellent for the self-report instrument, with a good sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81, 0.91 and excellent specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00. Conclusions The self-reported instrument provides a valid and reliable assessment of the presence of generalised joint hypermobility and may have practical use in epidemiological
Seres vivos y artefactos: ¿efectos categoriales producto de la ausencia de color en tareas de denominación de dibujos? (Living things and artifacts: categorial effects in black-and-white picture naming tasks?
María Macarena Martínez-Cuitiño
Full Text Available Patients with acquired brain injury may have difficulties in processing a unique semantic category. In patients with the most common semantic deficits, living things is the most commonly compromised domain. Nevertheless, the results of assessing healthy participants are contradictory. Most studies with healthy participants reported better performance with the category of living things, whereas other studies have reported better performance with artifacts, depending on the type of material used. Although researchers generally use black-and-white pictures to assess semantic categories, this kind of material omits an essential perceptual attribute in processing living things: colour. This study assessed a group of young healthy participants to determine differences in naming living things and artifacts in a naming task using black-and-white pictures. The stimuli used were matched according to the major lexical-semantic variables: name agreement, visual complexity, lexical frequency, conceptual familiarity, age of acquisition, number of syllables, and number of phonemes. The results show that healthy participants are more accurate and faster at naming when categorizing artifacts and that artifacts have an advantage over the category living things in which colour is a key attribute (animals and fruits/vegetables. This advantage is lost in relation to the category body parts in which colour is not an essential attribute for their recognition.
Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?
José Endoença Martins
Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.
Prize draw Go Sport vouchers 393 members of the Staff Association participated in our free prize draw in July where they could win one of the thirty Go Sport vouchers of 50 euros. The thirty winners have been contacted and can come and collect their voucher from the Staff Association Secretariat.
Narayana, KL; Reddy, K Venkata
About the Book: Written by three distinguished authors with ample academic and teaching experience, this textbook, meant for diploma and degree students of Mechanical Engineering as well as those preparing for AMIE examination, incorporates the latest standards. The new edition includes the features of assembly drawings, part drawings and computer-aided drawings to cater to the needs of students pursuing various courses. The text of the new edition has been thoroughly revised to include new concepts and practices in the subject. It should prove an ideal textbook. Contents: Introduction
Companies increasingly engage in CSR via international private governance arrangements, yet little is known about why companies make the choices that they do. By building upon the concept of national business system variations in CSR practices, this study uses the concept of organizing to propose...
Kruse Aagaard, Anders; Lahmy, Maya
This paper aims to discuss the expanding territory of the architectural drawing through digital fabrication processes and with this angle suggest an experimental practice in research and education. The core proposition in this paper emanates from our architectural research; and is investigated...... with a range of fabrication tools that divide (water jet cutting), add (3D printing) and subtract (5 axis CNC routing) with a focus on the correlation between tool and drawing. The output of the workshop is considered one accumulated body of drawings and artefacts, mapping some aspect of the method put forward...... in a tangible material approach. Through an account and evaluation of the work produced at the workshops this paper starts to suggest a way of engaging with the digital workspace that brings an immediacy and complexity to the architectural design process....
United States national prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in black and white middle-age (45- to 64-Year) and older (≥65-Year) adults (from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study).
Prineas, Ronald J; Le, Anh; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Howard, Virginia J; Ostchega, Yechiam; Howard, George
A United States national sample of 20,962 participants (57% women, 44% blacks) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study provided general population estimates for electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among black and white men and women. The participants were recruited from 2003 to 2007 by random selection from a commercially available nationwide list, with oversampling of blacks and those from the stroke belt, with a cooperation rate of 49%. The measurement of risk factors and 12-lead electrocardiograms (centrally coded using Minnesota code criteria) showed 28% had ≥1 major ECG abnormality. The prevalence of abnormalities was greater (≥35%) for those ≥65 years old, with no differences between blacks and whites. However, among men <65 years, blacks had more major abnormalities than whites, most notably for atrial fibrillation, major Q waves, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Men generally had more ECG abnormalities than women. The most common ECG abnormalities were T-wave abnormalities. The average heart rate-corrected QT interval was longer in women than in men, similar in whites and blacks, and increased with age. However, the average heart rate was greater in women than in men and in blacks than in whites and decreased with age. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was related to the presence of hypertension, diabetes, blood pressure, and age. In conclusion, black men and women in the United States have a significantly greater prevalence of ECG abnormalities than white men and women at age 45 to 64 years; however, these proportions, although larger, tended to equalize or reverse after age 65. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This data set consists of color and black-and-white digital orthophoto files acquired in the Spring of 2005. The color files cover all of Racine County in Southeastern Wisconsin. The color orthophoto files were compiled at one-inch-equals-200-feet, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of color and black-and-white digital orthophoto files acquired...
The figure has "figured" prominently in the choice of subject matter for many artists throughout history. Whether they may choose to depict it in an abstract or expressive form, most artists are quite capable of realistic portrayals of the human form. And all people know that one of the very first drawings made by young children is a symbol for…
This piece was requested from the editor of Science Careers after a press release from our communications group on a poster I recently presented that is entirely in comic form. The piece covers why I draw scientific comics and how I see it fitting in with my science career. I worked closely with Tom Rickey and Corydon Ireland on this piece
In this article, the author describes how her third-grade art students made linear face drawings. Inspired by Pablo Picasso, an artist who tried to maintain the quality of child-like art, the students invented their own abstract line faces true to Picasso's artistic intentions. (Contains 1 online resource.)
Ingham, Sarah L; Moody, Amanda; Abhishek, Abhishek; Doherty, Sally A; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael
For large scale epidemiological studies clinical assessments and radiographs can be impractical and expensive to apply to more than just a sample of the population examined. The study objectives were to develop and validate two novel instruments for self-reported knee malalignment and foot rotation suitable for use in questionnaire studies of knee pain and osteoarthritis. Two sets of line drawings were developed using similar methodology. Each instrument consisted of an explanatory question followed by a set of drawings showing straight alignment, then two each at 7.5 degrees angulation and 15 degrees angulation in the varus/valgus (knee) and inward/outward (foot) directions. Forty one participants undertaking a community study completed the instruments on two occasions. Participants were assessed once by a blinded expert clinical observer with demonstrated excellent reproducibility. Validity was assessed by sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio (LR) using the observer as the reference standard. Reliability was assessed using weighted kappa (kappa). Knee malalignment was measured on 400 knee radiographs. General linear model was used to assess for the presence of a linear increase in knee alignment angle (measured medially) from self-reported severe varus to mild varus, straight, mild valgus and severe valgus deformity. Observer reproducibility (kappa) was 0.89 and 0.81 for the knee malalignment and foot rotation instruments respectively. Self-reported participant reproducibility was also good for the knee (kappa 0.73) and foot (kappa 0.87) instruments. Validity was excellent for the knee malalignment instrument, with a sensitivity of 0.74 (95%CI 0.54, 0.93) and specificity of 0.97 (95%CI 0.94, 1.00). Similarly the foot rotation instrument was also found to have high sensitivity (0.92, 95%CI 0.83, 1.01) and specificity (0.96, 95%CI 0.93, 1.00). The knee alignment angle increased progressively from self reported severe varus to mild varus, straight, mild
Michael Healey is an excellent example of a Renaissance artist: that is, someone who doesn’t limit himself to one medium and whose work crosses over many artistic disciplines. A very well known painter and an award winning designer, his work encompasses drawing, painting and printmaking. A recent collaborative research project even involves sculpture; working with a distinguished academic colleague in Australia, Professor Mike Esson, Healey won a prestigious UK research gran...
Planarity Testing and Embedding Maurizio PatrignaniCrossings and Planarization Christoph Buchheim, Markus Chimani, Carsten Gutwenger, Michael Jünger, and Petra MutzelSymmetric Graph Drawing Peter Eades and Seok-Hee HongProximity Drawings Giuseppe LiottaTree Drawing Algorithms Adrian RusuPlanar Straight-Line Drawing Algorithms Luca VismaraPlanar Orthogonal and Polyline Drawing Algorithms Christian A. Duncan and Michael T. GoodrichSpine and Radial Drawings Emilio Di Giacomo, Walter Didimo, and Giuseppe LiottaCircular Drawing Algorithms Janet M. Six and Ioannis G. TollisRectangular Drawing Algori
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Nielsen, Steen Lund; Gjøl, Mikkel
In this paper, we first argue that drawing lines on polygons is harder than it may appear. We then propose two novel and robust techniques for a special case of this problem, namely wireframe drawing. Neither method suffers from the well-known artifacts associated with the standard two pass, offs...
1. The Universe in One Drawing (G. Smoot Physics 2006) 2. Superfluid Properties (R. Richardson Physics 1996) 3. The Asymptotic Freedom of the Quark (David Gross, Physics 2004) 4. Understanding Superfluidity (Anthony Legget, Physics 2003) 5. Taming Infinities (G. 't Hooft, Physics 1999) 6. Homo Diagrammaticus (M. Veltman, Physics 1999) 7. A Tale Of Two Liquids (D. Osheroff, Physics 1996) 8. Wire Proliferation (G. Charpak, Physics 1992) 9. High Temperature Superconductivity (G. Bednorz, Physics 1987) 10. Atomic Cuisine (courtesy of C. Rubbia, Physics 1984) 11. Colliding Charm (S. Ting, Physics 1976) 12. The Bubble Chamber ( D. Glaser, Physics 1960) 13. The Narrow Resonance of the J-Psi (B. Richter, Physics 1976) 14. Stochastic Cooling (S. Van der Meer, Physics 1984) 15. The Good Anomaly (J Steinberger, Physics 1988) 16. Quark Somewhere on the White Paper (R. Taylor, Physics 1990) 17. The Tau of Particle Physics (M. Perl, 1995) 18. NMR Spectroscopy (K. Wuethrich, Chemistry 2002) 19. Coherent States (R....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic Analysis Drawings, also known as Neutral Line (NL) drawings, are produced each day by space weather forecaster at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS)...
Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C.; Siegler, Aaron; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Crosby, Richard; Rosenberg, Eli S.
Objectives Compare the occurrence of risk-inducing condom events (condom failures and incomplete use) and the frequency of their antecedents (condom errors, fit/feel problems, and erection problems) between Black and White MSM, and determine the associations between risk-inducing condom events and their antecedents. Methods We studied cross-sectional data of 475 MSM who indicated using a condom as an insertive partner in the previous 6 months enrolled in a cohort study in Atlanta, GA. Results Nearly 40% of Black MSM reported breakage or incomplete use, and they were more likely to report breakage, early removal, and delayed application of a condom than White MSM. Only 31% and 54% of MSM reported correct condom use and suboptimal fit/feel of a condom respectively. The use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel were associated with higher odds of reporting breakage (P = 0.009). Suboptimal fit/feel was also associated with higher odds of incomplete use of condoms (P condoms and condom failures were especially common among Black MSM. Our findings indicate that condoms likely offered them less protection against HIV/STI when compared to White MSM. More interventions are needed, particularly addressing the use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel of condoms. PMID:25080511
Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Crosby, Richard; Rosenberg, Eli S
To compare the occurrence of risk-inducing condom events (condom failures and incomplete use) and the frequency of their antecedents (condom errors, fit/feel problems and erection problems) between black and white men who have sex with men (MSM), and determine the associations between risk-inducing condom events and their antecedents. We studied cross-sectional data of 475 MSM who indicated using a condom as an insertive partner in the previous 6 months enrolled in a cohort study in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Nearly 40% of black MSM reported breakage or incomplete use, and they were more likely to report breakage, early removal and delayed application of a condom than white MSM. Only 31% and 54% of MSM reported correct condom use and suboptimal fit/feel of a condom, respectively. The use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel were associated with higher odds of reporting breakage (p=0.009). Suboptimal fit/feel was also associated with higher odds of incomplete use of condoms (pfit/feel of condoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available 'UBMD' (2002-present by Margaret Morgan is a series of untitled breast milk drawings rendered in pencil, gouache and human breast milk. The drawings combine two representational systems, the indexical and the mimetic, to appropriate Rosalind Krauss' terms on photography: Milk squirted directly from the artist's breast leaves a dark trace of lines, drips and splashes, a direct record of the action, an index no less immediate than the action of light on a photosensitive surface.
Stabler, John R.; Goldberg, Faye J.
Although many authors have mentioned examples of how black usually connotes a negative evaluation and white a positive evaluation, the literature on the topic has not yet included an attempt to list examples comprehensively. Those which are cited here come from a wide variety of sources: primarily from dictionaries, books of slang, and personal…
TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, FIBER OPTICS, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, DATA PROCESSING, ELECTRONIC SCANNERS, OPTICAL SCANNING, ELECTROOPTICS, CODING, DECODING, ELECTRONIC RECORDING SYSTEMS, RECORDING PAPER , DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, AUSTRALIA .
Contribution of low-energy ''eye'' and ''figure-eight'' quark diagrams to the K → π weak transitions are studied in a hadron-level phenomenological approach. It is shown that these contributions may be estimated by considering meson-cloud effect. If all intermediate mesons under consideration are degenerate only the ''eye'' (low-energy penguin) diagrams is nonvanishing. When allowance is made for smaller mass of pseudoscalar mesons, the contribution of ''figure-eight'' diagrams turns out to enhance the ΔI = 1/2 (suppress the ΔI = 3/2) amplitudes naturally. The overall long-distance-induced enhancement of the ratio of the Δ I = 1/2 amplitudes over the Δ I = 3/2 amplitudes is estimated at around 4-8. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
This document presents the results of a task to evaluate Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) sampling equipment drawings and identifies drawings category as either essential, support, or general drawings. This report completes the drawing evaluation task as outlined in Engineering Task Plan For Truck 3 and 4 Drawing Compliance and Evaluation (Wilson, 1997). The scope of this report is limited to an evaluation and identification of drawing category for drawings of certain tank waste sampling equipment for which the TRWS Characterization Project has been assigned custody, including: vapor sampling, grab sampling, auger sampling, and all core sampling equipment (see LMHC Task Order 304). This report does not address drawings for other waste tank deployed equipment systems having similar assigned custody, such as, Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA), Cone Penetrometer system, or Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE). The LDUA drawings are addressed in the Characterization Equipment Essential Drawings (HNF 1998). The Cone Penetrometer system drawings which are vendor drawings (not H- series) is not currently turned over to operations for deployment. The LLCE equipment was just recently assigned to Characterization Project and were not included in the original scope for this evaluation and will be addressed in the evaluation update scheduled for fiscal year 1999
This document presents the results of a task to update the evaluation of River Protection Project (WP) sampling equipment drawings and updates the assigned drawings category as either essential, support, or general drawings. This report updates the drawing evaluation that was originally done per Engineering Task Plan For Truck 3 and 4 Drawing Compliance and Evaluation. The scope of this report is limited to updating the evaluation and identification of drawing category for drawings of certain tank waste sampling equipment for which the RPP Characterization Project has been assigned custody, including: vapor sampling, grab sampling, auger sampling, all core sampling equipment, and Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) (see LMHC contract No. 519, release 10). This report does not address drawings for other waste tank deployed equipment systems having similar assigned custody, such as, Cone Penetrometer system, or Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE). The Cone Penetrometer system, which is depicted on vendor drawings, (not H- series), is not currently turned over to operations for deployment. The LLCE equipment was just recently assigned to Characterization Project and was not included in the original scope for this update and will be addressed in the evaluation update scheduled for later in fiscal year 1999, when equipment ownership is determined
A system for the semi-automatic survey of drawings is presented. Its design has been oriented to the reduction of the stored information required for the drawing reproduction. This equipment consists mainly of a plotter driven by a micro-computer, but the pen of the plotter is replaced by a circular photodiode array. Line drawings are first viewed as a concatenation of vectors, with constant angle between the two vectors, and then divided in arcs of circles and line segments. A dynamic analysis of line intersections with the circular sensor permits to identify starting points and end points in a line, for the purpose of automatically following connected lines in drawing. The advantage of the method described is that precision practically depends only on the plotter performance, the sensor resolution being only considered for the thickness of strokes and the distance between two strokes. (author) [fr
Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.
The new edition of this successful text describes all the geometric instructions and engineering drawing information that are likely to be needed by anyone preparing or interpreting drawings or designs with plenty of exercises to practice these principles.
Ivashchenko Andrey Viktorovich
Full Text Available The article focuses on the optimization of the earlier discussed computer method of obtaining new forms of polyhedra based on projective geometry drawings (trace Diagrams.While working on getting new multifaceted forms by projective geometry methods based on the well-known models of polyhedra on the first stage of the work it is required to calculate the parameters of projective geometry drawings, and then to build them. This is an often used apparatus of analytical geometry. According to it, at first the parameters of the polyhedron (core system of planes are calculated, then we obtain the equation of the plane of the face of the polyhedron, and finally we obtain the equations of lines the next plane faces on the selected curve plane. At each stage of application such a method requires the use of the algorithms of floating point arithmetic, on the one hand, leads to some loss of accuracy of the results and, on the other hand, the large amount of computer time to perform these operations in comparison with integer arithmetic operations.The proposed method is based on the laws existing between the lines that make up the drawing - the known configurations of projective geometry (complete quadrilaterals, configuration of Desargues, Pappus et al..The authors discussed in detail the analysis procedure of projective geometry drawing and the presence of full quadrilaterals, Desargues and Pappus configurations in it.Since the composition of these configurations is invariant with respect to projective change of the original nucleus, knowing them, you can avoid the calculations when solving the equations for finding direct projective geometry drawing analytically, getting them on the basis of belonging to a particular configuration. So you can get a definite advantage in accuracy of the results, and in the cost of computer time. Finding these basic configurations significantly enriches the set of methods and the use of projective geometry drawings.
Gravina, M.F.; Kunz, P.F.; Rensing, P.E.
HippoDraw is a NeXTSTEP application for viewing statistical data. It has several unique features which make viewing data distributions highly interactive. It also incorporates a set of simple drawing tools. HippoDraw is written in Objective-C and uses the Hippoplotamus library package to handle the n-tuples and displays
This article presents techniques and theories of generative drawing as a means for developing complex content in architecture design studios. Appending the word "generative" to drawing adds specificity to the most common representation tool and clarifies that such drawings are not singularly about communication or documentation but are…
Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.
Full Text Available We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings, and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary.
José Mayor Iborra
Full Text Available The scientific drawing understood as a universal language is a tool of undoubted documentary value as well as daily use in our field work of any professional who is with the need to register with graphics, a work process in which, need to process the drawing as coach and illustrator information. The drawings scientists have always had the vocation of fidelity and accuracy, in order to collect objective truths. The scientific drawing has been compressed and discriminating, as the reading order of the drawing through the line by providing a clear exposition that the photograph is not enough to achieve.
Kennedy, John M
Gaia, a totally blind girl, was asked to make raised-line drawings. Gaia's vision at best was peripheral. She draws out of interest, and has drawn since preschool with encouragement from her mother. She was asked to draw objects and scenes involving depth from a vantage point, eg a table from below, two cars (one behind the other), and two parallel rows of apples (receding from her, on a table top). Gaia represented space in her drawings using T-junctions for overlap, height in the picture plane, parallel projection, and inverse projection. That is, Gaia uses features of systems common in sighted children's drawings. The development of drawing in blind and sighted children may be similar in good measure because haptics provides access to many of the same spatial principles as vision.
Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin
This paper explores the dynamic and expressive possibilities of holographic art through a comparison of art history and technical media such as photography, film and holographic technologies. Examples of modern art and creative expression of time and motions are examined using the early 20th century art movement, Cubism, where subjects are portrayed to be seen simultaneously from different angles. Folding space is represented as subject matter as it can depict space from multiple points of time. The paper also investigates the way holographic art has explored time and space. The lenticular lens-based media reveal a more subjective poetic art in the form of the lyrical images and messages as spectators pass through time, or walk along with the piece of work through an interactive process. It is argued that photographic practice is another example of artistic representation in the form of aesthetic medium of time movement and as such shares a common ground with other dynamic expression that require time based interaction.
Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena
This book presents a look at the "big picture." Is sexual harassment common? What kinds of behaviors are taking place? Who is being harassed, and who is doing the harassing? For students who admit to harassing others, why do they do it? How does sexual harassment affect students' educational experience? What do students think should be done about…
Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin
This paper explores the dynamic and expressive possibilities of holographic art through a comparison of art history and technical media such as photography, film and holographic technologies. Examples of modern art and creative expression of time and motions are examined using the early 20th century art movement, Cubism, where subjects are portrayed to be seen simultaneously from different angles. Folding space is represented as subject matter as it can depict space from multiple points of time. The paper also investigates the way holographic art has explored time and space. The lenticular lens-based media reveal a more subjective poetic art in the form of the lyrical images and messages as spectators pass through time, or walk along with the piece of work through an interactive process. It is argued that photographic practice is another example of artistic representation in the form of aesthetic medium of time movement and as such shares a common ground with other dynamic expression that require time based interaction.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
The implementation of art education in nursing is said to have positive effects on nursing students. Most studies applied visual art dialogues or object design, whereas the effectiveness of drawing as a teaching and learning method is rarely examined and discussed. This paper aimed to discuss the potential and effectiveness of drawing as a learning and teaching method. Four drawings which were created by Hong Kong nursing students are demonstrated and the students' perspectives of how drawing enhanced learning are shown in this paper. Topics on drawing as a fun teaching and learning method and the way it can enhance critical thinking and creativity are also discussed. In conclusion, the activity was a great success, and students enjoyed the learning process and reflected positive comments. However, we cannot conclude that drawing is an effective teaching and learning method based on a single paper, therefore more similar studies should be conducted to investigate this method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anne Katrine Hougaard
Full Text Available Haecceity or ‘thisness’ is a philosophical concept that relates to architectural drawing in the sense that a haecceity is something that becomes individual from having been undifferentiated. Haecceities lie at the heart of many interlinking, dynamic processes of ethics, art, instinct, intelligence and life. Haecceities open up for an understanding of architectural drawing distinct from ‘merely’ representing built or buildable architectural space, being rather a method of both acting and thinking.That the architectural drawing represents building and space is inherent, but, for the same reason, the architectural drawing’s power to produce space and buildings is sometimes diminished. This capacity of drawing, along with analogue and digital drawing tools and analogue and digital notational systems, is discussed in the paper, aiming to break down the usual ideas of architectural drawing, the digital and the analogue, and to build up a research method to create thoughts and worlds.
Full Text Available Nowadays, drawing practices seem to operate in a rather uncertain field that is typical of an in-between phase of disciplinary development and that needs to be addressed, if an ‘anticipated projection’ of the development of drawing is to be attempted. The field of drawing, as practice and discourse, seems to have entered an end-condition, where the celebration of the extensive production of drawings is combined with a certain fatigue in both its understanding and reflection. Even though the role of drawing is nowadays still regarded as the most common act of architecture, this understanding of drawing is hardly subject to critical inquiries, and, unfortunately, mostly limited to its instrumental role within the representation of the project.A common characteristic in all of the papers in this issue of Footprint is that a specific character of the theoretical field generated by drawing is the elaboration of the correlation between two epistemic regions. This singular character probably belongs to drawing’s structural duality of being simultaneously a simulacrum of a reality and reality itself, memory and anticipation, subject and object, by being in essence the measure of two different facets inherent to architectural thinking. Drawing not only gives consistency to the poles, rendering them architectural matter, but also literally (reconstructs them. At the same time, drawing formalizes the theoretical distance between the two.
This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture...
Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kawahata, Junichi; Yoshida, Naoto; Ono, Satoru
Since automated CAD drawing generation systems still require human intervention, improvements were focussed on an interactive processing section (data input and correcting operation) which necessitates a vast amount of work. As a result, human intervention was eliminated, the original objective of a computerized system. This is the first step taken towards complete automation. The effects of development and commercialization of the system are as described below. (1) The interactive processing time required for generating drawings was improved. It was determined that introduction of the CAD system has reduced the time required for generating drawings. (2) The difference in skills between workers preparing drawings has been eliminated and the quality of drawings has been made uniform. (3) The extent of knowledge and experience demanded of workers has been reduced. (author)
The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed
Cornes, Michael; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell
Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) provides an overview and summary of the literature with regards to order of draw in venous blood collection. Given the evidence presented in this article, the EFLM WG-PRE herein concludes that a significant frequency of sample contamination......, CLSI) guidelines recommend that the order of draw of blood during phlebotomy should be blood culture/sterile tubes, then plain tubes/gel tubes, then tubes containing additives. This prevents contamination of sample tubes with additives from previous tubes that could cause erroneous results. There have...... does occur if order of draw is not followed during blood collection and when performing venipuncture under less than ideal circumstances, thus putting patient safety at risk. Moreover, given that order of draw is not difficult to follow and knowing that ideal phlebotomy conditions and protocols...
The creative drawing process Associated Professor Ingelise Flensborg, PhD The Danish University school of Education, Aarhus University Tuborgvej 164 København NV Why are children's drawings important for the development of cognitive structures and for their development in a visual society......? In my research I have been investigating the connections between body and space - the body-space interaction established through movement and the implications this relation had for the layout or spatial arrangements of children's drawings. It is my hypothesis that we are able to see how children...... understand spatial relationships through their drawings and to identify their cognitive development in their construction of schemata or mapping abilities. Gibson's theory on the picking-up of invariant features through movement comprises an understanding of the fact that normally we do not make use...
This paper includes drawings of Kozloduy nuclear power plant needed for study for the seismic analysis and testing. It covers the list and schemes of safety and safety related systems for normal operation as well as protection and control systems
Roux, Sébastien; Bonin, Patrick
Seven experiments tested, whether when naming a colored object (e.g., "CAR"), its color (e.g., "red") is phonologically encoded. In the first experiment, adults had to say aloud the names of colored line drawings of objects that were each displayed among 3 black-and-white line drawings (Experiment 1a) or that were presented…
Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.
This research investigated whether symbolic understanding of pictures in low-functioning children with autism is mediated by iconicity and language. In Experiment 1, participants were taught novel words paired with unfamiliar pictures that varied in iconicity (black-and-white line drawings, greyscale photographs, colour line drawings, colour…
The purpose of this document is to define criteria for selecting Essential Drawings, Support Drawings, and Controlled Print File (CPF) drawings and documents for facilities that are part of East and West Tank Farms. Also, the drawings and documents that meet the criteria are compiled separate listings. The Essential Drawing list and the Support Drawing list establish a priority for updating technical baseline drawings. The CPF drawings, denoted by an asterisk (*), defined the drawings and documents that Operations is required to maintain per the TWRS Administration Manual. The Routing Boards in Buildings 272-WA and 272-AW are not part of the CPF
Alamdari, Soroush; Angelini, Patrizio; Chan, Timothy M.
In 1944, Cairns proved the following theorem: given any two straight-line planar drawings of a triangulation with the same outer face, there exists a morph (i.e., a continuous transformation) between the two drawings so that the drawing remains straight-line planar at all times. Cairns’s original...... proof required exponentially many morphing steps. We prove that there is a morph that consists of O(n^2) steps, where each step is a linear morph that moves each vertex at constant speed along a straight line. Using a known result on compatible triangulations this implies that for a general planar graph...... G and any two straight-line planar drawings of G with the same embedding, there is a morph between the two drawings that preserves straight-line planarity and consists of O(n^4) steps....
Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
This poster presents a series of drawings depicting the initial considerations made with the Ph.D. project for an improved ‘Interior Design for Food’ in a Danish hospital ward. The project concerns a study on the ontological and symbolic interrelationship possibly existing between food and archit......This poster presents a series of drawings depicting the initial considerations made with the Ph.D. project for an improved ‘Interior Design for Food’ in a Danish hospital ward. The project concerns a study on the ontological and symbolic interrelationship possibly existing between food...
Full Text Available In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed by the drawing, in the idea to construct outlines or blocks which can be used in the projection process.
This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture...... of today, but – perhaps most importantly – also creating and producing architecture that is contemporaneous and reacts to the radical changes of the physical world which surrounds us in the increasingly artificial measures of new materialities and understandings thereof. The contributions range from...
and unpredictability of art making and the problem led objectivity of say product design? By giving an account of automatic drawing fused within the process of industrial design, this paper considers the integration of two distinct practices, that of art making and that of engineering design. The proposition...
Full Text Available Bernard Tschumi’s delineation prepared for the Museu de Arte Contemporânea provides the starting point for this essay, which discusses the historicity of drawing and highlights the horizontality and the verticality that structure architecture’s contrast with the pictorial realm. Juxtaposing a freehand sketch with the digital image of the same project, Tschumi moves to address the paradox concerning the position of the body and drawing. This drawing also speaks for the reversal in the position of the body brought about by digital reproductivity.The reversal alludes to Tschumi’s theorization of architecture in terms of space and event. These, I will argue, are anticipated in The Manhattan Transcripts (1981 where a set of freehand drawings is used to evoke a filmic mood wherein the image is projected parallel to the spectator’s seated position. The essay goes further, suggesting that the theatricality permeating the present architecture is part of the shift from horizontality to the painterly, and yet the phenomenon is not merely a technical issue. Rather, it alludes to architecture’s dialogical rapport with painting at work since the Renaissance.
Perdreau, F.A.G.; Cavanagh, P.
Drawing involves frequent shifts of gaze between the original and the drawing and visual memory helps compare the original object and the drawing across these gaze shifts while creating and correcting the drawing. It remains unclear whether this memory encodes all of the object or only the features
Full Text Available If, as I have argued elsewhere, architecture and archaeology share homological correspondences of common origin thus enabling analogical relationships of creative juxtaposition, then it becomes possible to characterise those correspondences through their representational drawing practices as they are embodied in the products of those practices and in the instruments which make those products. This characterisation is the subject of this paper, first by examining architecture and archaeology as disciplined suites of practices nurtured and developed within the constraints of their parent profession, and then through the examination of particular drawing techniques and instruments—techniques and instruments either common to each discipline or abandoned by them. These commonalities and abandonments reveal their undisciplinary nature. This loosening of disciplinary constraint is further examined through the analysis of “undisciplined drawing” case studies.
This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture...... of today, but – perhaps most importantly – also creating and producing architecture that is contemporaneous and reacts to the radical changes of the physical world which surrounds us in the increasingly artificial measures of new materialities and understandings thereof. The contributions range from...... the intricate issues of the imagination and the moving ratio in the topological culture, over urban topology, diagrammatisation, mediality and dynamics of transduction in the contemporary artificial environment....
Yelena S. Lykova
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to demonstrate the junior pupils' skills development in still life drawing. Being related to the child's cognitive abilities, well-developed linear space perception positively affects the personality and readiness for various activities. Therefore, pupils' acquaintance with the basics of still life drawing in arts classes has both the aesthetic and psychological and intellectual benefits.Methodology is based on the analysis of theoretical concepts of art criticism, psychological and pedagogical works on developing artistic and creative skills of junior pupils, along with the teaching problems of picturing the space in still life drawings. The author carried out the research and experimental work in the Omsk comprehensive schools to identify the age evolution of children's still life drawings.The research results denote the following development stages of junior pupils' skills related to still life picturing: the first stage – still life objects are aligned to the lower paper edge; the second stage – objects are placed on a horizontal line above the lower paper edge, the object plane being parallel to it; the third stage – still life objects are aligned to a single line with the spatial representations of the object planes pictured as a slightly inclined line dividing the paper below the middle of the sheet; the fourth stage – objects are pictured on different heights (above or below each other, the object plane is pictured with two lines reflecting the perspective; the fifth stage – still life objects are pictured on different heights, object overlapping being common and the perspective reflection of the object planes pictured with two or three lines; the sixth stage – objects are placed on different levels, overlapping being obligatory and a multilevel object planes possible.Scientific novelty implies a systematic analysis, description and illustration of development stages of space picturing in children
PRUNĂ Liviu; SLONOVSCHI Andrei
In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed...
Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick
Drawing involves frequent shifts of gaze between the original and the drawing and visual memory helps compare the original object and the drawing across these gaze shifts while creating and correcting the drawing. It remains unclear whether this memory encodes all of the object or only the features around the current drawing position and whether both the original and the copy are equally well represented. To address these questions, we designed a "drawing" experiment coupled with a change detection task. A polygon was displayed on one screen and participants had to copy it on another, with the original and the drawing presented in alternation. At unpredictable moments during the copying process, modifications were made on the drawing and the original figure (while they were not in view). Participants had to correct their drawing every time they perceived a change so that their drawing always matched the current original figure. Our results show a better memory representation of the original figure than of the drawing, with locations relevant to the current production most accurately represented. Critically, experts showed better memory for both the original and the drawing than did novices, suggesting that experts have specialized advantages for encoding visual shapes.
This document presents the results of a task to evaluate Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) sampling equipment drawings and identifies drawings category as either essential, support, or general drawings. This report completes the drawing evaluation task as outlined in Engineering Task Plan For Truck 3 and 4 Drawing Compliance and Evaluation (Wilson, 1997). The scope of this report is limited to an evaluation and identification of drawing category for drawings of certain tank waste sampling equipment for which the TRWS Characterization Project has been assigned custody, including: vapor sampling, grab sampling, auger sampling, and all core sampling equipment (see LMHC Task Order 304). This report does not address drawings for other waste tank deployed equipment systems having similar assigned custody, such as, Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA), Cone Penetrometer system, or Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE). The LDUA drawings are addressed in the Characterization Equipment Essential Drawings (HNF 1998). The Cone Penetrometer system drawings which are vendor drawings (not H- series) is not currently turned over to operations for deployment. The LLCE equipment was just recently assigned to Characterization Project and were not included in the original scope for this evaluation and will be addressed in the evaluation update scheduled for fiscal year 1999
Vergara Fernandez, A; Maire, B; Muttoni, Y; Kournossenko, A; Zalyalov, R
The team in charge of the LHC integration largely uses 3D scenes combining functional positions of equipments and the 3D CAD model issued from the CERN Drawing Directory (CDD) repository. This is made possible through the Digital Mock-Up tool developed at CERN. Giving dimensions in 3D context is a challenge with the current 3D CAD tools used at CERN. Requirements from users groups have made clear a need for automatic production of 2D layout drawings. This paper presents the retained solution to create on-request dimensioned drawings, to publish them, while maintaining coherence and consistency with the 3D integration scenes. Reliability of the information, on-line availability of the latest layout changes on dimensions and positions of equipments, and the maintenance of the facility is also described.
The team in charge of the LHC integration largely uses 3D scenes combining functional positions of equipments and the 3D CAD model issued from the CERN Drawing Directory (CDD) repository. This is made possible through the Digital Mock-Up tool developed at CERN. Giving dimensions in 3D context is a challenge with the current 3D CAD tools used at CERN. Requirements from users groups have made clear a need for automatic production of 2D layout drawings. This paper presents the retained solution to create on-request dimensioned drawings, to publish them, while maintaining coherence and consistency with the 3D integration scenes. Reliability of the information, on-line availability of the latest layout changes on dimensions and positions of equipments, and the maintenance of the facility will also be described.
Skipetari, A.; Nijhuis, S.
Drawing is an important tool for lighting designers. Not only as a means of visual communication but also to aid visual thinking. As a process and product, drawing is a constituent part of the overall lighting design process, from concept to realisation. The emphasis is usually placed on drawing as
Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik
Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction...... of a model or a solution method requires certain characteristics of the random numbers used. This is usually a distribution classification, which the sequence of random numbers must fulfill; of these some are very hard to fulfill and others are next to impossible. Today mathematics allows us to transform...... highly uniform multidimensional draws, which are highly relevant for todays traffic models. This paper shows among others combined shuffling and scrambling seems needless, that scrambling gives the lowest correlation and that there are detectable differences between random numbers, dependent...
Hougaard, Anna Katrine
Architectural drawing is changing because architects today draw with computers. Due to this change digital diagrams employed by computational architectural practices are often emphasized as powerful structures of control and organisation in the design process. But there are also diagrams, which do...... ways of directing behaviour of artefacts and living things without controlling this behaviour completely. I analyse a musical composition by John Cage as an example of a sketch diagram, and then hypothesize that orthogonal, architectural drawing can work in similar ways. Thereby I hope to point out...... important affordance of architectural drawing as a ¬hybrid between the openness of hand-sketching and the rule-based-ness of diagramming, an affordance which might be useful in the migrational zone of current architectural drawing where traditional hand drawing techniques and computer drawing techniques...
Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II
This article's basic aim is to examine empirical evidence bearing upon the question of the relative competitive superiority of the predominantly white Division I football teams over the predominantly black Division II teams. (Author)
Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.
Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)
Tak, S.; Toet, A.
To fully comprehend the meaning and impact of visualized data it is crucial that users are able to perceive and comprehend the inherent uncertainty of the data in a correct and intuitive way. Data uncertainty is frequently visualized through color mappings. Previous studies argued that color hue is
Wamsted, John O.
Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…
Kim, Daniel B; Bowers, Steven; Thomas, Mathew
Benign esophageal strictures are typically the result of long-standing gastroesophageal reflux, and are usually treated with serial dilations and acid-suppressive therapy. Other causes of benign esophageal strictures include external beam radiation, caustic ingestions, prior surgery, and external compression from mediastinal fibrosis. We report 2 rare causes of ischemic esophageal structuring occurring after operations unrelated to the esophagus. The first is a patient who developed esophageal injury following radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. The direct thermal injury resulted in a "white esophagus" with a full-thickness, long-segmental stricture. The second patient presented with a "black esophagus" also known as acute necrotizing esophagitis. This occurred after an orthotopic liver transplant, which was complicated by multiple organ dysfunction secondary to hemorrhagic shock. In this report, we present 2 rare causes of esophageal stricturing that occurred after procedures not necessarily related to the esophagus itself. Early recognition and active management of these esophageal injuries may lead to better outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Barton, BA; Schumann, BC; Garner, DM; Daniels, [No Value; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB
Objective: Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Methods: A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower
In a modern, democratic society, the newspaper's role is important and critical in shaping citizens' opinions on nuclear power and other issues. Citizens acquire knowledge on current issues in their society, nation, and the world through newspapers. Today, television and internet media is increasingly becoming more popular among citizens, but newspaper media continues to affect intellectual citizens, policy makers and think tanks. Therefore, assessing major daily newspaper editorials covering nuclear issues and affairs is necessary for their sound bridging between nuclear science and engineering and the public. Bridging the two cultures, science and humanities, is an enormous task for modern democratic society
Thompson, Sharon H.; And Others
Studied ideal body size beliefs of 337 white and 159 black adolescent males. Findings point toward a greater approval and social acceptance of a larger body size for black females by black males. Cultural differences may be a factor to consider in designing appropriate weight control programs. (SLD)
Pagano, Maria E.; Hirsch, Barton J.
Prior research on adolescent peer relationships has focused on interpersonal dimensions of friendships but not of romantic relationships, and has rarely examined minority groups. We used a random sample of 122 adolescents to examine race and gender differences in friendships, romantic relationships, and the congruence between closest friendship…
one of white low-birth-weight infants were en- rolled at Baragwanath and Johannesburg Hospi- ... The prevalence of respiratory distress caused by hyaline membrane dis·ease (HMD) in pre- .... ticoid treatment for prevention of the respiratory distress syndrome in premarure infants. Pediamcs 1972; 50: 515-825. 12.
Rabal, Héctor; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo
Lateral magnification in image formation by positive lenses, mirrors, and dioptrics is usually appropriately developed in most optics textbooks.1-9 However, the image of a three-dimensional object occupies a three-dimensional region of space. The optical system affects both the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions of the object and, in general, does it in different ways. The magnification in the direction of the optical axis (the longitudinal magnification) is seldom treated. In several texts, the concept of longitudinal magnification is not even considered. Symmetrical objects (such as arrows) are used and their images appear laterally inverted. It is not shown how a longitudinally nonsymmetric object is imaged. One of the few books where this subject is well treated is in the textbook by Hecht.10 We have repeatedly verified in our classes that there is some confusion related to this subject. Students tend to believe that the image is longitudinally symmetric with respect to the lens optic center. Some prestigious texts commit the same mistake. In addition, a very nice optics book,11 a catalogue of optical hardware,12 a worldwide scientific magazine,13 a paper in an optics journal,14 and a Spanish encyclopedia,15 for example, have also been found to contain this error in drawing the image of a three-dimensional object formed by a positive lens. In this paper we suggest that the teaching of longitudinal magnification should be done with some care and we include a figure showing a properly drawn image.
Matsui, Yusuke; Shiratori, Takaaki; Aizawa, Kiyoharu
We present DrawFromDrawings, an interactive drawing system that provides users with visual feedback for assistance in 2D drawing using a database of sketch images. Following the traditional imitation and emulation training from art education, DrawFromDrawings enables users to retrieve and refer to a sketch image stored in a database and provides them with various novel strokes as suggestive or deformation feedback. Given regions of interest (ROIs) in the user and reference sketches, DrawFromDrawings detects as-long-as-possible (ALAP) stroke segments and the correspondences between user and reference sketches that are the key to computing seamless interpolations. The stroke-level interpolations are parametrized with the user strokes, the reference strokes, and new strokes created by warping the reference strokes based on the user and reference ROI shapes, and the user study indicated that the interpolation could produce various reasonable strokes varying in shapes and complexity. DrawFromDrawings allows users to either replace their strokes with interpolated strokes (deformation feedback) or overlays interpolated strokes onto their strokes (suggestive feedback). The other user studies on the feedback modes indicated that the suggestive feedback enabled drawers to develop and render their ideas using their own stroke style, whereas the deformation feedback enabled them to finish the sketch composition quickly.
Cousins, M F
Engineering Drawing from the Beginning, Volume 2 discusses the methods for communicating technical engineering concepts through illustrations and drawings. This volume covers the more advance techniques in engineering drawing. The coverage of the text includes the helix, which is the path traced by a point moving uniformly around the surface of a right cylinder that is moving axially. The book also covers drawings of solid objects such as prisms, pyramids, and cones, along with hollow objects made from sheet material. In Chapter 5, the text presents the conventional representations of common
Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice
The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This study examines results of a practical drawing task given to a cohort of first year dental surgery students at Kings College Dental Institute, London. It compares and relates their success in drilling and removing caries and pulp tissue from a virtual tooth using the hapTEL virtual learning system, with each individuals' drawing skills.…
Full Text Available This paper sets view to consider the significance of drawings as part of visual communication design. Drawing gives a chance to observe, to muse, to select and develop continuous thinking techniques. It is to present that drawing is not just a cursory to generate ideas, but it has its own energy and philosophy which deserve studying as a domain of art. In recent years, drawing has received attention; there is on the one hand a group of drawing practitioners, and on the other hand a group of drawing researchers. Drawing in design is a medium of visual and spatial thinking. Digging into research actually is a necessity for visual communication studies. It is suggested here three kinds of research approaches: research into art/design; research through art/design; and research for art/design. Indeed, it leads to four axis topics (topoi for design studies: design practice, design product, design discourse, and design meta-discourse. A field of study called ‘visual culture’ which, departed from the study of critical theory and cultural studies which have set out relatively new field of study called ‘visual studies’. Based upon to this perspective, visual (communication studies should be more self-reflexive. The production of visual communication contributes to construct the visual culture in society.
Guilleaume, Christina; Mousavi, Ali; Brosius, Alexander
This paper presents a concept for a hybrid deep drawing tool based on polymer concrete and first results from actual deep drawing tests using a prototype of the newly developed tool. The hybrid tool presented here has a defined macro-structure of the blankholder and drawing die as implemented before by Brosius et al.  in a steel tool for a lubricant free deep drawing process. The macro structure has a positive effect on the lubrication free deep drawing process, because it reduces the contact surface, increases the sheet's stability against wrinkling in the flange, reduces the necessary blank holder force and thereby the contact pressure, and offers a means to control the material flow . The main objective in transferring this concept to a new hybrid tool from polymer concrete is an enhanced possibility to easily integrate other functional elements like temperature and pressure sensors, graphite inlays or roller bearings into the drawing die or blankholder. Since polymer concrete is cast in a cold exothermal process of no more than 60° Celsius, these elements are not subjected to high thermal loads and their positioning is relatively simple and precise. Polymer concrete moreover has good mechanical properties regarding compressive strength  and Young's modulus  and is therefore well suited for a deep drawing tool application.
Lange, Violaine Michel
in a time-window extending beyond early visual analysis. In a second experiment, different participants were asked to produce either single noun or adjective-noun dual-word phrases to black-and-white and coloured line drawings, respectively. Adjective-noun phrase production (2W) resulted in naming latencies...... stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...... 53 msec longer than single noun (1W) production. Waveform amplitude and topographic analyses carried out on stimulus- and response-aligned ERPs indicated that the two conditions differed in a late time-window, with a topographic pattern for 2W lasting from 300 to 480 msec after picture presentation...
Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E
The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen
Lazar, J Wayne
This chapter has two emphases, one is about the men who influenced the visual representations that David Ferrier (1843-1928) used to illustrate his work on localization of brain functions during the years 1873-1875, namely, Alexander Ecker, John C. Galton, and Ernest Waterlow, and the other is about the nature of medical representations and of Ferrier's illustrations in particular. Medical illustrations are characterized either as pictures, line drawings, or brain maps. Ferrier's illustrations will be shown to be increasingly sophisticated brain maps that contrast with early nineteenth-century standards of medical illustrations, as exemplified by John Bell (1763-1829). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gravina, M.F.; Kunz, P.F.; Pavel, T.J.; Rensing, P.E.
Hippo Draw is a result of research into finding better ways to visualize the kind of statistical data that is so common in high energy physics analyses. In these analyses, frequency distributions are visualized as histograms, contour plots, scatter plots, etc. Traditionally, one used a library of subroutines, called a histogram package, within one's analysis programs to create and display such distributions. HippoDraw is a NeXTstep application for viewing statistical data. It has several unique features which make viewing data distributions highly interactive. It also incorporates simple drawing tools. HippoDraw is written in Objective-C and uses the Hippoplotamus library package which handles the n-tuples and displays. Hippoplotamus is written in ANSI C. 4 refs
but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... the body, situated in real time and depth, with drawing transforming and deforming time and depth....
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design drawings. 1.152... Design drawings. The design must be represented by a drawing that complies with the requirements of § 1... are not permitted in a design drawing. Photographs and ink drawings are not permitted to be combined...
Binosi, D.; Theußl, L.
JaxoDraw is a Feynman graph plotting tool written in Java. It has a complete graphical user interface that allows all actions to be carried out via mouse click-and-drag operations in a WYSIWYG fashion. Graphs may be exported to postscript/EPS format and can be saved in XML files to be used for later sessions. One of JaxoDraw's main features is the possibility to create ? code that may be used to generate graphics output, thus combining the powers of ? with those of a modern day drawing program. With JaxoDraw it becomes possible to draw even complicated Feynman diagrams with just a few mouse clicks, without the knowledge of any programming language. Program summaryTitle of program: JaxoDraw Catalogue identifier: ADUA Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUA Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Distribution format: tar gzip file Operating system: Any Java-enabled platform, tested on Linux, Windows ME, XP, Mac OS X Programming language used: Java License: GPL Nature of problem: Existing methods for drawing Feynman diagrams usually require some 'hard-coding' in one or the other programming or scripting language. It is not very convenient and often time consuming, to generate relatively simple diagrams. Method of solution: A program is provided that allows for the interactive drawing of Feynman diagrams with a graphical user interface. The program is easy to learn and use, produces high quality output in several formats and runs on any operating system where a Java Runtime Environment is available. Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data: 2 117 863 Number of lines in distributed program, including test data: 60 000 Restrictions: Certain operations (like internal latex compilation, Postscript preview) require the execution of external commands that might not work on untested operating systems. Typical running time: As an interactive program, the running time depends on the complexity
Miall, R C; Nam, Se-Ho; Tchalenko, J
To copy a natural visual image as a line drawing, visual identification and extraction of features in the image must be guided by top-down decisions, and is usually influenced by prior knowledge. In parallel with other behavioral studies testing the relationship between eye and hand movements when drawing, we report here a functional brain imaging study in which we compared drawing of faces and abstract objects: the former can be strongly guided by prior knowledge, the latter less so. To manipulate the difficulty in extracting features to be drawn, each original image was presented in four formats including high contrast line drawings and silhouettes, and as high and low contrast photographic images. We confirmed the detailed eye-hand interaction measures reported in our other behavioral studies by using in-scanner eye-tracking and recording of pen movements with a touch screen. We also show that the brain activation pattern reflects the changes in presentation formats. In particular, by identifying the ventral and lateral occipital areas that were more highly activated during drawing of faces than abstract objects, we found a systematic increase in differential activation for the face-drawing condition, as the presentation format made the decisions more challenging. This study therefore supports theoretical models of how prior knowledge may influence perception in untrained participants, and lead to experience-driven perceptual modulation by trained artists. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hougaard, Anna Katrine
ways of directing behaviour of artefacts and living things without controlling this behaviour completely. I analyse a musical composition by John Cage as an example of a sketch diagram, and then hypothesize that orthogonal, architectural drawing can work in similar ways. Thereby I hope to point out...
This article offers examples of how drawing can facilitate thinking skills that promote analogical reasoning to enable deeper learning. The instructional design applies cognitive principles, briefly described here. The workshops were developed iteratively, through feedback from student and teacher participants. Elements of the UK National…
Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).
Brechet, Claire; Jolley, Richard P.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles of emotional comprehension and representational drawing skill in children's expressive drawing. Fifty 7- to 10-year-olds were asked to produce two (happy and sad) expressive drawings, two representational drawings (drawing of a man running and drawing of a house) and to answer the…
Full Text Available This article explores the treatment of trans medical expenses under American and Canadian tax laws. In both tax systems, medical expenses are deemed worthy of tax relief, while many cosmetic procedures are excluded. This article argues that tax administrators and the judiciary are influenced by social stigma when they employ the distinction between cosmetic and medical expenses to exclude or allow trans medical expenses. In the American context, this article focuses on the Internal Revenue Service’s reasons for deeming a trans woman’s gender dysphoria-related medical expenses to be ineligible for the medical deduction. It then turns to the taxpayer’s subsequent appeal to the U.S. Tax Court in O’Donnabhain v. Commissioner, 134 TC no. 4, and the Court’s determination that, while the taxpayer’s sex reassignment surgery and hormone therapy were eligible expenses, her breast augmentation was not deductible. The article follows by outlining the Canadian medical expense tax credit to determine how similar trans medical expenses might be treated in light of a budget amendment in 2010 prohibiting claims for most cosmetic procedures. The article concludes that in both the American and Canadian context, trans people are held to a higher standard than required under each respective tax statute, with their gender dysphoria-related medical expenses needing to be documented as “medically necessary” to avoid categorization as ineligible cosmetic expenses. Le présent article examine le traitement des frais médicaux liés à la dysphorie sexuelle en vertu des lois fiscales américaines et canadiennes. Dans les deux régimes fiscaux, les frais médicaux sont considérés comme admissibles à un allègement fiscal, tandis que plusieurs interventions esthétiques sont exclues. Le présent article fait valoir que les administrateurs fiscaux et la magistrature sont influencés par les stigmates sociaux lorsqu’ils ont recours à la distinction entre les frais d’intervention esthétique et les frais médicaux pour exclure ou justifier les frais médicaux liés à la transition. Dans le contexte américain, le présent article se penche sur les motifs formulés par l’Internal Revenue Service pour juger inadmissibles à la déduction pour frais médicaux les frais médicaux liés au trouble d’identité sexuelle d’une femme transgenre. Il examine ensuite l’appel interjeté ultérieurement par la contribuable à la US Tax Court dans O’Donnabhain v. Commissioner, 134 TC no. 4, ainsi que la décision de cette cour selon laquelle la chirurgie pour changement de sexe et l’hormonothérapie de la contribuable constituaient des frais admissibles, alors que son augmentation mammaire n’était pas déductible. L’article décrit ensuite le crédit d’impôt canadien pour frais médicaux pour déterminer comment des frais médicaux similaires liés à la dysphorie sexuelle pourraient être traités à la lumière d’une modification budgétaire de 2010 interdisant les réclamations pour la plupart des interventions esthétiques. L’article conclut que, tant aux États-Unis qu’au Canada, les personnes transgenres doivent satisfaire à une norme plus élevée que celle que prévoit la loi fiscale à laquelle elles sont assujetties, leurs frais médicaux liés à la transition devant être documentés comme étant « médicalement nécessaires » pour éviter d’être qualifiés de frais d’intervention esthétique inadmissibles.
Sadaghiani, Homeyra; Aguilera, Nicholas
This research involved high school physics students and how they learn to understand Newton's laws as they relate to falling bodies and projectile motion. Students in introductory, algebra-based, high school physics classes were evaluated based on their prior knowledge through a pretest, designed to assess their initial comprehension of the motion of falling bodies and projectiles. Groups were divided and taught separately with an emphasis on either mathematical derivation of equations, followed by brief conceptual discussions, or on thorough conceptual analysis, followed by a brief mathematical verification. After a posttest was given, an evaluation of the responses and explanations of each group of students was used to determine which method of instruction was more effective. Results indicate that after the conceptual group and math groups achieved similar scores on the pretest, the conceptual group obtained a slightly higher normalized gain of 25% on the posttest, compared to the mathematical group's normalized gain of 16% (unpaired two-tailed t-test P value for posttest results was 0.1037) and, while within standard deviations, also achieved higher overall scores on all posttest questions and higher normalized gains on all but one posttest question. Further, most students, even thoes in the mathematically-instructed group, were more inclined to give conceptually-based responses on postest questions than mathematically-based ones. In the context of this topic, the dominating difficulty for both groups was in analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion and, more specifically, the behavior of each onedimensional component of such motion.
Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad
We investigated the effect of age and color in a computerized version of the jigsaw-puzzle task. In Experiment 1, young and older adults were presented with puzzles in color and black-and-white line drawings, varying in difficulty from 4 to 9 pieces. Older adults performed the task better with the black-and-white stimuli and younger adults performed better with the color ones. In Experiment 2, new older and young adults identified the same fragmented pictures as fast and accurately as possible. The older group identified the black-and-white stimuli faster than those presented in color, while the younger adults identified both similarly. In Experiment 3A, new older and young groups performed the puzzle task with the same color pictures and their monochrome versions. In Experiment 3B, participants performed a speeded identification task with the two sets. The findings of these experiments showed that older adults have a memory not a perceptual difficulty.
Cook, Bruce L.
Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)
This narrative of my research on drawing shares my experience of relearning drawing by hand and how the act of drawing can stimulate curiosity. This article examines its potential to enhance learning/observation in science. It describes a kinaesthetic drawing methodology and addresses pedagogical solutions for overcoming a student's declaration…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the mark...
Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette
This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant drawings. 1.165 Section... Plant drawings. (a) Plant patent drawings should be artistically and competently executed and must... required by the examiner. The drawing must disclose all the distinctive characteristics of the plant...
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The drawings. 1.437 Section 1... Application § 1.437 The drawings. (a) Drawings are required when they are necessary for the understanding of the invention (PCT Art. 7). (b) The physical requirements for drawings are set forth in PCT Rule 11...
Full Text Available It is used a geometrical method for generating Maclaurin trisectrix and based on it , thesynthesis of a mechanism that can draw it, is made. The structure of the found mechanism is R-RTRTtype, having two driving elements with correlated movements. This mechanism is analysedand the desired curve is obtained just for certain dimensions of the mechanism. The mechanism’smovement is studied based on some diagrams and different outputs are obtained for certain initialdimensions of the mechanism’s.
The contents of this book are basic of design drawing, problem of machine design, problem of precision design drawing, problem of planar figure of sheet metal, design drawing for solution of machine design, design drawing for solution of precision design drawing and design drawing for planar figure of sheet metal. It tells of the problems and gives the solutions on precision design drawing and machine design.
Nakajima, T.; Yazawa, T. (Central Reserach Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))
A method is described to automatically recognize facility drawings as an improved version of the existing pattern recognition technologies. Its pattern recognizing and processing unit analyzes and extracts features of symbols, characters and lines from a vector data and run length data. The extracted features are compared with the pattern features stored in a dictionary to determine what the pattern is. This recognition and processing was applied to an addition circuit drawing. It had a recognition factor for characters and symbols at 99% and for lines at 100%, but no capability of recognizing branch points. Therefore, an intelligence base was structured that expresses the logic relations among patterns and symbols as meaning'', and a mechanism was devised to understand the meaning of the contents of a drawing. Symbols recognized by the pattern recognition and processing process are applied to the above intelligence base to check the consistency. If a consistency is verified, the drawing written into the intelligence base can be identified as the subjected addition circuit drawing. If the consistency is not taken, the intelligence is utilized to feedback the information for re-implementation of the pattern recognition and processing process hypothesizing symbols that should be in existence. 9 refs., 7 figs.
Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K
Successfully completing a drawing relies on the ability to accurately impose and manipulate spatial frames of reference for the object that is being drawn and for the drawing space. Typically developing (TD) children use cues such as the page boundary as a frame of reference to guide the orientation of drawn lines. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically produce incohesive drawings; this is proposed to reflect a local processing bias. Across two studies, we provide the first investigation of the effect of using a frame of reference when drawing simple lines and shapes in WS and TD groups (matched for non-verbal ability). Individuals with WS (N=17 Experiment 1; N=18 Experiment 2) and TD children matched by non-verbal ability drew single lines (Experiment One) and whole shapes (Experiment Two) within a neutral, incongruent or congruent frame. The angular deviation of the drawn line/shape, relative to the model line/shape, was measured. Both groups were sensitive to spatial frames of reference when drawing single lines and whole shapes, imposed by a frame around the drawing space. A local processing bias in WS cannot explain poor drawing performance in WS. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rellensmann, Johanna; Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leopold, Claudia
Drawing strategies are widely used as a powerful tool for promoting students' learning and problem solving. In this article, we report the results of an inferential mediation analysis that was applied to investigate the roles that strategic knowledge about drawing and the accuracy of different types of drawings play in mathematical modelling…
Grigsby, Cathy Murray
In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…
... literature, and performance and test data. (c) Drawings and schedules, other than catalogs, pamphlets and... block shall display the following: Number and title of drawing Date of drawing or revision Name of...
Full Text Available The essay deals with drawing as a genuine form of knowledge in architectural design. Drawing is described as an epistemic practice enmeshed with historically changing, material spaces of knowledge.Starting with a brief examination of historic philosophical positions on the epistemicity of drawing, the essay tries to sketch out a tentative heuristic of the epistemic features of drawing from the perspective of symbol and media theory.In the last part, with reference to Nelson Goodman’s distinction between analogue and digital symbol systems, the digitalization of drawing is critically reviewed. The main point is to emphasize that the transformation of drawing into digital drawing formats always consist of a translation.It is crucial to take the challenges stemming from the indeterminacy of translation (W.v.O. Quine into consideration in order to understand both the epistemic restrictions and the potentials of drawing under the conditions of the rising digital habitat.
Outline of drawing tools ansd methods in architecture. Case studies of types and subjects. Research into contemporary practice......Outline of drawing tools ansd methods in architecture. Case studies of types and subjects. Research into contemporary practice...
This paper discusses the use of participant-generated drawings as a user experience research method. In spite of the lack of background literature on how drawings can generate useful insights on HCI issues, drawings have been successfully used in other research fields. After briefly introducing...... research tool....
Drawing while listening to music provides an opportunity for students to imagine and associate, leading to holistic listening experience. The personal qualitative listening experience triggered by music can be revealed in their drawings. In the process of representing of the listening experience through drawing, students can also increase their…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drawings. 355.5 Section 355.5 Animals... Identification § 355.5 Drawings. Triplicate copies of complete drawings with specifications, consisting of floor... relationship of various departments and structures of the plants, properly drawn to scale, shall accompany...
This study is about architectural drawings. I especially address how drawings operate in architecture theory, and stress a particular role that they play in facilitating critique and speculation as theoretical activities. In this sense, I dwell on the capacity of architectural drawing not only as
the capacity of the body to be affected by change. The everyday and the ceremonial body, the ordinary and the aberrant movement – these poles generate a passage rather than a difference from the one to the other: from attitude or position to gesture or kinaesthetic twist. Known from without through perception...... but also from within by sensations, body ‘images’ are different to all other images. Twisting these body images make a mode of operation of art. The paper will address the above issues discussing modes of operation and appearance of my actual project. Acting in the reality of drawing, the project confront...... criticises figurative as well as abstract painting as passing through the brain and not acting directly upon the senses. Figurative and abstract painting both fail to liberate the Figure, implementing transformation of form, but not attaining deformations of bodies. Bacon, then, is concerned about...
The aim of this paper is to show how health care professionals temporarily dissolve and redraw boundaries in their everyday work, in order to coordinate clinical work and facilitate collaboration in patient pathways. Boundaries are social constructions that help us make sense of our complex, social...... world. In health care, formal boundaries are important distinctions that separate health care practitioners into medical specialties, professions and organizational departments. But clinical work also relies on the ability of health care practitioners to collaborate around patients in formal...... arrangements or emergent, temporary teams. Focusing on the cognitive and social boundaries we draw to establish identity and connection (to a profession, team or person) the paper shows how health care professionals can use inter-personal relationships to temporarily dismiss formal boundaries. By redrawing...
The Configuration Management Program combines the TWRS Labeling and O and M drawing and drawing verification programs. The combined program will produce system drawings for systems that are normally operated or have maintenance performed on the system, label individual pieces of equipment for proper identification, even if system drawings are not warranted, and perform verification of drawings that are identified as essential in Tank Farm Essential Drawing Plans. During fiscal year 1994, work was begun to label Tank Farm components and provide user friendly system based drawings for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations and maintenance. During the first half of fiscal 1995, the field verification program continued to convert TWRS drawings into CAD format and verify the accuracy based on visual inspections. During the remainder of fiscal year 1995 these efforts will be combined into a single program providing system based drawings and field verification of TWRS equipment and facilities. This combined program for TWRS will include all active systems for tank farms. Operations will determine the extent of drawing and labeling requirements for single shell tanks, i.e. the electrical distribution, HVAC, leak detection, and the radiation monitoring system. The tasks required to meet these objectives, include the following: identify system boundaries or scope for drawing being verified; label equipment/components in the process systems with a unique Equipment Identification Number (EIN) per the TWRS Data Standard; develop system drawings that are coordinated by ''smart'' drawing numbers and/or drawing references as identified on H-14-020000; develop a Master Equipment List (MEL) multi-user data base application which will contain key information about equipment identified in the field; and field verify and release TWRS Operation and Maintenance (O and M) drawings
The purpose of the drawing field verification work plan is to provide reliable drawings for the 310 Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). The initial scope of this work plan is to provide field verified and updated versions of all the 340 Facility essential drawings. This plan can also be used for field verification of any other drawings that the facility management directs to be so updated. Any drawings revised by this work plan will be issued in an AutoCAD format
Safe, efficient operation of waste tank farm facilities is dependent in part upon the availability of accurate, up-to-date plant drawings. Accurate plant drawings are also required in support of facility upgrades and future engineering remediation projects. This supporting document establishes the procedure for performing a visual field verification of engineering drawings, the degree of visual observation being performed and documenting the results. A copy of the drawing attesting to the degree of visual observation will be paginated into the released Engineering Change Notice (ECN) documenting the field verification for future retrieval and reference. All waste tank farm essential and support drawings within the scope of this program will be converted from manual to computer aided drafting (CAD) drawings. A permanent reference to the field verification status will be placed along the right border of the CAD-converted drawing, referencing the revision level, at which the visual verification was performed and documented
Begendikov, A.Zh.; Esekeev, K.B.; Kakimzhanov, E.P.; Shaporenko, D.A.
One of algorithms for realization of map drawing with help of computer is considered in the paper. Essence of problem consists in recovering of field by selective measuring in few points and graphical image of iso-lines of this field. In the problem an error value has being admitted up 30 % from square limited by iso-line. Initial data of problem have been set of points with arbitrary coordinates in which field value is given. Algorithm is founded on programming of two-dimension function calculation, recovering value of field by means interpolation
Lin, Qiushi; Luo, Jianfei; Wu, Zhongcheng; Shen, Fei; Sun, Zengwu
In this study, we investigated children's fine motor development by analyzing drawing trajectories, kinematics and kinetics. Straight lines drawing task and circles drawing task were performed by using a force sensitive tablet. Forty right-handed and Chinese mother-tongue students aged 6-12, attending classes from grade 1 to 5, were engaged in the experiment. Three spatial parameters, namely cumulative trace length, vector length of straight line and vertical diameter of circle were determined. Drawing duration, mean drawing velocity, and number of peaks in stroke velocity profile (NPV) were derived as kinematic parameters. Besides mean normal force, two kinetic indices were proposed: normalized force angle regulation (NFR) and variation of fine motor control (VFC) for circles drawing task. The maturation and automation of fine motor ability were reflected by increased drawing velocity, reduced drawing duration, NPV and NFR, with decreased VFC in circles drawing task. Grade and task main effects as well as significant correlations between age and parameters suggest that factors such as schooling, age and task should be considered in the assessment of fine motor skills. Compared with kinematic parameters, findings of NFR and VFC revealed that kinetics is another important perspective in the analysis of fine motor movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of drawings and format for drawings. 2.52 Section 2.52 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.52 Types of drawings and...
Ellis, J. M.
Two-part tool reconfigured for variety of jobs. Tool performs several functions useful in layout. Lines, curves, and angles made visible as either bright scribe marks or as dark pencil (or ink) marks. Multipurpose tool speeds up laying out of patterns on sheet metal, wood, plastic, or paper. Tool is carried in pocket, then quickly assembled for service as height gauge, pair of dividers, protractor, surface gauge, or square.
Through a bilingual reading of Beckett's "Mal vu mal dit," the illusion of painted relief for printed letters is created. Colors manifest themselves through the continual process of translation. The French translation adds color to the black and white English text. (DF)
The first overall site characterisation programme for a Finnish repository of spent nuclear fuel was introduced in 1982. This programme already suggested that the site confirmation for a detailed repository design and safety assessment should include characterisation performed in an underground rock characterisation facility (URCF). This idea was confirmed during the detailed site characterisation. International views have also emphasised the importance of underground characterisation before the final decision to construct the repository is taken. The underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) is excavated at Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. ONKALO should be constructed to allow characterisation work for site confirmation without jeopardising long-term safety of the repository site. It should also be possible to link ONKALO later to the repository as to a part of it. The construction of ONKALO was started in 2004 and will be completed in 2014. The characterisation work has started in ONKALO and will focus on the disposal depth. In the main drawings stage, ONKALO was described at the level of detail needed for a construction permit in 2003. This meant description of the location, final structures and final systems. This summary report describes the development of design to updated main drawings in 2007 at the same level of detail (no temporary arrangements are described). The main changes are the added exhaust air shaft and advancing the controlled area's inlet air shaft to the ONKALO phase. Also the layout and the depth of the characterisation levels have been updated according to the current bedrock information. Some buildings on the surface will house sets of equipment directly connected with underground facility and this equipment is described in this report. No buildings or other equipment are described in this report, because they are not directly connected with the underground facility. The main element of ONKALO is a system of
Full Text Available Architects increasingly favour mapping as a means of documentation. Through maps, they question and define the boundaries of their architectural intervention, the premise being that if they can adequately delaminate and map the site's found conditions, they may achieve a more complex understanding of the said site.If maps can successfully represent sets of complex interactions in an effective manner, they also have an objectifying tendency and are often criticized for being tools of domination as well for their propensity to stabilize space-time. Further, architectural mapping is often associated with the possibility to index the 'designer's syntactical code', a possibility coupled with the idea that 'none of the notations take precedence over any other', so as to encourage 'more plural, open-ended "performances" of the project-in-time'.These positions involve if not a pure scientific objectivity, at least the assumption that one may somehow sidestep the projection of the author's intentionality. Bringing these issues to light, the paper explores whether mapping could address temporality with an assumed depth that would re-responsibilize the architect mapmaker while still remaining open to the users' multiple readings in time.Our contention is that rather than relying on rules, syntax and sequences of transformations, architects may approach mapping as a creative act that is open to different temporalities, involving both a willingness to listen and a readiness to act, allowing stories to emerge all the while stepping up as the narrator. Focusing on the phenomenological dimension of drawing and the epistemological bearings of mapping, the paper reveals some of the ways in which architects can question the relation between architecture and time through their graphic representation.
David Sterling Brown
Full Text Available This article examines the pedagogical implications of teaching about the past in a way that establishes continuity in relation to present and future moments. I describe and analyze how my Trinity College students navigated my course, “Crossing the Color-Line,” which aimed to eradicate boundaries and entangle the professional and personal, social and political, past and present, and black and white in an engaged manner. I argue that a radical course such as “Crossing the Color-Line” can showcase, through literature and other media, how fusing difference of all kinds—cultural, religious, literary, historical, gender—promotes rigorous student directed learning experiences that are inclusive. Because Shakespeare was not the sole authorial voice in the room, or the only early modern author in our syllabus, “Crossing the Color-Line” actively resisted the literary, racial, social, and cultural homogeneity that one can often find in an early modern classroom. By not being Shakespeare-centric, the course placed value on the female perspective and refrained from being androcentric in its authorial focus. Moreover, by positioning “the problem of the color-line” as relevant in the early modern period, the combined study of African-American and early modern English texts challenged critical race studies to include pre-nineteenth-century literature.
Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. The project experiments with drawing-series as montages of materials and forces, making the drawing appear in its changing character. The moving components are conditioned by different circumstances...... that question each other, working as well with space-time motives as with expressions and techniques. A series poses questions both to the kind of forces it raises as well as to the kind of sensual affects it produces – to how the body resonates with the rhythms and tensions that appear in the drawing....... A drawing-series is then both a machine, a diagram, and an appearance, what we call a resonance-model, creating links between tectonic and drawing constructions, kinaesthetic competences and actual body-movements....
Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G
The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.
Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson
have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool......-in piezoelectric torque transducer. This technique results in a very sensitive measurement of friction, which furthermore enables recording of lubricant film breakdown as function of drawing distance. The proposed test is validated in an experimental investigation of the influence of lubricant viscosity...
Even before there was talk of a central collection of drawings and fine-art prints – what would eventually become the Royal Collection of Graphic Art in 1835 (Den kgl. Kobberstiksamling, formerly known as The Royal Collection of Prints and Drawings) – Danish drawings were already being collected...... on a grand scale. During the period 1810 to 1832, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts built a large collection of recent Danish drawings, and the director of the Royal Picture Gallery, J.C. Spengler, personally collected sheets by older artists. This article delves into the history of these two...
This paper discusses the use of participant-generated drawings as a user experience research method. In spite of the lack of background literature on how drawings can generate useful insights on HCI issues, drawings have been successfully used in other research fields. After briefly introducing...... such previous work, two case studies are presented, in which drawings helped investigate the relationship between media technology users and two specific devices, namely television and mobile phones. The experiment generated useful data and opened for further consideration of the method as an appropriate HCI...
Full Text Available Nowadays only digital figures are accepted by the most important journals of taxonomy. These may be produced by scanning conventional drawings, made with high precision technical ink-pens, which normally use capillary cartridge and various line widths. Digital drawing techniques that use vector graphics, have already been described in literature to support scientists in drawing figures and plates for scientific illustrations; these techniques use many different software and hardware devices. The present work gives step-by-step instructions on how to make accurate line drawings with a new procedure that uses bitmap graphics with the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP. This method is noteworthy: it is very accurate, producing detailed lines at the highest resolution; the raster lines appear as realistic ink-made drawings; it is faster than the traditional way of making illustrations; everyone can use this simple technique; this method is completely free as it does not use expensive and licensed software and it can be used with different operating systems. The method has been developed drawing figures of terrestrial isopods and some examples are here given.
Misailidi, Plousia; Bonoti, Fotini; Savva, Georgia
This article reports the results of a study which aimed to examine the development of children's ability to depict loneliness in their drawings. Seventy-eight children and 20 adults took part in the study. Participants were first asked a series of questions assessing their conceptions of loneliness, and were then invited to draw a picture that…
McInnis, Jennifer; Sobin, Alexandra; Bertozzi, Nicholas; Planchard, Marie
This paper describes the development and implementation of an online working drawing review video and online assessment tool. Particular attention was paid to dimensioning and ASME ANSI Y14 standards with the goal of improving the quality of the working drawings required in final design project reports. All members of freshmen design teams in the…
Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....
Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han
Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the
Zhang, Shi-Hong; Danckert, Joachim
The hydro-mechanical deep-drawing process is reviewed in this article. The process principles and features are introduced and the developments of the hydro-mechanical deep-drawing process in process performances, in theory and in numerical simulation are described. The applications are summarized...
Rix, Erika; Russell, Sally; Handy, Richard
From the authors of Sketching the Moon comes a comprehensive guide filled with richly illustrated, detailed drawing tutorials that cover a variety of solar phenomena. Time-honored, traditional methods and media are described in tandem with innovative techniques developed and shared by contemporary astronomical sketchers. Explanations of what to expect visually from white light, Hydrogen-alpha and Calcium K filters are provided for those new to solar observing, along with essential tips on equipment, observing techniques and the practicalities of drawing at the eyepiece. For the technically minded, detailed descriptions are given on how to use image manipulation software to bring your sketches to life through animation. The Sun is the most visually dynamic object in our solar system and offers compelling, spectacular views. Knotted magnetic field lines give rise to powerful eruptions and form the intricate sunspots and arching prominences that make our nearest star one of the most exciting, yet challenging,...
Knight, Linda; Zollo, Lyn; McArdle, Felicity; Cumming, Tamara; Bone, Jane; Ridgway, Avis; Peterken, Corinna; Li, Liang
Early childhood research has long established that drawing is a central, and important activity for young children. Less common are investigations into the drawing activity of adults involved in early childhood. A team of adult early childhood researchers, with differing exposures and familiarities with drawing, experimented with intergenerational…
Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Byung Min
The design of an intermediate die shape is very important in multistage profile drawing. In this study, two design methods for the intermediate die shape of a multistage profile drawing for producing a linear motion guide (LM) guide is proposed. One is the electric field analysis method using the equipotential lines generated by electric field analysis, and the other is the virtual die method using a virtual drawing die constructed from the initial material and the final product shape. In order to design the intermediate die shapes of a multistage profile drawing for producing LM guide, the proposed design methods are applied, and then FE analysis and profile drawing experiment are performed. As a result, based on the measurement of dimensional accuracy, it can be known that the intermediate die shape can be designed effectively
that question each other, working as well with space-time motives as with expressions and techniques. A series poses questions both to the kind of forces it raises as well as to the kind of sensual affects it produces – to how the body resonates with the rhythms and tensions that appear in the drawing....... A drawing-series is then both a machine, a diagram, and an appearance, what we call a resonance-model, creating links between tectonic and drawing constructions, kinaesthetic competences and actual body-movements....
Onoue, Yosuke; Kukimoto, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naohisa; Misue, Kazuo; Koyamada, Koji
An evaluation structure is a hierarchical structure of human cognition extracted from interviews based on the evaluation grid method. An evaluation structure can be defined as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The authors propose a layer-assignment method that is part of the Sugiyama framework, a popular method for drawing DAGs, to satisfy the requirements for drawing evaluation structures. Their evaluations demonstrate that the layered graph drawing produced by the proposed layer-assignment method is preferred by users and aids in the understanding of evaluation structures.
Tommerup, Søren; Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Danckert, Joachim
cavities the blank-holder force distribution can be controlled during the punch stroke. By means of a sequence of numerical simulations abrasive wear is imposed to the deep drawing of a rectangular cup. The abrasive wear is modelled by changing the tool surface geometry using an algorithm based...... on the sliding energy density. As the tool surfaces are changed the material draw-in is significantly altered when using conventional open-loop control of the blank-holder force. A feed-back controller is presented which is capable of reducing the draw-in difference to a certain degree. Further a learning...
Transform your CAD drawings into powerful presentationThis one-of-a-kind book shows you how to use Photoshop to turn CAD drawings and BIM models into artistic presentations with captivating animations, videos, and dynamic 3D imagery. The techniques apply to all leading architectural design software including AutoCAD, Revit, and 3ds Max Design. Video tutorials on the DVD improve your learning curve and let you compare your work with the author's.Turn CAD drawings and BIM models into powerful presentations featuring animation, videos, and 3D imagery for enhanced client appealCraft interactive pa
Lemstrom, Guy F.
In this paper a true RGB 3-chip color line scan camera is described. The camera was mainly developed for accurate color measuring in industrial applications. Due to the camera's modularity it's also possible to use it as a B/W-camera. The color separation is made with a RGB-beam splitter. The CCD linear arrays are fixed with a high accuracy to the beam splitters output in order to match the pixels of the three different CCDs on each other. This makes the color analyses simple compared to color line arrays where line or pixel matching has to be done. The beam splitter can be custom made to separate spectral components other than standard RGB. The spectral range is from 200 to 1000 nm for most CCDs and two or three spectral areas can be separately measured with the beam splitter. The camera is totally digital and has a 16-bit parallel computer interface to communicate with a signal processing board. Because of the open architecture of the camera it's possible for the customer to design a board with some special functions handling the preprocessing of the data (for example RGB - HSI conversion). The camera can also be equipped with a high speed CPU-board with enough local memory to do some image processing inside the camera before sending the data forward. The camera has been used in real industrial applications and has proven that its high resolution and high dynamic range can be used to measure color differences of small amounts to separate or grade objects such as minerals, food or other materials that can't be measured with a black and white camera.
The recent charges in Peru's energy sector are reported as the privatisation campaign draws to a close. Sectors covered include the splitting of the petroleum company into its components of production, refining, transport and marketing. (UK)
Nielsen, Anne Maj
perspective. References Bastrup-Madsen, L. (2001). En dreng, der ikke må leve. In Skogemann, P. (Ed.) Symbol, analyse, virkelighed. Copenhagen: Lindhardt & Ringhof. Braswell, G.S. (2006). Socio-cultural Contexts for the Early Development of Semiotic Production. Psychological Bulletin, American Psychological......Abstract This paper presents results from empirical research in children’s drawing activity and discusses implications of a cultural-psychological and a phenomenological approach to the use of children’s drawings as data in research. The aim of the discussion is to qualify the use and analysis...... of drawings as data in empirical research and to reflect upon opportunities for aesthetic learning processes in psycho-social intervention from a socio-cultural participatory perspective. The paper present results from empirical research in gendered characteristics in children’s drawings and discusses...
Yates, Alayne; And Others
Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000530.htm Drawing medicine out of a vial To use the sharing ... a clean area. Wash your hands. Check Your Medicine Carefully check your medicine: Check the label. Make ...
Moutinho, Natacha Antão; Durão, Maria João
By equating the creative use of colour with the disciplinary boundaries of architecture, this paper integrates observations, reflections and insights on a variety of alternative graphic strategies, and also expands the meanings attached to a drawing when the significance of colour is highlighted within the creative process of architectural design. Through the observations of numerous drawings from Portuguese architects we have already detected several functions or uses of colour in the design...
Sokolovskij, V.I.; Parshin, V.S.; Veshkurtsev, V.I.
A new technique for drawing stainless pipes on a mandrel has been developed at the Ural Polytechnical Institute. The method involves metal surfacing with a salt melt and results in stretching equal to 2.0. The use of such metal coats as lubrication sublayers makes possible repeated drawing with and without a mandrel. In both cases, the process does not involve intermediate heat treatment and/or any additional preparation of the surface
Trahan, Lisa H; Cox-Martin, Emily; Johnson, Carrie E; Dougherty, Patrick M; Yu, Jun; Feng, Lei; Cook, Christina; Novy, Diane M
The objectives of the study were to (1) assess the extent to which interrater reliability of pain drawing location and dispersion scoring methods are similar across pain disciplines in a sample of patients with cancer treatment-induced neuropathic pain ( N = 56) and (2) investigate indicators of validity of the pain drawing in this unique sample. Patients undergoing cancer therapy completed the Brief Pain Inventory Body Map, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Intraclass correlation coefficients among medical and psychology professionals ranged from .93-.99. Correlations between pain drawing score and symptom burden severity ranged from .29-.39; correlations between pain drawing score and symptom burden interference ranged from .28-.34. Patients who endorsed pain in the hands and feet more often described their pain as electric, numb, and shooting than patients without pain in the hands and feet. They also endorsed significantly more descriptors of neuropathic pain. Results suggest a similar understanding among members of a multidisciplinary pain team as to the location and dispersion of pain as represented by patients' pain drawings. In addition, pain drawing scores were related to symptom burden severity and interference and descriptors of neuropathic pain in expected ways.
The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. [CHG 2000a]. Support Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings. [CHG 2000a
The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings
Lee, Tai-Hua; Wu, Fong-Gong; Chen, Huei-Tsz
Focusing on the theme of direct manipulation, in this study, we proposed a new and innovative tangible user interface (TUI) design concept for a manipulative digital drawing pen. Based on interviews with focus groups brainstorming and experts and the results of a field survey, we selected the most suitable tangible user interface for children between 4 and 7 years of age. Using the new tangible user interface, children could choose between the brush tools after touching and feeling the various patterns. The thickness of the brush could be adjusted by changing the tilt angle. In a subsequent experimental process we compared the differences in performance and subjective user satisfaction. A total of sixteen children, aged 4-7 years participated in the experiment. Two operating system experiments (the new designed tangible digital drawing pen and traditional visual interface-icon-clicking digital drawing pens) were performed at random and in turns. We assessed their manipulation performance, accuracy, brush stroke richness and subjective evaluations. During the experimental process we found that operating functions using the direct manipulation method, and adding shapes and semantic models to explain the purpose of each function, enabled the children to perform stroke switches relatively smoothly. By using direct manipulation digital pens, the children could improve their stroke-switching performance for digital drawing. Additionally, by using various patterns to represent different brushes or tools, the children were able to make selections using their sense of touch, thereby reducing the time required to move along the drawing pens and select icons (The significant differences (p = 0.000, p drawing thick lines using the crayon function of the two (new and old) drawing pens (new 5.8750 drawing operations enhanced the drawing results, thereby increasing the children's enjoyment of drawing with tangible digital drawing pens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All
Portex, Marine; Foulin, Jean-Noël; Troadec, Bertrand
The present study was aimed at investigating how print experience as a cultural factor influences directional tendencies in children's drawing in the interplay with biomechanical (hand), syntactic (shape orientation) and semantic (shape meaning) factors. Eighty-eight right-handed children from three literacy/age groups (preliterate, first graders and third graders) had to copy a geometrical shape adapted from the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. The shape was presented alternatively leftward and rightward, while using both dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) hands. Directional tendencies were assessed regarding directionality of drawing movements at global, intermediate and local levels and deviation error in centre line bisection. Results show a global improvement of drawing quality and strategies across groups and an advantage for the dominant right hand from 6 years onward. Regarding directional tendencies, a reinforcement of a congruency effect between conditions and writing direction was found from preliterates to third graders. These results are discussed as a cultural embodiment process and have implications for psychological testing.
's talents through organized leisure activities and extensive reasoning. Working-class and poor parents engage in the accomplishment of natural growth, providing the conditions under which children can grow, but leaving leisure activities to children themselves. These parents also use commands rather than reasoning. Middle-class children, both white and black, gain an emerging sense of entitlement from their family life. Race had much less impact than social class. Also, differences in a cultural logic of raising children gave parents and their children differential resources to draw on in their interactions with professionals from dominant classes and other adults outside home. Middle-class children gained individually insignificant but cumulatively important advantages. Working-class and poor children did not display the same sense of entitlement or advantages. Some areas of family life appeared immune from the effects of social class, however.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rights in shop drawings... Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 1927.405(h), insert the following clause: Rights in Shop Drawings (FEB 1985) (a) Shop drawings for construction means drawings, submitted to the Government by the...
The aim of the herby study is to develop a method of direct and practical mapping of perspective on an unfolded prism polyhedral projection surface. The considered perspective representation is a rectilinear central projection onto a surface composed of several flat elements. In the paper two descriptive methods of drawing perspective are presented: direct and indirect. The graphical mapping of the effects of the representation is realized directly on the unfolded flat projection surface. That is due to the projective and graphical connection between points displayed on the polyhedral background and their counterparts received on the unfolded flat surface. For a significant improvement of the construction of line, analytical algorithms are formulated. They draw a perspective image of a segment of line passing through two different points determined by their coordinates in a spatial coordinate system of axis x, y, z. Compared to other perspective construction methods that use information about points, for computer vision and the computer aided design, our algorithms utilize data about lines, which are applied very often in architectural forms. Possibility of drawing lines in the considered perspective enables drawing an edge perspective image of an architectural object. The application of the changeable base elements of perspective as a horizon height and a station point location enable drawing perspective image from different viewing positions. The analytical algorithms for drawing perspective images are formulated in Mathcad software, however, they can be implemented in the majority of computer graphical packages, which can make drawing perspective more efficient and easier. The representation presented in the paper and the way of its direct mapping on the flat unfolded projection surface can find application in presentation of architectural space in advertisement and art.
Researchers in the mind sciences often look to the production and analysis of drawings to reveal the mental processes of their subjects. This essay presents three episodes that trace the emergence of drawing as an instrumental practice in the study of the mind. Between 1880 and 1930, drawings gained currency as a form of scientific evidence - as stable, reproducible signals from a hidden interior. I begin with the use of drawings as data in the child study movement, move to the telepathic transmission of drawings in psychical research and conclude with the development of drawing as an experimental and diagnostic tool for studying neurological impairment. Despite significant shifts in the theoretical and disciplinary organisation of the mind sciences in the early twentieth century, researchers attempted to stabilise the use of subject-generated drawings as evidence by controlling the contexts in which drawings were produced and reproduced, and crafting subjects whose interiority could be effectively circumscribed. While movements such as psychoanalysis and art therapy would embrace the narrative interpretation of patient art, neuropsychology continued to utilise drawings as material traces of cognitive functions.
Researchers in the mind sciences often look to the production and analysis of drawings to reveal the mental processes of their subjects. This essay presents three episodes that trace the emergence of drawing as an instrumental practice in the study of the mind. Between 1880 and 1930, drawings gained currency as a form of scientific evidence – as stable, reproducible signals from a hidden interior. I begin with the use of drawings as data in the child study movement, move to the telepathic transmission of drawings in psychical research and conclude with the development of drawing as an experimental and diagnostic tool for studying neurological impairment. Despite significant shifts in the theoretical and disciplinary organisation of the mind sciences in the early twentieth century, researchers attempted to stabilise the use of subject-generated drawings as evidence by controlling the contexts in which drawings were produced and reproduced, and crafting subjects whose interiority could be effectively circumscribed. While movements such as psychoanalysis and art therapy would embrace the narrative interpretation of patient art, neuropsychology continued to utilise drawings as material traces of cognitive functions. PMID:27292325
José Mayor Iborra; Mariano Flores Gutiérrez
The scientific drawing understood as a universal language is a tool of undoubted documentary value as well as daily use in our field work of any professional who is with the need to register with graphics, a work process in which, need to process the drawing as coach and illustrator information. The drawings scientists have always had the vocation of fidelity and accuracy, in order to collect objective truths. The scientific drawing has been compressed and discriminating, as the reading order...
Binosi, D.; Collins, J.; Kaufhold, C.; Theussl, L.
A new version of the Feynman graph plotting tool JaxoDraw is presented. Version 2.0 is a fundamental re-write of most of the JaxoDraw core and some functionalities, in particular importing graphs, are not backward-compatible with the 1.x branch. The most prominent new features include: drawing of Bézier curves for all particle modes, on-the-fly update of edited objects, multiple undo/redo functionality, the addition of a plugin infrastructure, and a general improved memory performance. A new LaTeX style file is presented that has been written specifically on top of the original axodraw.sty to meet the needs of this new version. New version program summaryProgram title: JaxoDraw Catalogue identifier: ADUA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 103 544 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 745 814 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: Any Java-enabled platform Operating system: Any Java-enabled platform, tested on Linux, Windows XP, Mac OS X Classification: 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADUA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 161 (2004) 76 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Existing methods for drawing Feynman diagrams usually require some hard-coding in one or the other programming or scripting language. It is not very convenient and often time consuming, to generate relatively simple diagrams. Solution method: A program is provided that allows for the interactive drawing of Feynman diagrams with a graphical user interface. The program is easy to learn and use, produces high quality output in several formats and runs on any operating system where a Java Runtime Environment is available. Reasons for new version: A
Chamberlain, Rebecca; Wagemans, Johan
The difficulty adults find in drawing objects or scenes from real life is puzzling, assuming that there are few gross individual differences in the phenomenology of visual scenes and in fine motor control in the neurologically healthy population. A review of research concerning the perceptual, motoric and memorial correlates of drawing ability was conducted in order to understand why most adults err when trying to produce faithful representations of objects and scenes. The findings reveal that accurate perception of the subject and of the drawing is at the heart of drawing proficiency, although not to the extent that drawing skill elicits fundamental changes in visual perception. Instead, the decisive role of representational decisions reveals the importance of appropriate segmentation of the visual scene and of the influence of pictorial schemas. This leads to the conclusion that domain-specific, flexible, top-down control of visual attention plays a critical role in development of skill in visual art and may also be a window into creative thinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jaime de Córdoba
Full Text Available After the famous exhibition “Copier créer” curated by Jean Pierre Cuzin in the “Musée du Louvre” in 1993, the practice of drawing art has acquired a renovated interest. This exhibition revised the theoretical concepts introduced by Bober and others in the second half of the XXth century and increased the value of the contribution of drawing in the study of art history instead of the idea of copying. An important catalog and essay by Haverkamp, Begemann and Login, titled “Creative copies”, appeared in 1988 and contained the best examples of the main collections. The last but not least important consequence was the collaboration between international museums, using their own spaces, with contemporary artists. The hermeneutic drawings and paintings by Markus Lüpertz in the Munich Glyptotheck and the exhibition of Giacometti’s drawings shown in the IVAM in 2000 are two excellent examples of the European relevance in this field. I want to analyze here twenty years of drawing done in different museums and institutions around the world and its close relationship with the process of recovering our historical memory by using visual art.
It describes the study of working and drawing of uranium in γ phase. In a first part, the forgeable characteristics of uranium metal in the three different phases (α, β and γ) are compared by using BASTIEN-PORTEVIN method. The different experiments are testing the behaviour metal in each phase under different stresses and a temperature gradient as slow and shock traction, slow and shock compression, resilience, flexibility. Results show that optimum conditions for uranium drawing is uranium in phase γ. In a second part, it described the drawing method and process. The uranium rods obtained by this technique are of very good quality. In addition, the material wear is very low which permits a low production cost. Finally, the uranium rod physical properties are studied. (M.P.)
Strauss, Karl F.; Goullioud, Renaud; Cox, Brian; Grimes, James M.
The design process often involves the use of Excel files during project development. To facilitate communications of the information in the Excel files, drawings are often generated. During the design process, the Excel files are updated often to reflect new input. The problem is that the drawings often lag the updates, often leading to confusion of the current state of the design. The use of this program allows visualization of complex data in a format that is more easily understandable than pages of numbers. Because the graphical output can be updated automatically, the manual labor of diagram drawing can be eliminated. The more frequent update of system diagrams can reduce confusion and reduce errors and is likely to uncover symmetric problems earlier in the design cycle, thus reducing rework and redesign.
Baker Christensen, Leslie
Despite art-based learning being widely used, existing data are primarily qualitative, and most research has not isolated particular variables such as memory for empirical study. The few experiments that have been conducted demonstrated that drawing improves free recall of unpaired words, and retention improves after lessons integrated with drawing, drama, and narrative exercises. To help fill the gap in the current literature, the present study compared the effectiveness of encoding and the rate of memory decay between a drawing mnemonic and note taking on a paired associates task. Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants were presented with word pairs and asked to complete either a drawing mnemonic (DM) or note taking (NT) to assist memorization. Participants were tested immediately after the word pair presentation and after a 20-minute delay. Results supported the hypothesis that the DM condition would produce superior encoding, as evidenced by greater retention on the immediate test. However, no memory decay was observed in the experiment, and therefore results on the delayed test were inconclusive. In fact, scores for the NT condition improved over time whereas the scores for the DM condition did not, which might imply that note taking results in a different consolidation process than drawing. Findings from this study suggested that arts integration can be an effective method to support memory for learned information. Future studies that examine the effect of rehearsal and the long-term effectiveness of a drawing mnemonic are warranted. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and Ohio Link ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/etd.
Full Text Available Beside speech, that helps children to express their feelings and experiences, establish relations with people, the drawing is one of the most truthful ways of its expression. In this paper the results of pleasant and unpleasant emotions among children through drawing of human figure are presented. The survey is conducted on 634 children, and the results indicate that there is difference in expressing negative emotions between boys and girls, while at expressing pleasant emotions the results are similar.
Córdoba Benedicto, Jaime de
After the famous exhibition “Copier créer” curated by Jean Pierre Cuzin in the “Musée du Louvre” in 1993, the practice of drawing art has acquired a renovated interest. This exhibition revised the theoretical concepts introduced by Bober and others in the second half of the XXth century and increased the value of the contribution of drawing in the study of art history instead of the idea of copying. An important catalog and essay by Haverkamp, Begemann and Login, titled “Creative copies”, app...
Spandorfer, M; Curtiss, D; Snyder, J W
Most health hazards in drawing and painting fall into two primary categories: volatile organic solvents used in many painting mediums and fixatives for dry drawing mediums; and respirable powders and dusts such as powdered pigments and dyes, which may be toxic and/or suspected or known carcinogens. User safeguards, such as appropriate ventilation and protective attire, and protection of the environment through careful emission and waste disposal, can be readily implemented with the education of artists and their employers. This chapter succinctly outlines the risk factors, symptomatology, and remedies to assist medical professionals in providing diagnosis and treatment.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shop drawings, coordination drawings, and schedules. 536.570-9 Section 536.570-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER...
Winner of the 2007 Pfizer Prize from the History of Science Society. Feynman diagrams have revolutionized nearly every aspect of theoretical physics since the middle of the twentieth century. Introduced by the American physicist Richard Feynman (1918-88) soon after World War II as a means of simplifying lengthy calculations in quantum electrodynamics, they soon gained adherents in many branches of the discipline. Yet as new physicists adopted the tiny line drawings, they also adapted the diagrams and introduced their own interpretations. Drawing Theories Apart traces how generations of young theorists learned to frame their research in terms of the diagrams—and how both the diagrams and their users were molded in the process.Drawing on rich archival materials, interviews, and more than five hundred scientific articles from the period, Drawing Theories Apart uses the Feynman diagrams as a means to explore the development of American postwar physics. By focusing on the ways young physicists learned new calcul...
Wire is produced by drawing, which consists of pulling a rod of the material to be processed through a series of funnel-shaped holes, or dies, of decreasing size. Drawing involves plastic deformation and friction within the contact zone between the wire and the die. These occurrences contribute to the generation of heat in the wire, which may affect its final properties. High drawing speeds and the use of several dies in one production line---to improve productivity---may accentuate heating to a point where recrystallization of the wire material sets in and its properties are affected. Also, excessive temperatures may lead to an accelerated deterioration of the lubricants used, to the point that the optimum lubrication mechanism is no longer prevailing, with consequent negative effects on the surface quality of the processed wire. A number of analytical models estimating the temperature increase in drawn wires, due to the dissipation of plastic deformation energy and to the friction between wire and die, were reviewed. While all models agree on the contribution of plastic deformation to heating, some discrepancies exist as to the effect of friction. The original treatment, developed in Germany in 1943, provided slightly higher peak temperature values than other models for the parameters used in the calculations, which are simulative of commercial practice on copper wire. A finite element study conducted in the framework of this research showed that the axial heat flow within the wire, which was assumed to be negligible in the reviewed analytical theories, could, in fact, not be disregarded. It also showed that a purely isothermal process cannot be obtained in practice, whatever adjustment of the process parameters is undertaken. In order to unequivocally correlate the effects of heating on the properties of wire and the temperature it experiences during commercial drawing, electrolytic tough pitch copper wire was drawn under independently controlled, quasi
Crosby, Dewey C., III
RULCHK computer program aids in structuring layers of information pertaining to part or assembly designed with software described in article "Software for Drawing Design Details Concurrently" (MFS-28444). Checks and optionally updates structure of layers for part. Enables designer to construct model and annotate its documentation without burden of manually layering part to conform to standards at design time.
Tenopir, Carol; Cibbarelli, Pamela
The design and implementation of a complete, computerized retrieval system for the engineering and architectural drawings and maps of several large land development firms are discussed. Such collections present unique problems to the cataloger. Each collection is limited in geographic scope to the land owned or developed by the firm; types of maps…
Del Giacco, Maureen
The primary purpose of Del Giacco's Neuro-Art Therapy is to help the client regenerate the sensory system at a decoding/encoding (for our purposes we use the two words interchangeably) levels in the brain while using developmental visual spatial exercises or the Therapeutic Drawing Series (TDS). The specialty of Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy (DAT)…
Herrera, Christine A.; McCabe, Terrance; Strictland, Sharon; White, Alexander
In an undergraduate analysis course taught by one of the authors, three prompts are regularly given: (i) What do we know? (ii) What do we need to show? (iii) Let's draw a picture. We focus on the third prompt and its role in helping students develop their confidence in learning how to construct proofs. Specific examples of visual models and their…
I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV&AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher ...
Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.
Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method
Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan L.
A tribological test for deep drawing has been developed by which the performance of lubricants may be evaluated quantitatively measuring the maximum backstroke force on the punch owing to friction between tool and workpiece surface. The forming force is found not to give useful information...
Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli
We demonstrate a practical scalable approach to the fabrication of tunable metamaterials. Designed for terahertz (THz) wavelengths, the metamaterial is comprised of polyurethane filled with an array of indium wires using the well-established fiber drawing technique. Modification of the dimensions...
"Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN. The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Content of drawing. 1.83... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.83 Content of drawing. (a) The drawing in a nonprovisional application must show every feature of the...
Drake, Jennifer E.; Winner, Ellen
Although one study has reported that 6% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have drawing talent, no study has examined the incidence of drawing talent in typical children. We asked 153 children aged 6-12 years to draw a picture of their hand. We scored the drawings for the use of detail, correct proportion, and overall contour;…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference to drawings. 1.74... Reference to drawings. When there are drawings, there shall be a brief description of the several views of the drawings and the detailed description of the invention shall refer to the different views by...
... Drawings 552.236-77 Section 552.236-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....236-77 Specifications and Drawings As prescribed in 536.570-8, insert the following clause: Specifications and Drawings (SEP 1999) The requirements of the clause entitled “Specifications and Drawings for...
... and drawings. 4.39 Section 4.39 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY....39 Specifications for maps and drawings. All required maps and drawings must conform to the following specifications, except as otherwise prescribed in this chapter: (a) Each original map or drawing must consist of...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in shop drawings... of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7033 Rights in shop drawings. As prescribed in 227.7107-(1)(c), use the following clause: Rights in Shop Drawings (APR 1966) (a) Shop drawings for construction means...
Experience with children's drawings in design inquiry shows that drawing can be a way for the child to express his or her needs and wishes to a specific design and navigation. I suggest to focus on children's drawings as a means of expression about learning. My design experience show that drawings...
Lyon, Jon G.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy
Drawing as therapy for the expressively restricted aphasic adult is discussed with sections on: drawing and acquired brain damage, communication through drawing in aphasia, and training expressively restricted aphasic patients to draw communicatively by use of the Lyon/Sims Program. (DB)
Balle, Søren Hattesen
)phobic Cold War culture and escape from the academic orthodoxies of New Criticism, the latter decreeing the autonomy of poetry and the harmonious integration of form and content in a signifying poetic whole. By experimenting with the interplay between poetry and other artistic genres, their collaborations......Collaborative work between painters and writers was a common activity among the New York School poets in the 1950s. Its popularity was a combined result of circumstance and choice. Artistic collaboration served Frank O’Hara and his New York School colleagues in their attempt to oppose a (homo...... of artistic/poetic text as so much drawing and writing blending with each other to form new monstrous shapes. This double strategy contributes to a re-inscription of poetry and drawing as sheer physical matter and means of artistic production within that world which they purport to represent in the first...
Qassim Raheem Hassan المدرس. قاسم رحيم حسن
Full Text Available We pray For Allah For Aid and Praise be to Allah, and peace be upon Muhammad and The God of the good and virtuous, and companions Almentajabin. After A. Scientists in this science a lot of acronyms and shaft line one important condensed systems in line and spelling rules which was written by Mirza strength Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad Mahdi al-Husseini Saifi Qazwini Alhily. The flag line systems of healing morphological eyebrow. Finished their Isfahan years (1123 AH and explained disciple famous with Mawla Mohsen and Alnhoi Qazwini. He called his explanation (font calendar not only governing the organized aware the systems in all branches of knowledge Fenrah regulated in the account (Account Summary and (systems message astrolabe In fiqh (systems Includes index In praise (Ithnaa Ashraat in Madaih In ethics him Orjosp has Orjosp in jurisprudence has Orjosp in the statement has Orjosp in intonation has Orjosp modulated with Orjosp in equalizer and Altrajih name of justice and charity has Orjosp in census Quran and some rules of Quran has Orjosp in exchange has Orjosp has Orjosp in as he has a cabinet Saifi Qazwini has Alchukaat almonzomma and Nozim Zobdat Alssol with the statement in the science system.
Suzuki, Kaori; Izawa, Seiichiro; Chen, Yujiao; Nakano, Kyohei; Tajima, Keisuke
Active layers for organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) were prepared by hand drawing with paint marker pens containing solutions of the materials. Although the pen-coated organic films were visually non-uniform with quite high surface roughness, OPV devices using these films exhibited similar or slightly better performances than those using spin-coated films. As such, the pen-coating technique represents an easily accessible, inexpensive, and highly material-efficient method for fabricating OPVs.
Full Text Available The paper represents a project of applied research, on how to teach more effectively the subject of technical drawing, using Student - centred education methods. The authors applied a new method of interaction with the students and teaching during a semester and the conclusions were drawn comparing the final results of the classes on which this project was applied with the ones where the classical method of teaching was applied.
Melotte, H. E. M.; Engel, F. L.
The article describes an improved relief drawing set designed for use with visually impaired persons that allows durable, tangible, and visible embossed images to be made with a ball-point pen. (Author/PHR)
A. A. Truhanovich
Full Text Available The physical-chemical characteristics of lubrications for dry wiredrawing are examined. The connection of some parameters with quality of both the drawing process and finished wire is shown.
Sheikh, A.K.; Khany, S.E.
A wear based model is proposed for the dies used in wire drawing process. Using this wear model, it is possible to predict life of the die corresponding to a wear limit criterion. Since various quantities in the model are random in nature the resulting die life will also be random quantity characterized by an appropriate distribution. Using a probabilistic characterization of the parameters of the predictive model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to establish the die life distribution. To asses the sensitivity of life distribution with respect to various contributing variables (parameters), the simulation runs were conducted at different levels of these variables (parameters). It is shown that wire drawing die life is Weibull distributed. To compare the simulated results with actual time to failure, data of dies was obtained from a large wire drawing company and was compared with corresponding scenario generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations were very close to the actual time to failure data. (author)
Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed
The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are student perceptions of engineers and scientists similar and how are they different?" Approximately 1,600 middle school students from urban and suburban schools in the southeastern United States were asked to draw either an engineer or a scientist at work. Drawings included space for the students to explain what their person was doing in the picture. A checklist to code the drawings was developed and used by two raters. This paper discusses similarities and differences in middle school perceptions of scientists and engineers. Results reveal that the students involved in this study frequently perceive scientists as working indoors conducting experiments. A large fraction of the students have no perception of engineering. Others frequently perceive engineers as working outdoors in manual labor. The findings have implications for the development and implementation of engineering outreach efforts.
Salvagno, Gianluca; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe
The potential for cross-contamination of additives among evacuated blood tubes has led to the development of the order of draw. This practice, however, is mainly based on scarce, anecdotal, and mostly outdated literature data. Therefore, the goal of this investigation was to definitely establish whether or not the indication of a specific order of draw is still justified. The study population consisted of 57 outpatients referred to the outpatient oral anticoagulant (OA) clinic of the Academic Hospital of Verona and 58 healthy volunteers enrolled from the laboratory personnel. In OA outpatients, one serum tube was collected immediately after needle insertion, followed by a buffered sodium citrate tube and another serum tube. In the healthy volunteers, one serum tube was collected immediately after needle insertion, followed by a potassium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2-EDTA) tube and another serum tube. After separation, the serum was tested for potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in the first and second serum tubes. No significant difference could be observed between the first and the second serum tubes for any of the parameters. The bias calculated with Bland-Altman plots did not achieve statistical significance when the serum tube was collected after either a K2-EDTA or a sodium citrate tube. According to our data, revision of national and supranational recommendations on blood collection by venipuncture should consider that the order of draw exerts a negligible effect on sample quality, and this aspect should no longer be considered a quality criterion when evaluating the performance of phlebotomists.
This document presents a list of essential and support drawings that have been identified as required to achieve the mission objectives of K Basin and are an integral part of the in-progress K Basins system baselining effort. The drawings listed in the appendix are those drawings required to safely operate K Basins. These drawings will be authenticated through the field verification and design reconstitution programs to ensure that these identified drawings are consistent with design requirements
Rehrig, Gwendolyn; Stromswold, Karin
Human figure drawing tasks such as the Draw-a-Person test have long been used to assess intelligence (F. Goodenough, 1926). The authors investigate the skills tapped by drawing and the risk factors associated with poor drawing. Self-portraits of 345 preschool children were scored by raters trained in using the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability test (DAP:IQ) rubric (C. R. Reynolds & J. A. Hickman, 2004). Analyses of children's fine motor, gross motor, social, cognitive, and language skills revealed that only fine motor skill was an independent predictor of DAP:IQ scores. Being a boy and having a low birth weight were associated with lower DAP:IQ scores. These findings suggest that although the DAP:IQ may not be a valid measure of cognitive ability, it may be a useful screening tool for fine motor disturbances in at-risk children, such as boys who were born at low birth weights. Furthermore, researchers who use human figure drawing tasks to measure intelligence should measure fine motor skill in addition to intelligence.
Caravaggi, Anthony; Bishop, Charles
A poster derived from an undergraduate study of iron in captive ruffed lemur diets. The project was supported by the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Presented at the 11th BIAZA Research Symposium, Blackpool Zoo, 2009.
A functional analysis was conducted to assess the antecedent and reinforcing conditions underlying aggressive behavior in a female lemur in captivity. Results showed that her aggression was primarily the result of human attention. A replacement behavior-training program was introduced, and the lemur's aggression was successfully eliminated. These results demonstrate the utility of using functional assessment and analyses in zoos with captive wild nonhuman animals.
Burbach, Harold J.; Bridgeman, Brent
This investigation examines the relationship between fifth graders' scores on Coopersmith's Self Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by race and sex. (GO)
Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis
Using large-sample, archival data from the state of South Carolina's juvenile justice agency, we examine the question of race differences in predictors of repeat offending for a sample of approximately 100,000 youth who had been referred for criminal offenses. Independent variables relating to background, adverse parenting, mental health,…
Softas-Nall, Basilia; Baldo, Tracy D.; Williams, Scott C.
Investigates perceptions of counselors-in-training (N=133) of Black, Hispanic, and White male and female adolescents facing a teen pregnancy. After viewing video vignettes, participants indicated that boys would be more encouraged to leave school and work than would girls. Girls were seen as having more control over pregnancy decisions compared to…
Do, D Phuong; Frank, Reanne; Zheng, Cheng; Iceland, John
Despite the importance of understanding the fundamental determinants of Hispanic health, few studies have investigated how metropolitan segregation shapes the health of the fastest-growing population in the United States. Using 2006-2013 data from the National Health Interview Survey, we 1) examined the relationship between Hispanic metropolitan segregation and respondent-rated health for US-born and foreign-born Hispanics and 2) assessed whether neighborhood poverty mediated this relationship. Results indicated that segregation has a consistent, detrimental effect on the health of US-born Hispanics, comparable to findings for blacks and black-white segregation. In contrast, segregation was salutary (though not always significant) for foreign-born Hispanics. We also found that neighborhood poverty mediates some, but not all, of the associations between segregation and poor health. Our finding of divergent associations between health and segregation by nativity points to the wide range of experiences within the diverse Hispanic population and suggests that socioeconomic status and structural factors, such as residential segregation, come into play in determining Hispanic health for the US-born in a way that does not occur among the foreign-born. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Strick, M.A.; Stoeckart, P.F.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.
It is a common research finding that conscious thought helps people to avoid racial discrimination. These three experiments, however, illustrate that conscious thought may increase biased face memory, which leads to increased judgment bias (i.e., preferring White to Black individuals). In
Bernstein, Mark; Nichols, George; Blair, Jeff
Infrared (IR) wavelengths penetrate skin and can selectively image volumes of subsurface blood. Twenty-eight blunt force injuries on nine decedents were photographed with color and IR film to compare the ability of each to image the injury. Of the 28 injuries, 10 were clinically interpreted as contusions, 4 as abrasions, 10 as abraded contusions, and 4 as erythematous discolorations, nos. Twenty-four of these injuries were incised to determine the presence and extent of subsurface bleeding. It was found that contusion had been clinically missed in five cases, three because they were hidden by abrasion and two because they appeared only as a mild cutaneous erythema. All five cases were detected by IR and verified by incision. Melanin pigmentation contributed to masking of contusion in one case and postmortem lividity confounded interpretation of contusion in one case. In all 14 injuries featuring abrasion as a component, IR de-emphasized or eliminated the visibility of abrasion. A single false negative was reported in which a visible contusion, verified by incision, was not seen with IR. In comparing injury patterns, color and IR renditions were dissimilar in a number of cases reflecting the difference between the manner in which light and IR photography imaged the depth and volume of blood within an injury. In summary, IR imaging of wounds can discover hidden bruises, verify clinical diagnosis of bruises, and augment interpretation of wound patterns. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.
The universality of western values is examined and the problems regarding acculturation are addressed. In the last two decades authors such as Guido Tireliren and Lieve Joris have tried to understand the Congo from within. Most Flemish literature on the. Congo is not of a high literary quality but from a historical-cultural ...
Barnes, Grace M; Welte, John W; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O
This paper examines risk factors of gambling and problem gambling among racial subgroups in the U.S. population, namely Native Americans and blacks, for whom research data are lacking. Findings are based on a large representative general population survey (n = 3,474) of gambling in the U.S. with an oversample of Native Americans (n = 549). Multiple domains were assessed including sociodemographic factors; ecological factors (census-defined neighborhood disadvantage, geocoded density of casinos within 30 miles of respondents' homes, and perceived gambling convenience); impulsivity; and alcohol abuse. After controlling for all variables in the study, neighborhood disadvantage has a significantly greater effect on overall gambling, frequent gambling, and problem gambling for Native Americans than for the rest of the U.S. In addition, the relationship between frequent gambling and heavier drinking is much stronger for blacks than for the rest of the U.S. There is a lack of research on gambling involvement among minority groups in the U.S. Blacks and Native Americans are at a higher risk for problem gambling as compared with the rest of the population. Furthermore, social factors and alcohol abuse may show a stronger co-occurrence with gambling involvement among minority groups than among whites. This study is a large representative U.S. sample with sizeable numbers of Native Americans and blacks. Thus, prevalence rates and risk factors can be assessed for these important population subgroups. This will allow for targeted intervention programs for Native Americans and blacks with problem gambling and alcohol abuse. (Am J Addict 2017;26:713-721). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Angela de Jong
Full Text Available The diversity of the South African population may lead to opinions that test fairness is not a pure empirical problem, but requires certain subjective value judgements. The aim of this study was to identify applicants' underlying reasons for evaluating a selection technique as being fair/unfair. These fairness perceptions were analysed by means of the organisational justice theory. The total sample consisted of 328 mature university students (M = 30,6 all of whom had work experience. The analyses comprised two sets of comparisons. The first set involved Black (uninformed and White (uninformed groups. The second comparison involved informed versus uninformed black students. Exposure to the subjects Strategic Personnel Management and/or undergraduate Industrial Psycohology, in which the nature and value of various selection techniques are studied, constituted the variable'being informed'. It was hypothesised that the Black (uninformed and the White (uninformed groups would perceive the value of the 11 justice rules for the total fairness perception across the ten selection techniques differently. Substantial support was found for this hypothesis. The same hypothesis was investigated for the Black (informed and the Black (uninformed groups, but no significant differences were found to support the latter hypothesis. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of South African selection practices. Opsomming Die diversiteit van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking mag daartoe lei dat persepsies van die billikheid van verskillende personeelkeuringtegnieke op n verskeidenheid van subjektiewe waarde-oordele gegrond word. Dit is die doel van hierdie ondersoek om die onderliggende redes waarvolgens kandidate keuringtegnieke as billik/onbillik evalueer, te identifiseer. Die kandidate se billikheidpersepsies van tien keuringtegnieke is aan die hand van die organisatoriese billikheidteorie ontleed. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 328 volwasse universiteitstudente (M = 30,6 jaar wat almal oor werkervaring beskik het. Die ontledings het twee stelle vergelykings behels. Die eerste stel het Swart (oningeligte en Wit (oningeligte groepe vergelyken die tweede het oningeligte versus ingeligte swart studente vergelyk. Blootstelling aan die vakke Strategiese Personeelbestuur en/of voorgraadse Bedryfsielkunde, waarin die aard en nut van verskeie keuringtegnieke behandel word, het die veranderlike 'ingeligtheid' gespesifiseer. Die hipotese is gestel dat die Swart (oningeligte en Wit (oningeligte groepe die waarde wat hulle aan die 11 billikheidreels ten opsigte van die billikheid van die keuringtegnieke heg, verskillend sal evalueer. Die resultate het hierdie hipotese gesteun. Dieselfde hipotese is ondersoek vir die Swart (ingeligte en Swart (oningeligte groepe, maar geen beduidende verskille is gevind om die laasgenoemde hipotese te ondersteun nie. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek in terme van keuringpraktyke in Suid-Afrika.
Botta, Renee A.
Finds that black adolescent girls were more satisfied with their bodies and had a larger personal ideal size than white adolescent girls, but engaged in no fewer eating-disordered behaviors and had no less drive to be thin; and these girls idealized television images equally and were as likely to compare themselves and their friends to television…
Gailliard, Flora Montgomery
Tourism, leisure and recreation are considered to be an important form of interaction between cultures and are a basic part of social life (McMillen,1984; Hutchinson and Fidel,1985). The experiences received by participating in various tourism activities may be different due to racial influences. Although in general terms, travelers may have similarities, the ethnic heritage, social and cultural differences between different racial groups produce distinct patterns of leisure travel and recre...
Glass, Jennifer; Jacobs, Jerry
The resurgence of conservative religious groups over the past several decades raises interesting questions about its effects on women's life chances. Conservative religious institutions promote a traditional understanding of gender within families. Women's beliefs about appropriate family roles, in turn, influence their preparation for market work…
Kraft, J M; Coverdill, J E
Previous studies of the use of birth control by sexually active single women tend to emphasize family background and aspirations, and restrict their attention to teenagers. We elaborate this framework by considering how labor market experiences might shape the birth control practices of women in their late teens and twenties. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Experiences--Youth Cohort provide evidence that employment histories and wages influence birth control practices, net of the effects of family background, aspirations, and educational attainment. Several pronounced racial and ethnic differences are found.
Fleming, Saroj; Schluterman, Nicholas H; Tracy, J Katthleen; Temkin, Sarah M
Despite an overall decrease in incidence, the death rate from cervical cancer in the United States remains higher in black women than their white counterparts. We examined the Maryland Cancer Registry (MCR) to determine treatment factors that may explain differences in outcomes between races in the state of Maryland. Incident cervical cancers in the MCR 1992-2008 were examined. Demographics, tumor characteristics and treatments were compared between races and over time. Our analysis included 2034 (1301 white, 733 black) patients. Black women were more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis (p<0.01). They were more likely to receive any radiation or chemotherapy combined with radiation and less likely to receive surgery (p<0.01). When adjusted for stage and insurance status black women had 1.50 (95% CI 1.20-1.87) times the odds of receiving radiation and 1.43 (95% CI 1.11-1.82) times the odds of receiving chemotherapy. Black women with cervical cancer had 0.51 times the adjusted odds (95% CI 0.41-0.65) of receiving surgery compared to white women. Racial differences in treatment did not change significantly over time. Surgical treatment for newly diagnosed cervical cancer in the state of Maryland was significantly less common amongst black women than white during our study period. Equivalent treatments are not being administered to white and black patients with cervical cancer in Maryland. Differences in care may contribute to racial disparities in outcomes for women with cervical cancer.
Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.
A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, HIV/ AIDS perceived severity, HIV/AIDS prevention barriers and HIV risk behaviour. Further, bivariate analysis gave negative significant relations among age at onset of puberty, age at first vaginal intercourse, correct condom use knowledge, subjective norms, intention to use condoms and HIV risk behaviour. Regression analysis indicated that for subjective norm to use condoms, less intention for condom use, less condom use knowledge and younger age of first vaginal intercourse were predictive for HIV/AIDS risk behaviour. HIV prevention intervention programmes should include the identified factors and cultural diversity.
The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, ...
Glaser, Jack; Martin, Karin D; Kahn, Kimberly B
When anticipating the imposition of the death penalty, jurors may be less inclined to convict defendants. On the other hand, minority defendants have been shown to be treated more punitively, particularly in capital cases. Given that the influence of anticipated sentence severity on verdicts may vary as a function of defendant race, the goal of this study was to test the independent and interactive effects of these factors. We conducted a survey-embedded experiment with a nationally representative sample to examine the effect on verdicts of sentence severity as a function of defendant race, presenting respondents with a triple murder trial summary that manipulated the maximum penalty (death vs. life without parole) and the race of the defendant. Respondents who were told life-without-parole was the maximum sentence were not significantly more likely to convict Black (67.7%) than White (66.7%) defendants. However, when death was the maximum sentence, respondents presented with Black defendants were significantly more likely to convict (80.0%) than were those with White defendants (55.1%). The results indicate that the death penalty may be a cause of racial disparities in criminal justice, and implicate threats to civil rights and to effective criminal justice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Isler, Karin; Gruter, Cyril C
This paper presents spatiotemporal gait parameters of arboreal locomotion in the colobine Rhinopithecus bieti in its natural habitat. While adult females used exclusively either extended-elbow vertical climbing or pulse climbing, the much larger adult males preferred the less demanding flexed-elbow vertical climbing on thin trees or on trunks with handholds. If sex-specific differences are taken into consideration, the differences between flexed-elbow and extended-elbow vertical climbing in Rhinopithecus parallel those observed in Ateles. During flexed-elbow vertical climbing, the gait parameters of R. bieti are very similar to those of spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Maximum limb joint excursions also lie in the range of hominoids and atelines and are clearly larger than in Macaca fuscata. It seems likely that climbing kinematics may differ more between Rhinopithecus and macaques than between Rhinopithecus and hominoids or atelines. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.
Park, Elyse R; Kleimann, Susan; Youatt, Emily J; Lockhart, Abigail; Campbell, Eric G; Levy, Douglas E; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Schmieder, Erin; Krishna, Rasika; Shields, Alexandra E
Emerging research may soon lead to improved quit rates via genetically-tailored smoking cessation treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore individuals' beliefs and attitudes about genetic testing in this context, and how these may differ across racial groups. Two site qualitative study. Eleven focus groups were conducted in 2007 with 51 Black and 55 White adult participants in Montgomery, AL and Baltimore, MD. Questions were asked about smoking as an addiction, the role of genetics in nicotine addiction susceptibility, and undergoing genetic testing to receive tailored smoking cessation treatment. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Most participants believed that smoking was an addiction yet were unwilling to endorse the notion that genetics played a role in nicotine addiction susceptibility. However, 91% of White participants and 62% of Black participants indicated that they would likely take a genetic test that would match them to their optimal smoking cessation treatment. The primary potential benefit was a vague sense that additional knowledge about oneself would be of value. Primary barriers included disinterest and skepticism about the test, unwillingness to believe that genetics played a role in nicotine addiction or treatment response, and concerns about psychological consequences. The majority of participants, particularly Black participants, did not believe that genetics played a significant role in nicotine addiction susceptibility but were willing to undergo genetic testing. Participants identified some benefit to tailoring smoking treatment by genotype. However, participants also expressed skepticism about the test and concerns about its consequences; these issues would need to be addressed in the clinical encounter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility "black tar" heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced HIV prevalence. BTH is associated with soft tissue infections caused by Clostridium bacteria. Source and type of heroin are structural factors in the risk environment of heroin users: source dictates distribution and type predicts practice. How specific types of heroin are used and with what risk is therefore distributed geographically. Continued flux in the heroin market and its effects on the risk environment for drug users deserves further attention.
Assessed attitudes of U.S. social workers regarding transracial adoption (TRA), specifically black children being adopted by white parents. Found that white social workers were more in favor of TRA than black social workers. African American respondents who were members of the National Association of Black Social Workers had less favorable…
Krieg, Eric J.; Faber, Daniel R.
A growing number of scientific studies in recent years have investigated disparate exposure to ecological hazards in American society. Working from an environmental justice perspective, this body of research consistently reveals that poor communities of color are most likely to bear a disproportionate burden of negative externalities. These studies utilize a wide range of research methodologies, including various indicators of ecological hazards (e.g., proximity to waste sites, industrial emissions, ambient air quality), but few, if any, utilize composite measures to approximate cumulative environmental impact. Consequently, the environmental justice (EJ) literature is characterized by a failure to effectively measure overall impact from an extensive range of ecological hazards. Limitations on available data make this a serious problem for present and future studies. We argue that cumulative measures of environmental impact can play an important role in furthering our understanding of environmental injustices in the United States. In this study of Massachusetts, we develop and implement such a cumulative measure of negative environmental impacts. By controlling for the density and severity of ecological hazardous sites and facilities within every community in the state, we demonstrate that exposure patterns take a generally linear distribution when analyzed by race and class. So, while our results reaffirm previous findings that low-income communities and communities of color bear significantly greater ecological burdens than predominantly White and more affluent communities, our findings also suggest that environmental injustices exist on a remarkably consistent continuum for nearly all communities. In other words, as the minority population and lower-income composition of a community increases, correspondingly, so does cumulative exposure to environmental hazards. In this respect, communities which are more racially mixed and of moderate income status that are not typically identified as meeting EJ criteria (in demographic terms) also face more significant ecological hazards. Thus, the strict bifurcation of communities into categories of Environmental Justice and Non-Environmental Justice is problematic, and poses a serious dilemma for policy makers, public health officials, and community activists. To overcome this challenge requires the adoption of a cumulative environmental justice impact assessment (CEJIA), which in addition to the demographic characteristics of a community, also takes into account the total environmental burden and related health impacts upon residents. Furthermore, through the adoption of the precautionary principle, source reduction, and alternative forms of ''cleaner'' production, environmental justice advocates must work for policies which reduce the environmental threat for the full range of communities, as well as their own
Green, Tiffany L; Hamilton, Tod G.
A growing empirical literature in economics and sociology documents the existence of differences in social and economic outcomes between mixed-race blacks and other blacks . However, few researchers have considered whether the advantages associated with mixed-race status may have also translated into differences in mortality outcomes between subgroups of blacks and how both groups compared to whites. We employ previously untapped 1880 North Carolina Mortality census records in conjunction with data from the 1880 North Carolina Population Census to examine whether mulatto, or mixed-race blacks may have experienced mortality advantages over to their colored, or non-mixed race counterparts. For men between the ages of 20-44, estimates demonstrate that all black males are more likely than whites to die. Although our results indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in mortality between mulatto and colored blacks, there are some indications that mulatto males may have enjoyed a slight mortality advantage compared to their colored counterparts. However, we find a substantial mortality advantage associated with mixed-race status among women. These findings indicate that mixed-race women, rather than men, may have accrued any mortality advantages associated with color and white ancestry. PMID:25722496
Glover, J A
Eighty-seven black, educational psychology students from three intact, randomly selected classes at Tennessee State University were compared to ninety-four white, educational phychology students from three intact, randomly selected classes at the University of Tennessee on Torrance's Unusual Uses and Ask and Guess activities. No differences were found on the frequency of flexibility measures of either activity. No attempt was made to examine the results on this "Level II" mental ability measure on any variable except race. There were no differences based on race.
Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others
Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…
Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.
Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…
Rushton, J. Philippe; Osborne, R. Travis
Data from 236 pairs of black twins and white twins aged 13-17 years were used to examine genetic and environmental factors influencing cranial size, an indirect estimate of brain volume. Genetic factors are required to account for the phenotypic variance in cranial capacity. (SLD)
.... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...
.... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...
Dufour, R. I.; Martins, D. H.
A color photograph of the peculiar elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) has been reconstructed from three Kodak 103a emulsion type photographs by projecting positives of the three B&W plates through appropriate filters onto a conventional color film. The resulting photograph shows color balance and latitude characteristics superior to color photographs of similar astronomical objects made with commercially available conventional color film. Similar results have been obtained for color reconstructed photographs of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. These and other results suggest that these projection-reconstruction techniques can be used to obtain high-quality color photographs of astronomical objects which overcome many of the problems associated with the use of conventional color film for the long exposures required in astronomy.
Ryan, Carey S.
Examined accuracy of black and of white students' in-group and out-group stereotypes by comparing judgments of stereotypicality and dispersion of black and of white first-year college students (N=100) with stereotypicality and dispersion of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Consistent with social identity theory,…
Renata C. Vieira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of traps is extremely important in several types of ecological studies, and may assist in the capture of individuals in areas that are difficult to access. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of wooden (Schramm versus "Tomahawk" traps to capture Salvator merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839 lizards. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Field data were collected from August 2013 to March 2015, during the reproductive period of the species. The study involved two types of baited traps: i "Tomahawk", made of galvanized steel; and ii Schramm, a wooden trap. The capture rate of the Schramm wooden traps was 1.63 individuals/day, and of the "Tomahawk" was 0.36 individuals/day. These results are important for researchers working with large lizards and may help to increase sampling efficiency for these organisms.