Sample records for black-and-white drawn pictures

  1. Seres vivos y artefactos: ¿efectos categoriales producto de la ausencia de color en tareas de denominación de dibujos? (Living things and artifacts: categorial effects in black-and-white picture naming tasks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Macarena Martínez-Cuitiño


    Full Text Available Patients with acquired brain injury may have difficulties in processing a unique semantic category. In patients with the most common semantic deficits, living things is the most commonly compromised domain. Nevertheless, the results of assessing healthy participants are contradictory. Most studies with healthy participants reported better performance with the category of living things, whereas other studies have reported better performance with artifacts, depending on the type of material used. Although researchers generally use black-and-white pictures to assess semantic categories, this kind of material omits an essential perceptual attribute in processing living things: colour. This study assessed a group of young healthy participants to determine differences in naming living things and artifacts in a naming task using black-and-white pictures. The stimuli used were matched according to the major lexical-semantic variables: name agreement, visual complexity, lexical frequency, conceptual familiarity, age of acquisition, number of syllables, and number of phonemes. The results show that healthy participants are more accurate and faster at naming when categorizing artifacts and that artifacts have an advantage over the category living things in which colour is a key attribute (animals and fruits/vegetables. This advantage is lost in relation to the category body parts in which colour is not an essential attribute for their recognition.

  2. Social Gender in the Pictures Drawn by Students about Physical Education Class (United States)

    Temel, Cenk; Güllü, Mehmet


    The current study aimed to analyze the social gender perception in physical education classes in Turkey through the pictures drawn by students about the physical education class. The document analysis technique, which is a qualitative research method, was used in the study. In the light of this aim, the pictures drawn by a total of 394 students…

  3. Personal Learning Environments in Black and White


    Kalz, Marco


    Kalz, M. (2010, 22 January). Personal Learning Environments in Black and White. Presentation provided during the workshop "Informal Learning and the use of social software in veterinary medicine" of the Noviceproject (, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  4. Black and White Differentials in Mortality. (United States)

    Rene, Antonio A.; Clifford, Patrick R.


    Overviews vital statistics data, emphasizing differences in health status between the Black and White populations with respect to specific diseases and mortality. Discusses major causes of death among US Blacks. (GC)

  5. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I


    to exist in the frequency of which several skin diseases occur among blacks and whites. A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors....

  6. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I


    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear ...

  7. Color to black-and-white converter (United States)

    Perry, W. E.


    Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic plate, when sandwiched between pair of conventional light polarizers, forms electrically controlled coverter for television camera. Assembly can be used with camera at remote site to enable camera to transmit color or black and white signal on command.

  8. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers. (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J


    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  9. War and Peace in the Pictures Drawn by the Students of a Fine Arts High School (United States)

    Aktas, Özgür


    This study aims to identify high school students' perception of war and peace. Therefore, the students were asked to draw pictures depicting war and peace. The study was conducted at a Fine Arts High School. This study is a qualitative research. According to the assessments made on the results of the study, the students drew pictures containing…

  10. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Cook, Bruce L.


    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  11. Recognition memory for colored and black-and-white scenes in normal and color deficient observers (dichromats). (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Cornet, Alyssa; Rakic, Jean-Marie


    Color deficient (dichromat) and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A'), response bias (B"D), response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses) among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.

  12. The Relationship of Prejudicial Attitudes on Levels of Responding Skills to Black and White Clients. (United States)

    Williams, Charles; And Others


    Investigated whether prejudicial attitudes of Black and White counselors affected their verbal communication and written discrimination responses to Black and White clients. Results indicated that prejudicial attitudes of Black and White counselors had no significant relationship to their levels of responding skills to Black and White clients.…

  13. Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers. (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M


    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).

  14. Romanticism and Eroticism among Black and White College Students. (United States)

    Houston, Lawrence N.


    A questionnaire was administered to 1,142 Black and White university students of both sexes in an effort to determine the relationship between eroticism, romanticism and sexual identity. Results indicated that males were more erotic, females more romantic, and that the discrepancy was greater for Blacks than for Whites. (Author/CM)

  15. Transcript expression in endometrial cancers from Black and White patients. (United States)

    Maxwell, G Larry; Allard, Jay; Gadisetti, Chandramouli V R; Litzi, Tracy; Casablanca, Yovanni; Chandran, Uma; Darcy, Kathleen M; Levine, Douglas A; Berchuck, Andrew; Hamilton, Chad A; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I


    Previous studies suggest that differences in molecular features of endometrial cancers between racial groups may contribute to the poorer survival in Blacks. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether gene expression among endometrial cancers is different between Blacks and Whites. Fresh frozen tumors from 25 Black patients were matched by stage, grade, and histology to endometrial cancer specimens from 25 White patients. Each case was macrodissected to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 75% cancer cellularity. A subset of 10 matched pairs was also prepared using laser microdissection (LMD) to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 95% cancer cells. Total RNA isolated from each sample was analyzed using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and binary class comparison analyses. Unsupervised analysis of the 50 endometrial cancers failed to identify global gene expression profiles unique to Black or White patients. In a subset analysis of 10 matched pairs from Blacks and Whites prepared using LMD and macrodissection, unsupervised analysis did not reveal a unique gene expression profile associated with race in either set, but associations were identified that relate to sample preparation technique, histology and stage. Our microarray data revealed no global gene expression differences and identified few individual gene differences between endometrial cancers from Blacks and Whites. More comprehensive methods of transcriptome analysis could uncover RNAs that may underpin the disparity of outcome or prevalence of endometrial cancers in Blacks and Whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conflict Management Styles in Black and White Subjective Culture. (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    To determine communication conflict style differences in black and white subjective cultures, 123 black and 180 white university students were administered the Organizational Communication Conflict Instrument (OCCI), a scale measuring the three conflict management styles: control (confrontation); nonconfrontation; and solution-orientation. Results…

  17. Population status of black and white colobus monkeys ( Colobus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern black and white colobus monkeys, or guerezas (Colobus guereza), are among the few primate species that have traditionally been regarded as not being adversely affected by habitat degradation. This view was recently challenged by von Hippel et al. (2000) who, using data from short-term censuses in 1992 and ...

  18. Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans | Peltzer | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans. K. Peltzer. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 115-118). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Definition of Life Stress among Black and White Urban Aged. (United States)

    Young, Rosalie F.; And Others

    The effects of stress on the psychosocial well-being of older persons have been well documented. Research on stress among the aged has generally considered recent life events as salient stressors in late life and has focussed on older persons without regard to racial differences. Interviews were conducted with 400 elderly black and white residents…

  20. Correlates of Ideal Body Size among Black and White Adolescents (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole; Kaur, Harsohena; Pulvers, Kim; Choi, Won; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Li, Chaoyang; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.


    Cultural differences have been found in body image perceptions among Black and White adolescents, however little is known about the factors associated with perceptions of an ideal body size (IBS). This study examined differences in correlates of IBS among 265 Black (116 girls and 62 boys) and White (63 girls and 24 boys) adolescents. IBS for White…

  1. Correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH


    Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to

  2. Linking Communalism to Achievement Correlates for Black and White Undergraduates (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth; Love, Keisha; Brown, Carrie; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Thomas, Deneia; Garriott, Patton O.


    This study examined relationships between home-based communal activities and beliefs and student reports of various achievement correlates with 290 black and white undergraduates. MANOVA procedures examined differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, identified motivation, motivation to know, and amotivation and scores on Home Communalism Measure…

  3. Chemical Demonstrations with Consumer Chemicals: The Black and White Reaction (United States)

    Wright, Stephen W.


    A color-change reaction is described in which two colorless solutions are combined to afford a black mixture. Two more colorless solutions are combined to afford a white mixture. The black and white mixtures are then combined to afford a clear, colorless solution. The reaction uses chemicals that are readily available on the retail market: vitamin C, tincture of iodine, vinegar, ammonia, bleach, Epsom salt, and laundry starch.

  4. Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks? (United States)

    Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L


    We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Brumation of introduced Black and White Tegus, Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae), in southern Florida (United States)

    McEachern, Michelle; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Klug, Page E.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.; Reed, Robert N.


    An established population of Tupinambis merianae (Black and White Tegu) in southeastern Florida threatens the Everglades ecosystem. Understanding the behavioral ecology of Black and White Tegus could aid in management and control plans. Black and White Tegus are seasonally active and brumate during the winter in their native range, but brumation behavior is largely unstudied in either the native or the invasive range. We describe the first observations of Black and White Tegu brumation in southeastern Florida after monitoring 5 free-ranging, adult male Black and White Tegus through an inactive season using radiotelemetry and automated cameras. Duration of brumation averaged 137 days, beginning in September and ending by February. One of the 5 Black and White Tegus emerged to bask regularly during brumation, which to our knowledge represents the first documented instance of a free-ranging Black and White Tegu basking during brumation. These preliminary findings provide a basis for future research of brumation behavior.

  6. Obesity trends and perinatal outcomes in black and white teenagers. (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R; Marshall, Nicole E; Kunovich, Robert M; Caughey, Aaron B


    Our objective was to explore the trends in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) for black and white teenagers over time and the association between elevated BMI and outcomes based on race. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton infants (n = 38,158) born to black (34%) and white (66%) teenagers (teenagers with elevated prepregnancy BMI increased significantly from 17-26%. White and black overweight and obese teenagers were more likely to have pregnancy-related hypertension than normal-weight teenagers; postpartum hemorrhage was increased only in obese black teenagers, and infant complications were increased only in overweight and obese white teenagers. Because the percentage of elevated prepregnancy BMI has increased in white teenagers, specific risks for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in the overweight and obese teenagers varies by race. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters (United States)

    Few, April L.


    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  8. Drawing Test Performance of Black and White Preschoolers as a Function of Biracial Testing. (United States)

    Ratusnik, David L.; Koenigsknecht, Roy A

    Six speech and language clinicians, 3 black and 3 white, administered the Goodenough Drawing Test (1926) to 144 preschoolers. The 4 groups, lower-socioeconomic black and white and middle-socioeconomic black and white, were equally divided by sex. The biracial clinical setting was shown to influence test scores in black preschool age children.…

  9. Measuring eating concerns in Black and White adolescent girls. (United States)

    Franko, Debra L; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Barton, Bruce A; Schumann, Barbara C; Garner, David M; Daniels, Stephen R; Schreiber, George B; Crawford, Patricia B


    Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower reading levels. However, little is known about the validity of this instrument. The current study reports on the factor structure of an early version of the EDI-C using nonclinical samples of 1,073 White and 1,155 Black girls (ages 11-12). Factor analysis resulted in an eight-factor solution for each group that included a weight concerns factor and an emotional distress factor. For Black girls only, the positively worded items from the Body Dissatisfaction subscale loaded on a separate factor. Four of five factors were similar to the original EDI subscales (Bulimia, Interpersonal Distrust, Maturity Fears, and Perfectionism), although the latter was unique to White girls. The factor structure was generally similar for Black and White girls, although the separate body satisfaction factor and lack of shared variance for the perfectionism factor for Black girls suggest that EDI data obtained from ethnic minority samples may need to be interpreted cautiously. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 179-189, 2004.

  10. US trends in disability and institutionalization among older Blacks and Whites. (United States)

    Clark, D O


    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated and compared the prevalence of disability and institutionalization in 1982, 1984, and 1989 among the older Black and White populations of the United States. METHODS: Data on over 1100 Blacks and 14,000 Whites in each of a series of three National Long Term Care Surveys were used. RESULTS: Diverging trends for Blacks and Whites led to statistically significant increases in the age- and sex-adjusted odds of disability (19%) and institutionalization (31%) for Blacks relative to Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Black and White disparities in disability appear to have widened, while disparities in institutionalization appear to have narrowed during the decade of the 1980s. PMID:9096549

  11. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates Between Black and White Male Juveniles


    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche’; Pardini, Dustin A.


    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of ea...

  12. Racial variation in sex steroid hormone concentration in black and white men: a meta-analysis


    Richard, A.; Rohrmann, S.; Zhang, L.; Eichholzer, M.; Basaria, S.; Selvin, E.; Dobs, A. S.; Kanarek, N.; Menke, A.; Nelson, W. G.; Platz, E. A.


    Sex steroid hormones are associated with chronic diseases and mortality with risk associations that differ between racial and ethnic groups. However, it is currently unclear whether sex steroid hormone levels differ between black and white men. The aim of this study was to assess racial variation in circulating testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol levels in men. We searched PubMed for articles comparing circulating hormones in black and white men....

  13. Personality and well-being in Black and White South African emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alewyn Nel


    Full Text Available Background In the last ten years, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI has been developed as an indigenous measurement of personality for the multi-cultural environment of South Africa. The aim of the SAPI is to assess personality in an unbiased and equivalent way. For the purpose of this study, we used an 82-item version of the SAPI which measures nine factors (Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony and Soft-heartedness. Participants and procedure A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the SAPI, the General Health Questionnaire and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. A purposive sample was drawn from Black and White emerging adults (N = 990. We assessed the relationship between personality aspects and well-being across groups in a multiple group structural equation model (SEM using the SPSS and AMOS programs. Results Black emerging adults showed evidence of more individualistic-inclined personality features, while the White emerging adults seem to demonstrate more collectivistic features. In terms of health, the White emerging adults experience more life satisfaction than their Black counterparts. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, facilitating and openness predict well-being among emerging adults. Conclusions This study contributes to expanding the nomological network of the SAPI, and it enhances knowledge pertaining to the link between personality and well-being of emerging adults in South Africa. Understanding which factors contribute to poor mental health and lack of life satisfaction may lead to innovation programmes for emerging adults to assist them in dealing with negative health outcomes possibly associated with living in multicultural contexts.

  14. Associations between Race and Eating Disorder Symptom Trajectories in Black and White Girls. (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Wildes, Jennifer E; Cheng, Yu; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D


    Epidemiological research suggests racial differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. However, no studies have examined associations between race and eating disorder symptom trajectories across youth and adolescence, which is necessary to inform culturally sensitive prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the trajectories of eating disorder symptoms from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether race was associated with trajectory group membership. Data were drawn from 2,305 Black and White girls who participated in a community-based longitudinal cohort study (Pittsburgh Girls Study) examining the development of psychopathology. The child and adult versions of the Eating Attitudes Test assessed self-reported eating disorder symptoms at six time points between ages 9 and 21 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories of dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. Given potential confounds with race and disordered eating, financial strain (i.e., receiving public assistance) and weight were included as covariates. Four to six distinct developmental patterns were found across eating disorder symptoms, including none, increasing, decreasing, or increasing-decreasing trajectories. Black girls had a greater likelihood of being in the decreasing trajectories for dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. White girls were more likely to follow increasing trajectories of dieting and total eating disorder symptom scores compared to Black girls. These results highlight the importance of examining the influence of racial background on eating disorder symptoms and the potential need for differences in the timing and focus of prevention interventions in these groups.

  15. A Paired Study of Self-Disclosure of Black and White Inmates (United States)

    Braithwaite, Ronald


    This was an exploratory study to seek out who certain inmates relate to and reveal themselves to. It investigated the similarities and the differences of self-disclosure between a select group of Black and white inmates incarcerated at Marion Federal Penitentiary, Marion, Illinois. (Author)

  16. Comparison of the Psychological Recovery of Black and White Victims of Rape. (United States)

    Morelli, Patricia H.

    Knowledge of individual differences of victim responses to and recovery from rape is necessary in order to provide for each victim's individual needs. Black women may be exposed to more violence in their culture and may be treated differently than white women. These differences may lead to different recovery patterns between black and white rape…

  17. Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake's Association With Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Factors Among Homeless Blacks and Whites. (United States)

    Rogers, Charles R; Robinson, Cendrine D; Arroyo, Cassandra; Obidike, Ogechi Jessica; Sewali, Barrett; Okuyemi, Kolawole S


    The homeless represent an extremely disadvantaged population that fare worse than minority groups in access to preventive services and health, and minority groups fare worse than Whites. Early detection screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) saves lives, but empirical data about CRC screening practices among homeless Blacks and Whites are limited. Psychosocial risk factors may serve as a barrier to CRC screening completion among homeless Black individuals. A secondary data analysis of a randomized clinical trial for smoking cessation among homeless smokers was conducted to determine whether psychosocial factors and sociodemographic factors were more highly associated with CRC screening uptake among homeless Blacks than among their White counterparts. Study participants ( N = 124) were surveyed on their CRC screening status, sociodemographic variables, and psychosocial correlate measures including anxiety, depression, hopelessness, depression severity, and perceived stress. Associations between these factors were examined with logistic regression. White participants who were currently disabled/unable to work were 6.2 times more likely to ever receive CRC screening than those who were employed. Black participants with public health insurance coverage were 90% less likely to ever obtain CRC screening than participants without health insurance. Black and White participants had similar levels of anxiety symptoms, depression, and hopelessness, yet depression was the only psychosocial variable negatively associated with CRC screening status. Black and White participants with symptoms of depression were 58% less likely to complete screening than those without depression. Mental health risk and sociodemographic factors may serve as barriers to CRC screening among homeless Blacks and Whites.

  18. Beyond Black and White: The Model Minority Myth and the Invisibility of Asian American Students (United States)

    Wing, Jean Yonemura


    This study of diverse Asian American students at a racially integrated public high school illustrates that the achievement gap is a multi-racial problem that cannot be well understood solely in terms of the trajectories of Black and white students. Asian American students demonstrated a high academic profile on average, but faced difficulties and…

  19. Perception of School Climate: A Comparison of Black and White Teachers within the Same Schools (United States)

    Wittmer, Joe; Ferinden, Fred


    This study compares perceptions of the interpersonal school climate as viewed by black and white teachers. Differences do exist between the two groups regarding the teacher versus different type student andon the teacher versus self. No differences exist in perception of the principal or as to how students should learn. (Author/KJ)

  20. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary


    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  1. Differences in Measures of Personality and Family Environment among Black and White Alcoholics. (United States)

    Patterson, E.T.; And Others


    Scores of Black and White alcoholics were compared using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Profile differences were not clinically meaningful. However, comparative scores may not rule out racial test bias since better adjustment was indicated for Blacks by the Family Environment Scale. (RC)

  2. Black and White Viewers' Perception and Recall of Occupational Characters on Television. (United States)

    Appiah, Osei


    Examines the differences in how Black and White viewers process messages based on the race of television characters representing five occupations. Notes that findings from male college students suggest that Black viewers have better recall of Black occupational characters than White characters on television. Reveals evidence that both Black and…

  3. Cognitive Abilities of Alzheimer's Patients: Perceptions of Black and White Caregivers (United States)

    Burns, Robert; Nichols, Linda O.; Graney, Marshall J.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Lummus, Allan


    This study compared Black (n = 97) and White (n = 143) family caregivers regarding the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive assessments of Alzheimer's patients from the Memphis site of the NIA/NINR Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH) randomized clinical trial. Black and White caregivers' subjective…

  4. Comparing the Experiences of Black and White Caregivers of Dementia Patients. (United States)

    Cox, Carole


    Using a conceptual stress development model that treats informal supports and competency as potential mediators, examined outcomes of caregiving in samples of black and white caregivers. A perceived lack of informal supports and a sense of incompetency exacerbated stress among black caregivers but had no effects among the white caregivers. (RJM)

  5. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were

  6. Participation in School Sports: Risk or Protective Factor for Drug Use among Black and White Students? (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.; Guilbault, Michael


    This study examined the relationship between participation in school-based sports and drug use among Black and White high school students, using data from participants in the National Educational Longitudinal Survey of 1988 (NELS, NCES, 1988) and follow-up surveys in 1990 and 1992. While previous research produced inconsistent results, the present…

  7. Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes among Latina, Black, and White Women. (United States)

    Poran, Maya A.


    Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…

  8. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ


    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  9. Ethnic Differences in Alcohol Use: A Comparison of Black and White College Students in a Small Private University Setting (United States)

    Gover, Kristie S.


    An identified gap in the literature associated with college student alcohol use is the exploration of the problem based on ethnicity, specifically possible differences in use between Black and White college students. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in alcohol use for Black and White college students at a small private…

  10. Mortality Risk Among Black and White Working Women: The Role of Perceived Work Trajectories (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.


    Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Bed-Sharing Among Black and White Infants in Georgia. (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Robb, Sara Wagner; Kanu, Florence A


    To examine: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of bed-sharing among non-Hispanic Black and White infants in Georgia, and (2) differences in bed-sharing and sleep position behaviors prior to and after the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2005 recommendations against bed-sharing. Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data were obtained from the Georgia Department of Public Health. Analysis was guided by the socioecological model levels of: Infant, Maternal, Family, and Community/Society within the context of race. Data from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to address the first objective and from 2000 to 2004 and 2006 to 2011 to address the second objective. Rao-Scott Chi square tests and backward selection unconditional logistic regression models for weighted data were built separately by race; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 6595 (3528 Black and 3067 White) cases were analyzed between 2004 and 2011. Significantly more Black mothers (81.9 %) reported "ever" bed-sharing compared to White mothers (56 %), p Blacks, the final model included infant age, pregnancy intention, number of dependents, and use of Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Services. For Whites, the final model included infant age, maternal age, financial stress, partner-related stress, and WIC. When comparing the period 2000-2004 to 2006-2011, a total of 10,015 (5373 Black and 4642 White cases) were analyzed. A significant decrease in bedsharing was found for both Blacks and Whites; rates of non-supine sleep position decreased significantly for Blacks but not Whites. Continued high rates of bed-sharing and non-supine sleep position for both Blacks and Whites demonstrate an ongoing need for safe infant sleep messaging. Risk profiles for Black and White mothers differed, suggesting the importance of tailored messaging. Specific research and practice implications are identified and described.

  12. Lesbian identities in South Africa : Black and White experiences in Johannesburg



    M.A. This dissertation attempts to understand the different meanings attached to lesbian identities by comparing the experiences of black and white lesbian women living in South Africa. Literature of the experiences of black lesbian women, especially in South Africa, is plentiful. Thus, by including white lesbian women in the sample, this dissertation begins to fill a gap in literature and provide some insights into an overall experience of lesbian identity in South Africa. In-depth interv...

  13. Gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis in four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). (United States)

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Stalis, Ilse H; Campbell, Gregory A; Backues, Kay A


    Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in the gastric tissues of four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is an uncommon disease described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. These cystic spaces can occur in any location along the gastrointestinal tract as well as within the associated connective and lymphatic tissues. The exact cause of this disease is unknown. The four black and white ruffed lemurs described in this case series were captive born and had been housed in zoological institutions at two separate locations. Three of the four cases were female lemurs, and two of the affected lemurs were directly related. The individual disease presentations spanned a 5-yr time period. Two lemurs presented dead with no premonitory signs, whereas the other two lemurs presented with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and nonspecific signs of weakness. Gastric pneumatosis, diagnosed either grossly or histopathologically in each of these four lemurs, is described as a subset of PCI in which cystic spaces are localized to the stomach wall. Significant eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate was identified on histopathology of gastric tissues and found to be associated with the cystic lesions in each lemur. No classic etiology, such as a fungal infection or a parasitic infection, was identified as the cause of the eosinophilic gastritis. This case series demonstrates that gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis may be a significant gastrointestinal disease in black and white ruffed lemurs.

  14. Ethnic differences in predictors of hearing protection behavior between Black and White workers. (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Lusk, Sally L; Ronis, David L


    The purpose of the study is to determine whether there are ethnic differences in predictors of hearing protection behavior between Black and White workers. The Predictors of Use of Hearing Protection Model (PUHPM) derived from Pender's Health Promotion Model (Pender, 1987) was used as a conceptual model. A total of 2,119 (297 Blacks, 1,822 Whites) were included in the analysis. Internal consistency of instrument items was assessed using theta reliability estimates. Significant predictors of the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs) for Black and White workers and differences in predictors between the two groups were examined using multiple regression with interaction terms. Ethnic differences in scale or individual item scores were assessed using chi-square and t-test analyses. Different factors influenced hearing protection behavior among Black and White workers. The model was much less predictive of Blacks' hearing protection behavior than Whites' (R2 = .12 vs. .36). Since the PUHPM was not as effective in predicting hearing protection behavior for Blacks as for Whites, future studies are needed to expand the PUHPM through qualitative study and to develop culturally appropriate models to identify factors that better predict hearing protection behavior as a basis for developing effective interventions.

  15. Black and white homebuyer, homeowner, and household segregation in the United States, 1990-2010. (United States)

    Fischer, Mary J


    As homeownership has been expanding in the United States over the past several decades, residential segregation between blacks and whites has been declining in most metropolitan areas. However, the degree to which the residential patterns of new homebuyers have mirrored these overall trends in segregation and how the massive increase in home buying has related to changes in segregation has remained largely unexplored. This paper examines the segregation of new black homebuyers from white households, new white homebuyers from black households, and black and white households from each other using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data from 1992 to 2010 merged with data from the Census and ACS. I find that black homebuyers are less segregated from white households than black homeowners overall and black households in general, providing evidence in support of the spatial assimilation model that would predict better outcomes for homeowners. Also consistent with the spatial assimilation perspective, I found in the multivariate models that increased income parity between blacks and whites and growth in black lending are associated with average declines in black/white household segregation from 1990 to 2010. Although subprime lending was not associated with overall changes in segregation, metropolitan areas with higher percentages of loans to blacks from subprime lenders experienced increases in segregation of both black homeowners from white households as well as white owners from black households. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Recurrent calcium phosphate urolithiasis in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata). (United States)

    Cushing, Andrew C; Kollias, George; Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Streeter, Renee; Ahou-Madi, Noha


    An adult intact male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) suffered recurrent bouts of urethral blockage over a 3-yr period caused by calcium phosphate (apatite form) uroliths. Surgical intervention was required in two of the three instances. Various attempts at medical management failed to control formation of the stones, and the underlying etiology remains unclear. In addition, there have been consistent, multiple, unchanging renal mineralizations over the course of the case. Medical management failed to significantly alter the urinary pH; although, to date, no further problems have been noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first known report of calcium phosphate stones in a prosimian species.

  17. Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin: Sulfur and lead isotope constraints (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.


    The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal

  18. Black and white population change in small American suburbs since World War II: regional differences. (United States)

    Stahura, J M


    "This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns." excerpt

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 12- Item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D among Blacks and Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari


    Full Text Available Background: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale is one of the most widely used tools to measure depressive symptoms in epidemiological studies. Given the importance of cross-racial measurement equivalence of CES-D scale for research, we performed confirmatory factor analysis of 12 - item CES-D in a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults in the United States.Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001-2003. A total number of 3,570 Blacks (African Americans and 891 non-Hispanic Whites were included in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the 12-item CES-D scale using multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM.Results: For both Blacks and Whites, best fitting model was found to be the 3-factor model, indicating invariance of factor structure between Blacks and Whites. Statistically different fit of the models with and without constraints indicated lack of invariance of factor loadings between Blacks and Whites. Some of the positive (i.e. as good, and hopeful and interpersonal (i.e. people were unfriendly items showed poor loadings, even in the 3- factor solution that allowed separate domains for positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems. Despite the good fit of our final model, more items (i.e. as good, hopeful, keeping mind, and everything effort had poor loadings in Blacks than Whites (i.e. as good.Conclusion: There is invariance in factor structure but lack of invariance in factor/item loadings among Blacks and Whites. These findings have implications for cross-racial studies of depressive symptoms using CES-D among Blacks and Whites. Further research is warranted to scrutinize the role of socio-economics and culture in explaining lack of invariance of CES-D scale between Blacks and Whites.

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 12-Item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among Blacks and Whites. (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan


    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale is one of the most widely used tools to measure depressive symptoms in epidemiological studies. Given the importance of cross-racial measurement equivalence of the CES-D scale for research, we performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the 12-item CES-D in a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults in the United States. We used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. A total number of 3570 Blacks (African-Americans) and 891 non-Hispanic Whites were included in the present study. CFA was carried out on the 12-item CES-D scale using multi-group structural equation modeling. For both Blacks and Whites, the best fitting model was found to be the 3-factor model, indicating invariance of factor structure between Blacks and Whites. A statistically different fit of the models with and without constraints indicated lack of invariance of factor loadings between Blacks and Whites. Some of the positive (i.e., " as good " and " hopeful ") and interpersonal (i.e., " people were unfriendly ") items showed poor loadings, even in the 3-factor solution that allowed separate domains for positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems. Despite the good fit of our final model, more items (i.e., " as good ," " hopeful ," " keeping mind ," and " everything effort ") had poorer loadings in Blacks than Whites (i.e., " as good "). There is invariance in factor structure but lack of invariance in factor/item loadings between Blacks and Whites. These findings have implications for cross-racial studies of depressive symptoms using CES-D scale among Blacks and Whites. Further research is warranted to scrutinize the role of socioeconomics and culture in explaining the lack of invariance of the CES-D scale between Blacks and Whites.

  1. Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles. (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A


    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of early risk factors accounted for racial differences related to any juvenile arrest, as well as differences in violence- and theft-related arrests. However, increased exposure to early risk factors did not explain race differences in drug-related arrests. Minimal support was found for the hypothesis that a differential sensitivity to risk factors accounts for disproportionate rate of minority male arrests. In sum, most racial discrepancies in juvenile male arrests were accounted for by an increased exposure to childhood risk factors. Specifically, Black boys were more likely to display early conduct problems and low academic achievement and experience poor parent-child communication, peer delinquency, and neighborhood problems, which increased their risk for juvenile arrest. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology of infant death among black and white non-Hispanic populations in Hampton Roads, Virginia. (United States)

    Emuren, Leonard; Chauhan, Suneet; Vroman, Richard; Beydoun, Hind


    To evaluate the presence of racial disparities in infant mortality rates and assess risk factors for infant death among black and white populations in Hampton Roads, Virginia. A retrospective study with secondary analyses of linked birth/death certificate data was conducted using a sample of 201,610 live-born infants and 1659 infant deaths identified between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008 in Hampton Roads. Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were significantly (P black compared with white populations. Racial disparities were noted whereby black infants were significantly (P black infants dying in the first year of life than white infants. Among blacks, the odds of infant death were inversely related to maternal education. Among whites, the odds of infant death declined with increasing parity. Among black and white populations, history of child death, presence of maternal morbidities and the Kotelchuck Maternal Utilization of Prenatal Care Index were key determinants of infant death. Black infants are at higher odds of dying compared with white infants in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Continued efforts should target prenatal care, preterm delivery, and low-birth-weight infants and neonates to reduce infant mortality rates.

  3. Evidence of social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). (United States)

    Stoinski, T S; Drayton, L A; Price, E E


    Although many studies have examined social learning capabilities in apes and monkeys, experiments involving prosimians remain largely absent. We investigated the potential for social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs using a two-action foraging task. Eight individuals were divided into two experimental groups and exposed to conspecifics using one of two techniques to access food. Subjects were then given access to the apparatus and their retrieval techniques were recorded and compared. All subjects made their first retrieval using the technique they observed being demonstrated, and there were significant differences between the two groups in their overall response patterns. These results suggest that prosimians are capable of social learning and that additional long-term field studies may reveal the presence of behavioural traditions similar to those found in other primates.

  4. Thinking in Black and White: Conscious thought increases racially biased judgments through biased face memory. (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Stoeckart, Peter F; Dijksterhuis, Ap


    It is a common research finding that conscious thought helps people to avoid racial discrimination. These three experiments, however, illustrate that conscious thought may increase biased face memory, which leads to increased judgment bias (i.e., preferring White to Black individuals). In Experiments 1 and 2, university students formed impressions of Black and White housemate candidates. They judged the candidates either immediately (immediate decision condition), thought about their judgments for a few minutes (conscious thought condition), or performed an unrelated task for a few minutes (unconscious thought condition). Conscious thinkers and immediate decision-makers showed a stronger face memory bias than unconscious thinkers, and this mediated increased judgment bias, although not all results were significant. Experiment 3 used a new, different paradigm and showed that a Black male was remembered as darker after a period of conscious thought than after a period of unconscious thought. Implications for racial prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B


    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Leg muscle power in 12-year-old black and white Tunisian football players. (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Karim; Latiri, Imed; Dore, Eric; Tabka, Zouhair


    This study examined leg muscle power of young male Tunisian black and white football players and extended the analysis to determine whether there is a relationship between cycling peak power output (PPO) and some field tests. A total of 113 children (white group (WG) = n = 56; black group (BG) = n = 57) participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included age, body mass (BM), height, leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and leg muscle volume (LMV). Cycling PPO was measured including a force-velocity test. Peak power output (PPO; W and W/kg), Fopt (optimal braking force), and Vopt (optimal velocity) were significantly higher in the WG compared with the BG (p force-velocity test as explanatory factors showed that 33% of the variance of PPO of BG was explained by qualitative factors that may be related to cycling skill, muscle composition, and socioeconomic and training status.

  7. Anger in young black and white workers: effects of job control, dissatisfaction, and support. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sheila T; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Suchday, Sonia; Ewart, Craig K


    This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that characteristics of work that contribute to job strain also increase anger in young service-sector workers. A new measure of anger directed at coworkers, supervisors, and customers was regressed on job strain indices (job control, coworker and supervisor support, dissatisfaction) in models that controlled for dispositional negative affect and work status. Results in a sample of 230 young Black and White men and women revealed that low levels of job control and social support, and high levels of job dissatisfaction, were independently associated with increased work-related anger. Moreover, social support moderated the impact of low job control on anger directed at coworkers. Findings indicate that anger experienced at work may be an early marker of job stress, which has been prospectively related to cardiovascular disease.

  8. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa


    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  9. The association of alcohol consumption with tobacco use in Black and White college students. (United States)

    Ames, Steven C; Stevens, Susanna R; Werch, Chudley E; Carlson, Joan M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Kiros, Gebre-Egziabher; Kershaw, Josephine; Patten, Christi A; Ebbert, Jon O; Offord, Kenneth P


    This study explored the association of alcohol and tobacco use among college students. A survey was administered in 2004 to 2,189 Black and White students from the southeastern United States. The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use, tobacco use characteristics according to level of alcohol consumed, and percentage of students using tobacco according to type of alcoholic beverages consumed were evaluated. The interaction of race and gender with alcohol and tobacco use was explored. Our findings extend prior investigations that have found alcohol use associated with smoking and suggest attention be paid to the relation of alcohol to other forms of tobacco. Racial and gender differences are highlighted. This study was funded by Mayo Clinic. The study's limitations were noted.

  10. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.


    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  11. Comparison of Prevalence and Types of Mutations in Lung Cancers Among Black and White Populations. (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua D; Lathan, Christopher; Sholl, Lynette; Ducar, Matthew; Vega, Mikenah; Sunkavalli, Ashwini; Lin, Ling; Hanna, Megan; Schubert, Laura; Thorner, Aaron; Faris, Nicholas; Williams, David R; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; van Hummelen, Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States in all ethnic and racial groups. The overall death rate from lung cancer is higher in black patients than in white patients. To compare the prevalence and types of somatic alterations between lung cancers from black patients and white patients. Differences in mutational frequencies could illuminate differences in prognosis and lead to the reduction of outcome disparities by more precisely targeting patients' treatment. Tumor specimens were collected from Baptist Cancer Center (Memphis, Tennessee) over the course of 9 years (January 2004-December 2012). Genomic analysis by massively parallel sequencing of 504 cancer genes was performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, Massachusetts). Overall, 509 lung cancer tumors specimens (319 adenocarcinomas; 142 squamous cell carcinomas) were profiled from 245 black patients and 264 white patients. The frequencies of genomic alterations were compared between tumors from black and white populations. Overall, 509 lung cancers were collected and analyzed (273 women [129 black patients; 144 white patients] and 236 men [116 black patients; 120 white patients]). Using 313 adenocarcinomas and 138 squamous cell carcinomas with genetically supported ancestry, overall mutational frequencies and copy number changes were not significantly different between black and white populations in either tumor type after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Furthermore, specific activating alterations in members of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/Raf pathway including EGFR and KRAS were not significantly different between populations in lung adenocarcinoma. These results demonstrate that lung cancers from black patients are similar to cancers from white patients with respect to clinically actionable genomic alterations and suggest that clinical trials of targeted therapies could significantly benefit patients in both groups.

  12. Jim Crow and Premature Mortality Among the US Black and White Population, 1960–2009 (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T.; Coull, Brent A.; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V.; Waterman, Pamela D.


    Background Scant research has analyzed the health impact of abolition of Jim Crow (ie, legal racial discrimination overturned by the US 1964 Civil Rights Act). Methods We used hierarchical age–period–cohort models to analyze US national black and white premature mortality rates (death before 65 years of age) in 1960–2009. Results Within a context of declining US black and white premature mortality rates and a persistent 2-fold excess black risk of premature mortality in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states, analyses including random period, cohort, state, and county effects and fixed county income effects found that, within the black population, the largest Jim Crow-by-period interaction occurred in 1960–1964 (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 1.15 [95% confidence interval = 1.09–1.22), yielding the largest overall period-specific Jim Crow effect MRR of 1.27, with no such interactions subsequently observed. Furthermore, the most elevated Jim Crow-by-cohort effects occurred for birth cohorts from 1901 through 1945 (MRR range = 1.05–1.11), translating to the largest overall cohort-specific Jim Crow effect MRRs for the 1921–1945 birth cohorts (MRR ~ 1.2), with no such interactions subsequently observed. No such interactions between Jim Crow and either period or cohort occurred among the white population. Conclusion Together, the study results offer compelling evidence of the enduring impact of both Jim Crow and its abolition on premature mortality among the US black population, although insufficient to eliminate the persistent 2-fold black excess risk evident in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states from 1960 to 2009. PMID:24825344

  13. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults. (United States)

    Kell, K P; Judd, S E; Pearson, K E; Shikany, J M; Fernández, J R


    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17,062 black (34·6%) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, racial group and geographic region were used to examine adherence to five emergent dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, southern and alcohol/salads) according to four levels each of individual education, household income and community-level SES. Further models assessed adherence to these dietary patterns by racial group, and an overall model including both racial groups examined whether the relationships between SES and adherence to these dietary patterns differed among black and white participants. For all the three measures of SES, higher SES had been associated with greater adherence to plant-based and alcohol/salads patterns, but lower adherence to sweets/fats and southern patterns. Statistically significant differences between black and white participants were observed in the associations between household income and adherence to alcohol/salads, individual education and adherence to plant-based and sweets/fats, and community SES and adherence to convenience patterns. As adherence to dietary patterns has been shown to be associated with health outcomes in this population (e.g. stroke), the present study offers valuable insight into behavioural and environmental factors that may contribute to health disparities in the diverse US population.

  14. Epidemiology of Theileria bicornis among black and white rhinoceros metapopulation in Kenya. (United States)

    Otiende, Moses Y; Kivata, Mary W; Makumi, Joseph N; Mutinda, Mathew N; Okun, Daniel; Kariuki, Linus; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer


    A huge effort in rhinoceros conservation has focused on poaching and habitat loss as factors leading to the dramatic declines in the endangered eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Nevertheless, the role disease and parasite infections play in the mortality of protected populations has largely received limited attention. Infections with piroplasmosis caused by Babesia bicornis and Theileria bicornis has been shown to be fatal especially in small and isolated populations in Tanzania and South Africa. However, the occurrence and epidemiology of these parasites in Kenyan rhinoceros is not known. Utilizing 18S rRNA gene as genetic marker to detect rhinoceros infection with Babesia and Theileria, we examined blood samples collected from seven rhinoceros populations consisting of 114 individuals of black and white rhinoceros. The goal was to determine the prevalence in Kenyan populations, and to assess the association of Babesia and Theileria infection with host species, age, sex, location, season and population mix (only black rhinoceros comparing to black and white rhinoceros populations). We did not detect any infection with Babesia in the sequenced samples, while the prevalence of T. bicornis in the Kenyan rhinoceros population was 49.12% (56/114). White rhinoceros had significantly higher prevalence of infection (66%) compared to black rhinoceros (43%). The infection of rhinoceros with Theileria was not associated with animal age, sex or location. The risk of infection with Theileria was not higher in mixed species populations compared to populations of pure black rhinoceros. In the rhinoceros studied, we did not detect the presence of Babesia bicornis, while Theileria bicornis was found to have a 49.12% prevalence with white rhinoceros showing a higher prevalence (66%) comparing with black rhinoceros (43%). Other factors such as age, sex, location, and population mix were not found to

  15. Attitudes, Behaviors, and Effectiveness of Black and White Leaders of Simulated Problem Solving Groups of Varying Size and Racial Composition. (United States)

    Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.

    A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way mirror.…

  16. Relationship between negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and mental health outcomes of black and white female survivors. (United States)

    Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L


    This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Relationships between mastitis and functional longevity in Danish Black and White dairy cattle estimated using survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, H.J.; Madsen, P.; Ducrucq, V.; Vollema, A.R.; Jensen, I.; Korsgaard, I.R.


    The relationship between mastitis and functional longevity was assessed with survival analysis on data of Danish Black and White dairy cows. Different methods of including the effect of mastitis treatment on the culling decision by a farmer in the model were compared. The model in which mastitis

  18. Lipoprotein and apolipoprotein differences in black and white girls - The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprecher, DL; Morrison, JA; Simbartl, LA; Schreiber, GB; Sabry, ZI; Biro, FM; Barton, BA

    Objective: To define racial differences in lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in girls aged 9 to 10 years. Design: Baseline analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting: Three clinical sites. Subjects: A total of 1871 black and white girls, aged 9 to 10 years, with complete maturation data

  19. An Unknown, but Key Player in the Television Market: The Television Retailer and the Case of Black and White TV Sets in France (1950-1987)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, Isabelle


    abstractThis article offers insights into how black and white TV sets were sold in France from 1948 to the mid 80s. During this period, the black and white television set shifted from being an expensive and breakable technical object to a commonplace, mass consumer durable good. The article

  20. Vitamin D status of black and white Americans and changes in vitamin D metabolites after varied doses of vitamin D supplementation (United States)

    Background. Controversy exists over the cause of disparate circulating 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD) between black and white Americans. Objective: To determine whether there are differences in total and directly measured free 25OHD between black and white American adults and to assess the degree to w...

  1. Interstitial cell tumor in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegatus variegatus). (United States)

    Neiffer, D L; Klein, E C


    A 14.5-yr-old, male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegatus variegatus) presented for acute enlargement of the left testicle and hemiscrotum. Physical examination also revealed poor pelage quality with short guard hairs, sparse undercoat, and areas of alopecia. Increased aggression was also reported. A unilateral, open orchiectomy was performed, with the left testicle, epidydymis, associated vaginal tunic, and attached spermatic cord removed. Microscopic evaluation was consistent with an interstitial cell tumor, with many morphologic features similar to this neoplasm in people. No overt histopathologic criteria of malignancy were present. Following orchiectomy, gradual improvement in pelage quality was noted and was considered almost normal by 5 mo postoperative. In contrast with the aggressive preoperative behavior, the lemur was extremely submissive for 3 mo following the surgery. Gradual return to normal behavior and social status occurred over the next 2 mo. Multiple follow-up examinations and radiographs revealed no evidence of metastasis, and biopsy of the remaining testicle 4 mo later revealed no evidence of neoplasia. Serial measurements of testosterone and estradiol revealed levels within the range of those for other ruffed lemurs, as were repeated measurements taken of the remaining testicle. At 19 mo postoperative, the lemur had a coat quality considered nearly normal and maintained its historical social position in the lemur group without abnormal aggressive behavior.

  2. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation genetics of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata. (United States)

    Wyner, Y M; Amato, G; Desalle, R


    A character-based phylogenetic species concept approach was used to examine conservation unit status for three wild populations of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia vareigata variegata, from Betampona (N = 3), Manombo (N = 6), and Ranomafana (N = 14), Madagascar. Population aggregation analysis was performed on 548 bp from the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Twenty-one diagnostic sites were found to differentiate the Betampona (northern) population from the Manombo/Ranomafana (southern) populations. Additionally, individuals from the North American captive population (N = 11) and from Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (N = 6) were examined for the same mtDNA fragment. The captive animals more closely resembled the southern populations and the Parc Ivoloina animals were more similar to the northern population. However, the inclusion of these ex situ animals reduced the number of diagnostic sites differentiating the northern and southern populations. Our genetic data were used to assess the ongoing management strategy for reintroducing individuals into the Betampona population and for introducing new founders into the ex situ population. This study demonstrates the utility of combining genetic information with a consideration of conservation priorities in evaluating the implementation of management strategies.

  3. The behavioral repertoire of the black-and-white ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata variegata (Primates: Lemuridae). (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Seeligson, M L; Macedonia, J M


    A stable social group of 7 semifree-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) was studied for 4 months to catalog the behavioral repertoire of this species. Observations focussed on particular aspects of behavior were conducted before and after this 4-month period to supplement information gathered. Behavior in 11 major categories is detailed: postures, terrestrial locomotion, arboreal locomotion, feeding behavior, vocalizations, scent-marking, affinitive social behavior, agonistic social behavior, play behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. Ruffed lemurs frequently used body positions and locomotor patterns unusual among lemurids, including bipedal hanging and long-descent leaps. These behaviors reinforce dental evidence that Varecia are among the most frugivorous of the Malagasy lemurs. Low intragroup cohesion, infrequent social interaction, and antiphonal use of several long-distance vocalizations suggest that ruffed lemurs naturally exhibit fission-fusion sociality. Social structure based on interindividual familiarity probably extends across foraging parties for several of the diurnally active lemurs; however, thus far only Varecia seems likely to exhibit fission-fusion sociality analogous to that seen in spider monkeys and chimpanzees.

  4. Prevalence of colon polyps detected by colonoscopy screening in asymptomatic black and white patients (United States)

    Lieberman, David; Holub, Jennifer; Moravec, Matthew; Eisen, Glenn; Peters, Dawn; Morris, Cynthia


    Context Compared to whites, Black men and women have a higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer and may develop cancer at a younger age. Colorectal cancer screening might be less effective in Blacks, if there are racial differences in the age-adjusted prevalence and location of cancer precursor lesions. Objectives To determine and compare the prevalence rates and location of polyp(s) >9mm in asymptomatic Blacks and whites who receive colonoscopy screening. Design, Setting, and Patients Colonoscopy data were prospectively collected from 67 practice sites in the United States using a computerized endoscopic report generator from 2004–2005. Data were transmitted to a central data repository, where all asymptomatic whites (n = 80,061) and Blacks (n = 5464) who received screening colonoscopy were identified. Main outcome measures Prevalence and location of polyp(s) >9mm, adjusted for age, gender, and family history of colorectal cancer in a multivariate analysis. Results Both Black men and women had a higher prevalence of polyp(s) >9mm (7.7 versus 6.2%; p 9mm (OR 1.133; 95% CI 0.93,1.38). However, in a sub-analysis of patients over age 60 years, proximal polyps >9mm were more likely in Black men (p = 0.026) and women (p9mm, and Black over age 60 years are more likely to proximal polyps >9mm. PMID:18812532

  5. Serum adiponectin and coronary heart disease risk in older Black and White Americans. (United States)

    Kanaya, Alka M; Wassel Fyr, Christina; Vittinghoff, Eric; Havel, Peter J; Cesari, Matteo; Nicklas, Barbara; Harris, Tamara; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve R


    Adiponectin may influence the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Because body composition and adiponectin levels vary by race, we examined the relationship of adiponectin with prevalent and incident CHD in a cohort of older Black and White adults. We conducted a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study at two U.S. clinical centers. Participants included 3075 well-functioning adults between ages 70 and 79 yr enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Prevalent CHD was defined as history of myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary transluminal angioplasty, angina, or major electrocardiogram abnormalities. After excluding those with prevalent CHD, incident CHD was defined as hospitalized myocardial infarction or CHD death. At baseline, 602 participants (19.6%) had CHD. During 6 yr of follow-up, 262 (10.6%) incident CHD events occurred. Whites had higher median adiponectin than Blacks (12 vs. 8 microg/ml, P Blacks, a doubling of adiponectin was associated with a 40% higher risk of both prevalent CHD (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.78) and incident CHD (hazards ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87) after adjusting for explanatory variables. High circulating concentrations of adiponectin were associated with higher risk of CHD in older Blacks, even accounting for traditional CHD risk factors.

  6. Leachates analysis of glass from black and white and color televisions sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kukla


    Full Text Available The aim of work was to determine the content of selected elements in the glass from color and black and white television (TV sets. The amount of back taken TV sets in the Czech Republic increases annualy, which is associated with higher production of the waste glass. Currently there is 1.4 television sets for each household and the number of it should increase in future, because of higher standard of living and new technologies used. Waste glass treatment or landfilling may present, because of composition of the waste glass threat to the environment. One of the indicators of the polution from waste glass is leachate analysis, which can show us the content of hazardous substances in the waste glass, which can be released to the environment. A qualitative analysis of leachate samples was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results showed concentration of potencionaly hazardous substances contained in leachate samples. This was especially content of aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, tin and zinc. Results of analyzes of the aqueous extract of glass were confronted with the limits specified in the currently valid legislation. Based on the results there is clear that in the case of landfilling of the glass from television sets, there is possibility of the contamination of landfill leachate by the elements, which are presented in the glass.

  7. Comparison of CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes between black and white smokers. (United States)

    Muscat, Joshua E; Pittman, Brian; Kleinman, Wayne; Lazarus, Philip; Stellman, Steven D; Richie, John P


    The lower incidence rate of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in blacks than in whites may be due to racial differences in the catalytic activity of enzymes that metabolize carcinogenic arylamines in tobacco smoke. To examine this, we compared cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase-2 activities (NAT2) in black and white smokers using urinary caffeine metabolites as a probe for enzyme activity in a community-based study of 165 black and 183 white cigarette smokers. The paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine, 17X)/caffeine (trimethylxanthine, 137X) ratio or [17X+1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)]/137X ratio was used as an indicator of CYP1A2 activity. The 5-acetyl-amino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU)/1-methylxanthine (1X) ratio indicated NAT2 activity. The odds ratio for the slow NAT2 phenotype associated with black race was 0.4; 95% confidence intervals 0.2-0.7. The putative combined low risk phenotype (slow CYP1A2/rapid NAT2) was more common in blacks than in whites (25% vs. 15%, Pwhites.

  8. The Influence of Daily Periods on the Drinking Behavior in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina


    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim of this study was to determine some aspect of drinking behavior of the cows in 24 hours that were divided into 3 day periods (intervals: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-21:00 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During the experiments, the following drinking behavior aspects were determined: the number of drinkings and the length of drinking periods per 24 hours, in the fibrous-succulents administration order of forages (O1 and succulents-fibrous order (O2. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the daily periods had an influence on the number of drinkings and drinking length, the lowest number of drinkings occurred during the night interval I3 (4.20 and the highest number together with the longest drinking period occurred in the second interval I2 (12.47 and 1062.50 seconds. In both administration order of forages ( O1 and O2 there were a very significant differences (p<0.001 between I1 and I2 in favour of I2, between I1 and I3 in favour of I1 and between I2 and I3 in favour of I2, for number of drinkings periods and for length of drinking periods.

  9. Anatomical differences in the psoas muscles in young black and white men. (United States)

    Hanson, P; Magnusson, S P; Sorensen, H; Simonsen, E B


    The anatomy of the psoas major muscle (PMA) in young black and white men was studied during routine autopsies. The forensic autopsies included 44 fresh male cadavers (21 black, 23 white) with an age span of 14 to 25 y. The range for weight was 66-76 kg and for height 169-182 cm. The PMA was initially measured in its entire length before measuring the diameter and circumference at each segmental level (L1-S1). At each segmental level, the calculated anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was more than 3 times greater in the black group compared with the white (P psoas minor muscle (PMI) was absent in 91% of the black subjects, but only in 13% of the white subjects. These data show that the PMA is markedly larger in black than white subjects. The marked race specific difference in the size of the PMA may have implications for hip flexor strength, spine function and race specific incidence in low back pathology, and warrants further investigation.

  10. Analysis of structural changes in bleached keratin fibers (black and white human hair) using Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio


    To investigate the influence of bleaching treatments on keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of bleached human hair (black and white human hair) was directly analyzed without isolating the cuticle and cortex, using Raman spectroscopy. The S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of virgin white human hair decreased, while the S-O band intensity at 1040 cm(-1), assigned to cysteic acid, increased by performing the bleaching treatment. Especially, the S-O band intensity of the cuticle region increased remarkably compared with that of the cortex region. Also, the amide III (unordered) band intensity in the cortex region increased, indicating that some of the proteins existing throughout the cortex region changed to the random coil form. Moreover, it has been found that the S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of the cortex region of the virgin black human hair decreased remarkably, while the S-O band intensity increased significantly compared with that of the virgin white human hair by performing the bleaching treatment. From these experiments, we concluded that the melanin granules including metal ions act as a decomposition accelerator for the oxidizing agent, thereby leading to a higher level of disulfide (-SS-) group cleavage in the black human hair compared with that of the white human hair. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin a reduction in black and white pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Jinap, S.; Noranizan, M.A.


    Irradiation is an important means of decontamination of food commodities, especially spices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) for decontaminating ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ), B 2 (AFB 2 ), G 1 (AFG 1 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) residues in artificially contaminated black and white pepper samples. The moisture content of the pepper samples was set at 12% or 18%, and the applied gamma dose ranged from 5 to 30 kGy. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column (IAC) chromatography. Both the gamma irradiation dose and moisture content showed significant effects (P<0.05) on mycotoxin reduction. The maximum toxin reductions, found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy, were 55.2%, 50.6%, 39.2%, 47.7% and 42.9% for OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. - Highlights: ► The effect of gamma ray on the reduction of AFs and OTA in pepper was investigated. ► The gamma dose and moisture showed significant effects on mycotoxin reduction. ► The maximum reduction was found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy gamma ray. ► The method, even at 30 kGy and 18% moisture, failed to destroy total of mycotoxins.

  12. Validity of self-reported fitness across black and white race, gender, and health literacy subgroups. (United States)

    Keith, NiCole R; Clark, Daniel O; Stump, Timothy E; Callahan, Christopher M


    To compare concurrent criterion validity of the Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) Survey, a new fitness measure, between black and white race, gender, and health literacy groups. Cross-sectional. Midwest urban primary care center and commercial fitness center. One hundred one black, white, male, and female primary care patients aged ≥40 years. Measures included demographics, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the SRFit Survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. The BodPod determined percentage of body fat. Body mass index was calculated. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations between corresponding physical tests and SRFit survey items. Correlations between physical tests and SRFit items ranged from r = .52 to .76 (ρ = .41-.85) in males, r = .40 to .79 (ρ = .33-.80) in females, r = .45 to .79 (ρ = .53-.82) in blacks, and r = .49 to .77 (ρ = .33-.82) in whites. Correlations were r = .58 (ρ = .58) to r = .77 (ρ = .79) in persons with low health literacy and r = .50 to .79 (ρ = .39-.85) among persons with moderate to high health literacy. SRFit shows similar concurrent validity across race, gender, and health literacy subgroups.

  13. Study on the Excretion Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Number of Defecations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina


    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first hundred days of lactation. The aim ofthis study was to measure the main aspects that characterized the excretion behaviour (defecation of the cows in 24hours that were divided into 3 day periods: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-2:001 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During theexperiments, the following defecation behaviour aspects were determined: total number of defecations, number ofdefecations in the three intervals, number of defecations according to administration order of forages (fibroussucculentsand succulents-fibrous. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the differencesbetween intervals I1-I2 and I1-I3 were statistically very significant (p< 0.01. In fibrous – succulent order thedefecation were 0.69 higher than in succulent- fibrous order (p< 0.01. Total number of defecation resulted bysumming the defecation from the three intervals, was 14.67 in the first administration order (fibrous-succulent and12.61 in the second administration order (succulent-fibrous.

  14. Nutrient composition of plants consumed by black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, in the Betampona Natural Reserve, Madagascar. (United States)

    Schmidt, Debra A; Iambana, R Bernard; Britt, Adam; Junge, Randall E; Welch, Charles R; Porton, Ingrid J; Kerley, Monty S


    The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of crude protein, fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, nonstructural carbohydrates, and gross energy in plant foods consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium concentrations were also determined. A total of 122 samples from 33 plant families and more than 60 species were collected and analyzed for their nutritional content. The specific nutrient needs of black and white ruffed lemurs are unknown, but quantifying the nutritional composition of the foods they consume in the wild will help nutritionists and veterinarians formulate more appropriate diets for captive ruffed lemurs. This information will also supply information on how man-induced habitat changes affect the nutritional composition of foods consumed by free-ranging lemurs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing between Blacks and Whites of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale. (United States)

    LaNoue, Marianna; Harvey, Abby; Mautner, Dawn; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin


    The factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale remains in question. Additionally, research on health belief differences between Black and White respondents suggests that the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale may not be invariant. We reviewed the literature regarding the latent variable structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the three-factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and analyzed between-group differences in the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control structure and means across Black and White respondents. Our results indicate differences in means and structure, indicating more research is needed to inform decisions regarding whether and how to deploy the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control appropriately.

  16. Chronic psychological stress and racial disparities in body mass index change between Black and White girls aged 10-19. (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Rehkopf, David H; Laraia, Barbara A


    One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, which consists of 2,379 Black and White girls across a span of socioeconomic status. The girls were assessed longitudinally from ages 10 to 19. Higher levels of stress during the 10 years predicted significantly greater increases in BMI over time compared to lower levels of stress. This relationship was significantly stronger for Black compared to White girls. Psychological stress is a modifiable risk factor that may moderate early racial disparities in BMI.

  17. Racism in soccer? Perception of challenges of black and white players by white referees, soccer players, and fans. (United States)

    Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla


    This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.

  18. Comparing Black and White Drug Offenders: Implications for Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice and Reentry Policy and Programming. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alana; Groves, Allison K; Blankenship, Kim M


    Despite knowledge of racial bias for drug-related criminal justice involvement and its collateral consequences, we know less about differences between Black and White drug offenders. We compare 243 Blacks and White non-violent drug offenders in New Haven, CT for demographic characteristics, substance use, and re-entry services accessed. Blacks were significantly more likely to have sales and possession charges, significantly more likely to prefer marijuana, a less addictive drug, and significantly less likely to report having severe drug problems. For both races, drug treatment was the most common service accessed through supervision. These comparisons suggest different reasons for committing drug-related crimes and thus, different reentry programming needs. While drug treatment is critical for all who need it, for racial justice, we must also intervene to address other needs of offenders, such as poverty alleviation and employment opportunities.

  19. Morphometrics of wild black-and-white ruffed lemurs [Varecia variegata; Kerr, 1792]. (United States)

    Baden, Andrea L; Brenneman, Rick A; Louis, Edward E


    This study presents the first detailed morphometric measurements of wild caught black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) from the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and aims to quantify the morphological variation present throughout their recognized range. One hundred and forty-four adult and juvenile individuals from 15 sites were sampled for 20 cranial, dental and postcranial morphometric and body mass measurements. Data were collected from an equal number of male and female individuals sampled across seasons over a 7-year period (1999-2002, 2004-2006). Results indicate that adult body mass and morphometric measurements varied between sexes across sites; however, the only significant intersexual difference found was that females possessed, on average, longer tails than males. Contrary to previous studies, significant seasonal variation could not be detected in either male or female body mass or testicular volume (i.e., breeding vs. nonbreeding, food-scarce vs. food-abundant seasons). Measurements did, however, vary significantly by site and subspecies, though clinal variation could not explain these differences. The introduced population from Nosy Mangabe exhibited significantly lower body mass and overall body length than all other populations; however, this distinction may not have been attributable to natural variation, and may have instead resulted from the ecologically restrictive habitat (e.g., unusually high lemur population densities, limited food resources, ecological isolation) of this introduced population. Finally, although fore-to-hindlimb, brachium-to-thigh and hindlimb indices were comparable to previous values, forelimb indices calculated here deviate significantly from previous reports, placing V. variegata within the upper range of lemurid taxa. It is currently unknown whether this is an artifact of sampling methods (i.e., live vs. skeletal specimens) or whether this is an avenue that warrants further investigation.

  20. Association of multiple chronic conditions and pain among older black and white adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is often associated with the challenge of navigating daily tasks with a painful chronic medical illness. Yet, there is concern of the number of older adults impacted with more than one chronic condition. Despite the increasing number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and comorbid chronic illnesses, there remains a lack of understanding in how multiple illnesses relate to experiences of pain. To assess the association between multiple chronic conditions and pain, this study aimed to identify clusters of chronic medical conditions and their association with pain among a sample of older Black and White adults diagnosed with diabetes. Methods Two hundred and thirty-six participants responded to a series of questions assessing pain frequency and severity, as well as health and social characteristics. A factor analysis was used to categorize clusters of medical conditions, and multiple regression models were used to examine predictors of pain. Results Seven of the assessed chronic medical conditions loaded on three factors, and accounted for 57.2% of the total variance, with heart disease (factor 1 accounting for 21.9%, musculoskeletal conditions (factor 2 for another 18.4%, and factor 3 (microvascular diseases accounting for a final 16.9% of the variability among the chronic medical conditions. Covariate-adjusted models showed that fewer years of education and higher scores on the microvascular and musculoskeletal conditions factors were associated with higher pain frequency, with the musculoskeletal conditions factor being the strongest predictor. Conclusions Findings from this study compliment existent literature underscoring the prevalence and importance of comorbid diagnoses in relation to pain. Examining health-related factors beyond a single disease diagnosis also provides an opportunity to explore underlying disease co-occurrences that may persist beyond organ system classifications.

  1. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong


    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  2. Predictors of repeated PSA testing among black and white men from the Maryland Cancer Survey, 2006. (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Sorkin, John D; Dwyer, Diane; Groves, Carmela; Steinberger, Eileen K


    Blacks have the highest incidence of and death from prostate cancer in the United States. Screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may decrease mortality. Repeated testing allows for the calculation of PSA velocity (change of PSA over time), which may be a more clinically useful test for prostate cancer than a single PSA measurement. The objective of this study was to examine whether blacks were as likely as whites to report having had repeated PSA testing. The Maryland Cancer Survey 2006 was a population-based, random-digit-dialed statewide survey on cancer screening and risk behaviors of adults aged 40 years or older. We analyzed self-reported information on repeated PSA testing (2 PSA tests in the preceding 3 years) for 1,721 black and white men. We used logistic regression to estimate the effect of race and age on repeated PSA testing, adjusting for other covariates. Sixty-five percent of men reported ever having had a PSA test; 41% had repeated PSA testing in the past 3 years. Blacks aged 40 to 49 were more likely to report having repeated PSA testing than whites in this age group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.5). Blacks aged 60 to 69 were less likely to report repeated PSA testing than whites (AOR, 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.8). No difference was seen by race among men aged 50 to 59 and men aged 70 or older. Repeated PSA testing was associated with living in an urban area and with having higher education, health insurance, a family history of prostate cancer, and having discussed cancer screening with a doctor. Self-reported repeated PSA testing differed by age and race, being higher among blacks aged 40 to 49 and lower among blacks aged 60 to 69, compared with whites in their respective age groups.

  3. Three Novel Haplotypes of Theileria bicornis in Black and White Rhinoceros in Kenya. (United States)

    Otiende, M Y; Kivata, M W; Jowers, M J; Makumi, J N; Runo, S; Obanda, V; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Kariuki, L; Alasaad, S


    Piroplasms, especially those in the genera Babesia and Theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. Due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. This study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel Theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical interventions from 15 rhinoceros were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a nested amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene fragments of Babesia and Theileria. Our study revealed for the first time in Kenya the presence of Theileria bicornis in white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) rhinoceros and the existence of three new haplotypes: haplotypes H1 and H3 were present in white rhinoceros, while H2 was present in black rhinoceros. No specific haplotype was correlated to any specific geographical location. The Bayesian inference 50% consensus phylogram recovered the three haplotypes monophyleticly, and Theileria bicornis had very high support (BPP: 0.98). Furthermore, the genetic p-uncorrected distances and substitutions between T. bicornis and the three haplotypes were the same in all three haplotypes, indicating a very close genetic affinity. This is the first report of the occurrence of Theileria species in white and black rhinoceros from Kenya. The three new haplotypes reported here for the first time have important ecological and conservational implications, especially for population management and translocation programs and as a means of avoiding the transport of infected animals into non-affected areas. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Arslan


    Full Text Available Since all light from the sun, which is still dominated by the first light of the sky or the sun. World time gave even at their disposal. They do people, he must realize that, albeit in different forms in the light. the main source of artificial light until it has never been changed. Poetry actually crushed under the light, will be written. He said the poet who want to reach an unknown time, the intention is to go on the road as close to divine theology. Take under the influence of the environment as a soul the dust of the poem depends to spread the spirit of all known. That's why we look at our poets, they move beyond what we see at a glance. The sense of light known by everyone. Special meaning is a reflection of the property. İknci Yeni, has witnessed a time of poetic intensity in the Turkish poetry tradition. Different trends in the world, has seen a time when the break occurred. All transitions have very different reactions in the human world of poets exception. Turgut Uyar, then all the values of the semi-urban stuck together as a personality we can say that to their climate. Light is a double value illuminating or decision they want to see him. Besides the special general sense, it also carries a qualified sense. Particularly striking is filled with black and white images load. White is interesting to carry the same attributes in the black space of the tragic point. This Turgut Uyar, adds a different dimension to the meaning of the poem.

  5. Exercise Training in "at Risk" Black and White Women: A Comparative Cohort Analyses. (United States)

    Bowdon, Megan; Marcovitz, Pamela; Jain, Susanna K; Boura, Judith; Liroff, Kaitlin G; Franklin, Barry A


    Few data are available regarding the impact of exercise interventions in black women at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Women ≥18 years without known CVD with ≥1 coronary risk factor were enrolled in a community-based exercise program ≥3 days per/week for ≥30 min/session for 6 months. Exercise training intensity ~50[FIGURE DASH]80% of functional capacity, using heart rate (HR) and/or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) as the primary intensity modulators. Pre-versus post conditioning quality of life (QOL) assessments (depression and level of daytime sleepiness), dietary fat intake, Duke Activity Status Index (DASI score), changes in cardiovascular efficiency (systolic/diastolic blood pressure [SBP/DBP], HR, RPE during a standardized submaximal workload), and anthropometric measures, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, were evaluated. Of 556 volunteers, 143 were excluded, leaving 413 women (222 white, 191 black; mean ± SD age = 61 ± 9) who met compliance criteria. Both groups demonstrated significant (P <0.05) post-conditioning decreases in BMI, waist circumference, resting SBP/DBP, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, reductions in HR, SBP/DBP, and RPE at a fixed submaximal workload, and in fat screener, depression, and sleep scores. DASI scores increased significantly (P <0.0001) for both groups, signifying increases in self-reported functional capacity. Although 87 women (21%) experienced a musculoskeletal injury/discomfort during the program, there were no exercise-related cardiovascular events. A progressive moderate-to-vigorous exercise intervention without preliminary exercise testing elicited comparable improvements in coronary risk factors, anthropometric and QOL measures, and cardiovascular efficiency in 'at risk' black and white women. These adaptations were achieved at exercise levels below those recommended in contemporary physical activity guidelines.

  6. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women. (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin


    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  7. Vitamin D Supplementation Does Not Impact Insulin Resistance in Black and White Children. (United States)

    Ferira, Ashley J; Laing, Emma M; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hall, Daniel B; McCabe, George P; Martin, Berdine R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Warden, Stuart J; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Lewis, Richard D


    Vitamin D supplementation trials with diabetes-related outcomes have been conducted almost exclusively in adults and provide equivocal findings. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response of vitamin D supplementation on fasting glucose, insulin, and a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in white and black children aged 9–13 years, who participated in the Georgia, Purdue, and Indiana University (or GAPI) trial: a 12-week multisite, randomized, triple-masked, dose-response, placebo-controlled vitamin D trial. Black and white children in the early stages of puberty (N = 323, 50% male, 51% black) were equally randomized to receive vitamin D3 (0, 400, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/day) for 12 weeks. Fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. Statistical analyses were conducted as intent-to-treat using a mixed effects model. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with insulin (r = −0.140, P = 0.017) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = −0.146, P = 0.012) after adjusting for race, sex, age, pubertal maturation, fat mass, and body mass index. Glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased (F > 5.79, P insulin resistance, vitamin D supplementation had no impact on fasting glucose, insulin, or a surrogate measure of insulin resistance over 12 weeks in apparently healthy children.

  8. Racial Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder Among Black and White Adults (United States)

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Fenton, Miriam C.; Geier, Timothy J.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hasin, Deborah S.


    Objective Racial differences in the clinical nature of major depressive disorder (MDD) could contribute to treatment disparities, but national data with large samples are limited. Our objective was to examine black-white differences in clinical characteristics and treatment for MDD from one of the largest, national community samples of US adults. Methods Non-Hispanic black and white adults (n = 32 752) from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions produced data on 1866 respondents who met criteria for MDD based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) in the preceding 12 months. Outcome measures were depressive symptoms, comorbid psychiatric and medical disorders, disability, and treatment. Results Blacks with MDD had significantly higher odds of initial insomnia, early-morning awakening, and restlessness than whites. Odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–3.14), obesity (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.45–2.69), and liver disease (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.20–11.30) were higher among blacks than whites. In unadjusted models, blacks had greater impairment than whites in social and physical functioning. However, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics eliminated these differences. Blacks were less likely than whites to receive outpatient services (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36–0.72) and be prescribed medications for MDD, but were more likely to receive emergency room and inpatient treatment. Conclusions We found few racial differences in depressive symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, and disability after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Blacks’ lower utilization of ambulatory treatment for MDD and greater medical comorbidity, emergency department use, and hospitalization suggests that management of MDD among blacks should be emphasized in primary care or other settings where treatment is more accessible. PMID:21999032

  9. Comparative Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Among Black and White Patients Treated at US Veterans Affairs Hospitals. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Taisei; Glorioso, Thomas J; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Plomondon, Mary E; Grunwald, Gary K; Bradley, Steven M; Tsai, Thomas T; Waldo, Stephen W; Rao, Sunil V; Banerjee, Subhash; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rene, A Garvey; Wilensky, Robert L; Groeneveld, Peter W; Giri, Jay


    Current comparative outcomes among black and white patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system are not known. To compare outcomes between black and white patients undergoing PCI in the VA health system. This study compared black and white patients who underwent PCI between October 1, 2007, and September 30, 2013, at 63 VA hospitals using data recorded in the VA Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking System for Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories (CART-CL) program. A generalized linear mixed model with a random intercept for site assessed the relative difference in odds of outcomes between black and white patients. The setting was integrated institutionalized hospital care. Excluded were all patients of other races or those with multiple listed races and those with missing data regarding race or the diagnostic cardiac catheterization. The dates of analysis were January 7, 2016, to April 17, 2017. Percutaneous coronary intervention at a VA hospital. The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day all-cause readmission rates, 30-day acute kidney injury, 30-day blood transfusion, and 1-year readmission rates for myocardial infarction. In addition, variations in procedural and postprocedural care were examined, including the use of intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, fractional flow reserve measurements, bare-metal stents, postprocedural medications, and radial access. A total of 42 391 patients (13.3% black and 98.4% male; mean [SD] age, 65.2 [9.1] years) satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In unadjusted analyses, black patients had higher rates of 1-year mortality (7.1% vs 5.9%, P < .001) as well as secondary outcomes of 30-day acute kidney injury (20.8% vs 13.8%, P < .001), 30-day blood transfusion (3.4% vs 2.7%, P < .01), and 1-year readmission rates for myocardial infarction (3.3% vs 2.7%, P = .01) compared with white

  10. Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with markers of inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity in black and white community-dwelling adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Jackson


    Conclusions: Lower 25(OHD concentrations are associated with disturbances in metabolic health in both blacks and whites. Whether correcting vitamin D deficiency could offer a beneficial therapy for disease prevention requires further study.

  11. A Study of Cross-Cultural Communication between Blacks and Whites in the U.S. Army. CAL Research Report: 2 (United States)

    Taylor, Orlando; Ferguson, Dianna


    This investigation concerned specific verbal and nonverbal sources of communication problems between blacks and whites in the U.S. Army. Special reference was made to the problems which lead to misinterpretations and social offensiveness. (SW)

  12. Early Elective Delivery Disparities between Non-Hispanic Black and White Women after Statewide Policy Implementation. (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Muoto, Ifeoma; Darney, Blair G; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M


    In 2011, Oregon implemented a policy that reduced the state's rate of early (before 39 weeks' gestation) elective (without medical need) births. This analysis measured differential policy effects by race, examining whether Oregon's policy was associated with changes in non-Hispanic Black-White disparities in early elective cesarean and labor induction. We used Oregon birth certificate data, defining prepolicy (2008-2010) and postpolicy (2012-2014) periods, including non-Hispanic Black and White women who gave birth during these periods (n = 121,272). We used longitudinal spline models to assess policy impacts by race and probability models to measure policy-associated changes in Black-White disparities. We found that the prepolicy Black-White differences in early elective cesarean (6.1% vs. 4.3%) were eliminated after policy implementation (2.8% vs. 2.5%); adjusted models show decreases in the odds of elective early cesarean among Black women after the policy change (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.00; p = .050) and among White women (adjusted odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.93; p = .006). Adjusted probability models indicated that policy implementation resulted in a 1.75-percentage point narrowing (p = .011) in the Black-White disparity in early elective cesarean. Early elective induction also decreased, from 4.9% and 4.7% for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women to 3.8% and 2.5%, respectively; the policy was not associated with a statistically significant change in disparities. A statewide policy reduced racial disparities in early elective cesarean, but not early elective induction. Attention to differential policy effects by race may reveal changes in disparities, even when that is not the intended focus of the policy. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Between-group variation in female dispersal, kin composition of groups, and proximity patterns in a black-and-white colobus monkey (Colobus vellerosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Wikberg

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence shows within-population variation in natal dispersal, but the effects of such variation on social relationships and the kin composition of groups remain poorly understood. We investigate the link between dispersal, the kin composition of groups, and proximity patterns in a population of black-and-white colobus (Colobus vellerosus that shows variation in female dispersal. From 2006 to 2011, we collected behavioral data, demographic data, and fecal samples of 77 males and 92 females residing in eight groups at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. A combination of demographic data and a genetic network analysis showed that although philopatry was female-biased, only about half of the females resided in their natal groups. Only one group contained female-female dyads with higher average relatedness than randomly drawn animals of both sexes from the same group. Despite between-group variation in female dispersal and kin composition, female-female dyads in most of the study groups had higher proximity scores than randomly drawn dyads from the same group. We conclude that groups fall along a continuum from female dispersed, not kin-based, and not bonded to female philopatric, kin-based, and bonded. We found only partial support for the predicted link between dispersal, kin composition, and social relationships. In contrast to most mammals where the kin composition of groups is a good predictor of the quality of female-female relationships, this study provides further support for the notion that kinship is not necessary for the development and maintenance of social bonds in some gregarious species.

  14. Scan rate converter for tape recording and playback of TV pictures (United States)

    Holt, N. I.


    Magnetic tape recording and playback equipment converts television pictures, both black and white and color, from one scan rate to another. The equipment indexes color picture frames for retrieval electronically and can be used as a document storage and retrieval medium that is compatible with hard-copy printout machines.

  15. Eye Movement Preferences As Individual Differences in Learning From Color and Non-Color Pictures. (United States)

    Caban, Juan Pedro

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of color and non-color (black-and-white) pictures in a paired associate learning task. The study also used individual eye movement quantifications as a predictor of preference for color and non-color pictures. Specifically, eye movement fixation patterns were used as indices of preference for color and…

  16. Hemispheric Specialization and Recognition Memory for Abstract and Realistic Pictures: A Comparison of Painters and Laymen (United States)

    Vogt, S.; Magnussen, S.


    Recognition memory and hemispheric specialization were assessed for abstract colour/black and white pictures of sport situations in painters and visually naive subjects using a forced choice yes/no tachistoscopic procedure. Reaction times showed a significant three-way interaction of picture type, expertise, and visual field, indicating that…

  17. Chronic psychological stress and racial disparities in body mass index change between Black and White girls aged 10-19


    Tomiyama, AJ; Puterman, E; Epel, ES; Rehkopf, DH; Laraia, BA


    Background: One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. Purpose: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19. Methods: Multilevel modeling captured the dynamic of acute (1 month) and chronic (10 years) stress and body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) change in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

  18. Population-level correlates of preterm delivery among black and white women in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan L Carmichael

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. METHODS: We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values. Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.

  19. Colours in black and white: the depiction of lightness and brightness in achromatic engravings before the invention of photography. (United States)

    Zavagno, Daniele; Massironi, Manfredo


    What is it like to see the world in black and white? In the pioneer days of cinema, when movies displayed grey worlds, was it true that no 'colours' were actually seen? Did every object seen in those projections appear grey in the same way? The answer is obviously no--people in those glorious days were seeing a world full of light, shadows, and objects in which colours were expressed in terms of lightness. But the marvels of grey worlds have not always been so richly displayed. Before the invention of photography, the depiction of scenes in black-and-white had to face some technical and perceptual challenges. We have studied the technical and perceptual constraints that XV-XVIII century engravers had to face in order to translate actual colours into shades of grey. An indeterminacy principle is considered, according to which artists had to prefer the representation of some object or scene features over others (for example brightness over lightness). The reasons for this lay between the kind of grey scale technically available and the kind of information used in the construction of 3-D scenes. With the invention of photography, photomechanical reproductions, and new printing solutions, artists had at their disposal a continuous grey scale that greatly reduces the constraints of the indeterminacy principle.

  20. Inequality in Black and White High School Students' Perceptions of School Support: An Examination of Race in Context. (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar


    Supportive relationships with adults at school are critical to student engagement in adolescence. Additional research is needed to understand how students' racial backgrounds interact with the school context to shape their perceptions of school support. This study employed multilevel, latent variable methods with a sample of Black and White students (N = 19,726, 35.8 % Black, 49.9 % male, mean age = 15.9) in 58 high schools to explore variation in perceived caring, equity, and high expectations by student race, school diversity, and socioeconomic context. The results indicated that Black students perceived less caring and equity relative to White students overall, and that equity and high expectations were lower in diverse schools for both Black and White students. Nonetheless, racial disparities were attenuated in more diverse schools. The findings point to the need for intervention to improve perceptions of school support for Black youth and for all students in lower income and more diverse schools.

  1. Social Risk Factors of Black and White Adolescents' Substance Use: The Differential Role of Siblings and Best Friends. (United States)

    Rowan, Zachary R


    Efforts to understand peer influence among adolescents have established the robust relationship between having substance using peers and future substance use. Still, research suggests that peer influence affects different types of adolescents in different ways. Black adolescents may be less susceptible to friends compared to white adolescents and possess stronger family-orientation, suggesting that siblings may affect deviance of Black adolescents whereas friends will have a minimal impact. This study used data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to evaluate the relative strength of best friend and siblings' influence as risk factors for Black and White adolescents' alcohol and cigarette use. Approximately 182 Black sibling pairs (37 % male) and 657 white sibling pairs (46 % male) that ranged in ages from 11 to 19 were in the longitudinal analyses for the current study. The findings demonstrated that sibling and best friends' substance use explained white adolescents' cigarette and alcohol use, whereas Black adolescents' cigarette and alcohol use was predominantly explained by siblings' substance use. Ultimately, the results indicated the nuanced role that two types of peers have in explaining variation in substance use across Black and White adolescents.

  2. Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors in Blacks and Whites: Dissecting Racial Paradox of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Osei


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.

  3. Disease Prevalence and Use of Health Care among a National Sample of Black and White Male State Prisoners (United States)

    Rosen, David L.; Hammond, Wizdom P.; Wohl, David A.; Golin, Carol E.


    U.S. prisons have a court-affirmed mandate to provide health care to prisoners. Given this mandate, we sought to determine whether use of prison health care was equitable across race using a nationally-representative sample of Black and White male state prisoners. We first examined the prevalence of health conditions by race. Then, across all health conditions and for each of 15 conditions, we compared the proportion of Black and White male prisoners with the condition who received health care. For most conditions including cancer, heart disease, and liver-related disorders, the age-adjusted prevalence of disease among Blacks was lower than among Whites (p<.05). Blacks were also modestly more likely than Whites to use health care for existing conditions (p<.05), particularly hypertension, cerebral vascular accident/brain injury, cirrhosis, flu-like illness, and injury. The observed racial disparities in health and health care use are different from those among non-incarcerated populations. PMID:22643475

  4. Symbolic Understanding of Pictures in Low-Functioning Children with Autism: The Effects of Iconicity and Naming (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.


    This research investigated whether symbolic understanding of pictures in low-functioning children with autism is mediated by iconicity and language. In Experiment 1, participants were taught novel words paired with unfamiliar pictures that varied in iconicity (black-and-white line drawings, greyscale photographs, colour line drawings, colour…

  5. Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents. (United States)

    Lobene, Andrea J; Kindler, Joseph M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Grider, Arthur; Lewis, Richard D


    Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes. Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo ( n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide ( r = -0.07), insulin ( r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR ( r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) ( P = 0.06). Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this

  6. Degree of facial and body terminal hair growth in unselected black and white women: toward a populational definition of hirsutism. (United States)

    DeUgarte, Catherine Marin; Woods, K S; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Azziz, Ricardo


    Hirsutism (i.e. facial and body terminal hair growth in a male-like pattern in women) is the principal clinical sign of hyperandrogenism, although its definition remains unclear. The purposes of the present study were to define 1) the degree of facial and body terminal hair, as assessed by the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score, in unselected women from the general population; 2) the effect of race (Black and White) on the same; and 3) the normative cutoff values. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary academic medical center. Participants included 633 unselected White (n = 283) and Black (n = 350) women presenting for a preemployment physical exam. Interventions included history and physical examination. Terminal body hair growth was assessed using the mFG scoring system; nine body areas were scored from 0-4 for terminal hair growth distribution. The mFG scores were not normally distributed; although cluster analysis failed to identify a natural cutoff value or clustering of the population, principal component and univariate analyses denoted two nearly distinct clusters that occurred above and below an mFG value of 2, with the bulk of the scores below. Overall, an mFG score of at least 3 was observed in 22.1% of all subjects (i.e. the upper quartile); of these subjects, 69.3% complained of being hirsute, compared with 15.8% of women with an mFG score below this value, and similar to the proportion of women with an mFG score of at least 8 who considered themselves to be hirsute (70.0%). Overall, there were no significant differences between Black and White women. Our data indicate that the prevalence and degree of facial and body terminal hair growth, as assessed by the mFG score, is similar in Black and White women and that an mFG of at least 3 signals the population of women whose hair growth falls out of the norm.

  7. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Sonderman

    Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings

  8. Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthesis and transport in berries of black and white spine grapes (Vitis davidii). (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Fan, Xiucai; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Sun, Haisheng; Liu, Chonghuai


    The color of berry skin is an important economic trait for grape and is essentially determined by the components and content of anthocyanins. The fruit color of Chinese wild grapes is generally black, and the profile of anthocyanins in Chinese wild grapes is significantly different from that of Vitis vinifera . However, V. davidii is the only species that possesses white berry varieties among Chinese wild grape species. Thus, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to compare the difference of transcriptional level in black and white V. davidii , in order to find some key genes that are related to anthocyanins accumulation in V. davidii . The results of anthocyanins detection revealed that 3,5- O -diglucoside anthocyanins is the predominant anthocyanins in V. davidii . It showed obvious differences from V. vinifera in the profile of the composition of anthocyanins. The transcriptome sequencing by Illumina mRNA-Seq technology generated an average of 57 million 100-base pair clean reads from each sample. Differential gene expression analysis revealed thousands of differential expression genes (DEGs) in the pairwise comparison of different fruit developmental stages between and within black and white V. davidii . After the analysis of functional category enrichment and differential expression patterns of DEGs, 46 genes were selected as the candidate genes. Some genes have been reported as being related to anthocyanins accumulation, and some genes were newly found in our study as probably being related to anthocyanins accumulation. We inferred that 3AT (VIT_03s0017g00870) played an important role in anthocyanin acylation, GST4 (VIT_04s0079g00690) and AM2 (VIT_16s0050g00910) played important roles in anthocyanins transport in V. davidii . The expression of some selected DEGs was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study investigated the transcriptomic profiles of berry skin from black and white spine grapes at three fruit developmental

  9. Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Stefanovics, Elina A; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N


    We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling (PPG) and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal levels of gambling in black and white respondents indicate the importance of considering race-related factors in mental health prevention and treatment strategies.  American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. Trajectories of body mass and self-concept in black and white girls: the lingering effects of stigma. (United States)

    Mustillo, Sarah A; Hendrix, Kimber L; Schafer, Markus H


    As a stigmatizing condition, obesity may lead to the internalization of devalued labels and threats to self-concept. Modified labeling theory suggests that the effects of stigma may outlive direct manifestations of the discredited characteristic itself. This article considers whether obesity's effects on self-concept linger when obese youth enter the normal body mass range. Using longitudinal data from the National Growth and Health Study on 2,206 black and white girls, we estimated a parallel-process growth mixture model of body mass linked to growth models of body image discrepancy and self-esteem. We found that discrepancy was higher and self-esteem lower in formerly obese girls compared to girls always in the normal range and comparable to chronically obese girls. Neither body image discrepancy nor self-esteem rebounded in white girls despite reduction in body mass, suggesting that the effects of stigma linger. Self-esteem, but not discrepancy, did rebound in black girls.

  11. Exploring racial disparities in CHD mortality between blacks and whites across the United States: A geographically weighted regression approach (United States)

    Gebreab, Samson Y.; Diez Roux, Ana V.


    Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is one of the major contributors to racial disparities in health in the United States (US). We examined spatial heterogeneity in black–white differences in CHD mortality across the US and assessed the contributions of poverty and segregation. We used county-level, age-adjusted CHD mortality rates for blacks and whites in the continental US between 1996 and 2006. Geographically weighted regression was employed to assess spatial heterogeneity. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in black–white differences in CHD mortality (median black–white difference 17.7 per 100,000, 25th–75th percentile (IQR): 4.0, 34.0, P value for spatial non-stationarity racial disparities in CHD mortality. Additional research to identify the individual and contextual factors that explain the local variations in racial disparities is warranted. PMID:22835483

  12. Daytime birth and parturition assistant behavior in wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) Yunnan, China. (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Yang, Le; Xiao, Wen


    Few quantitative descriptions of parturition behavior have been reported in wild nonhuman primates because the majority of births occur at night. We have recorded a daytime birth event of a primiparous black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). The partum stage lasted 4 min 30 s, and the female skillfully severed the umbilical cord, ingested the placenta, and held and licked the newborn infant. During this period, the laboring female received delivery assistance from a multiparous female in same one-male unit (OMU) and female juveniles from same OMU showed great interesting during the partum. Our case study suggested that there might be considerable individual variation in birth-related behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heart Disease Death Rates Among Blacks and Whites Aged ≥35 Years - United States, 1968-2015. (United States)

    Van Dyke, Miriam; Greer, Sophia; Odom, Erika; Schieb, Linda; Vaughan, Adam; Kramer, Michael; Casper, Michele


    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. 1968-2015. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968-2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968-2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases occurring during the 1970s and 1980s followed by small but steady

  14. Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Captive Black and White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) Caused by Acanthamoeba T4 Genotype. (United States)

    Gaide, N; Pelandakis, M; Robveille, C; Albaric, O; Jouvion, G; Souchon, M; Risler, A; Abadie, J


    A mature male, black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) died in a zoological garden after a 4-day history of lethargy and non-responsive convulsions. Necropsy and histopathological examinations revealed acute necrotizing and haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis with intralesional amoebas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype was identified as the causative agent of the brain lesion, based on amplification and sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The presence of free-living amoebas in water and mud from the lemur's environment was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. The two predominant genera, representing 80% of isolated amoebas, were Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. All Acanthamoeba isolates belonged to the T4 genotype. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a meningoencephalitis due to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype in Lemuridae with concurrent analysis of pathological tissues and environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resource seasonality and reproduction predict fission-fusion dynamics in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). (United States)

    Baden, Andrea L; Webster, Timothy H; Kamilar, Jason M


    Ruffed lemurs (genus Varecia) are often described as having a flexible social organization, such that both cohesive (low fission-fusion dynamics) and fluid (high fission-fusion dynamics) grouping patterns have been observed. In ruffed lemur communities with high fission-fusion dynamics, group members vary in their temporal and spatial dispersion throughout a communally defended territory. These patterns have been likened to those observed in several haplorrhine species that exhibit the most fluid types of fission-fusion social organization (e.g., Pan and Ateles). To substantiate and further refine these claims, we describe the fission-fusion dynamics of a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) community at Mangevo, an undisturbed primary rainforest site in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We collected instantaneous group scan samples from August 2007-December 2008 (4,044 observation hours) to study and characterize patterns of subgroup size, composition, cohesion, and social association. In 16 consecutive months, we never found all members of the community together. In fact, individuals spent nearly half of their time alone. Subgroups were small, cohesive, and typically of mixed-sex composition. Mixed-sex subgroups were significantly larger, less cohesive, and more common than either male-only or female-only subgroups. Subgroup dynamics were related to shifts in climate, phenology of preferred fruit species, and female reproductive state. On average, association indices were low. Males and females were equally gregarious; however, adult male-male associations were significantly weaker than any other association type. Results presented herein document striking differences in fission-fusion dynamics between black-and-white ruffed lemurs and haplorrhines, while also demonstrating many broad-scale similarities to haplorrhine taxa that possess the most fluid fission-fusion societies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Stigma and Postpartum Depression Treatment Acceptability Among Black and White Women in the First Six-Months Postpartum. (United States)

    Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Benn, E K T; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, E A


    Objective To measure stigma associated with four types of postpartum depression therapies and to estimate the association between stigma and the acceptance of these therapies for black and white postpartum mothers. Methods Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, this study included 481 black and white women who gave birth in a large urban hospital and answered a series of questions at 6-months postpartum. Survey items included socio demographic and clinical factors, attitudes about postpartum depression therapies and stigma. The associations between race, stigma, and treatment acceptability were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Black postpartum mothers were less likely than whites to accept prescription medication (64 vs. 81%, p = 0.0001) and mental health counseling (87 vs. 93%, p = 0.001) and more likely to accept spiritual counseling (70 vs. 52%, p = 0.0002). Women who endorsed stigma about receipt of postpartum depression therapies versus those who did not were less likely to accept prescription medication, mental health and spiritual counseling for postpartum depression. Overall black mothers were less likely to report stigma associated with postpartum depression therapies. In adjusted models, black women versus white women remained less likely to accept prescription medication for postpartum depression (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72) and stigma did not explain this difference. Conclusions Although treatment stigma is associated with lower postpartum depression treatment acceptance, stigma does not explain the lower levels of postpartum depression treatment acceptance among black women. More research is needed to understand treatment barriers for postpartum depression, especially among black women.

  17. Understanding racial HIV/STI disparities in black and white men who have sex with men: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.

  18. Does Colour Affect the Quality or Quantity of Children's Stories Elicited by Pictures? (United States)

    Schneider, Phyillis; Rivard, Reane; Debreuil, Buffy


    The current study investigated the effect of colour vs. black-and-white pictures on the stories children told using the pictures as stimuli. Participants were 22 preschool children aged 4-6 (M = 59.98, SD = 7.52) attending day-care centres in a Western Canadian city. Two story sets of five pictures each, depicting stories with similar structure,…

  19. Racial and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Black and White Youth: An Examination of the Mediating Effects of Family Structure, Stress and Support (United States)

    Miller, Byron; Taylor, John


    Stress research shows that race, socioeconomic status (SES), and family context significantly impact an adolescent's psychological well-being, yet little is known about the mediating effects of family context on racial and SES differences in depressive symptoms among Black and White youth. We investigate these associations using a sample of 875…

  20. Comparing Sexual Harassment Subtypes among Black and White Women by Military Rank: Double Jeopardy, the Jezebel, and the Cult of True Womanhood (United States)

    Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.; Woods, Krystle C.


    Drawing upon feminist analyses of double jeopardy and the cult of true womanhood, we examine race, rank, sexual harassment frequency, and psychological distress for Black and White female military personnel (N= 7,714). Results indicated that White women reported more overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and crude behavior, whereas Black…

  1. Effects of age and type of picture on visuospatial working memory assessed with a computerized jigsaw-puzzle task. (United States)

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad


    We investigated the effect of age and color in a computerized version of the jigsaw-puzzle task. In Experiment 1, young and older adults were presented with puzzles in color and black-and-white line drawings, varying in difficulty from 4 to 9 pieces. Older adults performed the task better with the black-and-white stimuli and younger adults performed better with the color ones. In Experiment 2, new older and young adults identified the same fragmented pictures as fast and accurately as possible. The older group identified the black-and-white stimuli faster than those presented in color, while the younger adults identified both similarly. In Experiment 3A, new older and young groups performed the puzzle task with the same color pictures and their monochrome versions. In Experiment 3B, participants performed a speeded identification task with the two sets. The findings of these experiments showed that older adults have a memory not a perceptual difficulty.

  2. Survey of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). (United States)

    Crawford, Graham C; Puschner, Birgit; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Dunker, Freeland


    Serum and whole blood samples from 64 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), aged 6 mo to 32 yr, were analyzed to survey mineral and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. All animals were fed a commercial primate food and a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Specific commercial diet information was available for 52 animals that were fed one of 10 different diets. Data analysis showed no differences in the analytes attributable to sex or access to natural ultraviolet light. Serum phosphorus (range: 1.4-3.1 mmol/L) was significantly higher and retinol (range: 0.38-1.23 micromol/L) was significantly lower in young animals (Varecia rubra), a closely related species. Selenium (range: 3.5-7.7 micromol/L) was within the range expected for a mammal, but higher than concentrations reported in wild V rubra. Zinc (range: 9.2-62.7 micromol/L) was similar to concentrations reported in V. rubra. Calcidiol (range: <12.5-144.8 nmol/L) and retinol (range: 0.38-2.95 micromol/L) were both lower and higher than concentrations reported in V. rubra. Lower serum calcidiol concentration correlated with lower commercial dietary vitamin D3. Alpha-tocopherol (range: 1.2-17.6 micromol/L) and y-tocopherol (range: 0.3-3.9 micromol/L) were within a range expected in a captive frugivorous primate but higher than concentrations found in wild V. rubra.

  3. Beliefs among black and white adults about causes and prevention of cardiovascular disease: the Minnesota Heart Survey. (United States)

    Folsom, A R; Sprafka, J M; Luepker, R V; Jacobs, D R


    We assessed beliefs about the symptoms, causes, and prevention of cardiovascular disease in population-based surveys of black and white Twin Cities adults in 1985-86. Whites had a generally higher awareness of heart attack symptoms than did blacks; 72% of blacks and 85% of whites mentioned chest pain as a likely symptom. Sixty-five percent of blacks and 76% of whites correctly offered at least one of the three major, modifiable risk factors (smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol in blood or diet) as likely causes of cardiovascular disease. However, less than 5% of respondents mentioned all three major risk factors. The most frequent response offered as a cause was stress/worry (54% of blacks, 51% of whites). Individuals with higher educational levels generally responded more correctly than those with less education. After accounting for differences in educational level, blacks demonstrated a higher awareness of hypertension as a risk factor, whereas whites were more knowledgeable about smoking and cholesterol. In light of the high percentage of adults still lacking awareness about cardiovascular risk, public education about prevention should continue. Such efforts are broadly desirable but may be most effectively targeted toward minorities and groups with less education, in whom awareness is low and risk of disease is high.

  4. Religious Engagement in a Risky Family Model Predicting Health in Older Black and White Seventh-day Adventists. (United States)

    Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W; Haviland, Mark G; Fraser, Gary E


    In a structural equation model, associations among latent variables - Child Poverty, Risky Family exposure, Religious Engagement, Negative Social Interactions, Negative Emotionality, and Perceived Physical Health - were evaluated in 6,753 Black and White adults aged 35-106 years (M = 60.5, SD = 13.0). All participants were members of the Seventh-day Adventist church surveyed in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS). Child Poverty was positively associated with both Risky Family exposure (conflict, neglect, abuse) and Religious Engagement (intrinsic religiosity, religious coping, religiousness). Risky Family was negatively associated with Religious Engagement and positively associated with both Negative Social Interactions (intrusive, failed to help, insensitive, rejecting) and Negative Emotionality (depression, negative affect, neuroticism). Religious Engagement was negatively associated with Negative Emotionality and Negative Social Interactions at a given level of risky family. Negative Social Interactions was positively associated with Negative Emotionality, which had a direct, negative effect on Perceived Physical Health. All constructs had indirect effects on Perceived Physical Health through Negative Emotionality. The effects of a risky family environment appear to be enduring, negatively affecting one's adult religious life, emotionality, social interactions, and perceived health. Religious engagement, however, may counteract the damaging effects of early life stress.

  5. Association between socioeconomic status (SES) and lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) severity among black and white men. (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Munro, Heather; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J; Penson, David F


    A higher prevalence of moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has been reported among African Americans, but the separate effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on LUTS severity are unclear. We investigated the roles of education, income, marital status, and source of health insurance on LUTS reporting among black and white U.S. men. A prospective cohort within the Southern Community Cohort Study The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was completed during follow-up by 2488 white men and 4188 black men. Multivariable linear and logistic regression methods were used to compare IPSS scores and LUTS severity by race and SES after adjusting for age, duration of follow-up, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment, source of recruitment, smoking status, BMI, mode of follow-up ascertainment, and prior diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia. Overall IPSS scores and the prevalence of moderate/severe LUTS were not significantly associated with race. Instead, higher IPSS scores were significantly associated (p Education was also marginally associated with IPSS scores (p = 0.06) among black men. Furthermore, moderate/severe LUTS onset was significantly associated with a household income less than $15,000/year (OR = 1.56 (1.23, 1.96)) and having private health insurance (OR = 0.79 (0.67, 0.93)). Social or behavioral factors related to SES affect LUTS reporting, and suggests a potential affect on BPH diagnosis.

  6. Birth seasonality and pattern in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan. (United States)

    Li, Jin-Fa; He, Yu-Chao; Huang, Zhi-Pang; Wang, Shuang-Jin; Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Zhao, Juan-Jun; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei


    Seasonal variation in environmental factors is vital to the regulation of seasonal reproduction in primates. Consequently, long-term systematic data is necessary to clarify the birth seasonality and pattern of primates in highly seasonal environments. This study indicated that black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha exhibited strict birth seasonality with a pulse model. Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization. Birth distribution showed three birth peaks, and the birth pattern showed a "V" style in even-numbered years and a gradual increase in odd-numbered years. The beginning date, end date and median birth date were earlier in even-numbered years than those in odd-numbered years. The higher latitude of their habitats, earlier birth date, shorter birth period, fewer birth peaks and stronger birth synchrony might be adaptations for strongly seasonal variation in climate and food resources. After the summer solstice when daylight length began to gradually shorten, R. bieti at Mt. Lasha started to breed during the period with the highest environmental temperature and food availability, which implied that photoperiod may be the proximate factor triggering the onset of estrus and mating. It appears that R. bieti coincided conception and mid-lactation with the peak in staple foods, and weaning with the peak in high quality of foods. Thus, food availability was the ultimate factor regulating reproductive seasonality, and photoperiod was the proximate factor fine-turning the coordination between seasonal breeding and food availability.

  7. Differences in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black and White daily smokers: the role of smoking motives. (United States)

    Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A


    The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers. (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F


    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (pWhites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (pWhites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; pWhites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  9. Affirmative Action Application or Black and White in South Africa Higher Education Institutions: Is it the way forward or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiena Maria van der Bank


    Full Text Available We will, demonstrate what affirmative action entails, its origin and the relationship with discrimination and equality. The paper will also highlight the implementation of affirmative action in the Higher Education sector in South Africa.  Affirmative action or black and white are the additional corrective steps which must be taken in order that those who have been historically disadvantage by unfair discrimination before 1994 are able to derive full benefits from an equitable employment environment. While there has been a significant increase in the number of women appointed into management positions, the proportion in relation to the total number of women in senior posts such as those of Vice Chancellors, Deputy-Vice Chancellors and Executive Deans still remains problematic. Considerations should be taken with regard to issues of access, equity and relevance.  Indeed, affirmative action should be located within a rigorous process that will ensure that those who are for example, promoted to senior positions both in private and public sectors are able to demonstrate strategic thinking and action, quality execution of tasks, efficiency and effectiveness in achieving organisational goals.  This will also be followed by a brief South Africa’s case study of different entities (South African Breweries and Sowetan Newspaper.  A comparison of USA’s affirmative action and whether “there is a light at the end of a tunnel – affirmative action” will be done.

  10. The role of leaf toughness on foraging efficiency in Angola black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus). (United States)

    Dunham, Noah T; Lambert, Alexander L


    Examining the relationships among foraging behavior, food mechanical properties, and masticatory morphology is a bourgeoning research topic among behavioral ecologists and functional morphologists. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which leaf toughness influences foraging efficiency with regard to ingestion rate, masticatory investment, and masticatory rate. Diet and feeding data were collected on adults from three groups of Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya, from July 2014 to December 2015. Ingestion rates were estimated by counting the number of items consumed during feeding bouts and multiplying this value by the mean mass of a particular food item. The number of mastications was also counted during 3-5 minute focal periods. Mechanical toughness of commonly eaten young leaves (n = 27 species) and mature leaves (n = 13 species) was recorded using a toughness tester equipped with a razor blade. Ingestion rates (g/min) negatively correlated with leaf toughness (r(2)  = 0.73; p toughness (r(2)  = 0.72; p toughness values (r(2)  = 0.09; p = 0.07). Our findings highlight the degree to which toughness values can vary among leaves and how this variation can dramatically influence ingestion rates and chewing efficiency in black and white colobus monkeys. Studies that link food mechanical properties with oral processing behaviors will ultimately provide important context for understanding craniofacial and dentognathic traits in primates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among Black and White North Carolina state prisoners, 1995-2005 (United States)

    Wohl, David A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.


    Purpose We compared mortality rates among state prisoners and other state residents to identify prisoners’ healthcare needs Methods We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1995-2005 to estimate all-cause and cause-specific death rates among Black and White male prisoners aged 20-79 years, and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the expected number based on death rates among state residents Results The all-cause SMR of Black prisoners was 0.52 (95%CI: 0.48 0.57), with fewer deaths than expected from accidents, homicides, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The all-cause SMR of White prisoners was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.25) with fewer deaths than expected for accidents, but more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis, liver disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, and HIV. Conclusions Mortality of Black prisoners was lower than that of Black state residents for both traumatic and chronic causes of death. Mortality of White prisoners was lower than that of White state residents for accidents, but higher for several chronic causes of death. Future studies should investigate the effect of prisoners’ pre-incarceration and in-prison morbidity, the prison environment, and prison healthcare on prisoners’ patterns of mortality. PMID:21737304

  12. Study on the Consumption Speed of Forages and Consumption Indices of Forages in Romanian Black and White Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to determine the consumption speed of forages (g⁄min. and consumption indices (quantity and consumption duration of forages, administered in two portions, to Romanian Black and White cows. The administration order of forages (fibrous-succulents (O1 and succulents-fibrous (O2 order, the number of portion (P1 and P2 and number of feeding (F1 and F2 were the experimental variants. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the administration order of forages had an influence on the speed consumption, when was given before silage (O1, hay had a higher consumption speed (41.35 g/min decreasing to 31.41 g/min when hay was fed after the silage (O2. For silage the consumption speed was 190.33 g/min in O1 and increased to 228.87 g/min when was given before hay (O2. Between portion 1 (P1 and portion 2 (P2, the significant difference (p<0.001 was for silage consumption speed in favour portion P2. Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the consumption speed of the feedstuffs, as well as the amount consumed, was higher in the first feeding F1 than in the second feeding F2.

  13. Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill; Cherepanav, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari


    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination compared to white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  14. Black and white homeless men: differences in self-actualization, willingness to use services, history of being homeless, and subjective health ratings. (United States)

    Sumerlin, J R; Privette, G; Bundrick, C M


    In this analysis of racial confounds in the study of homelessness and self-actualization, 100 black and 71 white homeless men from a mission and a street environment were compared to test the hypothesis that the prototypes of black and white homeless men are different. Discriminant analysis of items from the Short Index of Self-actualization of Jones and Crandall, willingness to use services, history of homelessness, and self-reported health ratings correctly classified 83.6% of black and white homeless men (Wilks' lambda = .46, p < .0001). The prototypic black homeless person and the prototypic white homeless person have strong differences so race must be evaluated in studies of such groups.

  15. Emotions in "Black and White" or Shades of Gray? How We Think About Emotion Shapes Our Perception and Neural Representation of Emotion. (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Nook, Erik C; Narayanan, Sandhya; Shu, Jocelyn; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N


    The demands of social life often require categorically judging whether someone's continuously varying facial movements express "calm" or "fear," or whether one's fluctuating internal states mean one feels "good" or "bad." In two studies, we asked whether this kind of categorical, "black and white," thinking can shape the perception and neural representation of emotion. Using psychometric and neuroimaging methods, we found that (a) across participants, judging emotions using a categorical, "black and white" scale relative to judging emotions using a continuous, "shades of gray," scale shifted subjective emotion perception thresholds; (b) these shifts corresponded with activity in brain regions previously associated with affective responding (i.e., the amygdala and ventral anterior insula); and (c) connectivity of these regions with the medial prefrontal cortex correlated with the magnitude of categorization-related shifts. These findings suggest that categorical thinking about emotions may actively shape the perception and neural representation of the emotions in question. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry


    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  17. Differences in the Associations between Gambling Problem Severity and Psychiatric Disorders among Black and White Adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions


    Barry, Declan T.; Stefanovics, Elina A.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.


    We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal le...

  18. Social Discrimination and Resiliency are not associated with Differences in Prevalent HIV Infection in Black and White Men who have Sex with Men (United States)

    Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Sullivan, Patrick; Millett, Gregorio; Rosenberg, Eli; Salazar, Laura; Di Clemente, Ralph J.; Cooper, Hannah; Kelley, Colleen F.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Frew, Paula; del Rio, Carlos


    Objectives To examine associations of homophobia, racism, and resiliency with differences in prevalent HIV infection in black and white MSM. Methods The Involve[ment]t study is a cohort of black and white MSM aged 18–39 years in Atlanta, GA designed to evaluate individual, dyadic, and community level factors that might explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Participants were recruited irrespective of HIV serostatus from community-based venues and from Internet ads and were tested for HIV. We assessed respondents’ demographics, whether they had engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) within the past 6 months, and attitudes about perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and personal resiliency. Results Compared to white MSM, black MSM were less likely to report UAI in the past 6 months (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.44–0.80), more likely to be HIV-positive (OR = 5.05, CI = 3.52–7.25) and, among—those HIV-positive—more likely to report not being aware of their HIV infection (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.18–5.65). Greater perceived racism was associated with UAI in the black sample (partial odds ratio [pOR] = 1.48, CI = 1.10–1.99). Overall, perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and resilience were not associated with prevalent HIV infection in our samples. Greater resilience was associated with less perceived homophobia in both black and white samples (Spearman r = −.27, p < .001, for both). Conclusion Future studies of social discrimination at the institutional and network level, than at the individual level, may explain differences in HIV infection in black and white MSM. PMID:24820109

  19. Anxiolytic-like effect of phytoestrogen genistein in rats with long-term absence of ovarian hormones in the black and white model. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Hernández-Figueroa, Jesús David; Hernández-Calderón, Beatriz Del Carmen; Saavedra, Margarita


    Postmenopause is mainly characterized by a reduction of ovarian hormones, which is accompanied by a major incidence of physical disorders and mood swings. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that phytoestrogens could be used to ameliorate these alterations associated with menopause. However, the phytoestrogen effects on anxiety in rats with long-term absence of ovarian hormones, is unknown. Consequently, in the present study the authors compared the anxiolytic-like effect of phytoestrogen genistein (0.25, 0.5 y 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in Wistar rats with 12-weeks postovariectomy in the black and white model and in the open field test, and it was compared with diazepam (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). In the black and white model, genistein (0.5 y 1.0 mg/kg) and diazepam reduced the latency to enter and increased the time spent into the white compartment; also, significantly increased frequency and time spent in exploration toward white compartment was seen, as compared with the control group (phormones in the black and white model, supporting the hypotheses that phytoestrogens could be used to ameliorate anxiety associated with menopause.

  20. Fast-food intake and diet quality in black and white girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. (United States)

    Schmidt, Marcia; Affenito, Sandra G; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Khoury, Philip R; Barton, Bruce; Crawford, Patricia; Kronsberg, Shari; Schreiber, George; Obarzanek, Eva; Daniels, Stephen


    To examine trends in fast-food consumption and its relationship to calorie, fat, and sodium intake in black and white adolescent girls. A longitudinal multicenter cohort study of the development of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in black and white female adolescents. Data collection occurred annually using a validated 3-day food record and a food-patterns questionnaire. A biracial and socioeconomically diverse group of 2379 black and white girls recruited from 3 centers. Three-day food records and a food-patterns questionnaire were examined for intake of fast food and its association with nutrient intake. We compared patterns of exposure to fast food and its impact on intake of calories, fat, and sodium. Fast-food intake was positively associated with intake of energy and sodium as well as total fat and saturated fat as a percentage of calories. Fast-food intake increased with increasing age in both races. With increasing consumption of fast food, energy intake increased with an adjusted mean of 1837 kcal for the low fast-food frequency group vs 1966 kcal for the highest fast-food frequency group (Pfood frequency group was 34.3% as opposed to 35.8% in the highest fast-food frequency group (Pfood frequency group (Pfood is a determinant of diet quality in adolescent girls. Efforts to reduce fast-food consumption may be useful in improving diet and risk for future cardiovascular disease.

  1. Does female dominance facilitate feeding priority in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in southeastern Madagascar? (United States)

    Overdorff, Deborah J; Erhart, Elizabeth M; Mutschler, Thomas


    Although many Malagasy lemurs are thought to be female dominant and to have female feeding priority, to date the relationship between these behaviors has been rigorously established only in Lemur catta, and other ways that females might achieve feeding priority have not been examined closely. Erhart and Overdorff [International Journal of Primatology 20:927-940, 1999] suggested that one way female primates achieve feeding priority is to initiate and lead groups to food, thereby gaining access to the food first and positively influencing their food intake compared to other group members. Here we describe female dominance patterns and potential measures of feeding priority in two groups of black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) that were observed over a 15-month period in southeastern Madagascar. We predicted that the females would 1) be consistently dominant to males, 2) lead groups to food sources more often than males, and 3) have higher feeding rates compared to males when they arrived at food sources first. The results were dissimilar between the study groups. During the study, the oldest adult female in group 1 died. There was no evidence for female dominance in this group, and the remaining (likely natal) female did not lead the group more often, nor did she have a higher food intake than males. Group 1 dispersed shortly after the time frame reported here. In contrast, the resident female in group 2 was dominant to group males (based on agonistic interactions), led the group to food sources more often, and experienced a higher food intake when she arrived first at a food source. How these patterns vary over time and are influenced by the number of females in groups, group stability, food quality, and reproductive condition will be examined in future analyses. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate serum ferritin in black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). (United States)

    Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Crawford, Graham


    Lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. When excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. The pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. Tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissue biopsy and histologic examination, or quantitated by chemical analysis of biopsy tissue, However, expense and risk associated with anesthesia and surgery prevent routine use of tissue biopsy to assess iron status. A noninvasive means of assessing total body iron stores is needed to monitor iron stores in lemurs to determine whether dietary modification is preventing excessive iron deposition, and to monitor potential therapies such as phlebotomy or chelation. Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, cats, and pigs. Serum ferritin is considered the best serum analyte to predict total body iron stores in these species and is more reliable than serum iron or total iron binding capacity, both of which may be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy or excess including hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease, and drug administration. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin in lemurs. The assay uses polyclonal rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies in a sandwich arrangement. Ferritin isolated from liver and spleen of a black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was used as a standard. Ferritin standards were linear from 0 to 50 microg/L. Recovery of purified ferritin from lemur serum varied from 95% to 110%. The within-assay variability was 4.5%, and the assay-to-assay variability for three different samples ranged

  3. Comparison of dietary habits and plans for dietary changes in black and white women seeking bariatric surgery. (United States)

    McLean, Kendall L; Moore, Carolyn E; Miketinas, Derek C; Champagne, Catherine M


    Achieving weight loss after bariatric surgery depends on the individual's ability to sustain lifestyle changes involving dietary modifications. Presurgical dietary assessment is critical to evaluate usual dietary habits and identify the need for intervention before surgery. The objective of this study was to identify usual dietary habits of black and white women seeking bariatric surgery and to examine potential differences between these ethnic groups. An additional aim was to describe participants' plans to change dietary behaviors after surgery. This study examined data from an observational study sponsored by a benefits management group in Louisiana. In this cross-sectional study, a presurgical dietary assessment interview questionnaire collected information on dietary habits. Participants (n = 200) were adult women being screened for bariatric surgery; 54% were white, and 46% were black. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between groups were tested using 2-way analysis of the variance. Participants reported consuming fast food 2.9 ± 2.6 times per week, fried foods 2.1 ± 1.8 times per week, and desserts 3.4 ± 3.2 times per week. Blacks reported more frequent consumption of fast food (Psurgery were similar between ethnic groups. Findings indicated that frequent consumption of fast foods, fried foods, desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages was common among women seeking bariatric surgery. Blacks tended to consume these foods and beverages more often than whites. Current dietary habits and future plans to change dietary behaviors should be addressed before surgery for success. Follow-up studies investigating the assessment instrument's ability to predict dietary adherence and weight loss after surgery are warranted. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in progression to ESRD between black and white patients receiving predialysis care in a universal health care system. (United States)

    van den Beukel, Tessa O; de Goeij, Moniek C M; Dekker, Friedo W; Siegert, Carl E H; Halbesma, Nynke


    Studies performed in the United States showed that blacks progress from CKD to ESRD faster than do whites. Possible explanations are differences in health care system factors. This study investigated whether progression is also faster in a universal health care system, where all patients receive comparable care. Data from the PREdialysis PAtient REcord study, a multicenter follow-up study of patients with CKD who started predialysis care in The Netherlands (1999-2011), were analyzed. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for starting renal replacement therapy (RRT), and linear mixed models were used to compare renal function decline (RFD) between blacks and whites. To explore possible mechanisms, analyses were adjusted for patient characteristics. At initiation of predialysis care, blacks (n=49) were younger and had more diabetes mellitus, higher proteinuria levels, and a higher estimated GFR than whites (n=946). Median follow-up time in months was similar (blacks: 13.9 [boundaries of interquartile range (IQR), 5.3 to 19.5]; whites: 13.1 [IQR, 5.1 to 24.0]). For blacks compared with whites, the crude HR for starting RRT within the first 15 months was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 1.34) and from 15 months onward, 1.93 (95% CI, 1.02 to 3.68), which increased after adjustment. RFD was faster by 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.32) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per month in blacks compared with whites. Blacks receiving predialysis care in a universal health care system have faster disease progression than whites, suggesting that health care system factors have a less influential role than had been thought in explaining black-white differences.

  5. Survival by genotype: patterns at Mc1r are not black and white at the White Sands ecotone. (United States)

    Des Roches, S; Sollmann, R; Calhoun, K; Rothstein, A P; Rosenblum, E B


    Measuring links among genotype, phenotype and survival in the wild has long been a focus of studies of adaptation. We conducted a 4-year capture-recapture study to measure survival by genotype and phenotype in the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) at the White Sands ecotone (transition area between white sands and dark soil habitats). We report several unanticipated findings. First, in contrast with previous work showing that cryptic blanched coloration in S. cowlesi from the heart of the dunes is associated with mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r), ecotonal S. cowlesi showed minimal association between colour phenotype and Mc1r genotype. Second, the frequency of the derived Mc1r allele in ecotonal S. cowlesi appeared to decrease over time. Third, our capture-recapture data revealed a lower survival rate for S. cowlesi individuals with the derived Mc1r allele. Thus, our results suggest that selection at the ecotone may have favoured the wild-type allele in recent years. Even in a system where a genotype-phenotype association appeared to be black and white, our study suggests that additional factors - including phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, pleiotropy and gene flow - may play important roles at the White Sands ecotone. Our study highlights the importance of linking molecular, genomic and organismal approaches for understanding adaptation in the wild. Furthermore, our findings indicate that dynamics of natural selection can be particularly complex in transitional habitats like ecotones and emphasize the need for future research that examines the patterns of ongoing selection in other ecological 'grey' zones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sexy media matter: exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents' sexual behavior. (United States)

    Brown, Jane D; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Pardun, Carol J; Guo, Guang; Kenneavy, Kristin; Jackson, Christine


    To assess over time whether exposure to sexual content in 4 mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) used by early adolescents predicts sexual behavior in middle adolescence. An in-home longitudinal survey of 1017 black and white adolescents from 14 middle schools in central North Carolina was conducted. Each teen was interviewed at baseline when he or she was 12 to 14 years old and again 2 years later using a computer-assisted self interview (audio computer-assisted self-interview) to ensure confidentiality. A new measure of each teen's sexual media diet (SMD) was constructed by weighting the frequency of use of 4 media by the frequency of sexual content in each television show, movie, music album, and magazine the teen used regularly. White adolescents in the top quintile of sexual media diet when 12 to 14 years old were 2.2 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse when 14 to 16 years old than those who were in the lowest SMD quintile, even after a number of other relevant factors, including baseline sexual behavior, were introduced. The relationship was not statistically significant for black adolescents after controlling for other factors that were more predictive, including parental disapproval of teen sex and perceived permissive peer sexual norms. Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines accelerates white adolescents' sexual activity and increases their risk of engaging in early sexual intercourse. Black teens appear more influenced by perceptions of their parents' expectations and their friends' sexual behavior than by what they see and hear in the media.

  7. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Black and white 0.82 feet pixel resolution leaf-off ortho imagery that covers the state of Connecticut., Published in 2004, University of Connecticut. (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2004. Black and white 0.82 feet pixel resolution leaf-off ortho imagery that covers the state...

  8. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, One meter black and white digital orthophotographs created in concert with the U.S.G.S., Published in 1992, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 1992. One meter black and white digital orthophotographs created in concert with the U.S.G.S..

  9. Lung function decline over 25 years of follow-up among black and white adults in the ARIC study cohort. (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C; Preisser, John S; Loehr, Laura R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Barr, R Graham; Couper, David J; Hankinson, John L; Hyun, Noorie; Folsom, Aaron R; London, Stephanie J


    Interpretation of longitudinal information about lung function decline from middle to older age has been limited by loss to follow-up that may be correlated with baseline lung function or the rate of decline. We conducted these analyses to estimate age-related decline in lung function across groups of race, sex, and smoking status while accounting for dropout from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We analyzed data from 13,896 black and white participants, aged 45-64 years at the 1987-1989 baseline clinical examination. Using spirometry data collected at baseline and two follow-up visits, we estimated annual population-averaged mean changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) by race, sex, and smoking status using inverse-probability-weighted independence estimating equations conditioning-on-being-alive. Estimated rates of FEV1 decline estimated using inverse-probability-weighted independence estimating equations conditioning on being alive were higher among white than black participants at age 45 years (e.g., male never smokers: black: -29.5 ml/year; white: -51.9 ml/year), but higher among black than white participants by age 75 (black: -51.2 ml/year; white: -26). Observed differences by race were more pronounced among men than among women. By smoking status, FEV1 declines were larger among current than former or never smokers at age 45 across all categories of race and sex. By age 60, FEV1 decline was larger among former and never than current smokers. Estimated annual declines generated using unweighted generalized estimating equations were smaller for current smokers at younger ages in all four groups of race and sex compared with results from weighted analyses that accounted for attrition. Using methods accounting for dropout from an approximately 25-year health study, estimated rates of lung function decline varied by age, race, sex, and smoking status, with largest declines observed among current

  10. Survey and clinical application of serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). (United States)

    Crawford, Graham C; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Dunker, Freeland H; Garner, Michael M; Sargent, Eva L


    Serum samples from 63 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were analyzed to survey serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin levels. Data analysis showed no differences in these analytes attributable to sex, but significantly higher levels of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in older animals. The survey data were examined in light of two black and white ruffed lemurs that were treated for iron overload with serial phlebotomies. Prior to therapy, both phlebotomized lemurs had excess hepatic iron deposition, but had serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin below the upper limits observed in the survey animals, suggesting that some clinically normal animals included in the survey may have accumulated excess systemic iron. Serial phlebotomy therapy reduced serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in both animals. Three years after the conclusion of therapy in the one remaining case, serum iron and transferrin saturation have risen substantially, whereas serum ferritin has risen slightly. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin may be useful predictors of systemic iron stores in this species, though the correlation between these parameters and systemic iron stores needs to be determined.

  11. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States. (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L


    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. The black and white coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy or pure titanium by plasma electrolytic oxidation in concentrated silicate electrolyte (United States)

    Han, Jun-xiang; Cheng, Yu-lin; Tu, Wen-bin; Zhan, Ting-Yan; Cheng, Ying-liang


    Black TiO2 has triggered scientific interest due to its unique properties such as enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic activity. In this paper, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been carried out in concentrated sodium silicate electrolyte. Silica-based black and white TiO2 coatings respectively have been obtained by controlling the oxidation time. The black coating, which was formed with a short treatment time, shows good corrosion resistance and the black appearance can be attributed to the presence of Ti2+ and Ti3+ in the coating. The lower valence titanium ions are absent in the white coatings and they also contain relatively higher Na content compared to the black coatings. The white coatings have great surface roughnesses and super hydrophilicity. The bonding strengths of the black and white coatings on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are ∼14.4 and 4.3 MPa, respectively. The vanadium contributes little to the black appearance of the coating on Ti6Al4V alloy, since the same phenomena occur for the PEO of a pure titanium substrate.

  13. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). (United States)

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A


    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Leading Causes of Death Contributing to Decrease in Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Populations: United States, 1999-2013. (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth


    Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life

  15. Diet and feeding behaviour of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar. (United States)

    Britt, A


    The feeding behaviour and diet of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was investigated in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar. The highly frugivorous diet of this subspecies was confirmed - feeding on fruits accounting for 92.0% of feeding records. Most feeding at Betampona was observed at 10-25 m above the forest floor amongst flexible, small (0.5-5.0 cm diameter) and oblique/horizontal (0-45 degrees ) supports. The Varecia spent on average 21.7% (+/- 1.5) of their daily activity budget feeding and employ a variety of postures that enable them to harvest fruits in the rain forest canopy. The suspensory postures were the most important in allowing Varecia to compete with other smaller-bodied frugivores. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Naturally occurring cerebral nematodiasis due to Baylisascaris larval migration in two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) and suspected cases in three emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). (United States)

    Campbell, G A; Hoover, J P; Russell, W C; Breazile, J E


    During September and October 1992, two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were housed in an outdoor wire enclosure at the Tulsa Zoological Park. The following February and April, both lemurs developed head tilt and ataxia, and they were euthanized. Necropsy revealed multifocal malacia of the white matter of the pons, cerebellum, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar peduncles. Nematode larvae consistent with Baylisascaris spp. were observed in the brain of one lemur. A retrospective study revealed three cases of ataxia in emus (Dromaius novaeholloandiae) that were previously housed in the same enclosure. Archival paraffin-embedded tissue from one emu revealed tractlike foci of malacia within the white matter of the cerebellum. Circumstantial evidence, including the observation of numerous raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the vicinity, and the presence of numerous Baylisascaris. procyonis in the intestine of a single trapped raccoon implicate this roundworm as the pathologic agent in the lemurs.

  17. No role for lightness in the perception of black and white? Simultaneous contrast affects perceived skin tone, but not perceived race. (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Gwinn, O Scott


    Faces of individuals with African and European heritage (henceforth referred to as Black and White respectively) feature two major differences: those of skin tone and morphological characteristics. Although considerations of perceived race are important to various psychological subdisciplines, to date the relative influence of morphological versus photometric characteristics has not been investigated. We attempted to influence the perceived racial typicality of a central target face by manipulating perceived skin tone using the well-known lightness contrast illusion. As expected, ratings of skin tone were influenced by surround faces, yet ratings of perceived racial typicality were not, suggesting a dissociation between the two judgments. Surprisingly, skin tone contributes little to perceived race, leaving facial morphology as the dominant cue. These results may shed light on failures to find effects of racial typicality in studies of prejudice where judgments were based on photographs with altered skin tone alone.

  18. Laterality in semi-free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata): head-tilt correlates with hand use during feeding. (United States)

    Nelson, Eliza L; O'Karma, Jaime M; Ruperti, Felicia S; Novak, Melinda A


    Previous studies in human and chimpanzee infants have identified a predictive relationship between early rightward head orientation and later right hand use. Data from lemurs suggest a leftward bias in hand preference, but there are no data on head positioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head and hand preferences in the black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). Ruffed lemurs rotate the head vertically during chewing in a behavior called head-tilting. Frequency of head-tilting and bouts of unimanual hand use were measured during normal feeding in a semi-free-ranging population of lemurs. Subjects were provisioned at feeding platforms twice daily with fresh fruits, vegetables, and other food items. Sampling was spontaneous and all observations were videotaped. No group-level bias was found for head-tilting, but a left hand bias emerged for hand use. A positive relationship was found between direction of head-tilting preference and direction of hand use preference such that left head-tilts increased as left hand use increased. Furthermore, left head-tilts increased as the degree of hand preference lateralization increased. When the hand used to bring food to the mouth just before head-tilting was examined, there was a strong bias for the left hand to precede left head-tilts. For right head-tilts, however, lemurs were equally likely to use either hand before head-tilting. Overall a strong relationship was found between the left hand and left head-tilting in black and white ruffed lemurs, suggesting a common link between these behaviors. However, the direction of bias was different from that seen in human and chimpanzee studies. Additional studies on patterns of laterality would be informative for understanding how laterality has changed across the primate order and the adaptive significance of laterality in primates.

  19. Childhood risk factors associated with adolescent gun carrying among Black and White males: An examination of self-protection, social influence, and antisocial propensity explanations. (United States)

    Beardslee, Jordan; Docherty, Meagan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Pardini, Dustin


    Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys. Analyses then examined whether racial differences in risk factors accounted for racial differences in gun carrying. Data came from a sample of 485 Black and White boys who were repeatedly assessed from 2nd grade until age 18. Multi-informant data collected across the first 3 years of the study were used to assess neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems. Illegal gun carrying was assessed annually from 5th grade through age 18. Growth curve analyses indicated that children with higher initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement, as well as those who increased in conduct problems across childhood, were more likely to carry a gun prior to age 18. Black boys were also more likely to carry guns than Whites. Racial differences were greatly reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement. Findings suggest that early prevention programs designed to reduce adolescent gun violence (including racial disparities in gun violence) should target boys with severe conduct problems and those who affiliate with delinquent peers during elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Common standards in facial esthetics: craniofacial analysis of most attractive black and white subjects according to People magazine during previous 10 years. (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; Moreno-Manteca, Blanca; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique


    The aim of the present case-control study was to determine--using the 10 most recent annual listings of the most beautiful black and white people--whether any common, measurable esthetic parameter could be extracted from both groups. A total of 80 women (40 white and 40 black), who had been included in the list of People magazine's 100 most beautiful people during the previous 10 years, were selected. Lateral photographs of all 80 subjects were obtained from Internet databases, oriented, and sized. A modified photogrammetric analysis was performed on the lateral view of each subject to obtain the angle and proportion measurements. Differences between the 2 groups were compared with 95% significance using the Student t test for independent samples. Facial similarities in the 2 ethnic groups were observed for the angle of the inferior facial third, labiomental angle, angle of facial convexity, and cervicomental angle. These results point to a similar conformation of the lower part of the face in relation to the neck that was shared by both groups of beautiful women. Additionally, both groups showed similar results for the lower lip projection. Likewise, similar proportional measurements were found for the upper lip proportion, notwithstanding differences in protrusion. Modern society is changing the classic concept of facial beauty because of globalization and the prevalence of multiethnic communities in the developed world. Independently of ethnic origin, beautiful women tend to have similar facial features that are a mixture of both black and white features. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Jim Crow and premature mortality among the US Black and White population, 1960-2009: an age-period-cohort analysis. (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Coull, Brent A; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V; Waterman, Pamela D


    Scant research has analyzed the health impact of abolition of Jim Crow (ie, legal racial discrimination overturned by the US 1964 Civil Rights Act). We used hierarchical age-period-cohort models to analyze US national black and white premature mortality rates (death before 65 years of age) in 1960-2009. Within a context of declining US black and white premature mortality rates and a persistent 2-fold excess black risk of premature mortality in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states, analyses including random period, cohort, state, and county effects and fixed county income effects found that, within the black population, the largest Jim Crow-by-period interaction occurred in 1960-1964 (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = 1.15 [95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.22), yielding the largest overall period-specific Jim Crow effect MRR of 1.27, with no such interactions subsequently observed. Furthermore, the most elevated Jim Crow-by-cohort effects occurred for birth cohorts from 1901 through 1945 (MRR range = 1.05-1.11), translating to the largest overall cohort-specific Jim Crow effect MRRs for the 1921-1945 birth cohorts (MRR ~ 1.2), with no such interactions subsequently observed. No such interactions between Jim Crow and either period or cohort occurred among the white population. Together, the study results offer compelling evidence of the enduring impact of both Jim Crow and its abolition on premature mortality among the US black population, although insufficient to eliminate the persistent 2-fold black excess risk evident in both the Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states from 1960 to 2009.

  2. Measures of economic advantage associated with HPV-positive head and neck cancers among non-Hispanic black and white males identified through the National Cancer Database. (United States)

    Peterson, Caryn E; Khosla, Shaveta; Jefferson, Gina D; Davis, Faith G; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Freels, Sally; Johnson, Timothy P; Hoskins, Kent; Joslin, Charlotte E


    National trends show dramatic increases in the incidence of HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) among black and white males. Using cases identified through the National Cancer Data Base, we assessed factors associated with HPV 16- or 16/18 positive HNSCCs among non-Hispanic black and white males diagnosed in the U.S. between 2009 and 2013. This sample included 21,524 HNSCCs with known HPV status. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression. Compared to those with HPV-negative tumors, male patients diagnosed with HPV-positive HNSCCs were non-Hispanic white, younger at diagnosis, lived in zip-code areas with higher median household income and higher educational attainment, had private health insurance and no reported comorbidities at diagnosis. Although the risk of HPV-positive HNSCCs increased with measures of higher area-level socioeconomic status, the effect was stronger for non-Hispanic black males (RR Adjusted =1.76, 95% CI 1.49-2.09) than for whites (RR Adjusted =1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16). The peak age for diagnosis of HPV-positive HNSCCs occurred in those diagnosed at 45-49 years (RR Adjusted =1.57, 95% CI 1.42-1.73). Oropharyngeal tumors were strongly associated with HPV-positivity (RR Adjusted =4.32, 95% CI 4.03-4.63). In the analysis restricted to oropharyngeal anatomic sites, similar patterns persisted. In our analysis, measures of economic advantage were associated with an increased risk of HPV-positive HNSCCs. In order to develop effective interventions, greater understanding of the risk factors for HPV-positive HNSCCs is needed among both high-risk males and their healthcare providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does education matter? Examining racial differences in the association between education and STI diagnosis among black and white young adult females in the U.S. (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Walsemann, Katrina M; Maitra, Debeshi; Kerr, Jelani C


    Education has long been considered a protective factor against sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents; however, few have explored this association and determined differences across racial/ethnic groups of young adult females on a national scale. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the association between education and STI diagnosis among a national sample of black and white young adult females and (2) examine racial differences in this association. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to assess the association between education and chlamydia, gonorrhea, and/or trichomoniasis (self-reported and assay-diagnosed) in 2001-2002 using logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for risk behaviors, education was inversely associated with any assay-diagnosed STI, but this association was nonsignificant among black women for self-reported STI. Additionally, black females enrolled in, or who graduated from, college had significantly higher predicted probabilities of having an STI (12.4% self-reported; 13.4% assay-diagnosed) compared with white females who had less than a high school diploma (6.4% self-reported; 2.3% assay-diagnosed). Educational status was not uniformly protective against STIs for black and white females in this sample. Particularly for young black women, other factors may play a more prominent role in determining STI risk. Social determinants, such as education, should be viewed as important factors associated with STI prevalence, but their differential impact on various racial/ethnic groups should also be considered when addressing the disproportionate rates of STIs in the U.S.

  4. Quantification of systemic renin-angiotensin system peptides of hypertensive black and white African men established from the RAS-Fingerprint®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM van Rooyen


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to make use of a quantitative and qualitative approach comparing the systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS of hypertensive black and white African men by using RAS equilibrium analysis. Materials and methods: This sub-study involved 23 black (n = 15 and white (n = 8 hypertensive men aged 39.5–41 years, living in the North West Province of South Africa. The RAS-Fingerprinting was determined with LC-MS/MS quantification of angiotensin peptides. Blood pressure and other variables were determined with known methods. Results: The main finding of this study was the significant lower Ang I (<5.0 and 45.1 pg/ml; p = 0.005 and Ang II (15.6 and 123.9 pg/ml; p ⩽ 0.001 encountered in the hypertensive black African men compared to their white counterparts. Levels of Ang 1-5 (downstream metabolite of Ang 1-7 (1.8 and 3.0 pg/ml, were detected in black and white hypertensive men, respectively. Conclusions: The observed differences between circulating RAS components, which are reflected via equilibrium angiotensin levels, point to a distinctive molecular regulation of the RAAS in the two study cohorts. The increased peripheral resistance observed in hypertensive black individuals might take over a dominant role in control of blood pressure in this study population. A novel highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method resolved the issue of peptide recovery variations during sample preparation by using internal standards for each individual angiotensin metabolite.

  5. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003. (United States)

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman


    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.

  6. Researches on Nutritional Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Interruptions Number and their Duration in the Ration Consumption Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina


    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Mink (Neovison vison) Skin Reveals the Key Genes Involved in the Melanogenesis of Black and White Coat Colour. (United States)

    Song, Xingchao; Xu, Chao; Liu, Zongyue; Yue, Zhigang; Liu, Linling; Yang, Tongao; Cong, Bo; Yang, Fuhe


    Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks. Significant differences were not observed in the expression of MC1R and TYR between the two different coat colours, and the expression of ASIP was not detected in the mink skin of either coat colour. The expression levels of KITLG, LEF1, DCT, TYRP1, PMEL, Myo5a, Rab27a and SLC7A11 were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq analysis. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of two coat colours in mink skin. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying skin physiology and melanogenesis in mink and will provide a foundation for future studies.

  8. Determination of Ochratoxin A in Black and White Pepper, Nutmeg, Spice Mix, Cocoa, and Drinking Chocolate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection: Collaborative Study. (United States)

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Bouten, Katrien; Senyuva, Hamide; Stroka, Joerg


    A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 25 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 12 European Union (EU) Member States, together with Turkey and Macedonia. Mean recoveries ranged from 71 to 85% for spices and from 85 to 88% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDr values ranged from 5.6 to 16.7% for spices and from 4.5 to 18.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDR values ranged from 9.5 to 22.6% for spices and from 13.7 to 30.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The resulting Horwitz ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1 for spices and from 0.6 to 1.4 for cocoa and drinking chocolate according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.

  9. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F


    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Positive influence of traditional culture and socioeconomic activity on conservation: a case study from the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Tibet. (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Huo, Sheng; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei


    Found in the Trans-Himalayas of north-west Yunnan and south-east Tibet, the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) is one of the world's most endangered primates. A recent survey indicates that only 15 groups with 2500 individuals remain in the wild. However, the Tibetan Xiaochangdu group may be the only equilibrium group in the field since the last investigation in 1988. To evaluate the effects of traditional culture and socioeconomic activity on biodiversity conservation of R. bieti, we conducted a case study in the Honglaxueshan National Nature Reserve in southeast Tibet from June 2003 to May 2005. Interviews, direct observations, and analysis of socioeconomic data indicated major advantages to the conservation of R. bieti, which included that: 1) traditional culture mainly depended on raising livestock and collecting non-timber products rather than forest planting of Tibetan highland barley; 2) religious beliefs, against to kill any wildlife living on the sacred mountain, were mainly influenced by Tibetan Buddhism; and 3) bigger household numbers were induced by the polyandrous marriage system, which resulted in lower per capita resource consumption than smaller ones.

  11. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US. (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M


    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are correlated with cardiometabolic risk among American black and white adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate. (United States)

    Parikh, Samip; Guo, De-Huang; Pollock, Norman K; Petty, Karen; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Gutin, Bernard; Houk, Chris; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin


    Low vitamin D status is common among healthy black and white adolescents residing at southern U.S. latitudes with a year-round sunny climate. Thus we aimed to study the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and cardiometabolic risk factors in this population. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy in 701 girls and boys (14-18 years old, 54% blacks, 49% females). Cardiometabolic risk was indexed by adipokines, inflammatory markers, fasting glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP). Controlling for age, sex, race, sexual maturation, season, physical activity, and percent body fat, 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly correlated with adiponectin (r = 0.06, P = 0.05), leptin (r = -0.32, P risk factors, independent of adiposity. Clinical trials addressing the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risk are warranted in adolescents irrespective of their geographical regions.

  13. Erratum to: Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari


    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination than white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  14. Teaching drawn from brachytherapy accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinillos, L.


    The first incidents concern the transport of the sources, bad packaging or bad sealing of the sources. The incidents occurring during the use are the most frequent. They come from mechanical problems or human errors as the unit of computer command or the transfer cable of the source. A power failure affected the safety program, causing a calculation error after the input of incorrect data. The most of reported errors occurred during fractionated treatments, so the errors can be compensated by adjusting the doses at the following session. The worst case was the death of a woman where the source stayed inside the body after the treatment. Radiation monitoring in the treatment room should avoid this kind of accident. The brachytherapy represents 500 000 acts by year, any error can be serious. The accident reports concern all the chain of procedure, among them a death whom first cause was a human error. A team respecting the procedures of quality assurance is indispensable to the accident prevention; the accidents report is important because it allows a sharing of lessons drawn from the past errors to prevent from occurring. (N.C.)

  15. Direitos sexuais, direitos reprodutivos: concepções de mulheres negras e brancas sobre liberdade Sexual and reproductive rights: the conceptions of black and white women regarding freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Souzas


    Full Text Available A saúde reprodutiva relaciona-se ao usufruto da liberdade intrínseca aos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos. A questão central, neste artigo, é como a noção de liberdade se articula à condição social, de gênero, raça/etnia, com o intuito de investigar diferenças de gênero e de raça nas questões reprodutivas de mulheres negras e brancas, em relação à concepção de liberdade. A pesquisa é de natureza qualitativa e aborda questões reprodutivas de mulheres, a partir de um recorte de gênero e raça. Foram entrevistadas 36 mulheres, autoclassificadas brancas e negras (pretas e pardas, em união conjugal há, pelo menos, um ano. Os discursos foram analisados articulando-se raça/etnia e diferentes níveis de escolaridade. No conjunto, observa-se que as condições de vida e saúde reprodutiva de mulheres negras e brancas diferenciam-se em razão das condições socioeconômicas e culturais. Comparativamente, os discursos dos dois grupos podem ser interpretados em dois níveis característicos, da vida privada e do espaço público: enquanto mulheres brancas focam a defasagem das mulheres, no exercício eqüitativo da liberdade em relação aos homens, mas destacam conquistas no mundo do trabalho, mulheres negras pensam a liberdade mais circunscrita à possibilidade de vivência democrática da conjugalidade. As diferenças de discurso em relação à liberdade podem estar relacionadas tanto à questão do racismo no Brasil, historicamente vivenciado por mulheres negras no cotidiano, como às questões especificamente culturais dos dois grupos estudados.Reproductive health is related to the enjoyment of freedom that is intrinsic to sexual and reproductive rights. The core issue, in this article, is how the notion of freedom articulates itself to the social condition of gender, race and ethnicity. To investigate gender and race differences in reproductive issues of black and white women regarding the conception of freedom. The research


    Donadeo, Brett C; Kerr, Katherine R; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S


    Data on captive diets for black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) are limited. Information on food items used, inclusion amounts, and the chemical composition of diets is needed to improve the management of nutrition-related health problems seen in captive lemurs (e.g., obesity) that have not been reported in their wild counterparts. To determine the ingredient and nutrient composition of diets for captive V. variegata, U.S. zoological institutions were surveyed. Chemical composition of reported diets was estimated using Nutritionist Pro™ (Axxya Systems, Stafford, Texas 77477, USA), and these values were compared numerically to wild lemur diets from the literature. Institutions included from six to greater than 30 different ingredients in their diets, including fruits (0.0-84.1%), vegetables (7.5-70.0%), greens (1.0-28.5%), and commercially available feeds (1.5-68.6%). Nutrient concentrations of captive diets ranged as follows: dry matter (DM), 14.5-67.6%; organic matter, 93.1-97.2% DM basis (DMB); crude protein, 7.9-23.9% DMB; fat, 2.0-6.5% DMB; total dietary fiber, 10.1-28.1% DMB; and N-free extract, 38.9-74.4% DMB. Captive diets had lower fat and total dietary fiber and higher protein and N-free extract compared to wild fruit items from Madagascar. Reducing the amount of fruit in captive diets for V. variegata would be expected to decrease digestible carbohydrate content and increase fiber content of these diets, which has implications for the prevalence of obesity in captive animals.

  17. Attractiveness of black and white modified Shannon traps to phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the Brazilian Amazon Basin, an area of intense transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; de Ávila, Márcia Moreira; de Souza, Jailson Ferreira; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Sábio, Priscila Bassan; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Godoy, Rodrigo Espindola; Melchior, Leonardo Augusto Kohara; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; de Oliveira Cardoso, Cristiane; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi


    In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps' performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Samples were collected once a month during the period August 2013 to July 2015. A sample of females was dissected to test for natural infection by flagellates. A total of 6,309 (864 males and 5,445 females) specimens (36 species) were collected. Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai (42%), Nyssomyia shawi (36%), and Psychodopygus davisi (13%), together represented 90% of the insects collected. Nyssomyia shawi and Psychodopygus davisi were more attracted by the white color. Specimens of Nyssomyia shawi, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus were found naturally infected by flagellates in the mid and hindgut. This is the first study in Acre state using and comparing both black and white Shannon traps, demonstrating the richness, diversity, and anthropophilic behavior of the phlebotomine species and identifying proven and putative vectors of the etiological agents of leishmaniasis. © A.F. Brilhante et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  18. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and plain black and white cigarette packaging and advertisements on adults: Evidence from a virtual store experimental study. (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice; Shafer, Paul; Loomis, Brett; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew


    We examined the potential impact of banning tobacco displays and mandating plain packaging and cigarette advertisements at the point of sale (POS) on adult outcomes. A virtual convenience store was created with scenarios in which the tobacco product display was either fully visible (status quo) or enclosed behind a cabinet (display ban), and cigarette packs and advertisements were either in full color (status quo) or black and white, text only (plain). A national convenience sample of 1313 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 4 conditions and given a shopping task to complete in the virtual store. Main outcomes were participants' self-reported urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts in the virtual store. Compared with recent quitters in the status quo conditions, recent quitters in the display ban condition had lower urges to smoke (β=-4.82, 95% CI=-8.16--1.49, p<0.01). Compared with current smokers in the status quo conditions, smokers in the display ban conditions were less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes in the virtual store (OR=0.05, 95% CI=0.03-0.08, P<0.01). Smokers exposed to plain packs and ads were significantly less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.20-0.47, P<0.01) than those exposed to color packs and ads. Policies that ban the display of tobacco products or require plain packaging and advertising at the POS may help reduce adult smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial discrimination & cardiovascular disease risk: my body my story study of 1005 US-born black and white community health center participants (US). (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Smith, Kevin W; Carney, Dana R; Bennett, Gary G; Williams, David R; Thornhill, Gisele; Freeman, Elmer R


    To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504) and white (n = 501) participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate), using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination); and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964). Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 2.89) and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07); among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64) and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08)). All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score. Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss implications

  20. Timing of menarche related to carotid artery intima-media thickness in black and white young adult women: the Bogalusa Heart Study. (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S


    The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anginal symptoms, coronary artery disease, and adverse outcomes in Black and White women: the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. (United States)

    Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Johnson, B Delia; Rutledge, Thomas; Bittner, Vera; Whittaker, Kerry S; Krantz, David S; Cornell, Carol E; Eteiba, Wafia; Handberg, Eileen; Vido, Diane; Bairey Merz, C Noel


    Black women are less likely to be evaluated and treated for anginal symptoms, despite a higher premature cardiac mortality rate compared to white women. Our objective was to compare angina symptoms in black versus white women regarding (1) angina symptoms characterization; (2) relationship with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) relationship with subsequent mortality. A cohort of 466 women (69 black and 397 white) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia and without prior history of CAD completed symptom checklists. Four symptom clusters (CHEST, UPPER, STOMACH, and TYPICAL TRIGGERS) were derived by factor analysis. All angiograms were analyzed by core lab. Mortality data over 10 years were obtained from National Death Index. (1) Black women had lower mean CHEST cluster scores (0.60±0.30 vs. 0.73±30, p=0.002), but higher STOMACH scores (0.41±0.25 vs. 0.30±0.25, p=0.011) than white women. (2) Prevalence and severity of CAD did not differ in black and white women and was not predicted by symptom cluster scores. (3) All-cause mortality rates were 24.9% in blacks versus 14.5% in whites, p=0.007; and cardiovascular mortality 22.5% vs.8.8%, p=0.001. Symptom clusters were not predictive of adverse events in white women. However, black women with a low TYPICAL score had significantly higher mortality compared to those with a high TYPICAL score (43% vs. 10%, p=0.006). Among women undergoing coronary angiography, black women report fewer chest-related and more stomach-related symptoms, regardless of presence or severity of CAD, and these racial symptom presentation differences are linked with the more adverse prognosis observed in the black women. Atypical symptom presentation may be a barrier to appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment and contribute to poorer outcomes for black women.

  2. Ability of new octapolar bioimpedance spectroscopy analyzers to predict 4-component-model percentage body fat in Hispanic, black, and white adults. (United States)

    Gibson, Ann L; Holmes, Jason C; Desautels, Richard L; Edmonds, Lyndsay B; Nuudi, Laura


    New, vertical, 8-electrode bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) analyzers provide detailed body-composition and nutritional information within 2 min. This is the first report on BIS's accuracy in predicting relative fatness [percentage body fat (%BF)] in a heterogeneous sample according to a multicomponent model criterion. We compared %BF measurements from 2 BIS devices with those from a multicomponent model in a sample of Hispanic, black, and white adults. Equal numbers of apparently healthy men and women (n = 75 of each) from each racial-ethnic group, diverse in body mass index and age, volunteered. Reference %BF (%BF(4C)) was computed by using a 4-component (4C) model with total bone mineral content obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, body density from underwater weighing with measured residual lung volume, and total body water from traditional BIS. Estimations from InBody 720 (%BF(720)) and InBody 320 (%BF(320)) BIS analyzers were validated against %BF(4C). The %BF(720) (r = 0.85, SEE = 5.19%BF) and %BF(320) (r = 0.84, SEE = 5.17%BF) correlations were significant (P < 0.05) in the men; main effects were nonsignificant. Correlations for %BF(720) (r = 0.88, SEE = 4.85%BF) and %BF(320) (r = 0.89, SEE = 4.82%BF) also were significant in the women (P < 0.05); there was a main effect for method but not race-ethnicity. There were no sex-specific overestimations or underestimations at the extremes of the distributions. BIS estimates of %BF(4C) were well correlated in men and women. There were no significant methodologic differences in the men. The %BF(4C) was significantly underestimated by %BF(720) and %BF(320) in the women.

  3. Black and White Women's Leadership


    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin


    This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...

  4. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery was scanned from historic hard copy images and georeferenced to current imagery. This data is available via map service., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative. (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery...

  5. Racial discrimination & cardiovascular disease risk: my body my story study of 1005 US-born black and white community health center participants (US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Krieger

    Full Text Available To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504 and white (n = 501 participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate, using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination; and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964.Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.28, 2.89 and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07; among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64 and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08. All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score.Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss

  6. Vitamin C in plasma is inversely related to blood pressure and change in blood pressure during the previous year in young Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudes Mark


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension and its contribution to cardiovascular disease risk makes it imperative to identify factors that may help prevent this disorder. Extensive biological and biochemical data suggest that plasma ascorbic acid may be such a factor. In this study we examined the association between plasma ascorbic acid concentration and blood pressure (BP in young-adult women. Methods Participants were 242 Black and White women aged 18–21 yr from the Richmond, CA, cohort of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. We examined the associations of plasma ascorbic acid with BP at follow-up year 10, and with change in BP during the previous year. Results In cross-sectional analysis, plasma ascorbic acid at year 10 was inversely associated with systolic BP and diastolic BP after adjusting for race, body mass index, education, and dietary intake of fat and sodium. Persons in the highest one-fourth of the plasma ascorbic acid distribution had 4.66 mmHg lower systolic BP (95% CI 1.10 to 8.22 mmHg, p = 0.005 and 6.04 mmHg lower diastolic BP (95% CI 2.70 to 9.38 mmHg, p = 0.0002 than those in the lowest one-fourth of the distribution. In analysis of the change in BP, plasma ascorbic acid was also inversely associated with change in systolic BP and diastolic BP during the previous year. While diastolic blood pressure among persons in the lowest quartile of plasma ascorbic acid increased by 5.97 mmHg (95% CI 3.82 to 8.13 mmHg from year 9 to year 10, those in the highest quartile of plasma vitamin C increased by only 0.23 mmHg (95% CI -1.90 to +2.36 mmHg (test for linear trend: p Conclusion Plasma ascorbic acid was found to be inversely associated with BP and change in BP during the prior year. The findings suggest the possibility that vitamin C may influence BP in healthy young adults. Since lower BP in young adulthood may lead to lower BP and decreased incidence of age-associated vascular events in

  7. Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Endoença Martins


    Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.

  8. Picture and counter-picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent


    The article contains a number of examples of depictions of the French-italian commedia dell'arte fra the 17. century, put into an iconographic and mentality historical context aiming at an interpretation at two levels: On the one hand a reference to the selfrepresentation of the regime and on the...... and on the other hand a derivation from the carnivalesque imagery which all together expand the understanding of the political satire in a grotesque direction implicitly contained in the pictures....

  9. United States national prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in black and white middle-age (45- to 64-Year) and older (≥65-Year) adults (from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study). (United States)

    Prineas, Ronald J; Le, Anh; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Howard, Virginia J; Ostchega, Yechiam; Howard, George


    A United States national sample of 20,962 participants (57% women, 44% blacks) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study provided general population estimates for electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among black and white men and women. The participants were recruited from 2003 to 2007 by random selection from a commercially available nationwide list, with oversampling of blacks and those from the stroke belt, with a cooperation rate of 49%. The measurement of risk factors and 12-lead electrocardiograms (centrally coded using Minnesota code criteria) showed 28% had ≥1 major ECG abnormality. The prevalence of abnormalities was greater (≥35%) for those ≥65 years old, with no differences between blacks and whites. However, among men <65 years, blacks had more major abnormalities than whites, most notably for atrial fibrillation, major Q waves, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Men generally had more ECG abnormalities than women. The most common ECG abnormalities were T-wave abnormalities. The average heart rate-corrected QT interval was longer in women than in men, similar in whites and blacks, and increased with age. However, the average heart rate was greater in women than in men and in blacks than in whites and decreased with age. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was related to the presence of hypertension, diabetes, blood pressure, and age. In conclusion, black men and women in the United States have a significantly greater prevalence of ECG abnormalities than white men and women at age 45 to 64 years; however, these proportions, although larger, tended to equalize or reverse after age 65. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This data set consists of color and black-and-white digital orthophoto files acquired in the Spring of 2005. The color files cover all of Racine County in Southeastern Wisconsin. The color orthophoto files were compiled at one-inch-equals-200-feet, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of color and black-and-white digital orthophoto files acquired...

  11. Pictures of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.


    The first part of the book describes the development of a polarised spectrum of attitudes towards science and technology over the last two decades. Positivistic attitudes that emerged from the materialistic branch of the period of Enlightenment are shown in contrast to the attitudes that stem from the philosophical line of Rousseau-romanticism-vitalism. The second part of the book presents the results of an empirical study, providing evidence for the existence of the different attitudes towards technology and the environment. The study is based on a representative opinion poll among civil servants, engineering professions, social workers, and artists. Engineers and social workers are shown to represent the two antipodes in terms of the 'dual-culture' theory. In addition, sex-specific and age-specific differences are explained, and the different pictures of technology drawn by personalities characterised by an attitude of active control in contrast to those characterised by an attitude of intuitive faith. (orig.) [de

  12. Association of auditory-verbal and visual hallucinations with impaired and improved recognition of colored pictures. (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Usall, Judith; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Perez del Olmo, Mireia; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Haro, Josep Maria; Ochoa, Susana


    A number of cognitive underpinnings of auditory hallucinations have been established in schizophrenia patients, but few have, as yet, been uncovered for visual hallucinations. In previous research, we unexpectedly observed that auditory hallucinations were associated with poor recognition of color, but not black-and-white (b/w), pictures. In this study, we attempted to replicate and explain this finding. Potential associations with visual hallucinations were explored. B/w and color pictures were presented to 50 schizophrenia patients and 45 healthy individuals under 2 conditions of visual context presentation corresponding to 2 levels of visual encoding complexity. Then, participants had to recognize the target pictures among distractors. Auditory-verbal hallucinations were inversely associated with the recognition of the color pictures presented under the most effortful encoding condition. This association was fully mediated by working-memory span. Visual hallucinations were associated with improved recognition of the color pictures presented under the less effortful condition. Patients suffering from visual hallucinations were not impaired, relative to the healthy participants, in the recognition of these pictures. Decreased working-memory span in patients with auditory-verbal hallucinations might impede the effortful encoding of stimuli. Visual hallucinations might be associated with facilitation in the visual encoding of natural scenes, or with enhanced color perception abilities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [Picture of Paracelsus, the physician--and we today]. (United States)

    Nager, F


    This article features the question whether Paracelsus and his dark, sometimes contradictory doctrine still includes some messages for modern physician. The lonely, pugnacious fighter from Central Switzerland remains today 'confused between favour and hatred from the parties'. Some contradictory examples shall outline controversies lasting for centuries. Subsequently Paracelsus' picture of nature, man and medicine is outlined, particular his meaning of nature and work of a good physician, but also his furious often unjustified overwhelming criticism about those physicians who went astray "in the labyrinthus medicorum". Sheep-physicians and wolf-physicians are confronted mercilessly and in a black and white scheme by this Lutherus medicorum. This likewise strange as well as also fascinating picture of a physician by this man of Hohenheim does not imply a clearly conceived temple inviting for an easy academic stroll. The sketch of a temple, however, serves as a symbol for the paracelsic science of healing: Philosophy, astronomy and alchemy are the three columns for the physician. These three columns are founded on virtue, the ethos of the physician. Religion the love for god, serves as a celestial roof. Finally the author expresses his opinion, that even today 500 years later, a modern, scientifically educated physician may profit from the philosophic and ethic principles of Paracelsus, who himself was a contemporary of a time of change like we are in our days.

  14. How often do condoms fail? : A cross-sectional study exploring incomplete use of condoms, condom failures, and other condom problems among Black and White MSM in the Southern U.S (United States)

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C.; Siegler, Aaron; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Crosby, Richard; Rosenberg, Eli S.


    Objectives Compare the occurrence of risk-inducing condom events (condom failures and incomplete use) and the frequency of their antecedents (condom errors, fit/feel problems, and erection problems) between Black and White MSM, and determine the associations between risk-inducing condom events and their antecedents. Methods We studied cross-sectional data of 475 MSM who indicated using a condom as an insertive partner in the previous 6 months enrolled in a cohort study in Atlanta, GA. Results Nearly 40% of Black MSM reported breakage or incomplete use, and they were more likely to report breakage, early removal, and delayed application of a condom than White MSM. Only 31% and 54% of MSM reported correct condom use and suboptimal fit/feel of a condom respectively. The use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel were associated with higher odds of reporting breakage (P = 0.009). Suboptimal fit/feel was also associated with higher odds of incomplete use of condoms (P condoms and condom failures were especially common among Black MSM. Our findings indicate that condoms likely offered them less protection against HIV/STI when compared to White MSM. More interventions are needed, particularly addressing the use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel of condoms. PMID:25080511

  15. How often do condoms fail? A cross-sectional study exploring incomplete use of condoms, condom failures and other condom problems among black and white MSM in southern U.S.A. (United States)

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso C; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Crosby, Richard; Rosenberg, Eli S


    To compare the occurrence of risk-inducing condom events (condom failures and incomplete use) and the frequency of their antecedents (condom errors, fit/feel problems and erection problems) between black and white men who have sex with men (MSM), and determine the associations between risk-inducing condom events and their antecedents. We studied cross-sectional data of 475 MSM who indicated using a condom as an insertive partner in the previous 6 months enrolled in a cohort study in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Nearly 40% of black MSM reported breakage or incomplete use, and they were more likely to report breakage, early removal and delayed application of a condom than white MSM. Only 31% and 54% of MSM reported correct condom use and suboptimal fit/feel of a condom, respectively. The use of oil-based lubricants and suboptimal fit/feel were associated with higher odds of reporting breakage (p=0.009). Suboptimal fit/feel was also associated with higher odds of incomplete use of condoms (pfit/feel of condoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  16. A true picture of eating disorders among African American women: a review of literature. (United States)

    Tyler, Indira D


    A review of published studies reveals a serious deficit in scope of eating disorders among African American women. While the "Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among African American Women" (Mulholland & Mintz, 2001), and "A Comparison of Black and White Women With Binge Eating Disorder" (Pike, Dohm, Stiegel-Moore, Wilfley, & Fairburn, 2001) offer substantial findings in an area of under representation, the findings of these studies leave many vacancies in the true picture of eating disorders among African American women. Sufficient examination of the relationship of familial roles, cultural influences, and unique stressors to African American women are not prevalent in the available studies and are not evaluated as substantial influences on maladaptive eating regulation responses.

  17. The Black and White Symbolic Matrix. (United States)

    Stabler, John R.; Goldberg, Faye J.

    Although many authors have mentioned examples of how black usually connotes a negative evaluation and white a positive evaluation, the literature on the topic has not yet included an attempt to list examples comprehensively. Those which are cited here come from a wide variety of sources: primarily from dictionaries, books of slang, and personal…

  18. Tactical Black and White Facsimile Equipment. (United States)


  19. Are penguins black-and-white?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczykowski, P.


    Contribution of low-energy ''eye'' and ''figure-eight'' quark diagrams to the K → π weak transitions are studied in a hadron-level phenomenological approach. It is shown that these contributions may be estimated by considering meson-cloud effect. If all intermediate mesons under consideration are degenerate only the ''eye'' (low-energy penguin) diagrams is nonvanishing. When allowance is made for smaller mass of pseudoscalar mesons, the contribution of ''figure-eight'' diagrams turns out to enhance the ΔI = 1/2 (suppress the ΔI = 3/2) amplitudes naturally. The overall long-distance-induced enhancement of the ratio of the Δ I = 1/2 amplitudes over the Δ I = 3/2 amplitudes is estimated at around 4-8. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Carpe Diem in Black and White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    . The narrative draws heavily on the myth of Don Juan, who after having scored a host of women has to pay for his sins. But while the narrative also draws on all sorts of other representations of Don Juanism, from biblical intertextual references to Mozart's Don Giovanni, and thus relies on a plot development...

  1. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China (United States)


    ... merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain boards... finishing the vertical corners to form the bowls. Stainless steel sinks with fabricated bowls may sometimes...

  2. 78 FR 21417 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... drawn stainless steel sinks from China, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the Harmonized Tariff... notification of a preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from China...

  3. 77 FR 23752 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of drawn stainless sinks, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the... than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of China. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207...

  4. Pencil it in: pencil drawn electrochemical sensing platforms


    Foster, Christopher W.; Brownson, Dale A.C.; Ruas de Souza, Ana P.; Bernalte, Elena; Iniesta, Jesus; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E.


    Inspired by recent reports concerning the utilisation of hand drawn pencil macroelectrodes (PDEs), we report the fabrication, characterisation (physicochemical and electrochemical) and implementation (electrochemical sensing) of various PDEs drawn upon a flexible polyester substrate. Electrochemical characterisation reveals that there are no quantifiable electrochemical responses upon utilising these PDEs with an electroactive analyte that requires an electrochemical oxidation step first, the...

  5. Pictures in Training (United States)

    Miller, Elmo E.


    Pictures definitely seem to help training, but a study for the military finds these pictures need not be in moving form, such as films or videotape. Just how the pictorial techniques should be employed and with how much success depends on individual trainee and program differences. (KP)

  6. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels


    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...

  7. Pencil Drawn Strain Gauges and Chemiresistors on Paper (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Zhibo; Kim, Jaemyung; Huang, Jiaxing


    Pencil traces drawn on print papers are shown to function as strain gauges and chemiresistors. Regular graphite/clay pencils can leave traces composed of percolated networks of fine graphite powders, which exhibit reversible resistance changes upon compressive or tensile deflections. Flexible toy pencils can leave traces that are essentially thin films of graphite/polymer composites, which show reversible changes in resistance upon exposure to volatile organic compounds due to absorption/desorption induced swelling/recovery of the polymer binders. Pencil-on-paper devices are low-cost, extremely simple and rapid to fabricate. They are light, flexible, portable, disposable, and do not generate potentially negative environmental impact during processing and device fabrication. One can envision many other types of pencil drawn paper electronic devices that can take on a great variety of form factors. Hand drawn devices could be useful in resource-limited or emergency situations. They could also lead to new applications integrating art and electronics.

  8. Ideal Pictures and Actual Perspectives of Junior Secondary School Science: Comparisons Drawn from Australian Students in an Astronomy Education Programme (United States)

    Danaia, L.; McKinnon, D. H.; Fitzgerald, M.


    Background: This research investigates the impact of a junior secondary astronomy education programme undertaken in four Australian educational jurisdictions. Purpose: Junior secondary students' perceptions of the science they experience at School are examined both before, during and after their engagement with a science programme targeting…

  9. Personal records from my tattoo parlour: deep emotions drawn as life-long pictures on the skin's canvas. (United States)

    Kierstein, Liz


    The author, who has been a professional tattooist for years, reports four individuals whose tragic life events led to decisions to be tattooed with illustrations of their life stories. The authors' personal experiences with tattooist-client interactions and clients' expectations and demands are reviewed. During the last decade, tattooing has moved in the direction of becoming more individualized and is often very personal. The working process and the intimacy between the client and tattooist create a comfort zone of trust and loyalty. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Performance Of Animal-drawn, Ripper Attached Maize-Cum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawn maize- cum-fertilizer planter (RAP) was developed. The implement was compared ... land and seed sowing, RAP (14.29+2.36 hr.ha-1) had shown greater efficiency over SAP .... condition, most varieties of maize crop grow well in the area.

  11. SketchingDIS: Hand-drawn Sketching in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Makayla; Sturdee, Miriam; Alexander, Jason


    Hand-drawn sketches can be an easy way for HCI researchers to communicate and express ideas, as well as to document, explore and communicate concepts between the researcher and user, collaborator, manager or client. These sketches are fast, lightweight, easy to create, and -- by varying their fid......Hand-drawn sketches can be an easy way for HCI researchers to communicate and express ideas, as well as to document, explore and communicate concepts between the researcher and user, collaborator, manager or client. These sketches are fast, lightweight, easy to create, and -- by varying...... their fidelity -- they can be used in all stages of the HCI research and design process. Here, we aim to explore themes around sketching in HCI with the aim of producing tangible outputs in the form of visual records, articles and papers that review and promote this technique in HCI as a field: 'Sketching......DIS: Hand-drawn sketching in HCI', a one-day workshop will bring together researchers from various disciplines that have incorporated hand-drawn sketching into their everyday research practice, to share knowledge and methodologies, generate ideas, practice collaborative sketching...

  12. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Hansen, Niels


    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires, the t...

  13. SESAME 2017 (360 pictures)

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi


    The Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan, created under the auspices of UNESCO on 30 May 2002. December 2017, Jordan Picture: Noemi Caraban

  14. Adding Emotions to Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Amati, Giambattista; Crestani, Fabio

    A large number of out-of-copyright children books are available online, but are not very attractive to children due to a lack of illustrations. Automatic text illustration may enhance the reading experience of these books, but inappropriate picture coloring may convey inappropriate emotions. Since

  15. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels


    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains P 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  16. Work softening of drawn low carbon steel bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar


    Full Text Available The work hardening of metals subjected to complex processing paths is different from that in monotonic deformation. Changes in the deformation mode can promote transients in the strain-hardening rate, leading to anomalous softening or hardening of the material. This paper investigates the influence of strain path changes on the tensile behavior of drawn 0.12% steel rods. Annealed or predrawn specimens were submitted to cyclic twisting and then tested in tension. The results show that the cyclic deformation causes changes in the mechanical behavior of the metal, and the effect will depend on the previous "history" of the material. Cyclic twisting causes hardening in annealed samples, but leads to softening of the drawn bars. These phenomena are in line with the corresponding substructural aspects.

  17. Pencil it in: pencil drawn electrochemical sensing platforms. (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W; Brownson, Dale A C; Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Bernalte, Elena; Iniesta, Jesus; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E


    Inspired by recent reports concerning the utilisation of hand drawn pencil macroelectrodes (PDEs), we report the fabrication, characterisation (physicochemical and electrochemical) and implementation (electrochemical sensing) of various PDEs drawn upon a flexible polyester substrate. Electrochemical characterisation reveals that there are no quantifiable electrochemical responses upon utilising these PDEs with an electroactive analyte that requires an electrochemical oxidation step first, therefore the PDEs have been examined towards the electroactive redox probes hexaammineruthenium(iii) chloride, potassium ferricyanide and ammonium iron(ii) sulfate. For the first time, characterisation of the number of drawn pencil layers and the grade of pencil are examined; these parameters are commonly overlooked when utilising PDEs. It is demonstrated that a PDE drawn ten times with a 6B pencil presented the most advantageous electrochemical platform, in terms of electrochemical reversibility and peak height/analytical signal. In consideration of the aforementioned limitation, analytes requiring an electrochemical reduction as the first process were solely analysed. We demonstrate the beneficial electroanalytical capabilities of these PDEs towards p-benzoquinone and the simultaneous detection of heavy metals, namely lead(ii) and cadmium(ii), all of which are explored for the first time utilising PDEs. Initially, the detection limits of this system were higher than desired for electroanalytical platforms, however upon implementation of the PDEs in a back-to-back configuration (in which two PDEs are placed back-to-back sharing a single connection to the potentiostat), the detection limits for lead(ii) and cadmium(ii) correspond to 10 μg L(-1) and 98 μg L(-1) respectively within model aqueous (0.1 M HCl) solutions.

  18. Material Analysis of Failed Cold-Drawn Billet (United States)


    notedl CD-F2 - Single cycle overload - Failure initiated at welds Figure 4: Fractography. 3.4. Charpy testing . Charpy V-notch impact energy of the two forged samples, with a 18.5 ft-lb average / 4.24 standard deviation. Figure 5: Charpy impact energy data. 3.5. Tensile testing ...substrate. Mechanical testing of the material, particularly fracture toughness and charpy impact energy, has shown that the cold-drawn material has

  19. Online Signature Verification on MOBISIG Finger-Drawn Signature Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Antal


    Full Text Available We present MOBISIG, a pseudosignature dataset containing finger-drawn signatures from 83 users captured with a capacitive touchscreen-based mobile device. The database was captured in three sessions resulting in 45 genuine signatures and 20 skilled forgeries for each user. The database was evaluated by two state-of-the-art methods: a function-based system using local features and a feature-based system using global features. Two types of equal error rate computations are performed: one using a global threshold and the other using user-specific thresholds. The lowest equal error rate was 0.01% against random forgeries and 5.81% against skilled forgeries using user-specific thresholds that were computed a posteriori. However, these equal error rates were significantly raised to 1.68% (random forgeries case and 14.31% (skilled forgeries case using global thresholds. The same evaluation protocol was performed on the DooDB publicly available dataset. Besides verification performance evaluations conducted on the two finger-drawn datasets, we evaluated the quality of the samples and the users of the two datasets using basic quality measures. The results show that finger-drawn signatures can be used by biometric systems with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.


    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  1. Interference in Joint Picture Naming (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.


    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  2. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.


    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  3. Structural Analysis of Hand Drawn Bumblebee Bombus terrestris Silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Woodhead


    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris, commonly known as the buff-tailed bumblebee, is native to Europe, parts of Africa and Asia. It is commercially bred for use as a pollinator of greenhouse crops. Larvae pupate within a silken cocoon that they construct from proteins produced in modified salivary glands. The amino acid composition and protein structure of hand drawn B. terrestris, silk fibres was investigated through the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from single fibres drawn from the larvae salivary gland at a rate of 0.14 cm/s. Raman spectroscopy enabled the identification of poly(alanine, poly(alanine-glycine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, which is consistent with the results of amino acid analysis. The dominant protein conformation was found to be coiled coil (73% while the β-sheet content of 10% is, as expected, lower than those reported for hornets and ants. Polarized Raman spectra revealed that the coiled coils were highly aligned along the fibre axis while the β-sheet and random coil components had their peptide carbonyl groups roughly perpendicular to the fibre axis. The protein orientation distribution is compared to those of other natural and recombinant silks. A structural model for the B. terrestris silk fibre is proposed based on these results.

  4. Look! Look! Who Stole the Pictures from the Picture Books? The Basalization of Picture Books. (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; And Others


    Suggests picture books are made more difficult for kids to predict, to make sense of, and to learn from by fitting them into the didactic framework of basals. Discusses the picture book genre. Compares the original version of "Ira Sleeps Over" to the basal version. Examines in detail how picture books are made to fit into a basal…

  5. Pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Starting with this issue, we will publish special pictures illustrating the ongoing construction and commissioning efforts. If you wish to have a professionnal photographer immortalize your detector before it disappears in the heart of ATLAS or for a special event, don't hesitate to contact Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira (16-3687) from the CERN photo service. Members of the pixel team preparing to insert the outermost layer (the outer of the three barrel pixel layers) into the Global Support Frame for the Pixel Detector in SR1. Ongoing work on the first Big Wheel on the C side. Exploded view of the side-C Big Wheel and the barrel cryostat. The TRT Barrel services (HV, LV, cooling liquid, active gas, flushing gas) are now completely connected and tested. Hats off to Kirill Egorov, Mike Reilly, Ben Legeyt and Godwin Mayers who managed to fit everything within the small clearance margin!

  6. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    This book presents a new and comprehensive theory concerning the manner in which landscapes in Western pictorial art may be interpreted in relation to the cultures that created them. Its point of departure is a hitherto unexplored developmental pattern that characterises landscape representation...... from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...... organisation. Controversially, this book argues that culture at a certain level of observation is marked by a directional evolution. In Volume I the author traces the pictorial depth of field from its Palaeolithic beginnings, in which only separate bodies are portrayed, and on to antiquity and the Middle Ages...

  7. Collages of granulation pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.


    This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst

  8. The Spectator in the Picture


    Hopkins, Robert


    This paper considers whether pictures ever implicitly represent internal spectators of the scenes they depict, and what theoretical construal to offer of their doing so. Richard Wollheim's discussion (Painting as an Art, ch.3) is taken as the most sophisticated attempt to answer these questions. I argue that Wollheim does not provide convincing argument for his claim that some pictures implicitly represent an internal spectator with whom the viewer of the picture is to imaginatively identify....

  9. Complex of structural roentgenometric and optical parameters of chest X-ray picture for automated fluorograms processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodzaevskij, S.A.


    The formalized description necessary for the development of algorithms for determination of main object boundaries by the roentgenologic picture during computerized photoroentgenograms processing is drawn up on the basis of the complex of structural roentgenometric parameters of the chest X-ray picture

  10. Physician-assisted dying: thoughts drawn from Albert Camus' writing. (United States)

    Bozzaro, Claudia


    Physician-assisted dying (assisted suicide and euthanasia) is currently an intensely discussed topic in several countries. Despite differences in legislation and application, countries with end-of-life laws have similar eligibility criteria for assistance in dying: individuals must be in a hopeless situation and experience unbearable suffering. Hopelessness, as a basic aspect of the human condition, is a central topic in Albert Camus' philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus, which addresses the question of suicide. Suffering in the face of a hopeless situation, and the way doctors approach this suffering, is the topic of his novel The Plague, which describes the story of a city confronted with a plague epidemic. In this paper, I draw philosophical and ethical conclusions about physician-assisted dying based on an analysis of central concepts in the work of Camus-specifically, those treated in The Myth of Sisyphus and The Plague. On the basis of my interpretation of Camus' work, I argue that hopelessness and unbearable suffering are useless as eligibility criteria for physician-assisted dying, given that they do not sufficiently elucidate where the line should be drawn between patients who should to be eligible for assistance and those who should not.

  11. Matter - a current picture. (United States)

    Macrae, Roderick M


    A century ago, a two-part review by W. C. McC. Lewis entitled "The Structure of Matter" appeared in this journal, surveying the achievements that had been made to date in that field. Topics included the value of Avogadro's constant, the dimensions of a molecule, equations of state for non-ideal gases, then-current theories relating electron configurations to the Periodic Law, the then-new nuclear atom model of Rutherford, and the first findings from X-ray crystallographic studies of matter, a field then in its nascent phase. This article is a sequel to that work. As a vast quantity of research has been addressed to the topic in the intervening period, the view presented here can at best be selective and idiosyncratic. Nonetheless, it attempts to capture some of the important strides in 'matter science', broadly defined, over the past century, highlight some recent areas of interest or novelty, and give a picture of some of the mysteries that remain.

  12. Biophotonics: the big picture (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.


    The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.

  13. Looking Beyond Picture Book Preferences. (United States)

    Kiefer, Barbara


    Notes shortcomings in research efforts intended to discover children's picture book preferences. Describes a research approach adapted from the field of anthropology, in which the researcher conducted observations and interviews as children respond to picture books in natural classroom settings. (EL)

  14. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books (United States)

    Yohlin, Elizabeth


    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana


    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19

  16. Television and College Football: In Black and White (United States)

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II


    This article's basic aim is to examine empirical evidence bearing upon the question of the relative competitive superiority of the predominantly white Division I football teams over the predominantly black Division II teams. (Author)

  17. Black and White College Women's Perceptions of Sexual Harassment. (United States)

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.


    Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)

  18. Color and uncertainty : It is not always black and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.; Toet, A.


    To fully comprehend the meaning and impact of visualized data it is crucial that users are able to perceive and comprehend the inherent uncertainty of the data in a correct and intuitive way. Data uncertainty is frequently visualized through color mappings. Previous studies argued that color hue is

  19. Race, School, and Seinfeld: Autoethnographic Sketching in Black and White (United States)

    Wamsted, John O.


    Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…

  20. Black and White Esophagus: Rare Presentations of Severe Esophageal Ischemia. (United States)

    Kim, Daniel B; Bowers, Steven; Thomas, Mathew


    Benign esophageal strictures are typically the result of long-standing gastroesophageal reflux, and are usually treated with serial dilations and acid-suppressive therapy. Other causes of benign esophageal strictures include external beam radiation, caustic ingestions, prior surgery, and external compression from mediastinal fibrosis. We report 2 rare causes of ischemic esophageal structuring occurring after operations unrelated to the esophagus. The first is a patient who developed esophageal injury following radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. The direct thermal injury resulted in a "white esophagus" with a full-thickness, long-segmental stricture. The second patient presented with a "black esophagus" also known as acute necrotizing esophagitis. This occurred after an orthotopic liver transplant, which was complicated by multiple organ dysfunction secondary to hemorrhagic shock. In this report, we present 2 rare causes of esophageal stricturing that occurred after procedures not necessarily related to the esophagus itself. Early recognition and active management of these esophageal injuries may lead to better outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring eating concerns in Black and White adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Barton, BA; Schumann, BC; Garner, DM; Daniels, [No Value; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB

    Objective: Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Methods: A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower

  2. In black and white: Media's role in shaping public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi Yearn-hong


    In a modern, democratic society, the newspaper's role is important and critical in shaping citizens' opinions on nuclear power and other issues. Citizens acquire knowledge on current issues in their society, nation, and the world through newspapers. Today, television and internet media is increasingly becoming more popular among citizens, but newspaper media continues to affect intellectual citizens, policy makers and think tanks. Therefore, assessing major daily newspaper editorials covering nuclear issues and affairs is necessary for their sound bridging between nuclear science and engineering and the public. Bridging the two cultures, science and humanities, is an enormous task for modern democratic society

  3. Black and White Adolescent Males' Perceptions of Ideal Body Size. (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.; And Others


    Studied ideal body size beliefs of 337 white and 159 black adolescent males. Findings point toward a greater approval and social acceptance of a larger body size for black females by black males. Cultural differences may be a factor to consider in designing appropriate weight control programs. (SLD)

  4. Black and White Adolescent Females Perceptions of Ideal Body Size. (United States)

    Parnell, Kathy; And Others


    White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…

  5. Friendships and Romantic Relationships of Black and White Adolescents (United States)

    Pagano, Maria E.; Hirsch, Barton J.


    Prior research on adolescent peer relationships has focused on interpersonal dimensions of friendships but not of romantic relationships, and has rarely examined minority groups. We used a random sample of 122 adolescents to examine race and gender differences in friendships, romantic relationships, and the congruence between closest friendship…

  6. Prevalence ofhyaline membrane disease in black and white low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one of white low-birth-weight infants were en- rolled at Baragwanath and Johannesburg Hospi- ... The prevalence of respiratory distress caused by hyaline membrane dis·ease (HMD) in pre- .... ticoid treatment for prevention of the respiratory distress syndrome in premarure infants. Pediamcs 1972; 50: 515-825. 12.

  7. A stochastic picture of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.


    Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)

  8. Heisenberg picture and measurement operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Espagnat, B.


    The idea is discussed according to which, in the Heisenberg picture, differently from the Schroedinger picture, the operators correspond exactly to the dynamic properties and the role of the density matrix is merely to describe our passive knowledge thereof. It is shown that the idea in question cannot be consistently kept as it is, and hints are given as to how it could be refined. (from author). 2 refs

  9. Pictures, Images and Deep Reading


    Bland, Janice


    This paper considers the support provided by multimodal children’s literature in the development of literacy. The focus is on reading in a second language and the negotiation of understanding due to information gaps in the narrative, and on reading pleasure due to sensory anchoring through pictures. The development of deep reading is differentiated from the acquisition of functional literacy skills. Further, the differentiation between the medium-embeddedness of pictures and the perceptual-tr...

  10. The sources of Gessner's pictures for the Historia animalium. (United States)

    Kusukawa, S


    Gessner's sources for the pictures in his Historia animalium were varied in kind and in quality. This should be understood within the larger context of the Historia animalium in which Gessner sought to collect everything ever written about animals, an enterprise that could not be completed by a single individual. Just as Gessner did not distil or reduce similar texts but retained these as well as contradictory or false textual descriptions as part of a repository of knowledge, so also Gessner included several pictures of the same animal, false or badly drawn ones, and juxtaposed erroneous and 'true' images. The attribution of images to witnesses and correspondences also reflects Gessner's strategy to credit those who drew his attention to new information first. The sources of Gessner's images thus indicate how his visual world encompassed more than the strictly self-observable, and a pictorial practice that was intimately connected with textual traditions and intellectual networks.

  11. Recognition and source memory for pictures in children and adults. (United States)

    Cycowicz, Y M; Friedman, D; Snodgrass, J G; Duff, M


    The present experiment investigated the developmental aspects of source compared to item memory. College students and 7-8-year-old children viewed pictures drawn in red or green during a study phase, and were asked either to remember the pictures for a subsequent recognition test, or to remember both the pictures and their associated colors for a subsequent source memory test. In the test phase, new and old pictures were presented in black. In the recognition task, participants were asked to make binary old/new recognition judgments, while in the source task, they were asked to make trinary old-green/old-red/new source judgements. Performance on all tasks improved with increasing age, but the age difference for source was much larger than that for item memory. It has been suggested that the frontal lobes play a critical role in the retrieval of source information, and that this brain region relative to the medial temporal lobes continues to develop into late adolescence. Thus, it is possible that immaturity of the frontal lobes may be causally related to the children's lower performance on the source memory task.

  12. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols (United States)

    Jonaitis, Carmen


    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  13. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn


    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  14. Pictures, Images and Deep Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Bland


    Full Text Available This paper considers the support provided by multimodal children’s literature in the development of literacy. The focus is on reading in a second language and the negotiation of understanding due to information gaps in the narrative, and on reading pleasure due to sensory anchoring through pictures. The development of deep reading is differentiated from the acquisition of functional literacy skills. Further, the differentiation between the medium-embeddedness of pictures and the perceptual-transactional and culturally shaped nature of images is highlighted with regard to the affordances of pictures in picturebooks and graphic novels. In some children’s literature, the opportunities for meaningful booktalk are amplified by an apparently simple style of illustration. This process has been termed amplification through simplification, which, in contrast to simplifying by stereotyping, can help lead to intercultural understanding and deep reading. The affordances of pictures in supporting young adult readers to create a mental model of a storyworld is discussed with reference to two panels from Coraline (Gaiman & Russell, 2008, a graphic novel.

  15. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar


    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  16. Every Picture Tells a Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Piet Bakker


    Het doel van het project Every Picture Tells a Story is om samen met het werkveld methoden, technieken en kennis te ontwikkelen voor het produceren van effectieve infographics. Dit is nodig omdat de vraag naar infographics in de markt snel toeneemt. Bedrijfsleven en overheden kiezen er steeds vaker

  17. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures


    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn


    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location ...

  18. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi


    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  19. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  20. Fluoroangiographic picture of chorioretinal folds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvodova, B.; Karel, I.


    Fluoroangiographic pictures of chorioretinal folds (CRF) were analyzed in 13 eyes of 12 patients. The orbital origin of CRF was present in 8 eyes (orbital tumors in 7 eyes and thyroid ophthalmopathy in one eye), the intraocular origin in 5 eyes (hypotonic postoperative syndrome caused by the detachment of the choroid in 3 eyes, Irwine-Gass syndrome in 2 eyes, scleral bucle used for retinal detachment repair in one eye). The fluoroangiographic findings of CRF were determined by changes in the pigmented epithelium and choroid of a different degree, which modified the clinical picture of the basic disease. Fluorescein angiography is a very useful method for the differentiation of retinal and choroid detachments but with a limited possibility to determine the etiological factor of the disease. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 32 refs

  1. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.


    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  2. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture


    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija


    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  3. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.


    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)

  4. Not Just Another Pretty Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Davis


    Full Text Available Not just another pretty picture Introduction I’m a slave to spreadsheets. Trying to decide between a stacked column bar chart and a 3-D area chart is par for the course in my work. Microsoft Excel© is great for many practical needs, but it doesn’t always support the need to create simple, compelling and interactive graphical [...

  5. Portrait pictures of actors in Ukrainian cinema posters of 1920s - early 1990s (based on the materials of Ukrainian cinema posters collection from the fonds of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutnyk L.


    Full Text Available The author examines cinema posters as a source of visual information. Based on the materials of Ukrainian cinema posters collection of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, the article analyzes posters, the compositions of which contain portrait pictures of Ukrainian and world cinema actors. It characterizes approaches which were used by the artists during their work of posters creaton in order to present the cinema activity of the actors through the creation of cinema images in graphics or collage technique. The author traces main stylistic peculiarities of the posters with portrait pictures and creative style of certain poster artists. It is worth acknowledging that nowadays unique posters to some films of 1920-1930s which have not been preserved up to the present are of special value as important artistic documents in the history of cinema. Despite the fact that the period of the first third of the twentieth century was an age of silent black-and-white films in the history of cinema, all the posters that accompanied the films release were colored, and together they became a bright and unique page in the history of Ukrainian graphic art and cinema advertising

  6. A Picture of Subsidized Housholds 2008 (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008...

  7. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009 (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  8. Use of picture books to explain procedures. (United States)


    A small study conducted at a Swedish hospital on the effect of giving picture books and picture sheets to prepare children for their procedures before and during day surgery is explored in this article.

  9. Interference of conoscopic pictures of optical crystals (United States)

    Syuy, A. V.; Stroganov, V. I.


    Nonconventional conoscopic pictures in poorly passing bunches of light, localized in a plane of uni-axial optical crystal are received. At usage of two crystal slabs with the optical axes oriented at angle to the plane of slab the interference conoscopic pictures are observed. The model explaining interference of conoscopic pictures is presented.

  10. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.


    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  11. Exploring Multicultural Themes through Picture Books. (United States)

    Farris, Pamela J.


    Advocates inclusion of multicultural picture books in social studies instruction to offer different outlooks and visions in a short format. Describes selection of picture books with multicultural themes and those that represent various cultures, gender equity, and religious themes. Suggests that picture books may help students develop better…

  12. 78 FR 21596 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order (United States)


    ... single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain boards, whether finished or unfinished, regardless... steel, and then welding and finishing the vertical corners to form the bowls. Stainless steel sinks with...

  13. 78 FR 13019 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Investigation, Final Determination (United States)


    ... single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain boards, whether finished or unfinished, regardless............ Guangdong YingAo Kitchen 33.51 Utensils Co., Ltd.;. Franke (China) Kitchen System Co., Ltd. Grand Hill Work...

  14. Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show...... that the dynamics of the interaction picture Wigner function is solved by running a swarm of trajectories in the classical interaction picture introduced previously in the literature. Solving the Wigner method dynamics of collision processes in the interaction picture ensures that the calculated transition...

  15. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP......, and gather requirements for the tool, we followed a user-centered design approach and performed a usability test with an early prototype. The findings suggest the presence of a gap between some of the modern object-oriented development practices and engineering students' values: some techniques, like RP......, presuppose design skills that are alien to our students. To bridge this gap our tool aims at making design-specific skills optional, enhancing the conceptual analytical skills that software analysis shares with design. Further studies will be conducted to assess the impact of the tool on learning....

  17. A Method to Generate Freeform Curves from a Hand-drawn Sketch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuzo Kuragano


    Full Text Available When designers begin a product design, they create their ideas and expand them. This process is performed on paper, and designers' hand-drawn lines are called sketches. If the designers' hand-drawn sketches can be realized as real curves, it would be effective in shortening the design period. We have developed a method to extract five degree Bezier curves based on a hand-drawn sketch. The basic techniques to detect curves based on a hand-drawn sketch are described. First, light intensity transformation, binarization of the hand-drawn sketch, and feature based erosion and dilation to smooth the edges of the binary sketch image are described. Then, line segment determination using the detected edges is described. Using the determined line segments a five degree Bezier curve generation is described. A curve shape modification algorithm is described to reconstruct a five degree Bezier curve. Examples of five degree fair curvature Bezier curves based on a sketch are given.

  18. Emotionally Negative Pictures Enhance Gist Memory


    Bookbinder, S. H.; Brainerd, C. J.


    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are due to valence and which are due to arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively-valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling reve...

  19. Selected pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    View of a single MDT Big Wheel (on side A in UX15 cavern) taken during its last movement immediately after being assembled and just before being connected to the neighbouring TGC1 wheel. Assembly work on the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Wheel C in building 190. Connecting the services for the Cathode Strip Chambers. The installation of the optical fibers for the readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Weel C by the Irvine group. Best from our archives: View of the End Cap Calorimeter and TGC big wheel from the Cryostat side A of ATLAS cavern taken on 22 May 2007. The picture above was taken from the platform in the middle, between the Cryostat and the End-Cap. Muriel hopes you all had a great vacation. She herself had a wonderful time sailing in Galicia (North Western Spain). She can be seen here wearing the traditional dress offered to her by "Los Amigos de las Dornas" (Friends of the Dornas -traditional sailing boats used for fishing) - when she became ...

  20. Structure and strength of sub-100 nm lamellar structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew


    Pearlitic steel wire, with a representative sub-100 nm lamellar structure, is the strongest mass-produced steel with an excellent combination of formability and strength. This overview summarises investigations of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire in the last decades, covering the microstructural...... and performance of pearlitic steel wire to widen its use in society....

  1. Performance evaluation of an ox-drawn ridging plough in a soil-bin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ox-drawn ridging plough was developed using the Godwin-Spoor narrow tine soil force prediction model. The plough was evaluated in a sandy loam soil in the soil-bin at Cranfield University, Silsoe. The objectives were to compare predicted with measured draught and vertical forces, and cross-sectional area of soil ...

  2. Axel Honneth's Idea of a Drawn-Out Process of Education (United States)

    Hanhela, Teemu


    This article examines Axel Honneth's interpretation of Hegel's "ethical life" as a conception of a "drawn-out" process of education. Honneth's formulations of ethical life, namely "personal relationships", "market economy" and "the democratic will-formation", are an interesting…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Fibres obtained by gel spinning of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were drawn to various ratios, and the improvement of the tensile strength of the hot-drawn filaments with increasing draw ratio has been studied. The tensile force at break of gel-spun/hot-drawn UHMWPE fibres

  4. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  5. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books (United States)

    Hager, Stephanie


    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  6. Positioning Picture Books within the Mathematics Curriculum (United States)

    Jenkins, Kate


    Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…

  7. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.


    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  8. Picture Books and the Art of Collage. (United States)

    Prudhoe, Catherine M.


    Explores how teachers can use picture book illustrations to teach children the art of collage. Focuses on three children's picture books and offers art activities showcasing three collage techniques: (1) cut and torn paper collage; (2) photomontage; and (3) texture collages and collage constructions. Relates each activity to the National Standards…

  9. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books. (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  10. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b) The... Information via the appropriate Navy headquarters activity for coordination with the Assistant Secretary of...

  11. Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains. (United States)

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth


    Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

  12. Tableau algorithms defined naturally for pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A. van Leeuwen


    textabstractWe consider pictures as defined by Zelevinsky. We elaborate on the generalisation of the Robinson-Schensted correspondence to pictures defined by him, and on the result of Fomin and Greene that shows that this correspondence is natural, i.e., independent of the precise ``reading'' order

  13. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures. (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R


    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  14. The effect of cyclic torsion on the dislocation structure of drawn mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar


    Full Text Available Cold forming is usually associated with the "work hardening" of the material being formed. The work hardening behavior of metals subject to complex processing paths is different from that in monotonic deformation. The results show that, after some initial hardening, there is a possibility that further deformation will cause softening in the material ("work softening". Recent work showed that cyclic torsion applied to drawn products causes changes in the subsequent tensile behavior of low carbon steel, and that the effect will depend on the previous "history" of the material. For annealed samples, the cyclic torsion leads to an increase in the yield strength, but does not affect the tensile strength and elongation. For the case of previously drawn bars, the cyclic deformation caused a decrease in the yield and tensile strength and an increase in the total elongation. The present paper discusses the dislocation structure changes associated with different strain paths in mild steel.

  15. Three Distinct Deformation Behaviors of Cementite Lamellae in a Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Wire (United States)

    Xin, Tuo; Liu, Guiju; Liang, Wenshuang; Cai, Rongsheng; Feng, Honglei; Li, Chen; Li, Jian; Wang, Yiqian


    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the deformation behaviors of cementite lamellae in the heavily cold-drawn piano wires. Three distinct morphologies of cementite are observed, namely, complete lamella, partly-broken lamella and nearly-disappeared lamella. For the complete cementite lamella, it remains a single-crystalline structure. For the partly-broken cementite lamella, polycrystalline structure and neck-down region appear to release the residual strain. The lattice expansion of ferrite takes place in two perpendicular directions indicating that the carbon atoms dissolve from cementite into ferrite lattices. An orientation relationship is found between ferrite and cementite phases in the cold-drawn pearlitic wire.

  16. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu


    Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified...... by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The mechanical properties have been determined by tensile testing. It is found that the interlamellar spacing and the thickness of the cementite lamellae are reduced in accordance with the changes in wire diameter up to a strain of 2...... at the ferrite/cementite interface. Three strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed: (i) boundary strengthening, (ii) dislocation strengthening and (iii) solid solution hardening. The individual and combined contributions, based on an assumption of linear additivity, of these mechanisms to the wire strength...

  17. Paper-based potentiometric pH sensor using carbon electrode drawn by pencil (United States)

    Kawahara, Ryotaro; Sahatiya, Parikshit; Badhulika, Sushmee; Uno, Shigeyasu


    A flexible and disposable paper-based pH sensor fabricated with a pencil-drawn working electrode and a Ag/AgCl paste reference electrode is demonstrated for the first time to show pH response by the potentiometric principle. The sensor substrate is made of chromatography paper with a wax-printed hydrophobic area, and various types of carbon pencils are tested as working electrodes. The pH sensitivities of the electrodes drawn by carbon pencils with different hardnesses range from 16.5 to 26.9 mV/pH. The proposed sensor is expected to be more robust against shape change in electrodes on a flexible substrate than other types of chemiresistive/amperometric pH sensors.

  18. Fiber vs Rolling Texture: Stress State Dependence for Cold-Drawn Wire (United States)

    Zorina, M. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepanov, S. I.; Demakov, S. L.; Loginov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, M. L.


    The texture of the cold-drawn copper wire was investigated along the radius using electron backscatter diffraction. The complex fiber texture of the central region of the wire was considered as the rolling texture consisting of a set of preferred orientations. The texture of the periphery region was revealed to be similar to the shear texture. The orientation-dependent properties of the wire were proven to be determined by the texture of the near-surface layers.

  19. Research on Melt Degassing Processes of High Conductivity Hard Drawn Aluminum Wire (United States)

    Xu, Xuexia; Feng, Yanting; Wang, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Hui; Wang, Yong; Li, Guowei; Zhang, Daoqian


    Degassing effects of ultrasonic and vacuum processes on high conductivity hard drawn aluminum melt were studied. Results showed that the degassing efficiency improved with the increase of ultrasonic power within certain range, stabilizing at 70% with 240W. For vacuum degassing process, hydrogen content of aluminum melt decreased with the loading time and was linear with logarithm of vacuum degree. Comparison of degassing effects of ultrasonic, vacuum, vacuum-ultrasonic degassing process showed that vacuum-ultrasonic process presented optimal effect.

  20. Air-structured optical fibre drawn from a 3D-printed preform


    Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Reid, Zane; Hossain, Md Arafat; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding


    A structured optical fibre is drawn from a 3D-printed structured preform. Preforms containing a single ring of holes around the core are fabricated using filament made from a modified butadiene polymer. More broadly, 3D printers capable of processing soft glasses, silica and other materials are likely to come on line in the not-so distant future. 3D printing of optical preforms signals a new milestone in optical fibre manufacture.

  1. Step-index optical fiber drawn from 3D printed preforms. (United States)

    Cook, Kevin; Balle, Geoffrey; Canning, John; Chartier, Loïc; Athanaze, Tristan; Hossain, M A; Han, Chunyang; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding


    Optical fiber is drawn from a dual-head 3D printer fabricated preform made of two optically transparent plastics with a high-index core (NA∼0.25, V>60). The asymmetry observed in the fiber arises from asymmetry in the 3D printing process. The highly multimode optical fiber has losses measured by cut-back as low as α∼0.44  dB/cm in the near IR.

  2. Step-index optical fibre drawn from 3D printed preforms


    CooK, Kevin; Balle, Geoffrey; Canning, John; Chartier, Loic; Athanaze, Tristan; Hossain, Md Arafat; Han, Chunyang; Comatti, Jade-Edouard; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding


    Optical fibre is drawn from a dual-head 3D printer fabricated preform made of two optically transparent plastics with a high index core (NA ~ 0.25, V > 60). The asymmetry observed in the fibre arises from asymmetry in the 3D printing process. The highly multi-mode optical fibre has losses measured by cut-back as low as {\\alpha} ~ 0.44 dB/cm in the near IR.

  3. Low vacuum and discard tubes reduce hemolysis in samples drawn from intravenous catheters. (United States)

    Heiligers-Duckers, Connie; Peters, Nathalie A L R; van Dijck, Jose J P; Hoeijmakers, Jan M J; Janssen, Marcel J W


    In-vitro hemolysis is a great challenge to emergency departments where blood is drawn from intravenous catheters (IVCs). Although high quality samples can be obtained by straight needle venipuncture, IVCs are preferred for various reasons. The aim of this study was to identify blood collection practices that reduce hemolysis while using IVC. The study was conducted at an emergency department where blood is drawn in ≥ 90% of patients from IVC. Hemolysis, measured spectrophotometrically, was compared between syringe and vacuum tubes. The following practices were tested in combination with vacuum collection; a Luer-slip adapter, a Luer-lock adapter, discard tubes and low vacuum tubes. Each intervention lasted 1 week and retrieved 154 to 297 samples. As reference, hemolysis was also measured in vacuum tubes retrieved from departments where only straight needle venipuncture is performed. Vacuum collection led to more hemolytic samples compared with syringe tubes (24% versus 16% respectively, p=0.008). No difference in hemolysis was observed between the Luer-slip and the Luer-lock adapter. The use of discard (17% hemolytic, p=0.045) and low vacuum tubes (12% hemolytic, pvacuum tubes reduce hemolysis while drawing blood from IVC. Of these practices the use of a low vacuum tube is preferred considering the less volume of blood and the amount of tubes drawn. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCarthy


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.

  5. Personalizing the Collaborative Learning Environment with Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Mackie


    Full Text Available The Internet and Web-based technologies, as well as rapid globalization, are changing the way businesses communicate. Continuous progress in Information Technology (IT enables effective and efficient communication, particularly with the use of collaborative systems. Such systems have many different types of interfaces and attributes, and one such attribute is the use of visuals. This research assesses the usefulness of participant pictures in a collaborative exchange. To evaluate the usefulness of such pictures, participants were asked a series of questions regarding the use of pictures in CAMS, a collaborative environment. The results suggest that, in a collaborative setting, the use of pictures is valuable in enhancing a "sense of community," particularly in cases where participants have not met face-to-face.

  6. The Heisenberg picture for single photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.


    In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.

  7. Painting a Data-Rich Picture (United States)

    Earl, Lorna; Katz, Steven


    Using data for school reform is like painting a series of pictures--pictures that are subtle and capture the nuances of the subject. This is a far cry from drawing stick figures or paint-by-numbers. Imagine the experiences of the French painter Claude Monet as he wandered through his garden at Giverny at different times of the day and year,…

  8. Musicality in the Language of Picture Books (United States)

    Heald, Robin


    The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…

  9. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia. (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio


    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.


    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  11. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre


    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  12. Photographic but not line-drawn faces show early perceptual neural sensitivity to eye gaze direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eRossi


    Full Text Available Our brains readily decode facial movements and changes in social attention, reflected in earlier and larger N170 event-related potentials (ERPs to viewing gaze aversions vs. direct gaze in real faces (Puce et al. 2000. In contrast, gaze aversions in line-drawn faces do not produce these N170 differences (Rossi et al., 2014, suggesting that physical stimulus properties or experimental context may drive these effects. Here we investigated the role of stimulus-induced context on neurophysiological responses to dynamic gaze. Sixteen healthy adults viewed line-drawn and real faces, with dynamic eye aversion and direct gaze transitions, and control stimuli (scrambled arrays and checkerboards while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded. EEG data from 2 temporo-occipital clusters of 9 electrodes in each hemisphere where N170 activity is known to be maximal were selected for analysis. N170 peak amplitude and latency, and temporal dynamics from event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs were measured in 16 healthy subjects. Real faces generated larger N170s for averted vs. direct gaze motion, however, N170s to real and direct gaze were as large as those to respective controls. N170 amplitude did not differ across line-drawn gaze changes. Overall, bilateral mean gamma power changes for faces relative to control stimuli occurred between 150-350 ms, potentially reflecting signal detection of facial motion.Our data indicate that experimental context does not drive N170 differences to viewed gaze changes. Low-level stimulus properties, such as the high sclera/iris contrast change in real eyes likely drive the N170 changes to viewed aversive movements.

  13. Epinephrine Auto-Injector Versus Drawn Up Epinephrine for Anaphylaxis Management: A Scoping Review. (United States)

    Chime, Nnenna O; Riese, Victoria G; Scherzer, Daniel J; Perretta, Julianne S; McNamara, LeAnn; Rosen, Michael A; Hunt, Elizabeth A


    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening event. Most clinical symptoms of anaphylaxis can be reversed by prompt intramuscular administration of epinephrine using an auto-injector or epinephrine drawn up in a syringe and delays and errors may be fatal. The aim of this scoping review is to identify and compare errors associated with use of epinephrine drawn up in a syringe versus epinephrine auto-injectors in order to assist hospitals as they choose which approach minimizes risk of adverse events for their patients. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched using terms agreed to a priori. We reviewed human and simulation studies reporting errors associated with the use of epinephrine in anaphylaxis. There were multiple screening stages with evolving feedback. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers for eligibility. Data were extracted using an instrument modeled from the Zaza et al instrument and grouped into themes. Three main themes were noted: 1) ergonomics, 2) dosing errors, and 3) errors due to route of administration. Significant knowledge gaps in the operation of epinephrine auto-injectors among healthcare providers, patients, and caregivers were identified. For epinephrine in a syringe, there were more frequent reports of incorrect dosing and erroneous IV administration with associated adverse cardiac events. For the epinephrine auto-injector, unintentional administration to the digit was an error reported on multiple occasions. This scoping review highlights knowledge gaps and a diverse set of errors regardless of the approach to epinephrine preparation during management of anaphylaxis. There are more potentially life-threatening errors reported for epinephrine drawn up in a syringe than with the auto-injectors. The impact of these knowledge gaps and potentially fatal errors on patient outcomes, cost, and quality of care is worthy of further investigation.

  14. Pencil-on-Paper Capacitors for Hand-Drawn RC Circuits and Capacitive Sensing


    Thompson, Jonathan E.


    Electronic capacitors were constructed via hand-printing on paper using pencil graphite. Graphite traces were used to draw conductive connections and capacitor plates on opposing sides of a sheet of standard notebook paper. The paper served as the dielectric separating the plates. Capacitance of the devices was generally < 1000 pF and scaled with surface area of the plate electrodes. By combining a pencil-drawn capacitor with an additional resistive pencil trace, an RC low-pass filter was dem...

  15. Structural Parameters and Strengthening Mechanisms in Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu


    Pearlitic steel wires have a nanoscale structure and a strength which can reach 5 GPa. In order to investigate strengthening mechanisms, structural parameters including interlamellar spacing, dislocation density and cementite decomposition, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy...... and high resolution electron microscopy in wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.7. Three strengthening mechanisms, namely boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening have been analyzed and good agreement has been found between the measured flow stress and the value...

  16. Picture Memory Improves with Longer On Time and Off Time (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy


    Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)

  17. Pictures with narration versus pictures with on-screen text during teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Ioannou


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students’ comprehension in Mathematics: pictures with concurrent narration versus pictures with on-screen text, during teaching triangles, a lesson in Mathematics. Forty primary school children (boys and girls selected to participate in this study. Students splitted into two experimental groups with the technique of simple random sampling. The first group consisted of students who viewed and listened (pictures with narration group, while the second group consisted of students who viewed (pictures with on-screen text a presentation of triangles. A recall test was used to evaluate students’ comprehension. The results showed that students’ comprehension was better when triangles' presentation (pictures was accompanied with spoken words, than with printed words. The pictures with narration group performed better than the pictures with on-screen text group, in recall test (M = 4.97, SD = 1.32 p<0.01. Results are consistent with the modality principle in which learners are more likely to build connections between corresponding words and pictures when words are presented in a spoken form (narration simultaneously with pictures.

  18. Hirarchical structures and strength in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew


    Deformation, as one of the major methods to improve the (specific) strength of metals, can be combined with phase transformation to improve the strength of nanometals to an ultrahigh level close to the theoretical strength in single crystals. This is demonstrated by the analysis of the microstruc......Deformation, as one of the major methods to improve the (specific) strength of metals, can be combined with phase transformation to improve the strength of nanometals to an ultrahigh level close to the theoretical strength in single crystals. This is demonstrated by the analysis...... of the microstructural evolution, strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress up to about 3.5 GPa. Structural parameters including the interlamellar spacing, the dislocation density in the ferrite lamellae...... and the cementite decomposition, have been analyzed and quantified by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy for wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.68. Three strengthening mechanisms, boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid...

  19. Tensile behaviour of drawn tungsten wire used in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Feichtmayer, A.; Fuhr, M.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Gietl, H.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Neu, R.


    In tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) the brittleness problem of tungsten is solved by utilizing extrinsic toughening mechanisms. The properties of the composite are very much related to the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as fibre reinforcements. Its high strength and capability of ductile deformation are ideal properties facilitating toughening of Wf/W. Tensile tests have been used for determining mechanical properties and study the deformation and the fracture behaviour of the wire. Tests of as-fabricated and straightened drawn wires with a diameter between 16 and 150 μm as well as wire electrochemically thinned to a diameter of 5 μm have been performed. Engineering stress–strain curves and a microscopic analysis are presented with the focus on the ultimate strength. All fibres show a comparable stress–strain behaviour comprising necking followed by a ductile fracture. A reduction of the diameter by drawing leads to an increase of strength up to 4500 MPa as a consequence of a grain boundary hardening mechanism. Heat treatment during straightening decreases the strength whereas electrochemical thinning has no significant impact on the mechanical behaviour.

  20. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Fu, Bojie; Zhu, Huoxing; Wang, Cong; Jiao, Lei; Zhou, Ji


    Although trait choice is crucial to quantify functional diversity appropriately, the quantitative methods for it are rarely compared and discussed. Meanwhile, very little is known about how trait choice affects ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. We presented the four methods of trait selection as alternatives to the ordination axis-based method, which directly identify a subset of key traits to represent the main variation of all the traits. To evaluate their performance, we compared the closeness of association obtained by different methods between species richness and functional diversity indices (FAD, FD, Q, FDis) in the six ecosystems. The evaluation was also benchmarked against the results obtained by calculating the possible indices using all the trait combinations (the complete search method). We found that the trait selection methods were potential alternatives to axis-based method to gain a mechanistic understanding of functional responses and effects of traits, while these methods as well as the axis-based method possibly use mismatched information to interpret the investigated ecosystem properties. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. The complete search method should be used to assess the rationale of different trait choice methods and the quality of the calculated indices.

  1. Investigation on the Residual Stress State of Drawn Tubes by Numerical Simulation and Neutron Diffraction Analysis. (United States)

    Palkowski, Heinz; Brück, Sebastian; Pirling, Thilo; Carradò, Adele


    Cold drawing is widely applied in the industrial production of seamless tubes, employed for various mechanical applications. During pre-processing, deviations in tools and their adjustment lead to inhomogeneities in the geometry of the tubes and cause a gradient in residuals. In this paper a three dimensional finite element (3D-FE)-model is presented which was developed to calculate the change in wall thickness, eccentricity, ovality and residual macro-stress state of the tubes, produced by cold drawing. The model simulates the drawing process of tubes, drawn with and without a plug. For finite element modelling, the commercial software package Abaqus was used. To validate the model, neutron strain imaging measurements were performed on the strain imaging instrument SALSA at the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France) on a series of SF-copper tubes, drawn under controlled laboratory conditions, varying the drawing angle and the plug geometry. It can be stated that there is sufficient agreement between the finite element method (FEM)-calculation and the neutron stress determination.

  2. Investigation on the Residual Stress State of Drawn Tubes by Numerical Simulation and Neutron Diffraction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Carradò


    Full Text Available Cold drawing is widely applied in the industrial production of seamless tubes, employed for various mechanical applications. During pre-processing, deviations in tools and their adjustment lead to inhomogeneities in the geometry of the tubes and cause a gradient in residuals. In this paper a three dimensional finite element (3D-FE-model is presented which was developed to calculate the change in wall thickness, eccentricity, ovality and residual macro-stress state of the tubes, produced by cold drawing. The model simulates the drawing process of tubes, drawn with and without a plug. For finite element modelling, the commercial software package Abaqus was used. To validate the model, neutron strain imaging measurements were performed on the strain imaging instrument SALSA at the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France on a series of SF-copper tubes, drawn under controlled laboratory conditions, varying the drawing angle and the plug geometry. It can be stated that there is sufficient agreement between the finite element method (FEM-calculation and the neutron stress determination.

  3. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman


    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  4. [Information processing in Stroop-like picture naming tasks by preschool children]. (United States)

    Tazume, H


    This study examined the difference between preschool (6-year-olds) children and adults in semantic information processing in line-drawn picture naming, using two types of Stroop-like picture naming tasks. In Experiment 1, voices (i.e., lexical information), and in Experiment 2, pictures (i.e., semantic information) were used as distracters. Subjects were asked to name target pictures as quickly as possible, ignoring distracters. To clarify the effect of semantic relations on the amount of interference, four types of target-distracter semantic relations were used as experimental conditions: same stimulus (SS), same category (SC), different category (DC), and control (C). To investigate the time course of processing, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and distracter was varied. The results indicated that the patterns of reaction time showed more remarkable difference between children and adults in Experiment 1 than in Experiment 2. These results were discussed on the basis of Glaser and Glaser (1989)'s model in which semantic memory and lexicon were separate.

  5. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory. (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J


    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Picture or Text First? Explaining Sequence Effects When Learning with Pictures and Text (United States)

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina


    The present article reviews 42 studies investigating the role of sequencing of text and pictures for learning outcomes. Whereas several of the reviewed studies revealed better learning outcomes from presenting the picture before the text rather than after it, other studies demonstrated the opposite effect. Against the backdrop of theories on…

  7. Picture This: Young Quechua Children's Reactions to Imported Picture Books in Ayacucho, Peru (United States)

    Eck, Jennifer Rowse


    Practitioners in ECE consider picture books an effective instructional tool in early childhood programming in the developed regions of the world. However, many young children from marginalized populations in the developing world have little to no access to them and thus, the effect that picture books could have upon their emergent literacy…

  8. Is a Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words? Creating Effective Questionnaires with Pictures (United States)

    Reynolds-Keefer, Laura; Johnson, Robert


    In developing attitudinal instruments for young children, researchers, program evaluators, and clinicians often use response scales with pictures or images (e.g., smiley faces) as anchors. This article considers connections between word-based and picture based Likert scales and highlights the value in translating conventions used in word-based…

  9. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ


    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  10. Trace of nuclear energy with pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book traces the history of development over nuclear energy with pictures, which contains preface, development history of the world, development history of Korea, nuclear power plant in Kori, nuclear power plant in Wolseong, nuclear power plant in Yeonggwang, nuclear power plant in Uljin, nuclear fuel, using of radiation and radioactive isotope, development of nuclear energy in the world and a Chronological table of nuclear energy. This book is written to record the development history of Korea through pictures of the nuclear power plants in Korea.

  11. Fully-drawn carbon-based chemical sensors on organic and inorganic surfaces. (United States)

    Frazier, Kelvin M; Mirica, Katherine A; Walish, Joseph J; Swager, Timothy M


    Mechanical abrasion is an extremely simple, rapid, and low-cost method for deposition of carbon-based materials onto a substrate. However, the method is limited in throughput, precision, and surface compatibility for drawing conductive pathways. Selective patterning of surfaces using laser-etching can facilitate substantial improvements to address these current limitations for the abrasive deposition of carbon-based materials. This study demonstrates the successful on-demand fabrication of fully-drawn chemical sensors on a wide variety of substrates (e.g., weighing paper, polymethyl methacrylate, silicon, and adhesive tape) using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as sensing materials and graphite as electrodes. Mechanical mixing of SWCNTs with solid or liquid selectors yields sensors that can detect and discriminate parts-per-million (ppm) quantities of various nitrogen-containing vapors (pyridine, aniline, triethylamine).

  12. Lessons drawn from 2 existing satellite networks: ARABSAT and EUTELSAT. Application to the Pacific basin projects (United States)

    Bloch, Jean-Jacques

    The Arabsat and Eutelsat systems are described. The Arabsat belongs to an organization which includes 20 countries of the Arab League. The Eutelsat belongs to the European telecommunication system which includes 29 countries, and is based op the Intelsat model. The current use of their payload is reviewed and compared with their respective planning stage predictions. From this perspective, some teachings are drawn which could be profitable for emerging region Pacific basin networks, now in the planning stage. In the Pacific basin several private and governmental regional satellite networks either newly existing or in the design phase are vying to deliver services to potential customers. These services include national television, commercial television, VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) networks, and regional or domestic telephony.

  13. The aerial view of Cordoba drawn by Alfred Guesdon in 1853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gámiz Gordo


    Full Text Available The aerial views by Alfred Guesdon are considered works of special interest due to their quality and beauty. These drawings are a faithful portrait of the great cities of the period, and a mystery in terms of their creation. After reviewing some of the aerial drawings of the mid-19th century, the author considers undocumented hypotheses regarding the relationship of Charles Clifford to the drawings by Guesdon of Spanish cities, and the issues related to their elaboration by means of plans, photographs and hot-air balloons. Some light is shed on this matter thanks to the unpublished drawing of the city of Cordoba (1853, whose accuracy is evident when compared to a city plan drawn by Montis (1851. A journey through the city of Cordoba and its landmarks proves the documentary value of the drawing by Guesdon, who knew how to combine traditional drawing skills with the latest technical advances of his time.

  14. Piezoresistivity of mechanically drawn single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films-: mechanism and optimizing principle (United States)

    Obitayo, Waris

    The individual carbon nanotube (CNT) based strain sensors have been found to have excellent piezoresistive properties with a reported gauge factor (GF) of up to 3000. This GF on the other hand, has been shown to be structurally dependent on the nanotubes. In contrast, to individual CNT based strain sensors, the ensemble CNT based strain sensors have very low GFs e.g. for a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film strain sensor, GF is ~1. As a result, studies which are mostly numerical/analytical have revealed the dependence of piezoresistivity on key parameters like concentration, orientation, length and diameter, aspect ratio, energy barrier height and Poisson ratio of polymer matrix. The fundamental understanding of the piezoresistive mechanism in an ensemble CNT based strain sensor still remains unclear, largely due to discrepancies in the outcomes of these numerical studies. Besides, there have been little or no experimental confirmation of these studies. The goal of my PhD is to study the mechanism and the optimizing principle of a SWCNT thin film strain sensor and provide experimental validation of the numerical/analytical investigations. The dependence of the piezoresistivity on key parameters like orientation, network density, bundle diameter (effective tunneling area), and length is studied, and how one can effectively optimize the piezoresistive behavior of a SWCNT thin film strain sensors. To reach this goal, my first research accomplishment involves the study of orientation of SWCNTs and its effect on the piezoresistivity of mechanically drawn SWCNT thin film based piezoresistive sensors. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy analysis and coupled electrical-mechanical test, a quantitative relationship between the strain sensitivity and SWCNT alignment order parameter was established. As compared to randomly oriented SWCNT thin films, the one with draw ratio of 3.2 exhibited ~6x increase on the GF. My second accomplishment involves studying the

  15. A 3D Hand-drawn Gesture Input Device Using Fuzzy ARTMAP-based Recognizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel input device based on 3D dynamic hand-drawn gestures is presented. It makes use of inertial sensor and pattern recognition technique. Fuzzy ARTMAP based recognizer is adopted to realize gesture recognition by using 3-axis acceleration signals directly instead of reproduced trajectories of gestures. The proposed method may relax motion constraints during inputting a gesture, which is more convenient for user. This prototype of input device has been implemented on a remote controller to manipulate TVs. The recognition rate of 20 gestures is higher than 97%. It clearly shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed input device. As a result, it is a powerful, flexible interface for modern electronic products.

  16. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  17. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.


    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  18. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.


    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  19. Let's Draw a Picture (United States)

    Herrera, Christine A.; McCabe, Terrance; Strictland, Sharon; White, Alexander


    In an undergraduate analysis course taught by one of the authors, three prompts are regularly given: (i) What do we know? (ii) What do we need to show? (iii) Let's draw a picture. We focus on the third prompt and its role in helping students develop their confidence in learning how to construct proofs. Specific examples of visual models and their…

  20. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander


    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  1. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos. (United States)

    Agosto, Denise


    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  2. Simulating forest pictures by impact printers (United States)

    Elliot L. Amidon; E. Joyce Dye


    Two mechanical devices that are mainly used to print computer output in text form can simulate pictures of terrain and forests. The line printer, which is available for batch processing at many computer installations, can approximate halftones by using overstruck characters to produce successively larger "dots." The printer/plotter, which is normally used as...

  3. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  4. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian


    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  5. Constructing Meaning in Interaction through Picture Books (United States)

    Lugossy, Réka


    This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners' spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers' responses to learners' comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children's talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners…

  6. BOA: A cognitive tactical picture compilation agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Both, F.


    Simulation-based training in complex decision-making can be made more effective by using intelligent software agents to play key roles, such as teammates, opponents and instructors. This paper presents a cognitive software agent that is capable of compiling a tactical picture in the domain of Naval

  7. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.G.


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.

  8. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe


    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring....

  9. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci


    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  10. 77 FR 22561 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Correction to Notice of... (United States)


    ... multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain boards, whether finished or unfinished, regardless of type of... vertical corners to form the bowls. Stainless steel sinks with fabricated bowls may sometimes be referred...

  11. The fire course and consequences to be drawn from the fire in the Browns Ferry nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, N.


    After a short description of the fire course and the fire fighting measures during the cable fire at Browns Ferry nuclear power station, the effects on the safety system are given in chronological order, and consequences are drawn for a general fire protection programme for nuclear power plants. In this context, the licensing guideline of the NRC for fire protection in nuclear power plants is mentioned, which took particular account of the consequences to be drawn from the Browns Ferry fire. (ORU) [de

  12. Pencil-on-Paper Capacitors for Hand-Drawn RC Circuits and Capacitive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Thompson


    Full Text Available Electronic capacitors were constructed via hand-printing on paper using pencil graphite. Graphite traces were used to draw conductive connections and capacitor plates on opposing sides of a sheet of standard notebook paper. The paper served as the dielectric separating the plates. Capacitance of the devices was generally < 1000 pF and scaled with surface area of the plate electrodes. By combining a pencil-drawn capacitor with an additional resistive pencil trace, an RC low-pass filter was demonstrated. Further utility of the pencil-on-paper devices was demonstrated through description of a capacitive force transducer and reversible chemical sensing. The latter was achieved for water vapor when the hygroscopic cellulose matrix of the paper capacitor’s dielectric adsorbed water. The construction and demonstration of pencil-on-paper capacitive elements broadens the scope of paper-based electronic circuits while allowing new opportunities in the rapidly expanding field of paper-based sensors.

  13. Nucleating and Plasticization Effects in Drawn Poly(Lactic Acid Fiber during Accelerated Weathering Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Nishida


    Full Text Available Changes in the polymer properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA fibers during drawing and degradation processes were analyzed using solid-state NMR, with the goal of elucidating morphological changes that influence fiber tensile properties. Combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC indicated that the drawn PLA fibers consisted of different proportions of α crystalline and amorphous forms. 13C CP-MAS NMR spectra showed amorphous-like broad singlet signals, of which the full width at half maximum (FWHM decreased with increasing crystallinity and crystal orientation. The T1H value decreased by interaction with additives and increased with increasing crystal orientation. The interaction with additives also reduced T1C values, which increased with increasing crystallinity. Use of organic clay enhanced the crystallization of high draw-ratio PLA fibers due to nucleation, which increased tensile strength; this effect gradually decreased with time during accelerated weathering. In contrast, the plasticization due to the addition of flexible polymers increased fiber elongation, which rapidly dropped during the degradation. Changes of FWHM, T1H, and T1C values indicated that the degradation occurred at sites within the amorphous portions of the PLA fibers containing organic clay, while the flexible polymers were preferentially degraded if they were present in the PLA fibers.

  14. Celiac disease and immigration in Northeastern Italy: the "drawn double nostalgia" of "cozonac" and "panettone" slices. (United States)

    Parco, Sergio; Città, Angelo; Vascotto, Fulvia; Tamaro, Giorgio


    Many investigators consider children's drawings to be an important test in the evaluation of stress and anxiety, but few studies have examined the reliability and validity of indicators of emotional distress in children's projective drawings. In this report, we describe screening tests in children coming to the Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Northeastern Italy from non-European Union regions and suspected to have celiac disease, the problems involved in diagnosis of the disease, and the "drawn double nostalgia" of Romanian children for both Italian food and traditional Romanian foods. Of 3150 Western European cases, we found 712 with positive antibodies for IgA/IgG antitransglutaminase, 174 with a positive antiendomysium antibody confirmation test, and 20 with an IgA deficit. Of the children examined, 93% were children native to Western Europe, 4% were immigrants from Eastern Europe, and 1.6% originated from Africa. Among these, four Romanian children with celiac disease brought in their drawings, as requested in a hospital questionnaire. The prevalence of celiac disease is destined to increase among immigrants. Economic problems are common, and the twin nostalgia of immigrant children for foods and tastes that are "cozonac" (from the native country) and "panettone" (Italian cake flavor) represents a problem that will be difficult to resolve. Only some children's hospitals in Italy, ie, Burlo Garofolo and Gaslini, public and private foundations, or volunteer associations would be able to deal with this problem.

  15. Accountability in Science During the Information Era: Lessons Drawn from the "Cold Fusion Furor" (United States)

    Chubb, Scott


    As guest editor of a recent Ethics in Science publication(S. R. Chubb, Accountability in Research, v 8), #'s 1 and 2, 1 (2000). journals/149/149-top.htm>(http://www.gbhap, I requested key players, from both sides of the Cold Fusion (CF) debate, to attempt to go beyond questions involving the merits of CF, by addressing a more basic issue: have CF claims been judged effectively. All participants agreed that this has not occurred. Three factors seem to have been responsible: 1. Errors in the initial neutron measurements, 2. Events immediately prior to and during a specific APS session, held 1 May 1989, and 3. Irresponsible use of FAX machines and the Internet. The resulting furor, fueled by these Information Era Technologies (IET's), has evolved into such a serious breakdown in communication that, even after 11 years, it is impossible to rule-out the possibility that a number of important new discoveries may have occurred. Regardless of the merits of the claims, two lessons can be drawn from the debate: 1. Individuals and groups must be held accountable for their actions and statements, 2. When IET users fail to respect each other, IET's can seriously impede communication.

  16. Neutron Stress Imaging of Drawn Copper Tube: Comparison with Finite-Element Model (United States)

    Pirling, T.; Carradò, A.; Brück, S.; Palkowski, H.


    Seamless tubes are used for various mechanical applications, often produced by several cold drawing steps to reach the required dimensions. The first process step, for example, extrusion or rolling, typically results in ovality and eccentricity of the tube caused by nonsymmetric material flow and being present during the cold drawing process, i.e., no homogeneous deformation. Because of this nonsymmetrical deformation, and deviations over the length of the tube caused by moving tools, this process step generates inhomogeneous residual stresses. To understand the interconnection between geometrical changes in the tubes and the resulting residual stresses, the residual strain distribution in a copper tube was measured by neutron diffraction. The aim of this study is to evaluate residual stresses generated during cold drawing of copper tubes. This research comprises experimental measurements and numerical analysis. An industrially produced copper tube was cold drawn, and the profile of residual strain over circumference and across wall thickness was measured by neutron diffraction. In parallel, a three-dimensional finite-element model (FEM) was developed to calculate the residual macrostress state generated by the forming process. Good agreement between experimental results and numerical computations was obtained.

  17. Digitally Controlled Procedure for Assembling Fully Drawn Paper-Based Electroanalytical Platforms. (United States)

    Dossi, Nicolò; Petrazzi, Stefano; Toniolo, Rosanna; Tubaro, Franco; Terzi, Fabio; Piccin, Evandro; Svigelj, Rossella; Bontempelli, Gino


    A simple, reliable, and low-cost fabrication method is proposed here for assembling paper-based electrochemical devices (PEDs) using a commercial desktop digitally controlled plotter/cutter, together with ordinary writing tools. Permanent markers (tips of 1 mm) were used to create effective hydrophobic barriers on paper, while micromechanical pencils (mounting 4B graphite leads, 0.5 mm in diameter) were adopted for automatically drawn precise reference, counter, and working carbon electrodes. Fabrication parameters, such as writing pressure and speed, were first optimized, and the electrochemical performance of these devices was then evaluated by using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as redox probe. The good interdevice reproducibility (4.8%) displayed by the relevant voltammetric responses confirmed that this strategy can be profitably adopted to easily assemble paper-based electrochemical devices in a highly flexible manner. The simplicity of the instrumentation used and the low cost of each single device (about $0.04), together with the speed of fabrication (about 2 min), are other important features of the proposed strategy. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of this prototyping method for the analysis of real samples and rapid controls, PEDs assembled by this simple approach were successfully exploited for the analysis of vitamin B 6 in food supplements.

  18. Residual Stress Analysis in Deep Drawn Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) Steels Using Neutron Diffraction Method (United States)

    Hong, Seokmin; Lee, Junghoon; Lee, Sunghak; Woo, Wanchuck; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Hyoung Seop


    In Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels, delayed fracture occurs due to residual stresses induced during deep drawing. In order to investigate the relation between residual stresses and delayed fracture, in the present study, residual stresses of deep drawn TWIP steels (22Mn-0.6C and 18Mn-2Al-0.6C steels) were investigated using the finite element method (FEM) and neutron diffraction measurements. In addition, the delayed fracture properties were examined by dipping tests of cup specimens in the boiled water. In the FEM analysis, the hoop direction residual stress was highly tensile at cup edge, and the delayed fracture was initiated by the separation of hoop direction and propagated in an axial direction. According to the neutron diffraction analysis, residual stresses in 18Mn-2Al-0.6C steel were about half the residual stresses in 22Mn-0.6C steel. From the residual strain measurement using electron back-scatter diffraction, formation of deformation twins caused a lot of grain rotation and local strain at the grain boundaries and twin boundaries. These local residual strains induce residual stress at boundaries. Al addition in TWIP steels restrained the formation of deformation twins and dynamic strain aging, resulting in more homogeneous stress and strain distributions in cup specimens. Thus, in Al-added TWIP steels, residual stress of cup specimen considerably decreased, and delayed fracture resistance was remarkably improved by the addition of Al in TWIP steels.

  19. Yield strength of a heavily drawn Cu-20% Nb filamentary microcomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.I.


    It has been well documented that heavily-drawn, copper-niobium microcomposites possess high strength and high conductivity. Since niobium has little solubility in copper, the conductivity of the copper is not strongly affected by the addition of niobium. Following extensive mechanical deformation of Cu-Nb, niobium dendrites transform into fine niobium ribbons as a result of the niobium texture upon drawing. This nanostructure contributes to the ultrahigh strength of Cu-Nb microcomposites. The strength of heavily deformed Cu-Nb exceeds that predicted by the rule-of-mixtures (ROM), and a fundamental understanding of the strengthening mechanisms involved has been the subject of much discussion. Spitzig and his coworkers suggests a barrier strengthening model while Funkenbusch and Courtney believe that stored dislocations have a role in substructural hardening. Hangen and Raabe recently proposed an analytical model for the calculation of the yield strength of Cu-Nb microcomposite. The model of Hangen and Raabe and that of Spitzig and his coworkers have a great deal of resemblance since both models attribute the strength to the difficulty of propagating plastic flow through the interface. The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the strengthening mechanisms associated with Cu-Nb microcomposites by examining the previous studies on mechanical and microstructural stability of Cu-based microcomposites

  20. Creation of wettability contrast patterns on metallic surfaces via pen drawn masks (United States)

    Choi, Won Tae; Yang, Xiaolong; Breedveld, Victor; Hess, Dennis W.


    Micropatterned surfaces with wettability contrast have attracted considerable attention due to potential applications in 2D microfluidics, bioassays, and water harvesting. A simple method to develop wettability contrast patterns on metallic surfaces by using a commercial marker is described. A marker-drawn ink pattern on a copper surface displays chemical resistance to an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium persulfate, thereby enabling selective nanowire growth in areas where ink is absent. Subsequent ink removal by an organic solvent followed by fluorocarbon film deposition yields a stable hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic patterned copper surface. Using this approach, hydrophobic dot and line patterns were constructed. The adhesion force of water droplets to the dots was controlled by adjusting pattern size, thus enabling controlled droplet transfer between two surfaces. Anisotropy of water droplet adhesion to line patterns can serve as a basis for directional control of water droplet motion. This general approach has also been employed to generate wettability contrast on aluminum surfaces, thereby demonstrating versatility. Due to its simplicity, low cost, and virtual independence of solid surface material, ink marker pens can be employed to create wettability patterns for a variety of applications, in fields as diverse as biomedicine and energy.

  1. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater. (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong


    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Leadership and organisational effectiveness--lessons to be drawn from education? (United States)

    Joyce, Pauline


    The aim of this paper is to present findings of a case study on organisational effectiveness in an education setting and draw similarities with a healthcare setting, focusing on the school principal and nurse leader. The study was carried out in a primary school setting and focuses on a principal (as leader). The school, which will be named St Senan's for the case study, is a typical tall structure, has a staff of 30 (teachers and special needs' assistants) and a student number of 117. A case study methodology was used. Data was collected by interviewing the principal, two teachers, two students and a parent, in this order. In addition, a Parents' Council meeting was observed and document analysis was carried out on measurements which reflected some critical success factors for the school. Interviews from students and teachers in addition to observation notes indicate that the principal's leadership impacts on organisational effectiveness in the school. The findings are located in the context of education with similarities being drawn from nursing. It is how the leader leads in the context of the organisation setting which is paramount. In other words it is not possible to take a set of general critical success factors for a school or healthcare setting and apply these widely. The paper concludes by proposing the use of a quality framework to contextualise the findings of the case and promote further discussion in the context of nurse leaders. The paper suggests that comparisons can be made between school principals and nurse leaders.

  3. Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun


    Environmental and economic impacts of the fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system were conducted and compared with conventional reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid scenarios using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) as a pre-treatment process. The results showed that the FDFO-NF hybrid system using thin film composite forward osmosis (TFC) FO membrane has less environmental impact than conventional RO hybrid systems due to lower consumption of energy and cleaning chemicals. The energy requirement for the treatment of mine impaired water by the FDFO-NF hybrid system was 1.08 kWh/m, which is 13.6% less energy than an MF-RO and 21% less than UF-RO under similar initial feed solution. In a closed-loop system, the FDFO-NF hybrid system using a TFC FO membrane with an optimum NF recovery rate of 84% had the lowest unit operating expenditure of AUD $0.41/m. Besides, given the current relatively high price and low flux performance of the cellulose triacetate and TFC FO membranes, the FDFO-NF hybrid system still holds opportunities to reduce operating expenditure further. Optimizing NF recovery rates and improving the water flux of the membrane would decrease the unit OPEX costs, although the TFC FO membrane would be less sensitive to this effect.

  4. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination. (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup


    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species.

  5. Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    , implemented and tested in classrooms through interventions in school. Selected preliminary results of the investigation will be enlightened during my presentation at the conference. To mention one example though, I have found, that the use of iPads and the graphic interface in Apps has a certain potential......In my presentation at the InSEA Conference 2015 I want to introduce my ongoing Ph.D. project with the title ‘Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design’. The objective of the project is to provide a basis for upgrading and renewal of lessons in the school...... subject Visual Arts – and crosswise of subjects in school. The overall research question has been: How can IT-didactic designs support lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increase the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences? By using the expression ‘complex...

  6. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books. (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy


    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.

  7. Enhancement of blurred pictures by spatial filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolton, W.P.; Redman, J.D.

    Substantial improvement in the intelligibility of defocussed pictures has been demonstrated using coherent optical processing. Correction for penumbra effects, such as arise in radiography, has been demonstrated at optical wavelengths. Compensation for a Gaussian spread function, such as might occur in radiography via a salt screen, has also been demonstrated. A simulation has shown that much greater enhancement could be expected if improved phase filters could be made

  8. The Complex Picture Test in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gustaw Rothenberg


    Full Text Available The newly developed Complex Picture Test (CPT examines main cognitive domains, especially perceptual and visual-spatial abilities. The potential usefulness of the CPT in the assessment of dementia was evaluated. Patients with different forms of dementia [14 vascular dementia (VaD, 30 Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 6 Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD], 12 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 30 matched controls were examined by the CPT, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the WAIS-R Digit Span subtest, and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT. The CPT consists of 10 complex pictures, each presenting characteristics paradoxically in opposition to each other. The subjects scored points for naming the object and noticing the paradox. One point was added for commenting on the paradox without prompting (3 points each picture/maximum of 30. CPT scores were significantly higher in the control group (mean ± SD, 29.46 ± 1.43 than in the AD, VaD, MCI, and PDD groups (13.1 ± 2.3, 16.9 ± 3.5, 23.2 ± 1.4, and 23.6 ± 3.4, respectively; p < 0.05. Significant positive correlations between MMSE, Digit Span, CDT, and CPT scores were observed (rho 0.76, 0.35, and 0.56, respectively. These data show perception of complex pictures being compromised in dementia. The correlation between CPT scores and MMSE scores suggests that tests may be used as a brief screening tool for dementia.

  9. Gender congruency effects in picture naming. (United States)

    Alario, F-X; Matos, Rafael E; Segui, Juan


    The analysis of speech error corpora in various gender-marked languages has shown that noun substitutions tend to preserve grammatical gender. This result has been taken as an indication that grammatical gender could play a constraining role during the process of lexical selection. To gain insights on the status of grammatical gender in the speech production system, we discuss this hypothesis and we report three picture naming experiments. We attempted to observe gender-marked context effects in the course of error-free speech production. Participants named pictures shortly after processing a prime that was or was not gender marked and that was or was not congruent with the name of the picture. A clear congruency effect was observed, involving both facilitation in the gender congruent conditions and inhibition in gender incongruent conditions. Different interpretations of this effect and of previously reported gender context effects are discussed in the context of current models of speech production. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Cut and paste pictures in surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Milanka


    Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.

  11. A Spectrum is Worth a Thousand Pictures (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard F.


    A wise astronomer once pointed out that if a picture is worth a thousand words, then a spectrum is worth a thousand pictures. Unfortunately, spectra are rarely emphasized in the introductory astronomy courses and few students exit such a course with any meaningful understanding or appreciation of spectroscopy. Part of the problem is lack of background knowledge; the typical introductory astronomy student has little experience with spectroscopy or atomic physics. Another issue is that spectra are not pretty pictures and are not intuitively understandable. We present and discuss a series of “minds-on” exercises and activities built into a college-level “stars, galaxies, and cosmology” intro astronomy course. The lessons are structured to help students improve their ability to recognize patterns and improve their ability to really see the details in front of them. Another goal is for students to realize there is “more than meets the eye” to learn how to discover “hidden” diagnostics, such as different sources of light their eyes see as white light. A curriculum that emphasizes spectroscopy also provides the opportunity to stress the story of the “Harvard Women,” a tale that bridges gender gaps and often humanizes scientists in the eyes of non-science majors. Finally, with a solid foundation in spectroscopy, students are better prepared to understand exciting topics such as Hubble’s Law and the importance of primordial nucleosynthesis.

  12. An algorithm for automated layout of process description maps drawn in SBGN. (United States)

    Genc, Begum; Dogrusoz, Ugur


    Evolving technology has increased the focus on genomics. The combination of today's advanced techniques with decades of molecular biology research has yielded huge amounts of pathway data. A standard, named the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), was recently introduced to allow scientists to represent biological pathways in an unambiguous, easy-to-understand and efficient manner. Although there are a number of automated layout algorithms for various types of biological networks, currently none specialize on process description (PD) maps as defined by SBGN. We propose a new automated layout algorithm for PD maps drawn in SBGN. Our algorithm is based on a force-directed automated layout algorithm called Compound Spring Embedder (CoSE). On top of the existing force scheme, additional heuristics employing new types of forces and movement rules are defined to address SBGN-specific rules. Our algorithm is the only automatic layout algorithm that properly addresses all SBGN rules for drawing PD maps, including placement of substrates and products of process nodes on opposite sides, compact tiling of members of molecular complexes and extensively making use of nested structures (compound nodes) to properly draw cellular locations and molecular complex structures. As demonstrated experimentally, the algorithm results in significant improvements over use of a generic layout algorithm such as CoSE in addressing SBGN rules on top of commonly accepted graph drawing criteria. An implementation of our algorithm in Java is available within ChiLay library ( or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Impact of reverse nutrient diffusion on membrane biofouling in fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng


    Biofouling in fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) for water reuse was investigated by spiking pure bacteria species Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1+GFP and using three different fertilizers KNO3, KCl and KH2PO4 as draw solutions. The performance of FO process for treating synthetic wastewater was assessed and their influence on the membrane fouling and in particular biofouling was evaluated relative to the type of different fertilizers used and their rates of reverse diffusion. FO performances using KNO3 as draw solute exhibited severer flux decline (63%) than when using KCl (45%) and KH2PO4 (30%). Membrane autopsy indicated that the mass of organic foulants and biomass on fouled membrane surface using KNO3 as draw solute (947.5mg/m2 biopolymers, 72µm biofilm thickness and 53.3mg/m2 adenosine triphosphate) were significantly higher than that using KCl (450mg/m2 biopolymers, 33µm biofilm thickness and 28.2mg/m2 ATP) and KH2PO4 (440mg/m2 biopolymers, 35µm biofilm thickness and 33.5mg/m2 ATP). This higher flux decline is likely related to the higher reverse diffusion of KNO3 (19.8g/m2/h) than KCl (5.1g/m2/h) and KH2PO4 (3.7g/m2/h). The reverse diffused potassium could promote the organics and bacterial adhesion on FO membrane via charge screening effect and compression of electrical double layer. Moreover, reverse diffused nitrate provided increased N:P nutrient ratio was favorable for the bacteria to grow on the feed side of the FO membrane.

  14. Analysis of book colections Great picture book for preschoolers


    Cunk, Tina


    Thesis entitled ˝Analysis of book collections Great picture book for preschoolers˝ is based on theoretical approach and empirical study. In the theoretical part I focused on the development of youth literature and the definition of the latter, furthermore I described Great picture book and definition of picture book, I presented four versions of picture books in the Slovenian area, described types of picture books and wrote translation of Maria Nikolaeva´s picture book and her point of view...

  15. Astronomical Instruments with Two Scales Drawn on Their Common Circumference of Rings in the Joseon Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn


    Full Text Available This study examines the scale unique instruments used for astronomical observation during the Joseon dynasty. The Small Simplified Armillary Sphere (小簡儀, So-ganui and the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument (日星定時儀, Ilseong-jeongsi-ui are minimized astronomical instruments, which can be characterized, respectively, as an observational instrument and a clock, and were influenced by the Simplified Armilla (簡儀, Jianyi of the Yuan dynasty. These two instruments were equipped with several rings, and the rings of one were similar both in size and in scale to those of the other. Using the classic method of drawing the scale on the circumference of a ring, we analyze the scales of the Small Simplified Armillary Sphere and the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument. Like the scale feature of the Simplified Armilla, we find that these two instruments selected the specific circumference which can be drawn by two kinds of scales. If Joseon’s astronomical instruments is applied by the dual scale drawing on one circumference, we suggest that 3.14 was used as the ratio of the circumference of circle, not 3 like China, when the ring’s size was calculated in that time. From the size of Hundred-interval disk of the extant Simplified Sundial in Korea, we make a conclusion that the three rings’ diameter of the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument described in the Sejiong Sillok (世宗實錄, Veritable Records of the King Sejong refers to that of the middle circle of every ring, not the outer circle. As analyzing the degree of 28 lunar lodges (lunar mansions in the equator written by Chiljeongsan-naepyeon (七政算內篇, the Inner Volume of Calculation of the Motions of the Seven Celestial Determinants, we also obtain the result that the scale of the Celestial-circumference-degree in the Small Simplified Armillary Sphere was made with a scale error about 0.1 du in root mean square (RMS.

  16. Numb and Alzheimer's Disease: The Current Picture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios eNtelios


    Full Text Available Twenty three years ago, numb was identified as a critical regulator in Drosophila sensory organ precursor cell asymmetric divisions. Beyond the recently recognized role in carcinogenesis, Numb seems to be important in Alzheimer’s disease. This assertion comes from the involvement in various processes such as synapse morphogenesis, APP trafficking, notch signaling and neurogenesis. The purpose of the present mini-review is to provide the current picture of Numb’s participation in mechanisms underlying Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis and emphasize potential aspects for future research.

  17. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration


    With over 3,000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS’s scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration will be described. Their role on various communication platforms will be described and their impact examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  18. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration


    With over 3000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS's scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration and on various communication platforms will be described. Their impact will be examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  19. Java EE 7 the big picture

    CERN Document Server

    Coward, Danny


    Java EE 7: The Big Picture uniquely explores the entire Java EE 7 platform in an all-encompassing style while examining each tier of the platform in enough detail so that you can select the right technologies for specific project needs. In this authoritative guide, Java expert Danny Coward walks you through the code, applications, and frameworks that power the platform. Take full advantage of the robust capabilities of Java EE 7, increase your productivity, and meet enterprise demands with help from this Oracle Press resource.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L. V.


    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.

  1. Picture archiving and communication systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqueras Pardellans, J.; Carreno Pedemonte, J.C.; Lucaya Layret, J.


    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) constitute a data processing tool that offers new working methods of diagnostic radiology. The definitive aim of a PACS is to allow a radiology service to operate without film images or documents on paper, integrating images and clinical information. Different image acquisition, viewing and storage systems, linked by communications networks, are arranged around a central management and storage system. Their components are described and the advantages, drawbacks and limitations are discussed from the technological point of view and considering their impact on health care, while a critical review is provided of the 1993 status of this issue

  2. CANDU's role in the future energy picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Ross


    The CANDU reactor has successfully demonstrated Canada's ability to design and produce a high-technology product as good as any in the world. Nuclear power has a vital place in the energy picture of Canada and the world, given the continuing explosion of population and energy requirements. Canada has a moral and legal obligation to the rest of the world to share its nuclear technology with less developed countries. Opponents to nuclear power are condemning the citizens of both Canada and less developed countries to impoverished lifestyles. The nuclear industry must make positive information about the CANDU system widely available. (L.L.)

  3. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...... us in the design of the tool next version. At a more general level we realized that modern object-oriented development methodologies, such as agile methods, are informed by design, hence they sometimes assume design skills that programmers do not have or do not value....

  4. 29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709 Section 541.709... SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry... motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $695 a week (exclusive of...

  5. The Progress of Students Reading Comprehension through Wordless Picture Books (United States)

    Lubis, Romaida


    Wordless picture book is an unique book that could help the young learner to get their literacy. The content of the wordless picture book must be communicated through the visual of the illustration. This research discusses a case study of how a kid of six years old produce his narrative through wordless picture book. The kid was allowed to see and…

  6. Promoting Self-Questioning through Picture Book Illustrations (United States)

    Lohfink, Gayla


    This teaching tip manuscript demonstrates how picture book illustrations can be used as an inquiry tool that facilitates one's connecting of visual investigations in a picture to the process of generating self-questions. Techniques suggested to promote self-questioning are (1) introducing young readers to an interactive picture book read aloud…

  7. Using Pictures to Assist in Comprehension and Recall. (United States)

    Rich, Rebecca Z.; Blake, Sylvia


    This article describes a picture drawing strategy to enhance the comprehension of fourth- and fifth-grade students with language and reading problems. Students used adhesive notes to draw pictures of main ideas as they read aloud or listened. Students learned the strategy rapidly and were able to use the pictures to generate summary statements.…

  8. Thinking, Language and Reading: Children's Responses to Picture Books. (United States)

    Kiefer, Barbara

    Observations of children's responses to picture books in three first-to-fourth-grade classrooms over a two-year period helped to form a descriptive framework for children's responses to picture books. Field notes, transcripts, and other data revealed that when children talked about picture books, they used the lexicon of the expert. They seemed…

  9. Lessons drawn from the operation of EDF 900MW nuclear power plants to evaluate and improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, J.; Dupuis, M.C.; Marcille, R.


    The lessons drawn from operation are used to detect the weak points not taken sufficiently into account by the design studies and to check that system availability remains at least equal to the level defined at the design stage. In both cases, they aim at deciding what remedial actions are to be taken. The latter may result in additional obligations (modification or addition of equipment or operating rules) and, in certain cases, may slacken obligations. This paper examines in turn: how are the events recorded and then analyzed, what lessons are drawn using concrete examples, what contribution is made by probabilistic risk studies using experience feedback in evaluating overall safety [fr

  10. Sketch Style Recognition, Transfer and Synthesis of Hand-Drawn Sketches

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara


    target styles. (2) Brush-style transfer, on the other hand, focuses on transferring a unique brush look of a line drawing to the input sketch. In this transfer stage, we use an automatically constructed input brush dictionary to infer which sparse set of input brush elements are used at each location of the input sketch. Then, a one-to-one mapping between input and target brush elements is learned by sparsely encoding the target sketch with the input brush dictionary. The last part of the dissertation targets a geometric representation of sketches, which is vital in enabling automatic sketch analysis, synthesis and manipulation. It is based on utilizing the well known convolutional sparse coding (CSC) model. We observe that CSC is closely related to how line sketches are drawn. This process can be approximated as the sparse spatial localization of a number of typical basic strokes, which in turn can be cast as a non-standard CSC model that forms a line drawing from parametric curves. These curves are learned to optimize the fit between the model and a specific set of line drawings. Each part of the dissertation shows the utility of the proposed methods through a variety of experiments, user studies, and proposed applications.

  11. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Peláez


    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  12. TIFF, GIF, and PNG: get the picture? (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff


    GIF, JPEG, and PNG are most likely the best formats to use for three reasons. First, they're standardized and open formats for anyone to use. In addition, JPEG is an ISO standard and PNG is an IETF RFC (Internet Engineering Task Force Request for and W3C recommendation (World Wide Web Second, they're compressible. GIF files are generally compressed at 5:1, JPEG at 10:1 or 20:1 and PNG at about 7:1. Finally, they're all supported by web browsers. Well, pretty much. Microsoft's Internet Explorer doesn't support the alpha channel transparency for PNG-but, on the other hand, GIF and JPEG don't have the alpha channel at all. Use TIFF to archive your original pictures as it is a lossless format. Check out the summary table and sidebar for more information regarding these picture file formats.

  13. Upaya Meningkatkan Gerak Lokomotor Lari 40 Meter melalui Metode Picture And Picture Kelas Iia Sds Kristen Kanaan Kubu Raya


    Riyanto, Sigit


    Problem of the research is how the picture and picture method can increase the learning outcomes locomotor movement in 40 metres run to students grade IIA SDS Kristen Kanaan Kubu Raya Regency. The purpose of this research is to know the effort increasing locomotor movement in 40 metres run through picture and picture method to students grade IIA SDS Kristen Kanaan Kubu Raya Regency. Research methodology is Descriptive method with Classroom Action Research. Subject of the research was 23 stude...

  14. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design (United States)

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.


    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  15. Colourants in transferable picture tattoos for the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus


    Transferable picture tattoos for the skin are popular among children. There is however very little knowledge about the colourants that may be present in the picture tattoos and thus of the risk of contact allergic reactions. In the present investigation, 36 picture tattoos were analysed...... concerned CI 75300, curcumin, which is reported to have caused a few cases of contact allergy as a colourant in food or in disinfectants used prior to surgery. In no case, allergic reactions to any of the colourants have been verified from transferable picture tattoos. On the basis of this investigation......, the risk of allergic reactions from the colourants in the transferable picture tattoos seems to be limited....

  16. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO


    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  17. Pictures from Year Two CNEC and CVT Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Jesson D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bahran, Rian Mustafa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKenzie, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Below are all of the pictures for the CNEC and CVT measurements performed at the DAF in July 2016. In total there are 165 pictures. The photos on pages 2-105 were taken during the first week of measurements and the photos on pages 106-165 were taken during the second week of measurements. Many photos are applicable to both sets, which is why it is best to keep the entire set together. For most configurations, a description of the configuration was written on a white board; photos of the measurement setup were taken, then a photo of the white board was taken. For example, the pictures on pages 6-19 (which precede a white board picture on page 20) are of the configuration with Rocky Flats Shells 1-2 surrounded by 4 AmLi sources, which is listed on the white board picture on page 20. In some cases, the white board picture precedes the configuration pictures.

  18. Predictors of maternal language to infants during a picture book task in the home: Family SES, child characteristics and the parenting environment☆


    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha


    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants.1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority U.S. communities. Mothers and their 6–8 month old babies were videotaped at home while talking about a wordless picture book. Mothers' language outpu...

  19. A cinema for the unborn: moving pictures, mental pictures and Electra Sparks's New Thought film theory. (United States)

    Ellis, Patrick


    In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought. This metaphysical Christian doctrine existed alongside the self-help and esoteric publishing domains and testified, above all, to the possibility of the 'mind-cure' of the body through the positive application of 'mental pictures'. Physiologically, their method began best in the womb, where the thoughts of the mother were of utmost importance: the eventual difference between birthing an Elephant Man or an Adonis. This positive maternal impression was commonplace in New Thought literature; it was Sparks's innovation to apply it to cinema. Investigating Sparks's film theory, practice and programming reveals her to be a harbinger of the abiding analogy between mind and motion picture that occupies film theorists to this day.

  20. The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Siegmund


    The aim of this book is to explain the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum mechanics by means of visualization. Computer-generated illustrations in color are used extensively throughout the text, helping to establish the relation between quantum mechanics—wave functions, interference, atomic structure, and so forth—and classical physics—point mechanics, statistical mechanics, and wave optics. Even more important, by studying the pictures in parallel with the text, readers develop an intuition for such notoriously abstract phenomena as • the tunnel effect • excitation and decay of metastable states • wave-packet motion within a well • systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles • free wave packets and scattering in 3 dimensions • angular-momentum decomposition • stationary bound states in various 3-dimensional potentials • hybrid states • Kepler motion of wave packets in the Coulomb field • spin and magnetic resonance Illustrations from experiments in a variety of f...

  1. Dietary and faecal iron levels in captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata)


    Caravaggi, Anthony; Bishop, Charles


    A poster derived from an undergraduate study of iron in captive ruffed lemur diets. The project was supported by the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Presented at the 11th BIAZA Research Symposium, Blackpool Zoo, 2009.

  2. Functional analysis of aggression in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). (United States)

    Farmer-Dougan, Valeri


    A functional analysis was conducted to assess the antecedent and reinforcing conditions underlying aggressive behavior in a female lemur in captivity. Results showed that her aggression was primarily the result of human attention. A replacement behavior-training program was introduced, and the lemur's aggression was successfully eliminated. These results demonstrate the utility of using functional assessment and analyses in zoos with captive wild nonhuman animals.

  3. Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Locus of Control in Black and White Fifth Grade Students (United States)

    Burbach, Harold J.; Bridgeman, Brent


    This investigation examines the relationship between fifth graders' scores on Coopersmith's Self Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by race and sex. (GO)

  4. Juvenile Delinquency Recidivism: Are Black and White Youth Vulnerable to the Same Risk Factors? (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis


    Using large-sample, archival data from the state of South Carolina's juvenile justice agency, we examine the question of race differences in predictors of repeat offending for a sample of approximately 100,000 youth who had been referred for criminal offenses. Independent variables relating to background, adverse parenting, mental health,…

  5. Black and White and Shades of Gray [State of the Art]. (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur T


    "Moderation in all things" is a popular saying that many of us have heard all our lives. Still, a good number of people seem to have forgotten the sentiment behind this advice. Instead of looking for the good that exists within the bad and the bad that dwells within the good, people are choosing to line up behind one extreme or another. Nuances are being ignored in favor of strong positions on either side of the middle. This has led inevitably to polarization, partisanship, and balkanization in our society. For some reason, moderation has been forgotten.

  6. Counselor Trainee Perceptions of Hispanic, Black, and White Teenage Expectant Mothers and Fathers. (United States)

    Softas-Nall, Basilia; Baldo, Tracy D.; Williams, Scott C.


    Investigates perceptions of counselors-in-training (N=133) of Black, Hispanic, and White male and female adolescents facing a teen pregnancy. After viewing video vignettes, participants indicated that boys would be more encouraged to leave school and work than would girls. Girls were seen as having more control over pregnancy decisions compared to…

  7. Hispanic Segregation and Poor Health: It's Not Just Black and White. (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Frank, Reanne; Zheng, Cheng; Iceland, John


    Despite the importance of understanding the fundamental determinants of Hispanic health, few studies have investigated how metropolitan segregation shapes the health of the fastest-growing population in the United States. Using 2006-2013 data from the National Health Interview Survey, we 1) examined the relationship between Hispanic metropolitan segregation and respondent-rated health for US-born and foreign-born Hispanics and 2) assessed whether neighborhood poverty mediated this relationship. Results indicated that segregation has a consistent, detrimental effect on the health of US-born Hispanics, comparable to findings for blacks and black-white segregation. In contrast, segregation was salutary (though not always significant) for foreign-born Hispanics. We also found that neighborhood poverty mediates some, but not all, of the associations between segregation and poor health. Our finding of divergent associations between health and segregation by nativity points to the wide range of experiences within the diverse Hispanic population and suggests that socioeconomic status and structural factors, such as residential segregation, come into play in determining Hispanic health for the US-born in a way that does not occur among the foreign-born. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Thinking in Black and White: Conscious thought increases racially biased judgments through biased face memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Stoeckart, P.F.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.


    It is a common research finding that conscious thought helps people to avoid racial discrimination. These three experiments, however, illustrate that conscious thought may increase biased face memory, which leads to increased judgment bias (i.e., preferring White to Black individuals). In

  9. The use of black and white infrared photography for recording blunt force injury. (United States)

    Bernstein, Mark; Nichols, George; Blair, Jeff


    Infrared (IR) wavelengths penetrate skin and can selectively image volumes of subsurface blood. Twenty-eight blunt force injuries on nine decedents were photographed with color and IR film to compare the ability of each to image the injury. Of the 28 injuries, 10 were clinically interpreted as contusions, 4 as abrasions, 10 as abraded contusions, and 4 as erythematous discolorations, nos. Twenty-four of these injuries were incised to determine the presence and extent of subsurface bleeding. It was found that contusion had been clinically missed in five cases, three because they were hidden by abrasion and two because they appeared only as a mild cutaneous erythema. All five cases were detected by IR and verified by incision. Melanin pigmentation contributed to masking of contusion in one case and postmortem lividity confounded interpretation of contusion in one case. In all 14 injuries featuring abrasion as a component, IR de-emphasized or eliminated the visibility of abrasion. A single false negative was reported in which a visible contusion, verified by incision, was not seen with IR. In comparing injury patterns, color and IR renditions were dissimilar in a number of cases reflecting the difference between the manner in which light and IR photography imaged the depth and volume of blood within an injury. In summary, IR imaging of wounds can discover hidden bruises, verify clinical diagnosis of bruises, and augment interpretation of wound patterns. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities. (United States)

    Goetz, Edward


    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.

  11. In black and white: a bird's eye overview of Flemish prose on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The universality of western values is examined and the problems regarding acculturation are addressed. In the last two decades authors such as Guido Tireliren and Lieve Joris have tried to understand the Congo from within. Most Flemish literature on the. Congo is not of a high literary quality but from a historical-cultural ...

  12. Gambling involvement among Native Americans, Blacks, and Whites in the United States. (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M; Welte, John W; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O


    This paper examines risk factors of gambling and problem gambling among racial subgroups in the U.S. population, namely Native Americans and blacks, for whom research data are lacking. Findings are based on a large representative general population survey (n = 3,474) of gambling in the U.S. with an oversample of Native Americans (n = 549). Multiple domains were assessed including sociodemographic factors; ecological factors (census-defined neighborhood disadvantage, geocoded density of casinos within 30 miles of respondents' homes, and perceived gambling convenience); impulsivity; and alcohol abuse. After controlling for all variables in the study, neighborhood disadvantage has a significantly greater effect on overall gambling, frequent gambling, and problem gambling for Native Americans than for the rest of the U.S. In addition, the relationship between frequent gambling and heavier drinking is much stronger for blacks than for the rest of the U.S. There is a lack of research on gambling involvement among minority groups in the U.S. Blacks and Native Americans are at a higher risk for problem gambling as compared with the rest of the population. Furthermore, social factors and alcohol abuse may show a stronger co-occurrence with gambling involvement among minority groups than among whites. This study is a large representative U.S. sample with sizeable numbers of Native Americans and blacks. Thus, prevalence rates and risk factors can be assessed for these important population subgroups. This will allow for targeted intervention programs for Native Americans and blacks with problem gambling and alcohol abuse. (Am J Addict 2017;26:713-721). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Organisational justice rules as determinants of black and white employees' fairness perceptions of personnel selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Jong


    Full Text Available The diversity of the South African population may lead to opinions that test fairness is not a pure empirical problem, but requires certain subjective value judgements. The aim of this study was to identify applicants' underlying reasons for evaluating a selection technique as being fair/unfair. These fairness perceptions were analysed by means of the organisational justice theory. The total sample consisted of 328 mature university students (M = 30,6 all of whom had work experience. The analyses comprised two sets of comparisons. The first set involved Black (uninformed and White (uninformed groups. The second comparison involved informed versus uninformed black students. Exposure to the subjects Strategic Personnel Management and/or undergraduate Industrial Psycohology, in which the nature and value of various selection techniques are studied, constituted the variable'being informed'. It was hypothesised that the Black (uninformed and the White (uninformed groups would perceive the value of the 11 justice rules for the total fairness perception across the ten selection techniques differently. Substantial support was found for this hypothesis. The same hypothesis was investigated for the Black (informed and the Black (uninformed groups, but no significant differences were found to support the latter hypothesis. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of South African selection practices. Opsomming Die diversiteit van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking mag daartoe lei dat persepsies van die billikheid van verskillende personeelkeuringtegnieke op n verskeidenheid van subjektiewe waarde-oordele gegrond word. Dit is die doel van hierdie ondersoek om die onderliggende redes waarvolgens kandidate keuringtegnieke as billik/onbillik evalueer, te identifiseer. Die kandidate se billikheidpersepsies van tien keuringtegnieke is aan die hand van die organisatoriese billikheidteorie ontleed. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 328 volwasse universiteitstudente (M = 30,6 jaar wat almal oor werkervaring beskik het. Die ontledings het twee stelle vergelykings behels. Die eerste stel het Swart (oningeligte en Wit (oningeligte groepe vergelyken die tweede het oningeligte versus ingeligte swart studente vergelyk. Blootstelling aan die vakke Strategiese Personeelbestuur en/of voorgraadse Bedryfsielkunde, waarin die aard en nut van verskeie keuringtegnieke behandel word, het die veranderlike 'ingeligtheid' gespesifiseer. Die hipotese is gestel dat die Swart (oningeligte en Wit (oningeligte groepe die waarde wat hulle aan die 11 billikheidreels ten opsigte van die billikheid van die keuringtegnieke heg, verskillend sal evalueer. Die resultate het hierdie hipotese gesteun. Dieselfde hipotese is ondersoek vir die Swart (ingeligte en Swart (oningeligte groepe, maar geen beduidende verskille is gevind om die laasgenoemde hipotese te ondersteun nie. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek in terme van keuringpraktyke in Suid-Afrika.

  14. The Mirror of Television: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents' Body Image. (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.


    Finds that black adolescent girls were more satisfied with their bodies and had a larger personal ideal size than white adolescent girls, but engaged in no fewer eating-disordered behaviors and had no less drive to be thin; and these girls idealized television images equally and were as likely to compare themselves and their friends to television…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Travel Behavior of Black and White Travelers


    Gailliard, Flora Montgomery


    Tourism, leisure and recreation are considered to be an important form of interaction between cultures and are a basic part of social life (McMillen,1984; Hutchinson and Fidel,1985). The experiences received by participating in various tourism activities may be different due to racial influences. Although in general terms, travelers may have similarities, the ethnic heritage, social and cultural differences between different racial groups produce distinct patterns of leisure travel and recre...

  16. Childhood Religious Conservatism and Adult Attainment among Black and White Women (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Jacobs, Jerry


    The resurgence of conservative religious groups over the past several decades raises interesting questions about its effects on women's life chances. Conservative religious institutions promote a traditional understanding of gender within families. Women's beliefs about appropriate family roles, in turn, influence their preparation for market work…

  17. Employment and the use of birth control by sexually active single Hispanic, black, and white women. (United States)

    Kraft, J M; Coverdill, J E


    Previous studies of the use of birth control by sexually active single women tend to emphasize family background and aspirations, and restrict their attention to teenagers. We elaborate this framework by considering how labor market experiences might shape the birth control practices of women in their late teens and twenties. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Force Experiences--Youth Cohort provide evidence that employment histories and wages influence birth control practices, net of the effects of family background, aspirations, and educational attainment. Several pronounced racial and ethnic differences are found.

  18. Black and white women in Maryland receive different treatment for cervical cancer. (United States)

    Fleming, Saroj; Schluterman, Nicholas H; Tracy, J Katthleen; Temkin, Sarah M


    Despite an overall decrease in incidence, the death rate from cervical cancer in the United States remains higher in black women than their white counterparts. We examined the Maryland Cancer Registry (MCR) to determine treatment factors that may explain differences in outcomes between races in the state of Maryland. Incident cervical cancers in the MCR 1992-2008 were examined. Demographics, tumor characteristics and treatments were compared between races and over time. Our analysis included 2034 (1301 white, 733 black) patients. Black women were more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis (p<0.01). They were more likely to receive any radiation or chemotherapy combined with radiation and less likely to receive surgery (p<0.01). When adjusted for stage and insurance status black women had 1.50 (95% CI 1.20-1.87) times the odds of receiving radiation and 1.43 (95% CI 1.11-1.82) times the odds of receiving chemotherapy. Black women with cervical cancer had 0.51 times the adjusted odds (95% CI 0.41-0.65) of receiving surgery compared to white women. Racial differences in treatment did not change significantly over time. Surgical treatment for newly diagnosed cervical cancer in the state of Maryland was significantly less common amongst black women than white during our study period. Equivalent treatments are not being administered to white and black patients with cervical cancer in Maryland. Differences in care may contribute to racial disparities in outcomes for women with cervical cancer.

  19. Statistical characteristics of breakthrough discoveries in science using the metaphor of black and white swans (United States)

    Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.


    A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.

  20. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, HIV/ AIDS perceived severity, HIV/AIDS prevention barriers and HIV risk behaviour. Further, bivariate analysis gave negative significant relations among age at onset of puberty, age at first vaginal intercourse, correct condom use knowledge, subjective norms, intention to use condoms and HIV risk behaviour. Regression analysis indicated that for subjective norm to use condoms, less intention for condom use, less condom use knowledge and younger age of first vaginal intercourse were predictive for HIV/AIDS risk behaviour. HIV prevention intervention programmes should include the identified factors and cultural diversity.

  1. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans


    K. Peltzer


    The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, ...

  2. Possibility of death sentence has divergent effect on verdicts for Black and White defendants. (United States)

    Glaser, Jack; Martin, Karin D; Kahn, Kimberly B


    When anticipating the imposition of the death penalty, jurors may be less inclined to convict defendants. On the other hand, minority defendants have been shown to be treated more punitively, particularly in capital cases. Given that the influence of anticipated sentence severity on verdicts may vary as a function of defendant race, the goal of this study was to test the independent and interactive effects of these factors. We conducted a survey-embedded experiment with a nationally representative sample to examine the effect on verdicts of sentence severity as a function of defendant race, presenting respondents with a triple murder trial summary that manipulated the maximum penalty (death vs. life without parole) and the race of the defendant. Respondents who were told life-without-parole was the maximum sentence were not significantly more likely to convict Black (67.7%) than White (66.7%) defendants. However, when death was the maximum sentence, respondents presented with Black defendants were significantly more likely to convict (80.0%) than were those with White defendants (55.1%). The results indicate that the death penalty may be a cause of racial disparities in criminal justice, and implicate threats to civil rights and to effective criminal justice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Arboreal locomotion in wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti). (United States)

    Isler, Karin; Gruter, Cyril C


    This paper presents spatiotemporal gait parameters of arboreal locomotion in the colobine Rhinopithecus bieti in its natural habitat. While adult females used exclusively either extended-elbow vertical climbing or pulse climbing, the much larger adult males preferred the less demanding flexed-elbow vertical climbing on thin trees or on trunks with handholds. If sex-specific differences are taken into consideration, the differences between flexed-elbow and extended-elbow vertical climbing in Rhinopithecus parallel those observed in Ateles. During flexed-elbow vertical climbing, the gait parameters of R. bieti are very similar to those of spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Maximum limb joint excursions also lie in the range of hominoids and atelines and are clearly larger than in Macaca fuscata. It seems likely that climbing kinematics may differ more between Rhinopithecus and macaques than between Rhinopithecus and hominoids or atelines. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Body Dissatisfaction and Characteristics of Disordered Eating among Black and White Early Adolescent Girls and Boys (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.


    Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…

  5. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Jessy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  6. Black and White adults' perspectives on the genetics of nicotine addiction susceptibility. (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Kleimann, Susan; Youatt, Emily J; Lockhart, Abigail; Campbell, Eric G; Levy, Douglas E; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Schmieder, Erin; Krishna, Rasika; Shields, Alexandra E


    Emerging research may soon lead to improved quit rates via genetically-tailored smoking cessation treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore individuals' beliefs and attitudes about genetic testing in this context, and how these may differ across racial groups. Two site qualitative study. Eleven focus groups were conducted in 2007 with 51 Black and 55 White adult participants in Montgomery, AL and Baltimore, MD. Questions were asked about smoking as an addiction, the role of genetics in nicotine addiction susceptibility, and undergoing genetic testing to receive tailored smoking cessation treatment. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Most participants believed that smoking was an addiction yet were unwilling to endorse the notion that genetics played a role in nicotine addiction susceptibility. However, 91% of White participants and 62% of Black participants indicated that they would likely take a genetic test that would match them to their optimal smoking cessation treatment. The primary potential benefit was a vague sense that additional knowledge about oneself would be of value. Primary barriers included disinterest and skepticism about the test, unwillingness to believe that genetics played a role in nicotine addiction or treatment response, and concerns about psychological consequences. The majority of participants, particularly Black participants, did not believe that genetics played a significant role in nicotine addiction susceptibility but were willing to undergo genetic testing. Participants identified some benefit to tailoring smoking treatment by genotype. However, participants also expressed skepticism about the test and concerns about its consequences; these issues would need to be addressed in the clinical encounter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heroin in brown, black and white: structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market. (United States)

    Ciccarone, Daniel


    Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility "black tar" heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced HIV prevalence. BTH is associated with soft tissue infections caused by Clostridium bacteria. Source and type of heroin are structural factors in the risk environment of heroin users: source dictates distribution and type predicts practice. How specific types of heroin are used and with what risk is therefore distributed geographically. Continued flux in the heroin market and its effects on the risk environment for drug users deserves further attention.

  8. Transracial Adoption in Black and White: A Survey of Social Worker Attitudes. (United States)

    Fenster, Judy


    Assessed attitudes of U.S. social workers regarding transracial adoption (TRA), specifically black children being adopted by white parents. Found that white social workers were more in favor of TRA than black social workers. African American respondents who were members of the National Association of Black Social Workers had less favorable…

  9. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, Eric J.; Faber, Daniel R.


    A growing number of scientific studies in recent years have investigated disparate exposure to ecological hazards in American society. Working from an environmental justice perspective, this body of research consistently reveals that poor communities of color are most likely to bear a disproportionate burden of negative externalities. These studies utilize a wide range of research methodologies, including various indicators of ecological hazards (e.g., proximity to waste sites, industrial emissions, ambient air quality), but few, if any, utilize composite measures to approximate cumulative environmental impact. Consequently, the environmental justice (EJ) literature is characterized by a failure to effectively measure overall impact from an extensive range of ecological hazards. Limitations on available data make this a serious problem for present and future studies. We argue that cumulative measures of environmental impact can play an important role in furthering our understanding of environmental injustices in the United States. In this study of Massachusetts, we develop and implement such a cumulative measure of negative environmental impacts. By controlling for the density and severity of ecological hazardous sites and facilities within every community in the state, we demonstrate that exposure patterns take a generally linear distribution when analyzed by race and class. So, while our results reaffirm previous findings that low-income communities and communities of color bear significantly greater ecological burdens than predominantly White and more affluent communities, our findings also suggest that environmental injustices exist on a remarkably consistent continuum for nearly all communities. In other words, as the minority population and lower-income composition of a community increases, correspondingly, so does cumulative exposure to environmental hazards. In this respect, communities which are more racially mixed and of moderate income status that are not typically identified as meeting EJ criteria (in demographic terms) also face more significant ecological hazards. Thus, the strict bifurcation of communities into categories of Environmental Justice and Non-Environmental Justice is problematic, and poses a serious dilemma for policy makers, public health officials, and community activists. To overcome this challenge requires the adoption of a cumulative environmental justice impact assessment (CEJIA), which in addition to the demographic characteristics of a community, also takes into account the total environmental burden and related health impacts upon residents. Furthermore, through the adoption of the precautionary principle, source reduction, and alternative forms of ''cleaner'' production, environmental justice advocates must work for policies which reduce the environmental threat for the full range of communities, as well as their own

  10. Beyond Black and White: Color and Mortality in Post Reconstruction Era North Carolina (United States)

    Green, Tiffany L; Hamilton, Tod G.


    A growing empirical literature in economics and sociology documents the existence of differences in social and economic outcomes between mixed-race blacks and other blacks . However, few researchers have considered whether the advantages associated with mixed-race status may have also translated into differences in mortality outcomes between subgroups of blacks and how both groups compared to whites. We employ previously untapped 1880 North Carolina Mortality census records in conjunction with data from the 1880 North Carolina Population Census to examine whether mulatto, or mixed-race blacks may have experienced mortality advantages over to their colored, or non-mixed race counterparts. For men between the ages of 20-44, estimates demonstrate that all black males are more likely than whites to die. Although our results indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in mortality between mulatto and colored blacks, there are some indications that mulatto males may have enjoyed a slight mortality advantage compared to their colored counterparts. However, we find a substantial mortality advantage associated with mixed-race status among women. These findings indicate that mixed-race women, rather than men, may have accrued any mortality advantages associated with color and white ancestry. PMID:25722496

  11. Comparative levels of creative ability in black and white college students. (United States)

    Glover, J A


    Eighty-seven black, educational psychology students from three intact, randomly selected classes at Tennessee State University were compared to ninety-four white, educational phychology students from three intact, randomly selected classes at the University of Tennessee on Torrance's Unusual Uses and Ask and Guess activities. No differences were found on the frequency of flexibility measures of either activity. No attempt was made to examine the results on this "Level II" mental ability measure on any variable except race. There were no differences based on race.

  12. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study. (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others


    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  13. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.


    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Cranial Capacity in Black and White Adolescents. (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Osborne, R. Travis


    Data from 236 pairs of black twins and white twins aged 13-17 years were used to examine genetic and environmental factors influencing cranial size, an indirect estimate of brain volume. Genetic factors are required to account for the phenotypic variance in cranial capacity. (SLD)

  15. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, Elizabeth


    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  16. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Mary


    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  17. Reconstructing color images of astronomical objects using black and white spectroscopic emulsions (United States)

    Dufour, R. I.; Martins, D. H.


    A color photograph of the peculiar elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) has been reconstructed from three Kodak 103a emulsion type photographs by projecting positives of the three B&W plates through appropriate filters onto a conventional color film. The resulting photograph shows color balance and latitude characteristics superior to color photographs of similar astronomical objects made with commercially available conventional color film. Similar results have been obtained for color reconstructed photographs of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. These and other results suggest that these projection-reconstruction techniques can be used to obtain high-quality color photographs of astronomical objects which overcome many of the problems associated with the use of conventional color film for the long exposures required in astronomy.

  18. Accuracy of Black and White College Students' In-Group and Out-Group Stereotypes. (United States)

    Ryan, Carey S.


    Examined accuracy of black and of white students' in-group and out-group stereotypes by comparing judgments of stereotypicality and dispersion of black and of white first-year college students (N=100) with stereotypicality and dispersion of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Consistent with social identity theory,…

  19. Approaches to capturing the Black and White Tegu Salvator merianae (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Vieira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of traps is extremely important in several types of ecological studies, and may assist in the capture of individuals in areas that are difficult to access. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of wooden (Schramm versus "Tomahawk" traps to capture Salvator merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839 lizards. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Field data were collected from August 2013 to March 2015, during the reproductive period of the species. The study involved two types of baited traps: i "Tomahawk", made of galvanized steel; and ii Schramm, a wooden trap. The capture rate of the Schramm wooden traps was 1.63 individuals/day, and of the "Tomahawk" was 0.36 individuals/day. These results are important for researchers working with large lizards and may help to increase sampling efficiency for these organisms.

  20. Inequality in the Military: An Examination of Promotion Time for Black and White Enlisted Men (United States)

    Butler, John Sibley


    Concludes that the black enlisted now is subject to inequality, which is not the result of failure to meet universalistic criteria (civilian education, armed Forces qualification test and occupation type) but, rather as a result of racism. (Author/AM)

  1. The black-and-white world: Towards the history of dual typologies of nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan


    Full Text Available Attempts at formulating a dichotomous classification of nations and nationalisms have proliferated in the relevant literature over a long period of time. In this study some of the most influential instances of dual typologies of nationalisms are selected for interpretation and analysis. The examples include Renan's under­standing of differences between the "French" and the "German" concepts of nation; Kohn's distinction between "eastern" and "western" nationalisms; a revision of Kohn's dichotomy suggested by J. Plamenatz; and a more recent version of dual typology propounded by L. Greenfield. By reconstructing the views of the selected theorists of nationalism, at the basis of all these typologies a dichotomous division into "civic" and "ethnic" nationalism is identified. Critical objections to this fundamental dual division are articulated at two levels. At the first, historical level, a socio-political contextualization of dual typologies points to their practical, political-ideological purposes. At the second, conceptual level, and drawing on the ideas of R. Brubaker, the author discusses analytical and normative weaknesses of the usual distinction between "civic" and "ethnic" nationalism.

  2. Young, Depressed, and Black: A Comparative Exploration of Depressive Symptomatology among Black and White Collegiate Women (United States)

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Robinson, Ruthie


    This comparative study explored the rates of depression and psychosocial correlates for 369 collegiate White and Black females. Women between the ages of 18 and 25 were recruited to participate in this anonymous online survey. Black females reported significantly greater amounts of depressive symptomatology (M = 24.61) in comparison to the White…

  3. Job Attitudes of Black and White Workers: Male Blue-Collar Workers in Six Companies (United States)

    Katzell, Raymond A.; And Others


    A 74-item attitude questionnaire was administered in six companies to 101 black and 87 white male blue-collar employees holding similar jobs in the same company. Differences between the two ethnic groups were not marked, both in terms of job satisfaction and in other respects. (Author)

  4. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study. (United States)

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others


    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  5. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women (United States)

    Gleason, Michael


    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  6. Mutations in ATM, Radiation Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk Among Black and White Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, Elizabeth


    .... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...

  7. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng


    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements. PMID:27597975

  8. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palascha, A.; Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.


    This study explores the role of dichotomous thinking on eating behavior and its association with restraint eating and weight regain in a wide range of people. In a web-based survey with 241 adults, dichotomous thinking and behavioral outcomes related to eating (restraint eating, weight regain, body

  9. Black and White Dementia Caregivers: A Comparison of Their Adaptation, Adjustment, and Service Utilization. (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Ramirez, Mildred


    Compared African-American (n=33) and white (n=119) family caregivers of dementia patients on adaptation, adjustment, and utilization of support services. Found African-American and white caregivers differed most notably on marital and financial/insurance status, but there were few differences in adaptation to dementia responsibilities.…

  10. The impact of childhood experience on amygdala response to perceptually familiar black and white faces. (United States)

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Li, Tianyi; Correll, Joshua


    Given the well-documented involvement of the amygdala in race perception, the current study aimed to investigate how interracial contact during childhood shapes amygdala response to racial outgroup members in adulthood. Of particular interest was the impact of childhood experience on amygdala response to familiar, compared with novel, Black faces. Controlling for a number of well-established individual difference measures related to interracial attitudes, the results reveal that perceivers with greater childhood exposure to racial outgroup members display greater relative reduction in amygdala response to familiar Black faces. The implications of such findings are discussed in the context of previous investigations into the neural substrates of race perception and in consideration of potential mechanisms by which childhood experience may shape race perception.

  11. Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females. (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.


    Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…

  12. Black and white Australia, 1770-1970. A History of Dispossession


    Appetiti, Emanuela


    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the contact/impact between Aborigines and Europeans, generated by the coming of the British First Fleet to Australia in 1770, and the further European Settlement. It will outline the changing attitudes of White Australians towards Aboriginal Australians, passing from the initial violence of the colonisation, to the paternalism and protective feeling which characterized the first years of this century. It will then define the policy of forc...

  13. Black and white Australia, 1770-1970. A History of Dispossession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appetiti, Emanuela


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the contact/impact between Aborigines and Europeans, generated by the coming of the British First Fleet to Australia in 1770, and the further European Settlement. It will outline the changing attitudes of White Australians towards Aboriginal Australians, passing from the initial violence of the colonisation, to the paternalism and protective feeling which characterized the first years of this century. It will then define the policy of forcible assimilation and that of integration, which shaped the years between the 1940's and the end of the 1970's.

    El propósito de este artículo es estudiar el contacto/impacto que tuvo lugar en Australia entre aborígenes y europeos, generado por la llegada de la Primera Flota Británica en 1770 y la posterior colonización europea de esas tierras. El trabajo se centra en las actitudes cambiantes de los Australianos blancos con respecto a los aborígenes, que pasaron desde la violencia inicial al principio de la colonización, al paternalismo y sentimientos protectores que caracterizaron los primeros años del siglo XX. Finalmente se analiza la política de asimilación e integración forzosa asumida en el período que se extiende entre las décadas del 40 y el 70 de este siglo.

  14. Epidemiology of Theileria bicornis among black and white rhinoceros metapopulation in Kenya


    Otiende, Moses Y; Kivata, Mary W; Makumi, Joseph N; Mutinda, Mathew N; Okun, Daniel; Kariuki, Linus; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Soriguer, Ram?n C; Alasaad, Samer


    Background A huge effort in rhinoceros conservation has focused on poaching and habitat loss as factors leading to the dramatic declines in the endangered eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Nevertheless, the role disease and parasite infections play in the mortality of protected populations has largely received limited attention. Infections with piroplasmosis caused by Babesia bicornis and Theileria bicornis has ...

  15. Influence of Religion on Later Burden and Health of New Black and White Caregivers. (United States)

    Fider, Carla R A; Lee, Jerry W; Gleason, Peter C; Jones, Patricia


    We assessed the relationship between positive aspects of religiosity and reduced stress in caregivers, and negative aspects of religiosity and increased caregiver burden. Using data from the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study, we performed multiple linear regression analysis on 584 caregivers. Mental health, but not physical health, was predicted by caregiver burden. Caregivers who viewed God as loving and not controlling and felt a sense of community with their church family had less burden. Caregivers who engaged in negative religious coping had a greater decline in mental health than those who saw God as loving and not controlling and who gave emotional support to others. Some aspects of religion appear to play an important role in alleviating the mental stresses of being a caregiver.

  16. Men and their Portrayal in Beloved: The Framing of Black and White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through her male characters' lives in Beloved, Morrison demonstrates the complexities and paradoxes inherent in the making of black masculinities and the oppression and denial of selfhood they experience in a slave-owning era. She thus tells the stories of black male characters and invests them with voice and visibility.

  17. A Study of Black and White Men With a Family History of Prostate Cancer (United States)


    declaraciones : Los beneficios de un examen de sangre PSA son mayores que cualquier inconveniencia. 1 esta de acuerdo 2 no esta de acuerdo WDK X RF...Asociaci6n Americana de Canccr. recomoiendan altameonte quo hombres mayores de 40 afios tengan tan examenc anual do sangre PSA, especisiruente si tiene

  18. An Appalachian portrait : black and white in Montgomery County, Virginia, before the Civil War


    Grant, Charles L.


    Montgomery County, Virginia, is a southern Appalachian county founded in 1776. Throughout the county's antebellum history, as with most other regions of the South, four major population groups were visibly present. There were slaves, free blacks, white slaveowners, and white non-slaveowners. Little research has previously been conducted on the antebellum people of the Appalachian South. This work is a social history consisting of cross tabulations of data found in the county...

  19. Computer Ethics: A Slow Fade from Black and White to Shades of Gray (United States)

    Kraft, Theresa A.; Carlisle, Judith


    The expanded use of teaching case based analysis based on current events and news stories relating to computer ethics improves student engagement, encourages creativity and fosters an active learning environment. Professional ethics standards, accreditation standards for computer curriculum, ethics theories, resources for ethics on the internet,…

  20. "Expressive Cool" and the Paradox of Black and White Males' Neighborhood Socialization toward Education (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.


    This study explores how linkages between adolescents' educational attitudes and achievement vary according to race, expressive culture, and neighborhood collective socialization qualities. Specifically, the study examines (a) racial differences in how males' educational attitudes relate to their academic performance (i.e.,…

  1. A Story in Black and White: Radiologic Evaluation in the Multidisciplinary Setting. (United States)

    Sepahdari, Ali R; Salehi, Banafsheh


    Strong engagement from expert radiologists is essential in ensuring the optimal function of a multidisciplinary group focused on the treatment of head and neck cancer. Active participation in multidisciplinary conference can be among the most rewarding roles for radiologists. Despite many benefits to radiologist involvement in multidisciplinary teams, there are obstacles and challenges that can prevent full participation. This article highlights the key issues that should be considered by radiologists and multidisciplinary team leaders when planning participation in a new or existing multidisciplinary group that focuses on the care of patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships Between Smoking and Sleep Problems in Black and White Adolescents. (United States)

    Bellatorre, Anna; Choi, Kelvin; Lewin, Daniel; Haynie, Denise; Simons-Morton, Bruce


    The relationship between sleeping and smoking during adolescence remains unclear and is likely complex. We aim to evaluate the longitudinal reciprocal associations between sleep problems, sleep duration, and smoking among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) youth. Prospective cohort study. NEXT Generation Health Study. A national sample (N = 1394) of NHB and NHW 10th graders were surveyed annually between 2009 (Wave 1) and 2012 (Wave 3). N/A. Past 30-day smoking, chronic difficulty falling asleep, recent difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and weekday and weekend sleep duration were measured at each wave. Using structural equation models, we observed significant autocorrelations over time for sleep problems and sleep duration. We found significant reciprocal, prospective relationships between smoking and sleep problems. The strengths of the relationships differed by race, with a stronger association between sleep problems and subsequent smoking for NHB than NHW youth. Conversely, a stronger association between smoking and subsequent sleep problems for NHW than NHB youth was observed. These association were independent of demographics, snoring or sleep apnea, body mass index, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and soda consumption. Reciprocal and prospective relationships exist for youth smoking and sleep problems and duration in both NHW and NHB youth. Further research is needed to unravel the complex relationship between the direct effects of nicotine, lifestyle choices that may link smoking and sleep problems, and racial differences. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Picture-books: first structured reading materials for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Martinović


    Full Text Available Early literacy has recently become a current topic, and there’s a widespread belief that literacy startsdeveloping almost as soon as the child is born, if the child is surrounded with adequate materials and persons who will motivate the development of literacy. The first structured reading materials that a child interacts with are picture-books. It is usually the first contact a child has with literature and a written word in general, and it happens during childhood, the child's most sensitive period, which is why it is important to pay special attention to the quality of picture-books. Croatian picture-books published till the early 80ies of the past century have been investigated to a some extent. However, the picture-books found on the Croatian market and in the libraries in the past 30 years have been the subject of research only sporadically. There's little data on the quality and features of this multifunctional material that is of such great importance for children. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the relevant data found in literature on the historical development of picture-book publishing, their features, functions they help develop, their age-appropriateness, and quality. The paper presents research results stemming from the analysis of the Croatian Children's Book Centre documentation on contemporary picture-book publishing and data on the language of picture-books that are the result of a picture-book corpus study made as part of the PhD research by the author. The data on contemporary authors and illustrators was obtained by analysing the documentation of the Croatian Library Association, Commission for library services for children and youth. The language of the picture-book corpus was analysed using a computer programme, i.e. the analysis was conducted of the lexical diversity of picture-books for three-year olds. The picture-books have not been investigated from the linguistic perspective before, which makes this

  4. Fashion pictures and women pictures in French women magazine. Normatives parades or strategic masquerade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article proposes to study the fashion pictures within a representative sample of French women magazines. Based on the method of “sémiologie des indices”, used to analyze a corpus of woman’s body and fashion staged, this paper addresses the issue of new functions granted to the stereotyping process. Starting to the assumption of a contract between audience and media, this analysis shows that the gender stereotype may be prescribed, up to a caricature of the womanhood, to the female readers identified as co-producers of the media discourse. Demonstrating both the co-existence of a plurality of gender representations in its pictures and their variability, this work proposes the concept of strategic masquerade to apprehend the possible new functions for the process of gender stereotyping in media.

  5. A Story Told by a Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshayahu Shen


    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: We investigate whether people use a narrative/story schema to organize visual information in figurative isolated pictures representing a "pregnant moment", and, if so, how they do this.  The participants in our study were asked to freely describe pictures that depict some event. Their descriptions were analyzed according to a system of categories developed especially for examining the use of an elaborated narrative organization. The findings support the hypothesis that observers use elaborated narrative organization that goes beyond mere temporal and causal organization (including, e.g., exposition, complication, resolution. Furthermore, the findings suggest that this elaborative narrative organization sometimes dominates the visual organization of the pictures.


    Abstract (F: Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante: est-ce que les spectateurs se servent d’un schéma base sur l

  6. Writing words from pictures: what representations are activated, and when? (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M


    In three experiments, the nature of the representations involved in written picture naming and the time course of their activation were investigated. French participants had to produce picture names while hearing distractors. In Experiment 1, distractors semantically related to the picture names yielded a semantic interference effect when a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of--150 msec, but not when a SOA of 0 msec, was used, in both spoken and written picture naming. Experiment 2 showed that the semantic interference effect was not located at the conceptual level. In Experiment 3, participants wrote down picture names while hearing semantically related, phonologically related, both semantically and phonologically related, or unrelated distractors, presented at both SOAs. A semantic interference effect was obtained with phonologically unrelated distractors but was eliminated with phonologically related distractors. Facilitatory effects of phonologically related distractors were found at both SOAs. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are discussed.

  7. Atom probe study on microstructure change in severely deformed pearlitic steels: application to rail surfaces and drawn wires (United States)

    Takahashi, Jun


    Pearlitic steel is used as the material for high tensile steel wires, rails and wheels due to its high work hardening and wear resistance. These properties arise from a layered structure comprising deformable lamellar ferrite and hard lamellar cementite. This paper reviews the microstructural change in heavily drawn pearlitic steels wires and worn surfaces of pearlitic rails using atom probe tomography analysis. The cementite decomposition mechanism was elucidated for heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires. For pearlitic rail steels, atomic scale characterization of worn surfaces and of the white etching layer (WEL) were performed, and a mechanism for the formation of the WEL was proposed. The differences and similarities in microstructure and in the state of the cementite in these severely deformed pearlitic steels are discussed.

  8. “Surprised!” Telling the pictures. Can the illustrations in picture books promote language acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandie Mourão


    Full Text Available Este artigo procura apresentar os resultados da re-análise dos dados recolhidos em dois projectos de investigaçãoacçãosobre a utilização de álbuns em língua inglesa nas aulas de Inglês da Educação Pré-Escolar em Portugal.Dois álbums forum usados, demonstrando diferentes interacções entre texto e imagem, ‘paralela’ e ‘interdependente’. Transcrições de gravações de horas do conto com estes livros foram categorizadas de acordo com asfalas em Inglês a que o texto ou imagem deram origem. Os resultados indicam que a linguagem que as criançasaprendem de facto, com os livros ‘inter-dependentes’ (onde a história escrita é diferente da história ilustrada émais rica e as próprias crianças tomam um papel mais activo na criação de um significado. As implicações destesresultados são discutidas.The following article presents the findings of a re-analysis of data from two action research projects investigatingthe use of English picture books in Pre-school English classes in Portugal. Two picture books were used, eachrepresenting parallel and interdependent storytelling models. Audio tapescripts of the picture book read aloudswere categorised according to the utterances prompted by the verbal and visual texts. Results show that foreignlanguage acquisition is extended when both the verbal and visual texts of a picture book are used for languageinput and that children are more actively involved in meaning making. Implications are discussed.

  9. Emotional Responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli


    Esteves, Francisco; Arriaga, Patrícia; Carneiro, Paula; Flykt, Anders


    Emotional processing of food-related pictures was studied in four experiments, comparing participants who revealed unhealthy attitudes toward food, dieting and body shape with control groups. All subjects were female and responses to pictures of low and of high calorie foods were compared to responses to other emotional stimuli. The first three experiments measured verbal and autonomic responses and Experiment 4 was a classical conditioning study. In Experiments 2-4, pictures were presente...

  10. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.


    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  11. Visual complexity accentuates picture-description deficit in amnesia. (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Neroni, Maria Adriana; Zeman, Adam; Beschin, Nicoletta; Della Sala, Sergio


    A recent study indicated that amnesic patients have difficulties not only in describing past and imagined scenarios, but also in describing pictures that are in full view. This finding suggests that impaired memory hampers descriptions of scenarios more broadly. However, no such impairment in picture description in amnesic patients was observed in a related study. One key methodological difference between these studies was the complexity of the pictures to be described, hinting that group differences might be marked only if pictures are sufficiently complex to tax aspects of memory. To test this complexity hypothesis, we examined whether differences in picture description between amnesic patients and controls increase with increasing picture complexity. As in previous studies, we also assessed our participants' ability to describe imagined scenarios. Amnesic patients reported significantly fewer elements than did controls when describing pictures and imagined scenarios. The group difference in picture description was significantly larger for complex than for simple pictures. Although variations in lesion sites might have accounted for the aforementioned cross-study differences in picture description in amnesic patients, our results suggest that, at least in amnesic patients with extramedial temporal lobe lesions, the complexity of pictures can determine whether or not a (substantial) picture-description deficit is observed. We interpret these findings in terms of a narrative-construction deficit. We hypothesize that, whereas brief narrative can be constructed via nonmemory cognitive processes, the construction of more detailed narrative depends upon intact functioning of a temporary memory system, such as the episodic buffer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.


    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  13. A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Examining learners’ illustrations to understand Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Syyeda


    Full Text Available This article presents my experience of using pictures/images drawn by children as a form of data in research and discusses the merits and implications of employing this method. It comes from research of a mixed method exploratory case study to investigate the attitudes of 11 and 15 year old secondary school students (in the East Midlands towards Mathematics. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into the emotions, cognition, beliefs and behaviour of learners regarding Maths and the factors which influence their attitude. Besides using the tried and tested data collection tools such as focus groups and questionnaires, the children were asked to draw pictures illustrating their vision of Maths and its impact on their lives. The idea was to offer them an alternative medium of communication to exhibit their feelings and thoughts. Students used emoticons, numerals, figures, characters and mathematical symbols to show their favourable/unfavourable attitudes towards Maths and their understanding of the importance of Maths in future life. The results of visual data in this study conform to the findings of the other forms of data collected and show that boys and higher ability students have a more positive attitude towards Mathematics as compared to girls and low ability students.

  14. Picture Book on Raising Children's Awareness Against Sexual Abuse


    Christy, Evelyn; Handojo, Priska Febrinia


    One of the common problems leading to the sexual abuse is that the child is not aware about it. This project aims to raise children's awareness against sexual abuse through picture book. This picture book use realistic fiction as the genre of my picture book. The purpose is to make the children familiar with the story and can relate it to their life. This picture book uses the narrative theory as the framework of the story. The narrative story is consist of abstract, orientation, complication...

  15. Age of acquisition and word frequency in written picture naming. (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M


    This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.





    We are living in a world surrounded by images; everywhere we go we are overwhelmed by commercials, plasma screens, posters etc. We get lost in these “perfect” pictures, we dream about that perfect body, that perfect sunny holiday and that perfectly happy family. We spend time consuming those pictures, but we don’t spend time to see ourselves as we are, to discover our inner self. But, can we discover ourselves in pictures? I believe so, but only when the pictures are created and not consumed....

  17. A Pedagogical Experiment Using Bubble Chamber Pictures

    CERN Multimedia


    We have taken, in October 1981, 20.000 pictures of proton-proton interactions at 5 GeV/c in order to get some clean elastic events which can be easily studied by high school students. The purpose is to illustrate, by actual measurements of these real events, some basic concepts of relativistic mechanisms. This experiment will be an extension of our previous one, performed with HBC 2m events taken at 2 GeV/c. In 1980, all french lycees were provided with large size reproduction of HBC 2m events. Before distribution they were carefully selected and severe kinematical cuts were made. The students measured track curvatures by template, and checked the necessity and the validity of relativistic mechanics by computing the energy balance using non-relativistic and relativistic formulae. No practical problems have been encountered during this experiment and the pedagogical results are encouraging. This new sample of events will be interesting because they are relativistic than the old ones although with the same curv...

  18. East coast gas - the big picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, K.J.


    The North American conventional gas resource base was reviewed and an explanation of how Canada's East coast fits into the overall picture was given. At 1996 year end, the total conventional ultimate natural gas resource base for North America was estimated to be 2,695 trillion cubic feet. The most important supply areas are Canada and the United States. Mexico and Alaska are expected to play only a minor role in the overall North American supply. Approximately half of the conventional gas estimated to exist in North America remains to be discovered. Only 78 per cent from the half that has been discovered has been produced, and only 22 per cent of it is remaining as reserves. Of the undiscovered natural gas resource, 38 per cent is in the frontier regions of Alaska and Canada. The growing importance of the East coast of North America as markets for natural gas was reviewed. The distribution of ultimate conventional marketable gas resources for Canada was described. The potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and selected frontier areas were assessed. The report showed an undiscovered conventional marketable gas estimate of 122 trillion cubic feet for the WCSB and 107 trillion cubic feet for the Frontier areas. The two most significant areas of discovery in eastern Canada were considered to be the Hibernia oil field on the Grand Banks and the Venture gas field of the Scotian Shelf. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)


    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)

  20. Modality in Russian language picture of the world


    Glazkova, Svetlana


    In article the incentive modality in Russian language picture of the world on a design example a predicative + an infinitive is analyzed. Research of modeling synonyms showed unevenness of a modal language pic-ture of the world of Russian: intention and need prevalence and obligation reduction