Sample records for black women experience

  1. Spoke"tokenism": Black Women "Talking Back" about Graduate School Experiences (United States)

    Robinson, Subrina J.


    Black women still experience racial oppression in the academy. In this study, I draw on Black feminist theory and oral narrative research to examine the narratives of Black women graduate students discussing their educational experiences. Black female graduate students deal with acts of everyday racism and instances of structural and internalized…

  2. The Experiences and Development of Undergraduate Adult Black Women (United States)

    Clark, Joni Denise Dent


    Just as there are reasons why Black American women decide not to attend college or to dropout of college when they are young, there are reasons why they choose to enter or reenter college as adults. Among those reasons are self-fulfillment, career aspirations, financial incentives offered by employers, and military benefits (Parr, 2000; Richardson…

  3. The lived experience of discrimination by white women in committed interracial relationships with black men


    Van der Walt, A; Basson, P. J.


    Abstract: This study explores the experiences of discrimination by white women in committed interracial relationships with black men within the South African context from a descriptive phenomenological perspective. Three white females in committed interracial relationships with black males were recruited and interviewed. Open-ended interviews were conducted in order to elicit rich and in-depth first-person descriptions of the participants’ lived experiences of discrimination as a result of be...

  4. Health Issues Facing Black Women. (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  5. Disclosure of Sexual Assault Experiences among Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) (United States)

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn


    Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…

  6. Experiences of Black Women Who Persist to Graduation at Predominantly White Schools of Nursing (United States)

    Thomas, Francine Simms


    This study was designed to explore the experiences of Black women who attended predominantly White nursing schools. A phenomenological design was used to investigate eight nurses who persisted through to graduation from their nursing programs in the 21st century. The study examined persistence through the lens of academic involvement, alienation,…

  7. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships. (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn


    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  8. Feminism and Black Women's Studies. (United States)

    Hooks, Bell


    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  9. The lived experience of discrimination by white women in committed interracial relationships with black men



    M.A. Committed interracial relationships within the South African context have been associated with controversy as these relationships were once considered immoral and illegal. Since the abolishment of the anti-miscegenation and racial segregation laws, committed interracial relationships have slowly increased but are still fraught with difficulties. The experience of discrimination remains a prominent concern for individuals in committed interracial relationships. Black male-white female ...

  10. Feminism and the Subtext of Whiteness: Black Women's Experiences as a Site of Identity Formation and Contestation of Whiteness. (United States)

    Yancy, George


    Analyzes how the structure of whiteness has shaped the feminist movement, marginalizing the voices of black women. Shows how racism forms the core ideology of feminism, suggesting that the hegemonic racial epistemological standpoint of feminism is limited. Argues that black women's standpoint must be understood within the framework of their unique…

  11. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype. (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S


    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully.

  12. Making Meaning: Identity Development of Black Undergraduate Women (United States)

    Porter, Christa J.; Dean, Laura A.


    The purpose of this preliminary, phenomenological study was to identify factors that influence identity development and meaning-making of Black undergraduate women at a predominately White institution. The goal of this research was two-fold: to share diverse experiences of Black undergraduate women in order to understand the essence of their lived…

  13. The Experience of Antiretroviral Treatment for Black West African Women who are HIV Positive and Living in London: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. (United States)

    Spiers, Johanna; Smith, Jonathan A; Poliquin, Elizabeth; Anderson, Jane; Horne, Rob


    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers a powerful intervention in HIV but effectiveness can be compromised by inadequate adherence. This paper is a detailed examination of the experience of medication in a purposively selected group of people living with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 HIV positive, West African women of black heritage living in London, UK. This group was of interest since it is the second largest group affected by HIV in the UK. Interviews were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis, an idiographic, experiential, qualitative approach. The paper details the women's negative experience of treatment. ART can be considered difficult and unrelenting and may be disconnected from the women's sense of health or illness. Participants' social context often exacerbated the difficulties. Some reported an improvement in their feelings about the medication over time. These findings point to some intrinsic and social motivators which could act as spurs to adherence.

  14. The experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM: Voices to inform work with Black females in STEM education (United States)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.

  15. Black Women Workers in the Twentieth Century. (United States)

    Newman, Debra Lynn


    At the beginning of the twentieth century one-third of black women worked; most did agricultural or domestic work. Gradually as employment benefits increased and anti-discrimination laws were enforced, work opportunities for black women became more varied and better paying. (VM)

  16. Black Women in the Emerging Services Economy. (United States)

    Woody, Bette


    Examines the impact of a services economy on the work and income of Black women in relation to current labor theory, employment patterns of Black and White women, and future policy implications. Discusses the growing feminization of poverty as the product of a growing subculture of low-wage work. (JS)

  17. The angry black woman: the impact of pejorative stereotypes on psychotherapy with black women. (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy


    In the aftermath of slavery and the resulting social, economic, and political effects, Black women have become the victims of negative stereotyping in mainstream American culture. Such stereotypes include the myth of the angry Black woman that characterizes these women as aggressive, ill tempered, illogical, overbearing, hostile, and ignorant without provocation. Symptoms presented by Black women during mental health treatment may reinforce this myth. However, many of the negative characteristics of the angry Black woman developed in response to external stressors and historical factors. Black women also have a unique experience with and expressions of anger that shape the presenting symptoms interpreted by the mental health clinician. This myth and corresponding negative stereotypes significantly affect Black women intrapsychically, interpersonally, and are likely to influence the efficacy of mental health treatment. Understanding and treatment of Black women in a mental health context should be influenced by the cultural norms and sociopolitical dynamics affecting these clients. Successful mental health treatment requires cultural competence and clinicians who are well prepared to navigate the inherent complexities of culture with clients. Awareness of the angry Black woman mythology, including its genesis, manifestations, and the unique experiences of Black women, may raise the standards of cultural competence for clinicians and provide more successful treatment outcomes in working with this population. A case example illustrates the assiduity essential to practicing in a culturally competent manner. A client is presented from a traditional psychotherapeutic perspective and then viewed through a lens that integrates psychotherapeutic practice with conscious awareness of the mythology and stereotypes impacting Black women. Implications for culturally relevant practice are discussed.

  18. Navigating Underrepresented STEM Spaces: Experiences of Black Women in U.S. Computing Science Higher Education Programs Who Actualize Success (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.; George, Phillis L.; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; Berhanu, Jonathan; Amechi, Mauriell H.


    Women in the United States have long been underrepresented in computing science disciplines across college campuses and in industry alike (Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012). This disparity is exacerbated when African American women are scrutinized. Additionally, prior research (e.g., Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012;…

  19. Complicated Contradictions Amid Black Feminism and Millennial Black Women Teachers Creating Curriculum for Black Girls (United States)

    Nyachae, Tiffany M.


    Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…

  20. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation. (United States)

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita


    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  1. Academe as Extreme Sport: Black Women, Faculty Development, and Networking (United States)

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Chaney, Cassandra; Edwards, LaWanda; Thompson-Rogers, G. Kaye; Gines, Kathryn T.


    In this article we describe the experiences of Black women academics who participated in one or more of the following programs geared towards supporting the research and professional development of faculty: (a) the Sisters of the Academy's (SOTA) Research Boot Camp; (b) the National Center for Faculty Development and Diversity's Faculty Success…

  2. Black Women in The Color Purple and Sula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The process of black women's awakening idea, seeking themselves, struggling for freedom, equality and inde-pendence is the reflection of black women's partieular beauty, meanwhile it is a kind of declaration to America, even to the whole world.

  3. Prolonged labour : women's experiences


    Nystedt, Astrid


    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate, describe, and promote understanding of women’s experiences of prolonged labour. The thesis compromises four studies. Methods: Paper I describes a case-referent study that recruited women (n = 255) giving singleton live birth to their first child by spontaneous labour after more than 37 completed weeks’ pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire that investigated childbirth experiences, previous family relationships, and childhood e...

  4. Representation of Black women in advertising


    Lawson, Tiphaine


    Abstract: This project aims to confirm the assumption that L’Oreal over represents beauty standards in its advertising. From a social constructivist approach, and using advertising theories, this study explores the marks left by colonialism and post colonialism in the beauty context of black women. This research is based upon L’Ore...

  5. Neighborhood Racial Composition and Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: Evidence from the Black Women's Health Study (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew O.; Wise, Lauren A.; Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Cozier, Yvette C.; Rosenberg, Lynn


    Little is known about the effects of social context or "place" factors (e.g., characteristics of local populations) on African Americans' perceptions and experiences of racism. Using data from 42,445 U.S. black women collected during the 1997 follow-up wave of the Black Women's Health Study, we investigated the association between neighborhood…

  6. Affirmative action and the Black women in South Africa. (United States)

    Serote, P


    An overview was given of how affirmative action for Blacks and women in South Africa in fact marginalizes Black women. The definition of the problem influences the solution; affirmative action obscures the complex nature of discrimination experienced by Black women by class, role, and culture and focuses only on gender and race. Secondly, the power of White women and Black men supercede the power of Black women. Apartheid benefitted White women over Black men. Affirmative action, as shifting power between groups, would solidify White women's power. The debates have taken place within university and academic contexts, a place where Black women have been excluded and the dominant groups are White men, followed by White women, and then Black men. The debate in the private sector also is devoid of Black women's voices; multinationals began to hire and train Black male managers, and there was criticism that standards were falling. Recruitment of Black women is unknown, but only 1.1% of managers are Black. Visibility within the academic and private sector debates has excluded Black women. In the articulation of ideas, most literature has been written by White men. The intersection of power and privilege belongs to males and White women as part of the larger dominant ideology. Black women's marginalization means their issues will not be addressed. The people who stand to benefit the most from affirmative action are those who are in need of improved living conditions, literacy, and employment, or those excluded from jobs and position in spite of being qualified. Black women without a societal power base have no bargaining power. To insure that Black women benefit, there is need to treat Black women as a distinctive group with priority. There is also a need to examine the myths that have been spun around Black women, their needs, abilities, and controlling images. There is a need to integrate Black womens ideas into the mainstream and recognize that maybe Black women need

  7. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil]. (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro


    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  8. Black and white women's attitudes toward interracial marriage. (United States)

    Paset, P S; Taylor, R D


    50 white women and 50 black women, US citizens between the ages 18 and 23 years, were asked to rate their attitudes about interracial marriage on a 10-point response scale. The white women were somewhat more favorable, if not significantly so, than the black women about men and women of their race marrying persons of another race. However, scorers at the extremes of the scale were significantly different. The white women tended to cluster at the scale extreme favoring interracial marriage, whereas the black women tended to cluster at the other unfavorable extreme. Implications and research needs are discussed.

  9. Becoming Black Women: Intimate Stories and Intersectional Identities (United States)

    Wilkins, Amy C.


    In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…

  10. Legal Abortion: Are American Black Women Healthier Because of It? (United States)

    Cates, Willard, Jr.


    Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)

  11. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings. (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W


    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women.

  12. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study. (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah


    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women.

  13. The Role of the Black Women in the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement and on to Transnational Feminism


    Joseph, Gloria


    "As the title states I will be discussing the role that Black women in the USA have played in two major social movements in this Century - the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement. Their roles were critical and pertinent forces in both movements. Subsequently, I will discuss their vision regarding globalization and transnational feminism." (author's abstract)

  14. A Typological Study of the Women's Rights Movements: Implications for Black Women and Education. (United States)

    Cole, Dorothy

    The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the differences between the women's rights movements of the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States, focusing upon origins, issues, problems, attempted solutions, and outcomes pertaining to white and black women. The study attempted to predict benefits black women could expect from the current…

  15. Slave to Working-Class Women:Black Women in the Civil War Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It seems the civil war brought some improvement and new opportunity to black women. Their social identity changes from slave to working- class women. However it is difficult for them to lead a real y equal and free life.

  16. Black-White Differences in Sex and Contraceptive Use Among Young Women. (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Ela, Elizabeth J; Bucek, Amelia


    This study examines black-white and other sociodemographic differences in young women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors, using new longitudinal data from a weekly journal-based study of 1,003 18- to 19-year-old women spanning 2.5 years. We investigate hypotheses about dynamic processes in these behaviors during early adulthood in order to shed light on persisting racial differences in rates of unintended pregnancies in the United States. We find that net of other sociodemographic characteristics and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, black women spent less time in relationships and had sex less frequently in their relationships than white women, but did not differ in the number of relationships they formed or in their frequency or consistency of contraceptive use within relationships. Black women were more likely to use less effective methods for pregnancy prevention (e.g., condoms) than white women, who tended to use more effective methods (e.g., oral contraceptives). And although the most effective method for pregnancy prevention-long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)-was used more often by black women than white women, LARC use was low in both groups. In addition, black women did not differ from white women in their number of discontinuations or different methods used and had fewer contraceptive method switches. Further, we find that net of race and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, women from more-disadvantaged backgrounds had fewer and longer (and thus potentially more serious) relationships, used contraception less frequently (but not less consistently), and used less effective methods (condoms) than women from more-advantaged backgrounds.

  17. Educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari; Mensah, Felicia Moore


    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This is an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in critical race theory, the paper examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists and addresses obstacles faced in their career paths and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semistructured interviews and coded for emergent themes. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose physics over other STEM fields. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in STEM, particularly by exclusion of study groups. We suggest physics departments provide a more inclusive environment to support Black women in science.

  18. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women. (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K


    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes.

  19. How Black women make sense of 'White' and 'Black' fashion magazines: a qualitative think aloud study. (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Russell, Sheriden


    This qualitative think aloud study explored how Black women (n = 32) processed information from a White or Black fashion magazine. Comments to the 'White' magazine were characterised by rejection, being critical of the media and ambivalence, whereas they responded to the 'Black' magazine with celebration, identification and a search for depth. Transcending these themes was their self-identity of being a Black woman that was brought to the fore either by a sense of exclusion (White magazine) or engagement (Black magazine). Such an identity provides resilience against the media's thin ideals by minimising the processes of social comparison and internalisation.

  20. Free Women and the Antebellum Black Press: Gender Oppression Reconsidered. (United States)

    Hutton, Frankie

    Black newspapers and journals published between 1827 and 1860, such as "Freedom's Journal,""The Weekly Advocate," and the "Mirror of Liberty," worked to dispel negative images and to set the record straight about women of color, in contrast to the unfounded hyperboles against these women which had been pervasive…

  1. Elderly Black Farm Women: A Population at Risk. (United States)

    Carlton-LaNey, Iris


    Elderly black farm women are neglected segment of elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. Ten such women recalled their productive lifestyles in oral-history interviews and described problems faced because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities,…

  2. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women (United States)

    Jones, Lani V.


    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  3. Dimensions of oppression in the lives of impoverished black women who use drugs. (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise


    Oppression against Black women continues to be a significant problem in the United States. The purpose of this study is to use grounded theory to identify multiple dimensions of oppression experienced by impoverished Black women who use drugs by examining several settings in which participants experience oppression. Three case studies of drug using, impoverished Black women were randomly selected from two large scale consecutive ethnographic studies conducted in New York City from 1998 to 2005. Analysis revealed five dimensions of oppression occurring within eight distinct settings. While dimensions constitute different manifestations of oppression, settings represented areas within participants' lives or institutions with which participants interact. Dimensions of oppression included classism, sexism, familism, racism, and drugism. Settings included the school system, correction system, welfare system, housing and neighborhood, relationship with men, family, experiences with drug use, and employment. Findings have important implications for social justice, welfare, drug, and justice system policy.

  4. Predictors of depression in black women with hypertension. (United States)

    Abel, Willie M; Crane, Patricia B; McCoy, Thomas


    Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world, and depression is associated with both hypertension and lack of health promoting behaviors. Thus, it is important to identify factors that may contribute to depression in hypertensive women. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 80 black women ages 18-60 who were prescribed anti-hypertensive medication. Data were collected using self-report instruments. The study showed that lower income level, greater number of comorbidities, lower active coping scores, and poorer medication adherence were significantly associated with higher depression scores. These findings have important implications for the development of screening protocols and interventions for black women.

  5. The Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black Women Leaders in Fortune 500 Companies (United States)

    Jackson, LaTonya R.


    Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…

  6. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope. (United States)

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie


    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  7. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar


    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  8. The Spirit Bears Witness: Reflections of Two Black Women's Journey in the Academy (United States)

    Generett, Gretchen Givens; Cozart, Sheryl


    This article describes our evolution as two Black American women academics who, after years of dealing with our community's marginalization and our own marginalization in the academy, began to employ research as a way of surviving. To share the significance of this experience, we first reflect on our understandings of our positionality within the…

  9. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte


    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  10. A Novel Approach: Using Fiction by African American Women To Teach Black Women's History. (United States)

    Bunch-Lyons, Beverly A.


    Discusses the use of novels and other works written by African American women as tools for teaching the history of black women in the United States in an undergraduate course. Focuses on specific works used in the course, such as Octavia Butler's "Kindred" and Terry McMillan's "Waiting to Exhale." (CMK)

  11. Women and Blacks on Prime-Time Television. (United States)

    Lemon, Judith


    Reports on study of intersex and interrace dominance patterns in prime time television focusing on two-person interactions between men and women, Blacks and Whites, to determine if one person dominates or if two parties interact as equals. Relates sex and race dominance patterns to several program and character variables. (JMF)

  12. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work. (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene


    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  13. Mental health effects of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence among Black and Hispanic women. (United States)

    Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne; Jasinski, Jana L


    An important aspect of Johnson's intimate terrorism (IT) and situational couple violence (SCV) typology is his assertion that victims experience different negative outcomes depending on which category of violence they endure. Anderson calls for reexamining this typology to highlight the importance of coercive control with or without physical violence present. Similar to most studies, Anderson's research uses a sample that includes mostly White women. The current study employs Anderson's methods and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses, but uses a sample of predominantly Black women and Latinas from the 1998 Chicago Women's Health Risk Study.

  14. Educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari


    This talk presents an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in Critical Race Theory, the presentation examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists in the United States, addresses obstacles faced in their career paths, and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews and coded for emergent themes, which are invitation to engage in science, communities of science practices, and isolation in the academy. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose Physics over other STEM fields. The analysis shows Physics can be a hostile environment for these women. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in Physics, particularly by exclusion of study groups. In this talk, suggestions will be presented to make Physics departments a more inclusive space to support Black women in science. This presentation is based on work supported by the Brazilian government through CAPES (BEX1907-07-7), the Fulbright Program, Comissño Fulbright Brasil, and the Office of Diversity at Teachers College, Columbia University.

  15. Impact of perceived racial discrimination on health screening in black women. (United States)

    Mouton, Charles P; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Makambi, Kepher H; Taylor, Teletia R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L


    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be related to health screening behavior. The present study examines the effect of discrimination on cancer screening among women in the Black Women's Health Study. Five self-report items measured discrimination in everyday life and three items measured experiences of major discrimination. Logistic regression was used to test associations of discrimination with Pap smear, mammography, or colonoscopy utilization. At the start of follow-up, 88.8% had a Pap smear in the previous year, 52.7% had a mammogram, and 20.0% had received a colonoscopy. Both everyday and major discrimination were associated with not having received a Pap smear, even after adjusting for other variables. Discrimination was not associated with mammography or colonoscopy utilization. In conclusion, perceived everyday and major discrimination is associated with poorer utilization of Pap smears for cervical cancer screening among Black women.

  16. Menopausal Experiences of Women with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Willis, D. S.; Wishart, J. G.; Muir, W. J.


    Background: Little is known about the menopause in women with intellectual disabilities (ID) save that its onset is earlier than in the general population, and earlier still in women with Down's syndrome (DS). This study directly explored menopausal experiences in women with ID, both with and without DS, with the aim of identifying levels of…

  17. Sexual well-being: a comparison of U.S. black and white women in heterosexual relationships. (United States)

    Bancroft, John; Long, J Scott; McCabe, Janice


    In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national probability sample to compare black (n = 251) and white (n = 544) American women, aged 20-65 years, who were in an established heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. We focused on two aspects of their sexual well-being; how a woman evaluated (1) her sexual relationship and (2) her own sexuality. A range of possible determinants of sexual well-being, including demographic factors, physical and mental health, and aspects of the women's recent sexual experiences, were also assessed using Telephone-Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (T-ACASI). We found no significant difference between black and white women in their evaluation of their sexual relationships nor in the independent variables that were correlated with this evaluation. Black women, however, evaluated their own sexuality more positively than white women. In examining the correlates of this evaluation, a woman's rating of her own sexual attractiveness proved to be the strongest predictor, with black women rating themselves significantly more sexually attractive than did the white women. Overall, these findings were consistent with previous findings that, compared to white women, black women in the United States have higher self-esteem and tend towards more independence and individualism.

  18. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael


    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  19. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. (United States)

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R


    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.

  20. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.


    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  1. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort. (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J


    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  2. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience (United States)

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.


    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  3. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television. (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D


    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  4. An assessment of American Indian women's mammography experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseru Babalola


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from breast cancer has increased among American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN women. Despite this alarming reality, AI/AN women have some of the lowest breast cancer screening rates. Only 37% of eligible AI/AN women report a mammogram within the last year and 52% report a mammogram within the last two years compared to 57% and 72% for White women. The experiences and satisfaction surrounding mammography for AI/AN women likely are different from that of women of other racial/ethnic groups, due to cultural differences and limited access to Indian Health Service sponsored mammography units. The overall goals of this study are to identify and understand the mammography experiences and experiential elements that relate to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with mammography services in an AI/AN population and to develop a culturally-tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction survey. Methods and Design The three project aims that will be used to guide this work are: 1 To compare the mammography experiences and satisfaction with mammography services of Native American/Alaska Native women with that of Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Black women, 2 To develop and validate the psychometric properties of an American Indian Mammography Survey, and 3 To assess variation among AI/AN women's assessments of their mammography experiences and mammography service satisfaction. Evaluations of racial/ethnic differences in mammography patient satisfaction have received little study, particularly among AI/AN women. As such, qualitative study is uniquely suited for an initial examination of their experiences because it will allow for a rich and in-depth identification and exploration of satisfaction elements. Discussion This formative research is an essential step in the development of a validated and culturally tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction assessment. Results from this project will provide a springboard from which a maximally

  5. Normative Ideals, “Alternative” Realities: Perceptions of Interracial Dating among Professional Latinas and Black Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Garcia


    Full Text Available Family types continue to expand in the U.S., yet normative patterns of endogamy and the privileging of nuclear families persist. To understand how professional women of color navigate endogamy and family ideals, I draw on 40 in-depth interviews of professional Black women and Latinas to ask how they construct partner preferences. I find that professional Latinas and Black women prefer same-race, similarly educated partners but report significant barriers to satisfying these desires. Respondents’ experiences with racism, the rejection of ethno-racial and cultural assimilation, gendered racism from men of color, and the college gender gap emerge as mechanisms for endogamous preferences. These preferences resist and support hegemonic family formation, an ideological and behavioral process that privileges, white, middle class, endogamous, heteronormative ideals for families comprising courtship, marriage, and biological childbearing. By challenging the racial devaluation of people of color while preferring the normativity that endogamy offers, the women in this study underscore the fluidity embedded in endogamy.

  6. Black Women's Faculty Voices in New Mexico: Invisible Assets Silent No More (United States)

    Woodley, Xeturah Monique


    There continues to exist a lack of Black women faculty at institutions of higher education (Moses, 1989; Collins, 1991; Gregory, 2001). Although we can see an increase in the number of research projects focused on Black women faculty there still remains a significant gap in the research (Glover, 2006; Foster-Williamson, 2002; Thomas &…

  7. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.


    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  8. An Exploration of Personal Financial Behavior of College-Educated Black Women in the Midwest (United States)

    Pryor, Jacqueline D.


    This qualitative inquire examined the financial behavior of six college educated Black women located in the Midwest. Utilizing Black feminism as a theoretical framework for analysis, a depiction was prepared on the adeptness of the women at managing their finances; the influence of parental teaching on personal finances; and their behavior toward…

  9. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small. (United States)

    Neal, Derek


    Existing work suggests that black-white gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women and further that black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply are unimportant. However, panel data on wages and income sources demonstrate that the modal young black woman who does not engage in market work is a single mother…

  10. Women and Nature: Three Women Talk About Their Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    People often think about women’s special relationship to nature. Some say women tend to have a greater appreciation of nature, but what deserves our attention is women’s intimacy and affection for nature. It is as if nature is a fundamental drive in their lives. Here are three women’s personal experience with nature.

  11. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (United States)

    Lawrence, Zena


    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool database and…

  12. Crack cocaine use and adherence to antiretroviral treatment among HIV-infected black women. (United States)

    Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Lee, Lisa M; Nakashima, Allyn K; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Fleming, Patricia L


    Since the appearance of crack cocaine in the 1980s, unprecedented numbers of women have become addicted. A disproportionate number of female crack users are Black and poor. We analyzed interview data of HIV-infected women > or = 18 years of age reported to 12 health departments between July 1997 and December 2000 to ascertain if Black women reported crack use more than other HIV-infected women and to examine the relationship between crack use and antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among Black women. Of 1655 HIV-infected women, 585 (35%) were nonusers of drugs, 694 (42%) were users of other drugs and 376 (23%) were crack users. Of the 1196 (72%) Black women, 306 (26%) were crack users. We used logistic regression to examine the effect of crack use on adherence to ART, controlling for age and education among Black women. In multivariate analysis, crack users and users of other drugs were less likely than non-users to take their ART medicines exactly as prescribed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24-0.56), OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.36-0.68), respectively. HIV-infected Black women substance users, especially crack cocaine users, may require sustained treatment and counseling to help them reduce substance use and adhere to ART.

  13. Black women's health: the effect of perceived racism and intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Waltermaurer, Eve; Watson, Carole-Ann; McNutt, Louise-Anne


    This study provides preliminary evidence of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and intimate partner violence (IPV) and how these exposures interact to affect the mental and physical health of Black women. The exposures of lifetime perceived racial discrimination and IPV were found to be highly associated. Furthermore, women who reported both exposures showed a notably higher prevalence of anxiety and nonspecific physical health symptoms compared with women who reported either or neither exposure. To appropriately respond to the health needs of Black women, it is essential that women's many stressors be considered simultaneously.

  14. Missing Motherhood: Jordanian Women's Experiences with Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mahmoud Obeidat


    Full Text Available Aim, Background, and Introduction. Bearing and rearing children are an important part of life in nearly all cultures and are a central role for Jordanian Muslim women. Infertility can create anxiety, stress, and depression for couples who are infertile. Women frequently bear the emotional stigma of a couple’s infertility. There is a paucity of literature focusing on Jordanian Muslim women experiencing infertility and failed assistive reproductive technology. Therefore, this study explored these women’s lived experience. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 30 Jordanian Muslim women who experienced failed assistive reproductive technology for infertility. Perceptions of experiences with failed treatment of infertility were documented and analyzed. Results. Major themes were identified: missing out on motherhood and living with infertility, experiencing marital stressors, feeling social pressure, experiencing depression and disappointment, having treatment associated difficulties, appreciating support from family and friends, using coping strategies, and fear of an unknown future. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Clinical Practice. Being infertile significantly influences the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health of Jordanian Muslim women as well as their quality of life. Perceived social support and personal coping strategies were used by study participants to mediate failed attempts to conceive. Designing and implementing culturally appropriate interventions for Muslim women globally who are experiencing infertility are essential.

  15. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image. (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah


    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland. (United States)

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise


    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland.

  17. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980. (United States)

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie


    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.

  18. Cultural beliefs and attitudes of Black and Hispanic college-age women toward exercise. (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Fischetti, Natalie


    The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural knowledge that informs exercise behaviors among Black and Hispanic college-age women. Focus groups were conducted among 26 Black or Hispanic female college students. Questions were based on constructs from social cognitive theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Latinas were found to be more likely to view vigorous exercise as "unfeminine" and cited family responsibilities as barriers. Black women enjoyed the competition and camaraderie of exercise, but felt pressure to conform to White standards of beauty. There appear to be distinct differences in the cultural beliefs that inform exercise behaviors among these women.

  19. Domestic Violence and Poverty: Some Women's Experiences (United States)

    Slabbert, Ilze


    Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…

  20. Emergency Contraception: Knowledge and Experiences of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili


    Full Text Available AIM: Unplanned pregnancy is a major medical, social, and public health problem. For the prevention of unintended pregnancies use of emergency contraception (EC methods is a second chance. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the knowledge and experiences related to emergency contraception of married women older than fifteen years. METHODS: The universe of the study consisted of women older than 15 years. 760 married women were included in the study. Data were collected by questionnaire. Chi-square was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 28.8% of the women had experienced unintended pregnancy, 26.8% of them have heard about EC methods and 9.1% of them had used an EC method. 93.2% of the women had not information about the time of use and 79.1% of them had not information about the efficiency of the methods. EC methods were used more frequently by women who were high school or higher educated, working, living in an urban area, not having a child and women having experienced abortion or an unintended pregnancy (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Rate of using of EC methods were low and level of education, experiencing abortion or unintended pregnancy affected use of the EC methods. It was concluded that level of information about methods of EC was not at the wished level. As a result, giving more intensive and efficient information to women regarding to the risk groups about this subject within family planning programs can be suggested. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 251-258

  1. Homeless women's experiences of service provider encounters. (United States)

    Biederman, Donna J; Nichols, Tracy R


    Service providers are gatekeepers to health-sustaining services and resources, although little is known about service encounters from the perspective of homeless women. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 15 homeless women to better understand their experiences of service encounters. Using a phenomenological method, 160 significant statements were extracted from participant transcripts; more positive than negative interactions were reported. The 10 themes that emerged fall along a dehumanizing/humanizing continuum primarily separated by the power participants experienced in the interaction and the trust they felt in the service provider. Implications for nursing practice and research are offered.

  2. "Bringing home more than a paycheck:" an exploratory analysis of Black lesbians' experiences of stress and coping in the workplace. (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye


    Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination.

  3. On the Horizon: Black Hole Experiment Gallery (United States)

    Steel, Simon J.; Reinfeld, E. L.; Dussault, M. E.; Gould, R. R.


    A new project is underway for engaging the museum-going public in the ongoing story of black hole science and the nature of scientific discovery. Following on the success of the Cosmic Questions traveling exhibition, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory is initiating another museum project aimed at exploring the recent breakthroughs and current mysteries in our scientific understanding of black holes. High-energy astrophysicists and engineers are invited to learn more about this new proposal and to join in the development of a 2,500 square foot traveling exhibition, an associated web site and a supporting suite of educational materials and resources. This poster presents opportunities for scientist involvement, such as brainstorming of scientific priorities, input during the design process, and contributions of materials such as graphics and animations, and interviews with researchers. Following the opening, there will be opportunities for scientist participation in exhibit-related outreach, such as live presentations and content professional development for educators.

  4. The Portrayal of Black Women in the Ads of Popular Magazines. (United States)

    Shepherd, Juanita M.


    Black women are underrepresented and stereotyped in advertising in the popular press. Both their physical characteristics, which run counter to the American ideals of beauty, and their relatively limited buying power are factors in this underrepresentation and misrepresentation. (GC)

  5. Concurrent Validity of Holland's Theory for College-Degreed Black Women. (United States)

    Bingham, Rosie P.; Walsh, W. Bruce


    This study, using the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self-Directed Search, explored the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for employed college-degreed Black women. The findings support the validity of Holland's theory for this population. (Author)

  6. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women (United States)

    Gleason, Michael


    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  7. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women. (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E


    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  8. Family identity: black-white interracial family health experience. (United States)

    Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams


    The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.

  9. The Save our Sisters Project. A social network strategy for reaching rural black women. (United States)

    Eng, E


    Why are older black women screened less for breast cancer? What can be done to narrow the racial gap in mammography screening? These are the questions addressed by the Save Our Sisters (SOS) Project, a pilot demonstration study funded by the National Cancer Institute in a rural county of North Carolina. The target population is 2600 black women 50-74 years of age residing in the county. To assist these women to obtain annual mammograms, SOS has recruited and trained 64 black women who are "natural helpers" to serve as lay health advisors. The lay health advisors reach older black women through their existing kin, friendship, and job networks. Responses from 14 focus group interviews found that when it is a matter of older black women's health concerns, women turn to certain women for social support. Responses revealed factors related to the individual woman and her social network that influence rural black women's seeking breast cancer screening. These results were applied to the Social Change model for designing the training and three network intervention strategies: (1) providing social support (information and referrals, emotional caring, and tangible assistance) through interpersonal counseling with women in their social networks; (2) working as a group, planning and implementing breast cancer control and prevention activities through community-based organizations to which advisors belong (e.g., church groups, civic groups, and social groups); and (3) establishing themselves as a non-profit, community-based SOS Association to sustain project interventions after the funding period. The SOS Community Advisory Group and the advisors developed innovative methods of recruitment, implementation, and follow-up. The community programs they have initiated are: (1) the Adopt-A-Sister Program, which assists black women who cannot afford the cost of a mammogram; (2) a committee on understanding the health care system, which assists women in negotiating regulations and

  10. Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes among Latina, Black, and White Women. (United States)

    Poran, Maya A.


    Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…

  11. Having Their Lives Narrowed Down? The State of Black Women's College Success (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle


    Contradictory trends emerge relative to Black women's college success: They have doubled their enrollment rates in thirty years but their graduation rates remain behind those of White and Asian women. This integrative, interdisciplinary review of both student- and institutional-level factors explores the role of individual characteristics and…

  12. Earning Autonomy While Maintaining Family Ties: Black Women's Reflections on the Transition into College (United States)

    Kennedy, Sheena; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle


    African American women have made great strides in their college enrollment and graduation rates despite social and economic barriers. This study explores Black women's reflections on their college adjustment processes during their sophomore year at a predominantly White university. The findings indicated that the way participants coped with the…

  13. From Mammy to Superwoman: Images that Hinder Black Women's Career Development (United States)

    Reynolds-Dobbs, Wendy; Thomas, Kecia M.; Harrison, Matthew S.


    Black women, like other women of color, find themselves at the intersection of both racism and sexism in the workplace. Due to their unique dual status as racial and gender minorities, they encounter unique and unexplored barriers that inhibit their career as well as leadership development. The goal of this article is to highlight the emerging…

  14. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea


    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  15. Husbands' Marriage Order and the Stability of First and Second Marriages of White and Black Women. (United States)

    Aguirre, B. E.; Parr, W. C.


    Evaluated the effect of previous marital history, particularly the husband's marriage order, on the stability of first and second marriages of White and Black women. The most important predictor of the instability of first marriages of women are the previous divorces of husbands. (Author)

  16. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Crohn's disease and HLA-B27 in black South African women. (United States)

    Buchel, O C; Bosch, F J; Janse van Rensburg, J; Bezuidenhout, E; de Vries, C S; van Zyl, J H; Middlecote, B D; de K Grundling, H; Fevery, J


    Crohn's disease is rare in South African black people and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is also rare in black patients with IBD, from South Africa. The presence of HLA-B27 is generally associated with seronegative spondylo-arthropathies and correlates with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis, recurrent mouth ulcers and uveitis, in patients with IBD. We describe two women with the combination of Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 from our cohort of the last 5 years of three black patients with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 respectively, occur rarely in black South Africans and their concurrent presence in two black women suggests a pathogenetic link of HLA-B27 between Crohn's disease and PSC in this population. Female gender might be an additional determinant in this setting.

  17. Energy-Related Indicators and Breast Cancer Risk among White and Black Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sanderson

    Full Text Available Energy-related indicators, including physical activity, energy intake, body mass index (BMI and adult weight change, have been linked to breast cancer risk. Very few studies of these associations have been conducted among black women, therefore we used the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS to determine whether similar effects were seen in black and white women. The NBHS is a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among women age 25 to 75 years conducted between 2001 and 2010 in and around the Nashville Metropolitan area. Telephone interviews and self-administered food frequency questionnaires were completed with 2,614 incident breast cancer cases ascertained through hospitals and the statewide cancer registry, and 2,306 controls selected using random digit dialing. Among premenopausal white and black women, there was little effect of adult exercise or other energy-related indicators on breast cancer risk, regardless of tumor estrogen receptor (ER status. The beneficial effect of adult exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer appeared to be comparable between white and black women (highest tertile relative to none - white odds ratio [OR] 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-1.0, p for trend=0.05; black OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, p for trend=0.07; however, among black women the reduction was limited to those with ER-positive disease. White and black women should be encouraged to engage in more physical activity to reduce their risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  18. Construction and initial validation of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Black women. (United States)

    Lewis, Jioni A; Neville, Helen A


    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one's race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed's (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.'s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  19. The Black Experience: Recent Resources for Children and Young Adults. (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda


    Recent titles for children and young adults that focus on the black experience are annotated. Included are four picture books; three books of poetry; five reference books (Heritage Library of African Peoples series); two books on music; five biographies; and one history book. (SLD)

  20. Receipt of genetic counseling recommendations among black women at high risk for BRCA mutations. (United States)

    Thompson, Hayley S; Sussner, Katarina; Schwartz, Marc D; Edwards, Tiffany; Forman, Andrea; Jandorf, Lina; Brown, Karen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B


    Low use of BRCA counseling and testing services among black women has been reported in several studies, even though such services may play an important role in reducing racial disparities in breast cancer. Surprisingly, little is known about the extent to which black women at high risk for BRCA mutations actually receive recommendations for BRCA counseling. Thus, a primary goal of the current study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the receipt of physician recommendation for genetic counseling based on the self-report of black women at high risk for BRCA mutations. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 125 black women with a family history suggestive of a hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer syndrome. Participants were asked about their receipt of genetic counseling recommendation or referral. Physician recommendation was reported by over two-thirds of the sample. Multivariate analyses revealed that older age and study recruitment source, specifically community-based recruitment, were significantly and independently associated with lower likelihood of physician recommendation. Findings highlight the need for additional research to identify subgroups of high-risk black women among whom physician recommendation of genetic counseling is low but would benefit from such counseling.

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

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    Tiffany L. Carson


    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  2. Controversies on cosmetic outcomes in black women after breast conservation therapy: hyperperception or hyperpigmentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia M Edwards-Bennett


    Full Text Available Sophia M Edwards-Bennett1, Carol L Brown21Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL; 2Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, USAAbstract: Multiple studies have reported inferior cosmetic outcomes after breast conservation surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy in black women. However, cosmetic analysis scales contemporarily utilized in the field of radiation oncology rely largely on subjective visual and tactile perception. These methods are undeniably fraught with intraobserver and interobserver variability. Herein, we uncover how and why these methods may unwittingly and disparately misjudge cosmetic outcomes in black women, and the clinical ramifications thereof. In addition, we highlight more objective cosmetic outcomes assessment programs that promise to yield more reproducible and unbiased results.Keywords: cosmetic outcomes, black women, breast conservation

  3. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review (United States)

    Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie


    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…

  4. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.


    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  5. "They Are Hiring the White Women but They Won't Hire the Colored Women": Black Women Confront Racism and Sexism in the Richmond Shipyards During World War II



    During World War II, black women migrated largely out of the South to take advantage of the growing defense industries in California. Black women flocked to the shipbuilding industry in Richmond for the great economic opportunities industrial jobs offered. What they found when they arrived and attempted to secure jobs in the shipyards hardly lived up to their dreams and expectations. Black women found themselves faced with dual discrimination due to their race and gender. The shortage of a...

  6. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America. (United States)

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D


    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.

  7. Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht


    Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…

  8. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen


    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  9. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women - Waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, RP; Veenhouwer, JF; Grobbee, DE


    Objective. To examine the association between measures of. obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated. black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without k

  10. Strategies for Racial Identity Development: Narratives of Black and White Women in Interracial Partner Relationships. (United States)

    Hill, Miriam R.; Thomas, Volker


    Reports on exploratory study that used individual interviews and a focus group to investigate how women in Black-White heterosexual relationships describe their racial identity development over the course of the relationship. Participants described a process of restorying constraining narratives of racial identity into empowering racial identities…

  11. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.


    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  12. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH


    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were c

  13. Adaptation of the inflammatory immune response across pregnancy and postpartum in Black and White women. (United States)

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Porter, Kyle; Christian, Lisa M


    Pregnancy is a period of considerable physiological adaption in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, as well as immune function. Understanding of typical changes in inflammatory immune responses during healthy pregnancy is incomplete. In addition, despite considerable racial difference in adverse pregnancy outcomes, data are lacking on potential racial differences in such adaptation. This repeated measures prospective cohort study included 37 Black and 39 White women who provided blood samples during early, mid-, and late pregnancy and 8-10 weeks postpartum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h and supernatants assayed by electrochemiluminescence to quantify interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 production. While no changes were observed in IL-8 production over time, significant increases in IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β production were observed from early to late pregnancy, with subsequent declines approaching early pregnancy values at postpartum (pspregnancy (p=0.002) and marginally lower IL-1β production at postpartum (p=0.054). These data show a clear trajectory of change in the inflammatory immune response across pregnancy and postpartum. In this cohort of generally healthy women, Black and White women exhibited minimal differences in LPS-stimulated cytokine production across the perinatal period. Future prospective studies in Black and White women with healthy versus adverse outcomes (e.g., preeclampsia, preterm birth) would inform our understanding of the potential role of immune dysregulation in pregnant women and in relation to racial disparities in perinatal health.

  14. Four Criteria for Labeling Black Women and Their Community as 'Others' in Toni Morrison's Novels

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    Sri Herminingrum


    Full Text Available The dynamics of Black women's life, from Slavery Era to Women Rights Movement in 1980-s, highlighted by Morrison in The Bluest Eyes, Sula, Song of Solomon, Tar Baby, Beloved, Jazz, Paradise, and Love is cultural expression which is in a non-exclusive territory. By applying interdisciplinary approach - integrating theories and perspectives of some disciplines, including the intersectional zone of the study of gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity - to research these eight novels, it was discovered that there are four points engendering Black women regarded as 'other'. (1 Mother-centered culture practice. (2 Double lives for racism and sexim. (3 The impact of White culture invasion. (4 The struggle for building self dignity.

  15. Biology and Gender: False Theories about Women and Blacks (United States)

    Burnham, Dorothy


    Asserts that it is irrational that the ideas of genetics should be used by some scientists to support the ideologies of racism and sexism. Whether the boundaries of women's "place in society" were erected with the "bricks of theology or the cement of genetic determinism," the intention is that the barriers shall remain strong. (Author/JM)

  16. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women.

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    Nathaniel R Smilowitz

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals.Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC. Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD.IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980-2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity.The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35-54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35-54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35-54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35-54.The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality.

  17. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework. (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B


    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  18. Satellite Data, Women Defectors and Black Markets in North Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Maximilian; Jurowetzki, Roman


    Purpose - This paper investigates the origins of the high numbers of female North Korean defectors arriving in South Korea in the first decade of the 21st century. Design / Methodology/ Approach - This paper uses night-time lights satellite imagery to measure the luminosity emitted by North Koreans......, at the Chinese border. Since luminosity of markets can be assumed as a proxy for market activity, the conclusion can be made that the reason for the high number of North Korean women arriving in South Korea is related to their higher mobility due to their leading role on the North Korean markets. Practical...... Implications - the evinced correlation of North Korean market activity along the Chinese border and the number of arrivals of North Koreans, and especially North Korean women, in South Korea may serve as a primer for further research that either uses the same methodology, i.e. satellite images, or other...

  19. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  20. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori


    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  1. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert


    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  2. Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms, Dietary Fat Intake, Obesity and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Black and White South African Women


    Yael T. Joffe; Lize van der Merwe; Juliet Evans; Malcolm Collins; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H.


    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 −174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat i...

  3. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

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    Pierre-Louis Jessy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  4. Older women and cosmetic tattooing experiences. (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Saunders, Jana C; Roberts, Alden E


    Aging for the older women in the 21st century is more than medical issues. In this study, 62 women (ages 51-81+) obtained a total of 97 permanent makeup procedures. Procurement cues included self-improvement and friend's appearance, consistent with internal, external, and appearance perspectives of body image. Poor eyesight was also of concern (14/23%). Actual benefits included saving makeup time and money (external), while achieving personal goals (internal). This study seems to confirm that for these older women, body image remains important, especially qualities of the face. They did not shed their internal, external, nor appearance concerns associated with body image, as they aged.

  5. Women's experiences in the engineering laboratory in Japan (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako


    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal relationship between men and women is used as a framework. Findings suggest that women generally had a discouraging experience while working with their male peers. Specifically, women participated less and lost confidence by comparing with the men who appeared to be confident and competent.

  6. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

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    Mona Loutfy


    Full Text Available Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora. However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs, non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods: The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results: Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.

  7. The Impact of Prior Heterosexual Experiences on Homosexuality in Women

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    Marissa A. Harrison


    Full Text Available An abundance of unwanted sexual opportunities perpetrated by insensitive, physically and sexually abusive men may be a factor in the expression of homosexuality in some women. In the present study, we examined self-reports of dating histories, sexual experiences, and physical and sexual abuse among lesbians and heterosexual women. Lesbians with prior heterosexual experience reported more severe and more frequent physical abuse by men. Lesbians also reported more instances of forced, unwanted sexual contact perpetrated by men, and this sexual abuse occurred at a significantly earlier age. These data show that adverse experiences with the opposite sex are more common in lesbians than heterosexual women, and therefore negative heterosexual experiences may be a factor in the expression of a same-sex sexual orientation in women. We propose an evolutionary psychological interpretation of this phenomenon based on the cardinally different mating strategies of women and men that have evolved for maximizing the likelihood of reproduction.

  8. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Susara du Plooy


    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  9. Black Feminism: What Women of Color Went Through in Toni Morrison’s Selected Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani


    Full Text Available This article examines two of Toni Morrison’s novels, The Bluest Eye and Beloved in the lights of black feminism, racism, realism and naturalism. It is an attempt to reflect the powerlessness, inhumanity, and pains that women of color went through.  By using a feminist racist and naturalist filter,  a descriptive-analytical method of study and by analyzing the situations, the characters and themes, the status of women of color  in Literature based on Morrison’s selected  novels are revealed and represented. Morrison very well describes how different women characters react and respond differently to the injustice and the inhumanity imposed on them through for example the contrasting nature of Sethe in Beloved and Pauline in The Bluest Eye. She depicts the bravery and courage in Sethe , the self-absorbedness in Pauline and the passiveness in Pecola all of which raise powerful questions regarding black-women’s self-identity, self-concept, and  struggles to achieve freedom as a living being if not a human being: a path which will deepen our understanding of  women issues in general. The researcher believes that a womanish and racist study of the selected novels would contribute to broaden our views of humanity. The researcher selected women of color because she thinks the sorrows of black women, and the pains and toils they went through have always been deeper than those of the white ones. Keywords: Feminism, Naturalism, Racism, Postmodernism, Sexism, Scapegoat

  10. Health care practices influencing health promotion in urban black women in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright


    Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.

  11. A faith-based intervention for cocaine-dependent Black women. (United States)

    Stahler, Gerald J; Kirby, Kimberly C; Kerwin, MaryLouise E


    The purpose of the present study was to obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of a faith-based treatment adjunct for cocaine-using homeless mothers in residential treatment. The Bridges intervention utilizes various Black church communities to provide culturally-relevant group activities and individual mentoring from volunteers. Eighteen women who were recent treatment admissions were randomly assigned to receive Standard Treatment plus Bridges or Standard Treatment with an Attention Control. Participants were assessed at intake and three and six months after intake. Bridges treatment resulted in significantly better treatment retention (75% vs. 20% at six months) than standard residential treatment alone. In addition, Bridges produced superior outcomes at the six month follow-up assessment on a secondary measure of cocaine abstinence. Creating a community of social support through Black churches appears feasible and promising, and may be a cost-effective means of providing longer-term post-treatment support for cocaine-addicted women.

  12. HIV testing experience and risk behavior among sexually active Black young adults: a CBPR-based study using respondent-driven sampling in Durham, North Carolina


    MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Chen, Mario; Jolly,David; Mueller, Monique P.; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T.; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C.


    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18 to 30 year old Black men and women in Durham, North Carolina. Of 508 participants, 173 (74%) men and 236 (86%; p=.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women,...

  13. Unique variation in genetic selection among Black North American women and its potential influence on pregnancy outcome. (United States)

    Jaffe, Shirlee; Normand, Neil; Jayaram, Aswathi; Orfanelli, Theofano; Doulaveris, Georgios; Passos, Mariana; Kanninen, Tomi T; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S


    We hypothesize that variations in the frequency of genetic polymorphisms, reflecting ancestral differences in living conditions and exposure to microorganisms, increase susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcome among present day Black North American women. Striking differences were observed in the frequency of genetic variants between Black and White or Hispanic women in 5 genes (IL1RN, MBL2, PPARA, ATG16L1, CIAS1) associated with inflammation and anti-microbial immunity. The CIAS1 and IL1RN polymorphisms were associated with altered interleukin-1β serum levels; the MBL2 polymorphism resulted in a decreased serum mannose-binding lectin concentration. Gene polymorphisms associated with an alteration in innate immunity were most frequent in Black women. This may reflect an evolutionary selection in response to an ancient environment containing a high multitude of microorganisms, and may increase susceptibility of Black women to infection-associated preterm birth in the current North American environment.

  14. To Address Suffering That the Majority Can't See: Lessons from Black Women's Leadership in the Workplace (United States)

    Dillard, Cynthia B.


    This chapter explores how both historically and in contemporary times of escalating violence against our bodies, minds, and spirits worldwide, Black women lead, love, and live within contexts of suffering.

  15. Divorce: different experiences of men and women. (United States)

    Wadsby, M; Svedin, C G


    Demographic variables, the reasons for the divorce, the changes as a consequence of the divorce and the differences between the sexes were studied among 157 Swedish-speaking spouses through interviews and assessments on visual analogue scales. The results showed that various conflicts were the main reason for the divorce in half of the families. Compared to men, women came significantly more often from broken homes, were the initiators of the divorce in most cases, and felt that the marriage had been dissatisfying for a significantly longer time period. Self-employed men were significantly overrepresented. The changes as a consequence of the divorce were significantly different for men and women in several areas, in most cases in favour of the women.

  16. Perceptions of Mentoring: Examining the Experiences of Women Superintendents (United States)

    Copeland, Scarlett M.; Calhoun, Daniel W.


    This descriptive mixed methods study gathered both quantitative and qualitative data on the mentoring experiences of women superintendents in a Southeastern state. The quantitative participants included 39 women superintendents from this state and the qualitative portion of the study was comprised of eight female superintendents purposefully…

  17. Deaf Women: Educational Experiences and Self-Identity (United States)

    Najarian, Cheryl G.


    Using life history interviews with 10 college educated Deaf women this paper investigates connections between early education and college experience and how they identified as Deaf. The women developed strategies as they managed their impressions while employing Goffman's practices of loyalty, discipline and circumspection. Acknowledging deafness…

  18. Minimizing the Pervasiveness of Women's Personal Experiences of Gender Discrimination (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon


    Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…

  19. Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences and Alcohol Consumption among Women Entering College (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Kolars, Candace L. Kurth; Krahn, Dean D.; Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky; Clark, Ginna; Niehaus, Ashley


    The authors investigated the relationship between precollege nonconsensual sexual experiences (NSEs) and drinking among women entering college. College women (N = 797) at a midwestern university participated. Eighteen percent reported one or more NSE prior to arriving at college. Having a precollege NSE was associated with recent drinking, binge…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Beatriz Arce-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The author brings an analysis about Cuban rural women in development projects due to different historical moments of Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro after 1959. An experience in the western part of the country, Holguin, is showed as an example of improvement of Cuban rural women participation in development local projects with gender perspective.

  1. Danish women's experiences of the rebozo technique during labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Midtgaard, Julie; Ekelin, Maria


    from two different-sized Danish hospitals and identified by applying a purposeful sample strategy. RESULTS: The main theme expressed the women's overall experience with the rebozo: "Joined movements in a harmless effort towards a natural birth". The women experienced that the technique created bodily...

  2. Use of medicinal plants by black women: ethnography study in a low-income community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lima Ferreira Santa Rosa


    Full Text Available Objective To explore beliefs, values and practices related to the use of medicinal plants among low-income black families. Method The research method was ethnography and the participant observation process was done in a low-income community in the peripheral area of the City of São Paulo. Twenty black women were interviewed. Results Two cultural sub-themes, I do use medicines that I learned to make with my mother and with religious practitioners to care for diseases and Home medicines are to treat problems that are not serious, and the cultural theme I do use home medicines to treat simple diseases because I always have them at my disposal, they are free and I don’t need a medical prescription represent beliefs, values, and practices related to the use of medicinal plants among low-income black families. Conclusion The development of such practices, which can hide ethnic and social vulnerability, reveals the resilience of low-income black women in the process of confronting problems during the health-illness process.

  3. [Plummer-Vinson syndrome or related syndrome in 3 black African women]. (United States)

    Aubry, P; Oddes, B; Chazouillères, O; Lebourgeois, M; Delanoue, G; Seurat, P L


    The Plummer-Vinson syndrome or "sideropenic dysphagia" is exceptional among Blacks. One case was recently reported in a female patient from Guadeloupe. This study pertains to three cases observed in Senegalese Black women aged 28, 27, and 41 years. These three women were admitted for a dysphagia, in fact in evidence 10, 4, and 7 years respectively before the diagnosis was made. A clinical anemia was noted twice in addition to mucocutaneous disorders (cases 1 and 2). The laboratory tests showed in all three cases a hypochromic microcytic sideropenic anemia (serum iron levels at 32, 14, and 31 mcg 100 ml respectively). Barium swallow films showed esophageal rings in front of C5-C6 (case 1) of T2-T3 (case 2) and a web of fine mucosal folds in front of C5-C6 (case 3). These films were confirmed cineradiographically by esophagoscopy. The treatment consisted of blood transfusions (cases 1 and 2) and administration of iron by injections and or per os. The endoscopic exams were repeated two or three times. Medical treatment rapidly changed the course of disease for the better. No cause for bleeding was found. A chemical achlorhydria (case 1), a provoked hypoachlorhydria (cases 2 and 3) can be retained as associated factors. In light of the frequency of esophageal membranes in the general population and the incidence of sideropenic anemias among African women, the Plummer-Vinson syndrome should be more often detected in Black Africa.

  4. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework


    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Nicole M Overstreet; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.


    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two gro...

  5. Applying the theory of reasoned action to AIDS risk behavior: condom use among black women. (United States)

    Jemmott, L S; Jemmott, J B


    This study tested hypotheses regarding attitudinal and normative influences on intentions to use condoms, a practice that would reduce women's risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection. Participants were 103 sexually active unmarried black women undergraduates at an inner-city commuter university, in an area with a high rate of reported AIDS cases among women. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, multiple regression analysis on women's anonymous responses to a mailed survey revealed that those who registered more favorable attitudes toward condoms and those who perceived subjective norms more supportive of condom use reported firmer intentions to use condoms in the next three months. Key behavioral beliefs related to attitudes centered on the adverse effects of condom use on sexual enjoyment. Key normative influences were respondents' sexual partners and mothers. However, women's own attitudes were a stronger determinant of intentions to use condoms than were their perceptions of normative influences, particularly among women with above-average AIDS knowledge. The results suggest that the theory of reasoned action provides a potentially useful conceptual framework for interventions to change a key AIDS risk behavior among women.

  6. Hope and Despair: Southern Black Women Educators across Pre- and Post-Civil Rights Cohorts Theorize about Their Activism (United States)

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.


    Framed by theoretical perspectives on Black Feminist Thought, the life course, and the Generation X/Hip-Hop generation, I present findings from a subset of 10 Black women educators in Birmingham, Alabama who participated in a larger life story project. The participants, who came of age professionally across the pre- and post-civil rights movement…

  7. Oral Contraception: A Survey of College Women's Concerns and Experience. (United States)

    Sawyer, Robin G.; Beck, Kenneth H.


    Results are reported from a study which examined attitudes, experiences, and concerns of college women (N=237) regarding oral contraception. Implications of the findings for health educators are discussed. (IAH)

  8. The differential impact of discrimination on health among Black and White women. (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola


    Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed.

  9. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan (United States)

    Watanabe, Mina


    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  10. Exploratory Study of Childbearing Experiences of Women With Asperger Syndrome. (United States)

    Gardner, Marcia; Suplee, Patricia D; Bloch, Joan; Lecks, Karen


    Increasing numbers of girls have been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the past two decades; therefore, more women with ASDs are entering the childbearing phase of their lives. Little is known about the childbearing experiences of women with ASDs. This qualitative study describes the childbearing experiences of eight women with Asperger syndrome. Four major themes emerged: Processing Sensations, Needing to Have Control, Walking in the Dark, and Motherhood on My Own Terms. Clinicians can provide sensitive, individualized care by asking women with Asperger syndrome about their specific sensory experiences, counseling them about coping strategies for sensory intrusions, providing targeted support, and modifying the clinical environment to decrease distressing stimuli.

  11. Racism, poverty, sexism all play a role in epidemic's spread among black women. New resource guide educates on problem. (United States)


    Health care providers and public health officials note the continuing problems of HIV transmission among African American women. They cite sexism, poverty, racism as factors that contribute to its devastating path among black women from the urban areas of New York City to the rural areas of North Carolina.

  12. Women's empowerment and reproductive experiences over the lifecourse. (United States)

    Lee-Rife, Susan M


    This paper examines the complex interplay between reproductive experiences and women's empowerment using rich life history data from a survey in India. Previous research has examined the influence of a rather limited range of reproductive events, focusing on how many children or sons a woman has borne, and has only superficially incorporated the insights of lifecourse theory. Furthermore, it has often conceptualized empowerment as a static characteristic rather than a time-varying one, and has often failed to examine the influence of empowerment resources or previous empowerment levels. I focus on the cumulative influence of less-studied reproductive events-including unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, stillbirths, miscarriages, and abortions-on several dimensions of women's empowerment, including mobility, financial decision-making, experiences of violence, and threats of abandonment or homelessness using data collected from 2435 women in Madhya Pradesh, India during a 2002 household-based probability sample survey. Logistic regression revealed that, notably, few reproductive events have an impact on women's current empowerment, but rather, the extent of empowerment immediately after marriage emerges as a strong determinant of their current empowerment. However, women who have had abortions have higher odds of experiencing domestic violence, and experiencing mistimed pregnancies lowers the odds of violence. Incorporating the potential influence of prior life events and conditions, accounting for the possibility that experiences may accumulate to shape women's current empowerment portrays women's lives more completely and helps to identify key points of intervention.

  13. Associations of Premenopausal Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy With Breast Cancer Among Black and White Women: The Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993-2001. (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney R; Nichols, Hazel B; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A


    Black women experience higher rates of hysterectomy than other women in the United States. Although research indicates that premenopausal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy decreases the risk of breast cancer in black women, it remains unclear how hysterectomy without ovary removal affects risk, whether menopausal hormone therapy use attenuates inverse associations, and whether associations vary by cancer subtype. In the population-based, case-control Carolina Breast Cancer Study of invasive breast cancer in 1,391 black (725 cases, 666 controls) and 1,727 white (939 cases, 788 controls) women in North Carolina (1993-2001), we investigated the associations of premenopausal hysterectomy and oophorectomy with breast cancer risk. Compared with no history of premenopausal surgery, bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy without oophorectomy were associated with lower odds of breast cancer (for bilateral oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77; for hysterectomy without oophorectomy, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.84). Estimates did not vary by race and were similar for hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative cancers. Use of estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy did not attenuate the associations. Premenopausal hysterectomy, even without ovary removal, may reduce the long-term risk of hormone receptor-positive and hormone receptor-negative breast cancers. Varying rates of hysterectomy are a potentially important contributor to differences in breast cancer incidence among racial/ethnic groups.

  14. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Carin


    Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

  15. [Gender power, poverty and contraception: multiparous women's experiences]. (United States)

    Prates, Cibeli de Souza; Abib, Gilda Maria de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa


    Multiparity among poor women is associated to vulnerability as a generating or strengthening factor. This is a qualitative and exploratory research that aims at analyzing experiences of contraception among poor multiparae women, considering the influence of gender on their autonomy in choosing the number of children, the moment of getting pregnant, and the contraception strategies. It also aims at analyzing the mechanisms of resistance used by these women in the search for such autonomy. The data were gathered through focus groups. The content analysis suggests that the high number of children these women give birth to is explained by a reduced autonomy in their use of contraception, arising from poverty and gender inequalities. These women face these difficulties using resistance strategies that result in male power disruptions. This research has brought new elements for understanding the multiparity phenomenon in the context of poverty, and it also contributes towards a critical analysis of actions focused on promoting family planning.

  16. From navigation to negotiation: an examination of the lived experiences of Black gay male alumni of historically Black colleges and universities. (United States)

    Ford, Obie


    This research presents an examination of Black gay men and their lived experiences while undergraduates at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Based on 10 in-depth interviews with self-identified Black gay men, the author presents four emergent themes, which reveal the complex ways in which Black gay men navigate and negotiate the intersections of their multiple identities as related to race, sexual orientation, and gender at HBCUs. The findings of this research have implications for larger discussions of community, Black masculinity, and gay identity in predominantly Black and non-Black contexts.

  17. At Hesitant Doors: The lived experience of women in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina B. da Costa


    Full Text Available This phenomenological investigation aims to explore the lived experience of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM disciplines. As a minority group within a traditionally male-dominated space, women are still underrepresented in the upper echelons of science, even if the number of women in STEM is increasing. The author draws from her experiences as an “undesirable statistic,” a woman who entered college as a STEM student but ended up getting a degree in the social sciences. The author attempts to gain some new insights and understanding of the issue of women in STEM, engaging in two in-depth phenomenological conversations with a female engineering student in a large public university of US Mid-Atlantic region.

  18. Health care experiences among women diagnosed with gestational breast cancer. (United States)

    Hammarberg, K; Sullivan, E; Javid, N; Duncombe, G; Halliday, L; Boyle, F; Saunders, C; Ives, A; Dickinson, J E; Fisher, J


    Gestational breast cancer (GBC) presents many challenges for women and the clinicians who care for them. The aim of this study was to explore the health care experiences of women diagnosed with GBC to inform and improve clinical care of women in this predicament. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 women who had been diagnosed with GBC in the previous 5 years. The overarching themes for perceived quality of care were "communication" and "comprehensive care." "Communication" had two sub themes: "interdisciplinary communication" (the way health professionals from different disciplines communicated with each other about the management of the woman's care) and "patient communication" (how they communicated this to the woman). The "comprehensive care" theme incorporated three sub themes: "the spirit" (psychological care); "the mind" (information provision); and "the body" (management of treatment side effects). Women's own accounts of positive and negative experiences of GBC care provide unique and specific insights which improve understanding of their concerns and needs. The findings can inform advances in quality and efficacy of clinical care; offer guidance for obstetricians, oncologists and allied health professionals about the needs of women diagnosed with GBC and how care can be optimised; and inform the development of resources to assist women and their families.

  19. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging. (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie


    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  20. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries. (United States)

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl


    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities.

  1. Women and the Japanese American Camp Experience: Transforming the Women's Studies Curriculum. (United States)

    Hale, Sondra


    Discusses integrating information on the Japanese-American internment experience of World War II into the women's studies curriculum at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Describes the author's experiences in using ideas and materials from a seminar on the internment issue. (SLD)

  2. Violence against women in the context of war: experiences of Shi'i women and Palestinian refugee women in Lebanon. (United States)

    Holt, Maria


    In times of war, women are likely to experience, in addition to the "normal" violence of peacetime, random cruelties perpetrated by the enemy against all members of the community. During research conducted with Palestinian refugees and Shi'i Muslims in Lebanon, women described various forms of violence and, in this article, I examine violence suffered by women in the context of conflict from three perspectives: victimization, trauma, and resistance. I argue that traumatic events have the effect of obliterating identity, but they can also strengthen the resolve to resist.

  3. Domestic violence against women in Kosovo: a qualitative study of women's experiences. (United States)

    Kelmendi, Kaltrina


    Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence.

  4. Women's experiences of wearing therapeutic footwear in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravey Michael I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic footwear is recommended for those people with severe foot problems associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is known that many do not wear them. Although previous European studies have recommended service and footwear design improvements, it is not known if services have improved or if this footwear meets the personal needs of people with RA. As an earlier study found that this footwear has more impact on women than males, this study explores women's experiences of the process of being provided with it and wearing it. No previous work has compared women's experiences of this footwear in different countries, therefore this study aimed to explore the potential differences between the UK, the Netherlands and Spain. Method Women with RA and experience of wearing therapeutic footwear were purposively recruited. Ten women with RA were interviewed in each of the three countries. An interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA was adopted during data collection and analysis. Conversational style interviews were used to collect the data. Results Six themes were identified: feet being visibly different because of RA; the referring practitioners' approach to the patient; the dispensing practitioners' approach to the patient; the footwear being visible as different to others; footwear influencing social participation; and the women's wishes for improved footwear services. Despite their nationality, these women revealed that therapeutic footwear invokes emotions of sadness, shame and anger and that it is often the final and symbolic marker of the effects of RA on self perception and their changed lives. This results in severe restriction of important activities, particularly those involving social participation. However, where a patient focussed approach was used, particularly by the practitioners in Spain and the Netherlands, the acceptance of this footwear was much more evident and there was less wastage as a

  5. A Black feminist approach to nursing research. (United States)

    Barbee, E L


    Despite the presence of a body of Black feminist literature, the growing body of nursing literature on feminism and the feminist approach to research remains narrowly focused on White feminist concerns. By essentially ignoring the realities of Black women, nursing has reproduced the errors of previous White feminists. This article demonstrates the relevance of the Black feminist approach to nursing by applying it in combination with general feminist research principles and anthropological theory in research concerned with low-income Black women's experiences with dysphoria and depression. The findings of the research suggest that a combination approach more clearly illuminates how context effects dysphoria in poor Black women.

  6. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie


    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it.

  7. Heterogeneity of breast cancer clinical characteristics and outcome in US black women--effect of place of birth. (United States)

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kalwar, Tricia; Sanmugarajah, Jasotha; Shapira, Iuliana; Taioli, Emanuela


    Breast cancer mortality in black women is disproportionately high; reasons for this phenomenon are still unclear. In addition to socioeconomic factors, the biology of the tumor may play a role. We analyzed 1,097 incident invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 in black US women from Long Island and Brooklyn. Thirty-five percent of women had an estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumor, 46% a progesterone receptor (PR) negative tumor. ER, PR negative tumors were diagnosed at an earlier age (55.8 versus 55.3 years), at a later stage (p = 0.06), were larger in size (p = 0.04), and more frequently treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.06) than ER, PR positive tumors. Determinants of shorter survival were: ER, PR negativity (HR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.4), age, and stage at diagnosis (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5-2.7). ER, PR negative breast cancer born outside of the US experienced a significantly worse survival than ER, PR negative women who were born in the US. ER, PR negative tumors in black women born outside the US, mainly in the Caribbean, are biologically more aggressive than the same size and age-matched tumors in black women born in the US. Our study suggests that environmental exposures in the country of origin may impact on host cancer interactions and cancer outcome.

  8. Women's experience of intimate partner violence in Haiti. (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J


    This study examined individual, partner, and community characteristics associated with the occurrence of intimate partner violence among ever-married women of reproductive age, using data from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Separate logistic regressions were analyzed to assess women's risks of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual violence and multiple forms of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of women in the sample experienced some form of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months, with 13 percent having experienced at least two different forms of violence. Significant positive associations with all forms of violence were found for lack of completion of primary school, history of violence exposure in women's families of origin either through witnessing violence between parents while growing up or direct experience of physical violence perpetrated by family members, partner's jealousy, partner's need for control, partner's history of drunkenness, and female-dominated financial decision-making. Significant positive associations were found between men's physical abuse of children at the community level and women's risk of experiencing emotional and physical violence. Neighborhood poverty and male unemployment, number of children living at home, women's attitudinal acceptance of wife beating, and male-dominated financial decision-making were additional risk factors for sexual violence. Women's economic independence was a protective factor for emotional and physical violence, while relationship quality was protective for all forms of violence and multiple victimizations.

  9. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline


    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA.

  10. Antecedents of Young Women's Sexual Risk Taking in Tourist Experiences. (United States)

    Berdychevsky, Liza


    The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.

  11. Mother of a New World? Stereotypical Representations of Black Women in Three Postapocalyptic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima K. Jeffrey


    Full Text Available This essay explores three cinematic representations of Black matriarchs who play prophetic roles in redeeming humanity in the midst of apocalyptic change: Ika (Quest for Fire, Kee (Children of Men, and The Oracle (The Matrix trilogy. Not only do these courageous women resist the politics of domination, rebelling against a dying status quo, but they "give birth" to the leaders needed to rebuild a world in chaos and decay. One film ends with a pregnant woman rubbing her belly as she stands on the precipice of evolutionary change; another positions a mother and newborn adrift, waiting to be found by leaders of a new world order; in the third, a character sacrifices herself to empower resistance fighters with ideas and the means to choose their survival in a postapocalyptic world. Defying the politics of an annihilating patriarchy, these women portend a return to a naturally evolving world. However, despite their powerful influence, they can be understood, problematically, as modern-day reinventions of Black female stereotypes—Ika as Jezebel, Kee as Hagar, the Oracle as Mammy—because they, and the indices for understanding their roles in the community, are wedded to White patriarchs and to their own gendered functions as nurturing or sexual(ized beings.

  12. When Gray Matters More than Black or White: The Schooling Experiences of Black-White Biracial Students (United States)

    Williams, Rhina Maria Fernandes


    Although research is scant, there is a growing interest in the manifestation of the racial and cultural context on the schooling of biracial students. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the schooling experiences of 10 Black-White biracial students. Specifically, the goals of the study were to (a) identify the factors…

  13. Relationship between heterosexual anal sex, injection drug use and HIV infection among black men and women. (United States)

    Risser, J M H; Padgett, P; Wolverton, M; Risser, W L


    US blacks carry a disproportionate risk of heterosexually transmitted HIV. This study aimed to evaluate the association between self-reported heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV. Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we recruited and interviewed 909 blacks from areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in Houston, Texas, and who reported heterosexual sex in the last year. All individuals were tested for HIV. Weighted prevalence values were calculated to account for non-random recruitment associated with RDS. The weighted population prevalence of HIV infection was 2.4% and 2.5% among men and women, respectively. Education, employment status, income and crack cocaine use were not associated with HIV infection. Lifetime injection drug use (odds ratio [OR] 3.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-8.33%) and heterosexual anal intercourse (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.02-5.73%) were associated with HIV infection. Individuals who reported both injection drug use and heterosexual anal intercourse had 6.21 increased odds of HIV (95% CI 2.47-15.61%). Our results suggest that heterosexual anal sex may be a vector for HIV transmission, especially in the context of injection drug use. Prevention strategies directed at curbing the HIV epidemic among black heterosexuals require that we correctly identify the risks so that appropriate interventions can be developed.

  14. Understanding of the life experience of homeless women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Ribeiro Biscotto

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the life experience of homeless women. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with 10 women assisted by a shelter. The analysis of the interviews was based on the theoretical framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and thematic literature. RESULTS The participants face adversities in the street context, with emphasis on the risk of physical and sexual abuse, and seek shelters as a possibility for minimizing difficulties experienced. They hope to leave the streets; however, they see themselves trapped in this social reality, due to the addiction to alcohol and other drugs. CONCLUSION The understanding of the life experience of homeless women shows daily confrontations and reveals the conflict between the desire for leaving and remaining on the streets, given the complexity of the reality that keeps them in this condition.

  15. Creating a “Safe and Supportive Environment:” Mentoring and Professional Development for Recent Black Women Doctoral Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Bertrand Jones


    Full Text Available Formal structures that support doctoral student socialization are limited, while formal programs for Black women doctoral students specifically are even more scarce. The purpose of this research was to examine an early career professional development program for Black women doctoral students and its influence on the mentoring relationships developed by participants. We conducted individual interviews with six Black women who participated in the Research BootCamp®, an early career professional development program, as doctoral students. Two salient features of the program were identified, including its structure and intentional focus on intersectionality. Our findings also indicate that early career professional development provided opportunities for participants to develop sustainable mentoring relationships. The formal structure of the Research BootCamp® facilitated Black women doctoral students in developing mentoring networks through continued engagement with senior scholars and peers, provided social support, created outlets for professional development, built research capacity, and contributed to Black women’s overall socialization to the academy.

  16. E\\"otv\\"os Experiments with Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Asvathaman, Asha; Hui, Lam


    By examining the locations of central black holes in two elliptical galaxies, M32 and M87, we derive constraints on the violation of the strong equivalence principle for purely gravitational objects, i.e. black holes, of less than eight percent, $|\\eta_N|<0.08$ from M32. The constraints from M87 are substantially weaker but could improve dramatically with better astrometry.

  17. Experiences of childbirth in Natal Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Brookes


    Full Text Available Through fifteen in-depth case studies of primipara, Natal Indian women’s experiences of childbirth have been described Common problems were identified, including lack of a family support person throughout labour, lithotomy position for delivery, episiotomies and their sequelae, breast-feeding difficulties and lack of professional support in the early puerperium at home. Preparation for common medical interventions in labour, breast-feeding and parenting appeared inadequate. Pertinent sociocultural aspects have been identified. These include continuing family support and culturally prescribed behaviour pertaining most importantly to the early puerperium and affecting the maternal-neonatal dyad. In the early adaptation to motherhood informants continued their role as daughter or daughter-in-law and would only actively continue their role as wife later or at the end of the puerperium. These traditional patterns of behaviour persist despite marked changes in educational level, language spoken and employment status. In the light of this research and founded on scientific evidence, a number of recommendations are made and areas for further research are identified

  18. Qualitative Inequality: Experiences of Women in Ethiopian Higher Education (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise


    This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…

  19. Women's Experiences in the Engineering Laboratory in Japan (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako


    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal…

  20. (Re)Defining Departure: Exploring Black Professors' Experiences with and Responses to Racism and Racial Climate (United States)

    Griffin, Kimberly A.; Pifer, Meghan J.; Humphrey, Jordan R.; Hazelwood, Ashley M.


    A growing body of research demonstrates that many college environments present challenges for black professors, particularly as they face institutional and personal racism. While scholars have linked these experiences to their attrition, this qualitative study explores black professors' larger range of responses to difficult professional…

  1. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women. (United States)

    Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H


    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.

  2. Late-term abortion for fetal anomaly: Vietnamese women's experiences. (United States)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Tran, Minh Hang; Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Nguyen, Thi Thúy Hanh


    Screening for fetal anomalies in the second trimester of pregnancy is increasingly becoming a part of antenatal care. As a consequence, more pregnant women are learning that the child they are expecting has an anomaly. This article derives from anthropological research in a hospital in Hanoi, Viet Nam, from 2003-2006 that investigated 30 women's experiences after a fetal anomaly was detected. We followed the women from the ultrasound scan through the process of deciding whether to continue their pregnancy or have an abortion. This article focuses on the 17 women who had an abortion and the support they received from health care providers. Their loss of a wanted pregnancy led to feelings of guilt, pain and sadness and fear and uncertainty about being able to have a healthy baby in the future. Two years after the abortion, most of the women had come to terms with the loss, especially those who had had a healthy child since. We recommend that the Vietnamese health care system seeks to ensure that women receive counselling and support that answers their questions about what happened and why. To do this, health care staff need additional training in fetal medicine and counselling skills and sensitisation to the social and emotional challenges that detection of fetal anomalies and second trimester abortion bring to antenatal care.

  3. Surviving breast cancer: women's experiences with their changed bodies. (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Burke, Shaunna


    In this study, we explored women's experiences with their bodies following treatment for breast cancer. Eleven women who had been treated for the disease (M(time since treatment)=4.45 years) were interviewed. Data were collected and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith et al., 2009). Four main themes emerged from the data: changing visibly and invisibly; experiencing intense thoughts and emotions; meaning of the body: a vehicle of health, well-being, and social expression; and managing and dealing with physical changes. Overall, the women experienced various physical changes that shaped, mostly in a negative way, their perceptions, thoughts, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs about their bodies. The women described attempts to make positive lifestyle behavior choices (e.g., diet, participate in physical activity), and used other strategies (e.g., wigs, make-up, clothes) to manage their appearances and restore positive body-related experiences. Based on these findings, it is important to be cognizant of women's body image concerns following breast cancer given the poignant and lasting effects they can have on their psychosocial and emotional well-being.

  4. Women, Poverty, and Educational Success: A Critical Exploration of Low-Income Women's Experience in Community Colleges (United States)

    Barry, Kate R.


    The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…

  5. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Valizadeh


    Full Text Available "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to Calcium-D supplements (2 tablets per day all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o. or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. "nResults: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. "nConclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.

  6. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila


    From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  7. A Thought Experiment to Resolve the Black Hole Information Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Felde, Kay zum


    It has been proposed \\cite{almheiri2012,almheiri2013} that the black hole information paradox is been solved by assuming so-called firewalls, which destroy incoming observers. They violate $CPT$ invariance are thus violate quantum mechanics. Hawking \\cite{hawking2014} objected these proposals, proposing recently that information is not lost behind the event horizon. Thus the horizon is becoming apparent. The forming of the black hole becomes chaotic. It will be like weather forecast on earth, unitarity is conserved. Vaz showed justified that view and evaluated that no singularity is coming into existence, while building a black hole \\cite{vaz2014}. We propose two mechanisms how the black hole information paradox can be resolved. This incorporates also the so-called firewall paradox. The first process is that the black hole shrinks by a first order transition, where the entropy is discontinuous, and which results in a latent heat. The first order transition is a transition from a spacetime which is build of cu...

  8. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.


    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  9. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull


    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  10. Expanding the Psychological Wellness Threshold for Black College Women: An Examination of the Claiming Your Connections Intervention (United States)

    Jones, Lani V.; Ahn, Suran; Chan, Keith T.


    Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of a culturally congruent group intervention program entitled ''Claiming Your Connections (CYC)'' aimed at reducing stress and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black college women. Method: Using an experimental design, a total of 96…

  11. Lean mass appears to be more strongly associated with bone health than fat mass in urban black South African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotunde, O.F.; Kruger, H.S.; Wright, H.H.; Havemann-Nel, L.; Kruger, Ina; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Kruger, A.; Tieland, M.


    Objectives: To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. Design: A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary

  12. Fabulachia: Urban, Black Female Experiences and Higher Education in Appalachia (United States)

    Troutman, Stephanie


    This article draws on focus group conversations with black female college students attending a small, liberal arts institution in Kentucky. Based primarily on group interviews and discussions, as well as observations and analysis--a theoretical domain (referred to throughout the article as "Fabulachia") emerged as a site-specific outcome…

  13. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago. (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L; Warnecke, R; Buis, M


    Survey data indicate that young Black female smokers living in public housing are heavier smokers and have weaker motivation to quit, health beliefs and social environment less conducive to cessation, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit than other young Black female smokers in metropolitan Chicago. Compared with White women, the latter, other Black women smoke fewer cigarettes daily and have a stronger desire to quit and more concern about health reasons for quitting, but have a weaker belief in the risk of lung cancer from smoking, greater concern about quitting difficulties, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit. Low education, not race, is associated with higher smoking prevalence and less social pressure to quit or support for quitting.

  14. Connecting with Communities of Learners and Speakers: Integrative Ideals, Experiences, and Motivations of Successful Black Second Language Learners (United States)

    Anya, Uju


    Utilizing data from the language learning autobiographies of six black college students, this pilot study investigates the experiences and motivations of blacks who do and do not achieve advanced-level second language acquisition (SLA). It hypothesizes that successful black second language (L2) learners (1) have positive formative experiences of…

  15. Understanding Women's Differing Experiences of Distress after Colposcopy: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Mairead


    Women who have an abnormal cervical cytology test may be referred for a colposcopy. Accumulating evidence suggests some women may experience distress after colposcopy. This exploratory study examined women\\'s differing experiences of post-colposcopy distress with the aim of identifying factors that are predictive of, or protective against, distress.

  16. Women's lived experiences of learning to live with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna A; Abrahamsen, Bo; Konradsen, Hanne


    to live with osteoporosis. Our objective was to explore what characterizes women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first year after diagnosis, when patients are prescribed anti-osteoporotic treatment, without having experienced an osteoporotic fracture. METHODS: Forty-two narrative...... qualitative interviews were conducted with fifteen recently diagnosed Danish women. A longitudinal design was chosen since this allows an investigation of the perspective over time. The interviews were conducted in the period of March 2011 to August 2012. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological......-hermeneutic interpretation of text. No medical records were available for the researchers. All information with the exception of T-score was self-reported. RESULTS: The participants' experiences could be described in two key themes developed through the analysis: 1) "To become influenced by the medical treatment" which...

  17. [Bodily experiences and sexuality in obese women. A clinical study]. (United States)

    Beni, D; Nosari, I; Galeazzi, L; Maglio, M L; Lepore, G; Nava, M; Pagani, G


    The aim of the study was to investigate the centralized impulsive dynamics of 21 obese women in comparison with 21 normal ones, with particular reference to the unconscious bodily experiences and sexuality. Two tests comparing areas of unconscious experience and body organs and classes of feelings, and emotional self-assessment questionnaire and a colour choice test, were given. The statistical analysis of the results showed significant differences between the two groups studied, the obese women being immature, dependent, hypersensitive and introverted with great oral requirements and low autonomous control and with some confusion between food and affection. Their sexuality is pervaded with great aggressiveness and has little connection with its maternal and relational function. Finally, some psychotherapeutic strategies are mentioned.

  18. 'Not enough people to look after you': an exploration of women's experiences of childbirth in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, Patricia


    Women\\'s experiences of childbirth have far reaching implications for their health and that of their babies. This paper describes an exploration of women\\'s experiences of childbirth in the Republic of Ireland.

  19. Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination--a study of Black, Latino, and White low-income women and men workers in the United States. (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Bates, Lisa M; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M


    This study documents the prevalence of workplace abuse, sexual harassment at work, and lifetime experiences of racial discrimination among the United for Health cohort of 1,202 predominantly black, Latino, and white women and men low-income union workers in the Greater Boston area. Overall, 85 percent of the cohort reported exposure to at least one of these three social hazards; exposure to all three reached 20 to 30 percent among black women and women and men in racial/ethnic groups other than white, black, or Latino. Workplace abuse in the past year, reported by slightly more than half the workers, was most frequently reported by the white men (69%). Sexual harassment at work in the past year was reported by 26 percent of the women and 22 percent of the men, with values of 20 percent or more in all racial/ ethnic-gender groups other than Latinas and white men. High exposure to racial discrimination was reported by 37 percent of the workers of color, compared with 10 percent of the white workers, with black workers reporting the greatest exposure (44%). Together, these findings imply that the lived--and combined-experiences of class, race, and gender inequities and their attendant assaults on human dignity are highly germane to analyses of workers' health.

  20. General experiences + race + racism = Work lives of Black faculty in postsecondary science education (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.


    Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.

  1. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review. (United States)

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C


    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  2. Use of a web-based questionnaire in the Black Women's Health Study. (United States)

    Russell, Cordelia W; Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn


    The authors assessed the utility and cost-effectiveness of using a World Wide Web-based questionnaire in a large prospective cohort study, the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). In 1995, 59,000 African-American women were recruited into the BWHS through a paper questionnaire. Follow-up paper questionnaires have been mailed every 2 years since then. During the 2003, 2005, and 2007 questionnaire cycles, participants were given the option of completing a Web-based questionnaire. The cost of developing and processing a returned paper questionnaire was 4 times that of a returned Web questionnaire, primarily because of return postage costs and greater processing time for paper questionnaires. The proportion of respondents who completed a Web questionnaire doubled from 2003 to 2007, from 10.1% to 19.9%, but the characteristics of those completing the Web questionnaire remained the same. Web response was greatest at younger ages (20.9% of those aged questionnaires were filled out more completely than paper questionnaires, regardless of the sensitivity of a question. The use of a Web questionnaire in the BWHS resulted in cost savings and more complete responses. Although there are advantages to using a Web questionnaire, the use of multiple means of soliciting questionnaire responses is still needed.


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    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav


    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  4. Direitos sexuais, direitos reprodutivos: concepções de mulheres negras e brancas sobre liberdade Sexual and reproductive rights: the conceptions of black and white women regarding freedom

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    Raquel Souzas


    is of a qualitative nature and approaches reproductive issues of women based on an outline of gender and race. Thirty-six women were interviewed, self-classified as white and black (black and mulatto, in conjugal union for, at least, one year. The discourses were analyzed articulating race/ethnicity and different levels of schooling. Overall, one can observe that the life conditions and reproductive health of black and white women differ due to socio-economic and cultural conditions. Comparatively, the discourses of the two groups can be interpreted in two characteristic levels, those of private life and public space: while white women focus on the delay of women in the equitable exercise of freedom compared to men, but highlight achievements in the world of labor, black women view freedom as concerning the possibility of a democratic experience of conjugality. The differences in discourses as to freedom can be related as much to the issue of racism in Brazil suffered daily by black women throughout history, as to the specifically cultural issues of the two groups that were studied.

  5. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

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    Esmat Mehrabi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  6. What do women gain from volunteering? The experience of lay Arab and Jewish women volunteers in the Women for Women's Health programme in Israel. (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shtarkshall, Ronny; Laufer, Neri; Verbov, Gina; Bar-El, Hagar; Abu-Gosh, Nasreen; Mor-Yosef, Shlomo


    Ambiguous feelings regarding women engaging in formal volunteering and concerns about their exploitation might explain the dearth of studies regarding the volunteering benefits specifically experienced by low socioeconomic status women. The current study examined benefits of volunteering among women participating in Women for Women's Health (WWH), a lay health volunteers (LHV) programme implemented in Jewish and Arab communities in Israel, and aiming at empowering such women to become active volunteers and promote health activities in their communities. Two years after the introduction of WWH in each community, all 45 Jewish and 25 Arab volunteers were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the focus group discussions. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 25/42 Jewish volunteers in 2003 and four with 20/25 Arab volunteers in 2005. The other volunteers could not attend the scheduled meetings or became inactive for personal reasons. Four benefit categories were identified in both ethnic groups: 1. Personal benefits of having increased knowledge, feeling self-satisfaction, mastering new skills and performing healthy behaviours; 2. Group-social benefits of social support and sense of cohesion; 3. Purposive benefits of achieving the WWH mission and goals; 4. Sociopolitical benefits of learning to accept the other and experiencing increased solidarity. However, the relatively less privileged Arab volunteers enumerated more benefits within the personal and purposive categories. They also identified the unique sociocultural category of improving women's status in the community by creating a legitimate space for women by public sphere involvement, traditionally solely a male domain. We conclude that volunteering in community-based health promotion programmes can be an empowering experience for lay women without being exploitative. Positive volunteering benefits will be even more discernable among underprivileged women who enjoy fewer opportunities in

  7. Dalit women life-narratives and literature as experience

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    Cielo Griselda Festino


    Full Text Available Jacques Ranciere (2011, p. 53 observes that rather than create works of art, contemporary artists want to get out of the museum “[...] and induce alterations in the space of everyday life, generating new forms of relations”. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the power of literature to turn experience into life-narratives that will eventually give rise to a differentiated kind of social experience (SMITH; WATSON, 2010, through the reading of the novel Sangati (1994 by the Indian Dalit writer Bama. In order to make visible the experiences of the Dalit women, Bama rewrites the genre autobiography, as understood in the West, since in her narrative the voice of the community imposes itself upon the voice of the individual. In so doing, she changes the quality and style of canonical narratives considered as literary so that they will accommodate the stories of silenced people articulated through a differentiated kind of aesthetics.

  8. Mortalidade materna de mulheres negras no Brasil Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil

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    Alaerte Leandro Martins


    Full Text Available A cada minuto uma mulher morre no mundo em decorrência do trabalho de parto ou complicações da gravidez. A mortalidade materna configura-se no Brasil como um problema de saúde pública, atingindo desigualmente as várias regiões brasileiras. É consenso que a mulheres acometidas pela morte materna são as de menor renda e escolaridade. Juntamente com as questões sócio-econômicas, emerge a questão racial. A análise é difícil de ser realizada em virtude da dificuldade de entendimento da classificação raça/cor que muitas vezes impede o registro dessa informação. Vários Comitês de Morte Materna estão utilizando o quesito cor e revisando seus dados. Este artigo analisa vários relatórios de Comitês de Morte Materna, mostrando que o risco de mortalidade materna é maior entre as mulheres negras, o que inclui as pretas e pardas, configurando-se em importante expressão de desigualdade social. Ao final, apresenta-se uma revisão de recomendações para diminuição da Mortalidade Materna, enfatizando ações políticas e técnicas que possam contribuir para tal.Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown, thus representing a major expression of social inequality

  9. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

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    F.C. Madzimbalale


    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.


    Goedecke, Julia H.; Evans, Juliet; Keswell, Dheshnie; Stimson, Roland H.; Livingstone, Dawn E.W.; Hayes, Philip; Adams, Kevin; Dave, Joel A.; Victor, Hendriena; Levitt, Naomi S.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Walker, Brian R.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Olsson, Tommy; Kahn, Steven E.


    Context Black South African women are less insulin sensitive than their white counterparts, despite less central and greater peripheral fat deposition. We hypothesized that this paradox may be explained, in part, by differences in the adipogenic capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Objective To measure adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots, and determine their relationships with insulin sensitivity (SI) in South African women. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 14 normal-weight (BMI 30 kg/m2) black and 13 obese white premenopausal South African women. Main outcomes SI (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) in relation to expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots. Results With increasing BMI, black women had less visceral fat (P=0.03) and more abdominal (P=0.017) and gynoid (P=0.041) SAT but had lower SI (P<0.01) than white women. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was proportionately lower with obesity in black, but not white women in the gluteal and deep SAT depots (P<0.05 for ethnicity x BMI effect). In black women only, the expression of these genes correlated positively with SI (all P<0.05), independently of age and fat mass. Conclusions Obese black women have reduced SAT expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes compared to white women, which associates with reduced SI. These findings suggest that obesity in black women impairs SAT adipogenesis and storage, potentially leading to insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21956425

  11. Why do you shop there? A mixed methods study mapping household food shopping patterns onto weekly routines of black women


    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy; Holaday, Rio; Kumanyika, Shiriki


    Background The effectiveness of initiatives to increase healthy food access may be affected by where people decide to shop. People with poor neighborhood access to large grocery stores develop shopping patterns that require traveling to other areas, and some people who do have neighborhood access also travel elsewhere for food shopping. We sought to gain an understanding of household food shopping patterns in a sample of Black women in terms of where they shopped and why. Methods All food sho...

  12. Perceived racism and vascular reactivity in black college women: moderating effects of seeking social support. (United States)

    Clark, Rodney


    This quasi-experimental study explored the association of perceived racism and seeking social support to vascular reactivity in a college sample of 110 Black women. Perceived racism and seeking social support were assessed via self-report, and vascular reactivity was measured before and during a standardized speaking task. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was positively related to changes in systolic blood pressure. These analyses also indicated that seeking social support moderated the relationship between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes. This interaction effect persisted after controlling for several potential confounders. Follow-up regression analyses showed that perceived racism was positively associated with reactivity among participants who were low in seeking social support. A significant relationship was not observed between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes among participants who were high in seeking social support. Perceived racism and seeking social support were not significantly associated with changes in diastolic blood pressure. These findings highlight the importance of examining psychosocial factors that may mitigate the hypothesized relationship between perceived racism and reactivity.

  13. College Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence: Exploring Mental Health Issues (United States)

    Christopher, F. Scott; Kisler, Tiffani S.


    College women's experiences with sexual and physical violence are so common that campus interventions are needed. To help guide these, we surveyed 339 college women and asked: (a) are college women's experiences with different types of relational violence interrelated; and (b) are there patterns of association between types of violence and mental…

  14. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with the metabolic syndrome in black South African women. (United States)

    Sotunde, Olusola Funmilayo; Kruger, Herculina Salome; Wright, Hattie H; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Mels, Carina M C; Ravyse, Chrisna; Pieters, Marlien


    The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association of serum 25(OH)D or PTH with metabolic syndrome (MetS) while controlling for adiposity in black women. Using a cross-sectional study design, 209 urban black women aged ≥ 43 years from the North West Province, South Africa, were included. Multiple regression models were used to explore the relationship between 25(OH)D or PTH and body composition. To explore the association between 25(OH)D or PTH and MetS, a separate variable was created including at least 3 of the MetS criteria, but excluding elevated waist circumference as a diagnostic criterion in a logistic regression model. The majority of the women (69.9%) were overweight or obese and 65.5% of the women had excessive adiposity using the age-specific cut-off points for body fat percentage. All body composition variables were positively associated with PTH, whereas body mass index and waist circumference, but not body fat percentage, had negative associations with 25(OH)D also after adjusting for confounders. Before and after adjusting for age, body fat, habitual physical activity, tobacco use, season of data collection, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, neither 25(OH)D nor PTH showed significant associations with MetS. Although PTH was positively associated and 25(OH)D was negatively associated with adiposity in black women, there was no association between either 25(OH)D or PTH and MetS in this study population, nor did adiposity influence these relationships.

  15. Brief Group Psychotherpay for Women after Divorce: Planning a Focused Experience. (United States)

    Coche, Judith; Goldman, Janice


    A model for a brief, focused group psychotherapy experience for women, led by women therapists, is suggested as an effective means to ease the transition from marriage and to allow a redefinition of the self as a single individual. (Author)

  16. Community College Trustees in Michigan: The Experiences of Four Women (United States)

    Newman, Denise Dawn


    Community colleges continue to employ more women and provide education to more women than men, and although women are becoming more prevalent than they used to be in many executive roles at these institutions, there are still fewer women who are board of trustee members than men. Trustees at community colleges in leadership positions in these…

  17. Population-level correlates of preterm delivery among black and white women in the U.S.

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    Suzan L Carmichael

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. METHODS: We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values. Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.

  18. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

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    Jo Aldridge


    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  19. Research Sources and Microforms in Black Studies: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B. Marks


    Analyzes 93 reference works and 23 microform collections concerning the Black American experience in 13 subject areas of the social sciences (anthropology, biography, race relations and civil rights, the Black church, communication studies, economics, education, dance, genealogy, Black history, sports, women's studies, and literature and language)…

  20. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada. (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C


    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States.

  1. Coming from the Heart: Black Students on Literacy Experiences. (United States)

    Richardson, Elaine

    A study focused attention on the academic personas acquired by two AAVE-oriented (African American Vernacular English) beginning writers as reflected by their speech in informal settings and the style they employed in academic tasks. The study explores the degree to which literacy experiences (home and school) affect students' lives. It was guided…

  2. Race and Racism in the Experiences of Black Male Resident Assistants at Predominantly White Universities (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Davis, Ryan J.; Jones, David E.; McGowan, Brian L.; Ingram, Ted N.; Platt, C. Spencer


    Recent research has shown a nexus between active out-of-class engagement and the accrual of unique race/gender-specific educational outcomes among Black male undergraduates. Yet, rarely explored are the racialized experiences of those who become actively engaged and assume leadership positions on campuses where racial diversity is low, hence the…

  3. Black Feminism: An Integrated Review of Literature. (United States)

    Love, Katie L


    This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity.

  4. Racial Microaggressions: The Schooling Experiences of Black Middle-Class Males in Arizona’s Secondary Schools

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    Quaylan Allen


    Full Text Available The literature on Black education has often neglected significant analysis of life in schools and the experience of racism among Black middle-class students in general and Black middle-class males specifically. Moreover, the achievement gap between this population and their White counterparts in many cases is greater than the gap that exists among working-class Blacks and Whites. This study begins to document the aforementioned by illuminating the racial microaggressions experienced by Black middle-class males while in school and how their families’ usage of social and cultural capital deflect the potential negative outcomes of school racism.

  5. Pathways to success in science: A phenomenological study, examining the life experiences of African-American women in higher education (United States)

    Giscombe, Claudette Leanora

    This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and

  6. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.


    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  7. The Social Construction of Race and Gender: Black Women Officers in the U.S. Navy (United States)


    loud rap music , that’s fine. You don’t have to do it to prove that you’re Black. They’re not going to rip up your Black card.(DA. 12B) One Black female...marriagc but that they were no better off than when they were teenagers . This is the red flag the mothers are trying to wave in front of their

  8. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women. (United States)

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie


    This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.

  9. A Comparison of the Sexual Learning Experiences of Visually Impaired and Sighted Women. (United States)

    Welbourne, Ann; And Others


    A comparison of the sexual learning experiences of 39 visually impaired women with a matched group of sighted women revealed that visually impaired women had significantly lower sex knowledge scores and obtained their information at a somewhat later age. (Author/CL)

  10. Living in the Gray: Women's Experiences of Missing the Marital Transition (United States)

    Sharp, Elizabeth A.; Ganong, Lawrence


    Given the increasing trend of women delaying (or forgoing) marriage and the minimal scholarship on women's reflections of their life course trajectories, the purpose of the study was to examine the lived experience of White, college-educated women aged 28-34 years who have not married. Using descriptive phenomenology methodology, 32 interviews…

  11. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy


    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  12. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.


    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  13. Surviving Women's Learning Experiences from the Tsunami in Aceh (United States)

    Teng, Yan Fang Jane; Yusof, Qismullah


    This study investigated surviving women's learning experiences from the 2004 tsunami in Aceh. Women were the majority of casualties and the most vulnerable after the tsunami. Almost a decade later, we used a conceptual framework of experiential learning, critical reflection, and transformative learning to understand the surviving women's…

  14. Experiences of coexisting with chronic illnesses among elderly women in communities. (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Tsao, Lee-Ing; Huang, Min-His


    Based on the increasing numbers of women in the aging population, the health of women will become critical in the future. Our purpose in this study was to analyze the experiences of elderly women with chronic illness. Twelve elderly Taiwanese women participated in in-depth interviews. "Using my own power out of the disease shackle" was the core category referring to elderly women who coexist with chronic illnesses. Elderly women should be provided with individually targeted plans for disease management and health maintenance to enable them to participate in health care decisions at the onset of chronic diseases.

  15. Wedding Pedagogy and Politics: Oral Histories of Black Women Teachers and the Struggle against Apartheid. (United States)

    Wieder, Alan


    Presents the stories of three black, female, activist teachers who combined teaching and politics to help fight South Africa's apartheid regime. They promoted alternative curricula and worked against apartheid oppression. Each believed in the struggle and, although they believed in nonracialism, they identified as black, a political construction…

  16. Racial/ethnic disparities in history of incarceration, experiences of victimization, and associated health indicators among transgender women in the U.S. (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae


    Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.

  17. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  18. Pride Against Prejudice: Work in the Lives of Older Black and Young Puerto Rican Workers. Final Report. (United States)

    Morse, Dean

    Selected and edited from approximately 100 lengthy open-ended interviews with older black men and women and young Puerto Rican men and women in New York City and Newark, New Jersey, transcripts are presented in which 12 of the older black men and women and six of the young Puerto Ricans describe their work experiences and how they were related to…

  19. Emotional Intelligence of Women Who Experience Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna


    Violence in family constitutes serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in emotional functioning of victim and, secondarily, also perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine emotional intelligence of women experiencing domestic violence. INTE, i.e. Polish version of "Assessing Emotional Scale" by Schutte, was used to study two groups of women. Study (criterion) group included 40 women aged 23-47 years (mean age 35.28) using assistance of Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. Reference (control) group was well-matched in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and consisted of 140 women not experiencing domestic violence. Study women experiencing domestic violence have significantly lower scores on all INTE indicators (general score, Factor I and Factor II). Women not experiencing domestic violence achieved significantly higher scores on Factor I than on Factor II. In this group all INTE components (general score, Factor I, Factor II) are positively correlated, whereas in group of women experiencing domestic violence there is no significant correlation between Factor I and Factor II and coefficients are lower. Emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence is lower than emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. Their abilities and skills making up emotional intelligence are also less developed. The internal structure of emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence differs from emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. It seems advisable to consider emotional intelligence in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  20. A critical black feminist ethnography of treatment for women with co-occurring disorders in the psychiatric hospital. (United States)

    Creswell, Laryssa M


    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of women diagnosed with co-occurring disorders on the treatments provided by a state psychiatric hospital so that appropriate recommendations for changes in treatment may be made. Critical ethnography was used and the data was viewed through the lens of intersectionality from the black feminist perspective. Seven women hospitalized in one psychiatric hospital in the Mid-Atlantic region participated in the study. Data was collected via semistructured interviews, Consumer Perceptions of Care survey, researcher's observations, and archival data. Three major findings emerged: (1) Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) was identified as a beneficial treatment, (2) a lack of trust in the system and people in the system, and (3) housing or homelessness was perceived as a barrier. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended clinicians, administrators, and policy makers listen closely to individuals receiving treatment to make decisions regarding treatment accordingly.

  1. Short-term effects of polyphenol-rich black tea on blood pressure in men and women. (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo; Fuchs, Dagmar; Croft, Kevin D


    There is increasing evidence that black tea polyphenols contribute to vascular health. We have recently shown that regular ingestion of polyphenol-rich black tea over 6 months results in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, the time course of these effects remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to determine if short-term effects of tea on blood pressure could contribute to longer-term benefits of regular tea consumption on blood pressure. Men and women (n = 111) were recruited to a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind parallel designed trial. During a 4-week run-in, all participants consumed 3 cups per day of black tea. Participants then consumed 3 cups over 1 day of either powdered black tea solids containing 429 mg of polyphenols (tea), or a control product matched in flavour and caffeine content but containing no tea solids. The 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate was measured at the end of the 4-week run-in (baseline) and again during the 24 h intervention period. The 24 h day-time and night-time blood pressures were not significantly different between tea and control (P > 0.05). Baseline-adjusted net effects on mean 24 h ambulatory blood pressure for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were -0.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.5 to 1.0), P = 0.72, and 0.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.0 to 0.9), P = 0.95, respectively. Heart rate was significantly lower for tea compared to control during the night-time and early-morning periods (-2.0 (95% CI, -3.2, -0.8) bpm, and -1.9 (95% CI, -3.7, -0.2) bpm, respectively; P black tea on blood pressure are unlikely to be due to short-term changes.

  2. Lesbian and bisexual women's experiences of sexuality-based discrimination and their appearance concerns


    Huxley, Caroline J.


    Lesbian and bisexual women frequently experience sexuality-based discrimination, which is often based on others' judgements about their appearance. This short article aims to explore whether there is a relationship between lesbian and bisexual women's experiences of sexuality-based discrimination and their satisfaction with the way that they look. Findings from an online survey suggest that discrimination is negatively related to appearance satisfaction for lesbian women, but not for bisexual...

  3. Black applicants' reactions to affirmative action plans: effects of plan content and previous experience with discrimination. (United States)

    Slaughter, Jerel E; Sinar, Evan F; Bachiochi, Peter D


    This study examined the effects of plan content and previous experience with discrimination on Black respondents' reactions to affirmative action plans. Black engineering students (N = 1,173) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 plans implemented by a hypothetical organization and were asked to provide ratings of perceived fairness and intention to pursue a position at the organization. There were significant effects of plan content on perceived faimess and job pursuit intentions. Perceived fairness mediated the effect of content on intentions. Furthermore, previous experience with discrimination interacted with content to affect intentions. Individuals who had experienced relatively more discrimination in the workplace reported stronger intentions to pursue a position at an organization whose plan specified special training opportunities for minorities.

  4. Differing patterns of overweight and obesity among black men and women in Cape Town: the CRIBSA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available To ascertain the prevalence and determinants of overweight/obesity in the 25-74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the changes between 1990 and 2008/09.In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Data were collected by questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analyses. Gender-specific linear regression models evaluated the associations with overweight/obesity.There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86% in 2008/09. Mean body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were 23.7 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI: 23.1-24.2 and 84.2 cm (95% CI: 82.8-85.6 in men, and 33.0 kg/m2 (95% CI: 32.3-33.7 and 96.8 cm (95% CI: 95.5-98.1 in women. Prevalence of BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and raised WC were 28.9% (95% CI: 24.1-34.3 and 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9-24.9 in men, and 82.8% (95% CI: 79.3-85.9 and 86.0% (95% CI: 82.9-88.6 in women. Among 25-64-year-olds, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 decreased between 1990 (37.3%, 95% CI: 31.7-43.1 and 2008/09 (27.7%, 95% CI: 22.7-33.4 in men but increased from 72.7% (95% CI: 67.6-77.2 to 82.6% (95% CI: 78.8-85.8 in women. In the regression models for men and women, higher BMI was directly associated with increasing age, wealth, hypertension and diabetes but inversely related to daily smoking. Also significantly associated with rising BMI were raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and being employed compared to unemployed in men, and having >7 years of education in women.Overweight/obesity, particularly in urban black women, requires urgent action because of the associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and their serious consequences.

  5. Academic Women in the U.K.: Mainstreaming Our Experiences and Networking for Action. (United States)

    Mavin, Sharon; Bryans, Patricia


    Presents the experiences of British women academics of management, noting collective strategies to move on, mainstream their experiences, and challenge existing boundaries of management and organizations. Identifies patterns of inequalities in management and management education. Outlines women's stories as an emancipatory consciousness raising…

  6. Women's Experiences With Flap Failure After Autologous Breast Reconstruction: A Qualitative Analysis. (United States)

    Higgins, Kristen S; Gillis, Joshua; Williams, Jason G; LeBlanc, Martin; Bezuhly, Michael; Chorney, Jill M


    Clinical experience suggests that flap failure after autologous breast reconstruction can be a devastating experience for women. Previous research has examined women's experiences with autologous breast reconstruction with and without complications, and patients' experiences with suboptimal outcomes from other medical procedures. The authors aimed to examine the psychosocial experience of flap failure from the patient's perspective. Seven women who had experienced unilateral flap failure after deep inferior epigastric perforator flap surgery in the past 12 years completed semistructured interviews about their breast cancer treatments, their experiences with flap failure, the impact of flap failure on their lives, and the coping strategies they used. Interpretive phenomenological analysis, a type of qualitative analysis that provides an in-depth account of participant's experiences and their meanings, was used to analyze the interview data. From these data, patient-derived recommendations were developed for surgeons caring for women who have experienced flap failure. Three main themes (6 subthemes) emerged: coming to terms with flap failure (coping with emotions, body dissatisfaction); making meaning of flap failure experience (questioning, relationship with surgeon); and care providers acknowledging the emotional experience of flap failure (experience of being treated "mechanically," suggestions for improvement). In conclusion, flap failure in breast reconstruction is an emotionally difficult experience for women. Although there are similarities to other populations of patients experiencing suboptimal outcomes from medical procedures, there are also unique aspects of the flap failure experience. A better understanding of women's experiences with flap failure will assist in providing more appropriate supports.

  7. Black middle managers' experience of affirmative action in a media company



    Affirmative action remains one of the most highly sensitive, emotive and hotly debated subjects in South Africa. It is nevertheless an important legislated strategy that needs to be thoroughly researched and constructively debated to bring change to the lives of previously disadvantaged individuals. The present study describes how five black middle managers experience affirmative action at a media company. Emphasis was placed on how these managers define affirmative action, whether they feel...

  8. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.


    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  9. Gender and Equity: Experience of the Working Women's Forum, India. (United States)

    Azad, Nandini


    Illustrates how poor women were able to move out of poverty and dehumanization through a process of mobilization and organization. The process was catalyzed by the intervention of a non-governmental organization, the Working Women's Forum. Outlines the Forum's program of economic, social, and technological empowerment. (MJP)

  10. An Approach to Ethics Utilizing the Experience of Women. (United States)

    Ferguson, Marianne


    Delineates a generalized difference between men and women in approaches to ethics. Reiterates Carol Gilligan's theory that men generally believe in a morality of rights whereas women subscribe to a morality of relationships. Discusses other aspects of this dichotomy including ideas of good, evil, and sin. (MJP)

  11. Shared Leadership Experiences of Women Community College Presidents (United States)

    Campbell, Suzanne; Mueller, Kathryn; Souza, Jane M.


    According to the American Council on Education study "The American College President: 2007 Edition" only 23% of college presidencies were held by women as late as 2006. While the number of female executive officers has doubled since 1986, progress in achieving the presidency has been undeniably slow for women. To better understand a woman's road…

  12. Taiwanese Married Women's Lived Experience of Zen Meditation (United States)

    Kang, Hsin-Ru


    Due to the impact of Confucianism on Taiwanese society, Taiwanese married women play multiple family roles including being a daughter-in-law, wife, mother, and working woman. Having to play multiple roles usually brings Taiwanese married women burdens and stress. It is reported that Zen meditation improves people's physical and mental wellbeing.…

  13. Resisting violence against women in Central America: the experience of a feminist collective. (United States)

    Profitt, N J


    This article explores how violence against women was resisted in Central America. It was observed that women in Central America have "developed a feminist critical consciousness of the negative responses to their personal and political transformation." This consciousness served as a bridge between various women groups and movements such as the Women's Collective Pancha Carrasco and other mutual support groups. This paper made clear that any organization addressing the issue of violence against women should take place in a context of a political framework where women can make sense of their resistance. Feminist social work practice should therefore be aimed towards a deeper understanding of the social and political dimensions of women. With this, feminist workers shall be able to create a feminist politics that is rooted on the collectivity of the experiences of women and resistance to abuse and violence.

  14. Deportation Experiences of Women Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D.


    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico. PMID:21917563

  15. Deportation experiences of women who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D


    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico.

  16. "Will I ever be a true woman?" An exploration of the experiences of women with vestibulodynia. (United States)

    Groven, Karen Synne; Råheim, Målfrid; Håkonsen, Elin; Haugstad, Gro Killi


    In this study we explored the experiences of Norwegian women living with vestibulodynia, a chronic disease affecting young women all over the world. Using a phenomenological approach we conducted in-depth interviews with eight women who had struggled with vestibulodynia for several years. Our findings reveal that their efforts to fulfill their partners' sexual desires as well as their own represented an encompassing ongoing process. In addition, we highlight the interrelationship between the intensity of vulvar pain experienced by individual women and decisions women make about prioritizing their own sexual needs.

  17. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme. (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin


    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk.

  18. Promoting women entrepreneurs in Lebanon: the experience of UNIFEM. (United States)

    Husseini, R


    The work of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in West Asia began in 1994 with a regional program to strengthen women-owned enterprises in Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. In Lebanon, a survey of 100 women entrepreneurs, as well as nontraditional credit programs and banks, was conducted prior to program design. A second survey assessed micro-entrepreneurs' demands for financial and other services. Since gender analysis was a new concept in Lebanon, UNIFEM organized a gender awareness workshop for representatives of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the banking sector, followed by a strategic planning workshop. The surveys confirmed that women were concentrated mainly in the less profitable economic sectors, producing handicrafts and food products or running small service or trading companies. Women were less likely than men to get bank loans or to register their businesses. Women's problems accessing credit--the main obstacle limiting their ability to develop their businesses--were compounded by their lack of information, male-oriented collateral requirements, and discriminatory banking regulations. UNIFEM decided to channel counseling of women entrepreneurs on legal matters, marketing, and credit sources through the Ministry of Social Affairs. It is expected that knowledge of gender-related employment issues and the use of gender-specific analysis will become integral to the Ministry's program as a result.

  19. Trans women and Michfest: An ethnophenomenology of attendees' experiences. (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Kozlowski, Christine; Shattell, Mona; Todd, Nathan R


    The rise of queer and transgender studies has greatly contributed to feminist and lesbian understandings of sex, gender, and sexuality and also has resulted in rifts, tensions, and border wars. One such tension is around the inclusion of trans women in women-only space, such as the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival (Michfest). In this ethnophenomenological study, we interviewed and surveyed 43 cisgender women who attended Michfest in 2013. Participants had a variety of perspectives on trans inclusion and on the dialogue surrounding it, and these paralleled intersections, frictions, and tensions between feminism, queer theory, and transgender studies.

  20. Notes from the back room: gender, power, and (In)visibility in women's experiences of masturbation. (United States)

    Fahs, Breanne; Frank, Elena


    While popular culture has more frequently depicted women's masturbation in recent years, scholarly attention to women's own meaning making about masturbation remains largely absent. Existing research that emphasizes women's masturbation frequency, health correlates, masturbation as a factor in couples therapy, and masturbation as a substitute for partnered sexual behaviors have dominated the research, largely neglecting social identity correlates and women's subjectivities about masturbation. This study drew upon qualitative interviews with 20 women (mean age = 34, SD = 13.35) from diverse backgrounds to illuminate five themes in women's experiences with masturbation: (a) assumptions that most women self-penetrate during masturbation even when primarily using clitoral stimulation; (b) masturbation as sexual labor; (c) masturbation as a threat to male dominance; (d) masturbation as routine tension release; and (e) masturbation as a source of joy, fun, and pleasure. Because women revealed such a diverse set of experiences, we explored the advantages and disadvantages of the invisibility of women's masturbation. As a result of the internalization of stereotypically masculine scripts about sexuality-including an imagined penetrative focus, goal-oriented drive toward orgasm, sex as labor, and masturbation as nonemotional-women's masturbation experiences, regardless of sexual orientation, revealed the power imbalances often present in partnered (hetero)sexual dynamics.

  1. Opening the Black Box: Women's Empowerment and Innovative Secondary Education in Honduras (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin


    This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…

  2. Women's Career Development: The Lived Experience of Canadian University Women Presidents (United States)

    Quinlan, Colleen


    As of July 2011, the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) reported 17 of Canada's 95 universities were led by women. While this represents considerable change from 1974, when Pauline Jewett became the first woman president to lead a co-educational Canadian university, progress for women climbing the educational leadership…

  3. Formation of Cosmic String network from black holes: Implications from liquid crystal experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, A M


    We present observation of large, expanding string loops forming around a heated wire tip embedded in a nematic liquid crystal sample. Loops expand due to convective stretching. This observation leads to a new insight into phenomena which could occur in the early universe. We show that local heating of plasma in the early universe by evaporating primordial black holes can lead to formation of large, expanding cosmic string loops, just as observed in the liquid crystal experiment. Intercommutation of string loops from neighboring black holes can lead to percolation, thereby forming an infinite string network. This is remarkable as such an infinite string network is thought to arise only when the entire universe undergoes phase transition.

  4. Promoting Optimal Native Outcomes (PONO) by Understanding Women's Stress Experiences (United States)

    Duke, Lisa; Goebert, Deborah; Ampolos, Lauren; Camacho, Casandra; Shanahan, Natasha; Hishinuma, Earl; Kaholokula, J. Keawe


    A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18–35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key themes from the focus group data to generate questions that target concerns raised by participants. These were corroborated by additional focus groups. Thirty-six women participated in the study. Seven stressor themes emerged: intimate relationships—limited partner assistance, gender stereotype; family and home life—feeling like an outsider, lack of respect; childrearing—quality and affordable childcare, conflicting discipline styles; time for self—never-ending duties, being too tired to relax; neighborhood environment—safety concerns, not feeling part of the community; workplace—workload and transportation obstacles; and finances—making ends meet and arguments about money. Women in this study articulated a broad range of daily stressors. Sociocultural factors leading to feeling like an outsider within their own family, intercultural marriage conflicts, and perceptions of community discrimination are not included in other published scales. Our focus group investigations thus provided critical knowledge for developing a community-relevant scale. This is a prerequisite for developing and testing innovative intervention strategies designed to reduce stress in this population. We believe that reducing stress is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of stressors on physical and mental health among women in this rural community. PMID:27995538

  5. Promoting Optimal Native Outcomes (PONO) by Understanding Women's Stress Experiences. (United States)

    Okihiro, May; Duke, Lisa; Goebert, Deborah; Ampolos, Lauren; Camacho, Casandra; Shanahan, Natasha; Hishinuma, Earl; Kaholokula, J Keawe


    A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18-35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key themes from the focus group data to generate questions that target concerns raised by participants. These were corroborated by additional focus groups. Thirty-six women participated in the study. Seven stressor themes emerged: intimate relationships-limited partner assistance, gender stereotype; family and home life-feeling like an outsider, lack of respect; childrearing-quality and affordable childcare, conflicting discipline styles; time for self-never-ending duties, being too tired to relax; neighborhood environment-safety concerns, not feeling part of the community; workplace-workload and transportation obstacles; and finances-making ends meet and arguments about money. Women in this study articulated a broad range of daily stressors. Sociocultural factors leading to feeling like an outsider within their own family, intercultural marriage conflicts, and perceptions of community discrimination are not included in other published scales. Our focus group investigations thus provided critical knowledge for developing a community-relevant scale. This is a prerequisite for developing and testing innovative intervention strategies designed to reduce stress in this population. We believe that reducing stress is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of stressors on physical and mental health among women in this rural community.

  6. How and what rural women know: experiences in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Martius-von Harder, G


    A study was conducted in Bangladesh to determine the contribution rural women make to the economic conditions in their country. The study was necessary because little research has been done into the working patterns of rural women and their economic contributions have often been overlooked because they do not produce actual income. This article is a discussion of the problems faced by field researchers in countries like Bangladesh. Certain types of questions cannot be asked of women in rural Muslim areas, e.g., questions dealing with acreage of property, supply and demand in the marketplace, and irrigated land. Secluded women would have no way of knowing answers to these questions. Observation had to be used for a study of time-use, since the women do not live by the clock. Questions on women's ages can never be asked. Questions to females had to concern themselves with activities of females and questions to males, with activities of males. Rural people in Bangladesh do not seem to think in terms of exact measurement; this must be taken into account when analyzing answers. Researchers have to adapt their interviewing to the socioeconomic conditions of the area.

  7. The birthing experiences of rural Aboriginal women in context: implications for nursing. (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Varcoe, Colleen; Calam, Betty


    It has been established that the birthing experiences and outcomes of rural women are shaped by poverty, isolation, limited economic opportunities, and diminishing maternity services. We lack research into how these dynamics are compounded by intersecting forms of oppression faced by Aboriginal women, to impact on their birthing experiences and outcomes. The findings of this study of rural Aboriginal maternity care in 4 communities in British Columbia show how diminishing local birthing choices and women's struggles to exert power, choice, and control are influenced by centuries of colonization. The research questions focus on rural Aboriginal women's experiences of birthing and maternity care in this neocolonial context and their desire for supportive birthing environments. A community-based participatory and ethnographic design was employed. Individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were the primary data sources. Although the women's experiences in each community were shaped by distinct histories and traditions, economics, politics, and geographies, the impacts of colonization and medical paternalism and the struggle for control of women's bodies during birth intersect, placing additional stress on women. The implications for nurses of accounting for the intersecting dynamics that shape Aboriginal women's experiences and birth outcomes are discussed.

  8. The impact of the level of literacy on access to information by urban black women in Zimbabwe: the case of Kariba town



    This report lays out the findings of an investigation undertaken to determine the impact of literacy on access to information by urban black women in Zimbabwe. Kariba, a small town located at the Zimbabwe’s North-eastern boarder with Zambia was used as the study site. Document study supported by interviews and observations were used as methods of data collection. Key informants and selected women were respondents for the self administered interviews and focus group discussions. Represent...

  9. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry


    Phiona Martin; Antoni Barnard


    Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations.Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths.Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more fe...

  10. Difference Does Not Mean Deficient: The Cultural and Higher Education Experiences of Appalachian Women (United States)

    Welch, Andrea D.


    The link between women in poverty and higher education is important because it reflects inequities in access and resources that exist in the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian region. Two main questions guided the research of women in poverty in regard to postsecondary access and attainment. First, what are the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian-born…

  11. Spirituality as a Lived Experience: Exploring the Essence of Spirituality for Women in Late Life (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K.


    Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over…

  12. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action (United States)

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell


    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  13. Age and Second Language Acquisition in Adulthood: The Learning Experiences and Perceptions of Women Immigrants. (United States)

    Wang, Wendy


    Presents 30 adult Chinese immigrant women's accounts of their experiences with, and perceptions of, learning English as a Second Language in Canada. Results from interviews with two age groups of adult women reveal the complexity of adult second-language acquisition, which involves factors pertaining both to the learners, and to the social context…

  14. Women's experiences of sexual harassment: some implications for their fear of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne


    The purpose of this study war to look for causes of women's fear of crime. It was hypothesised that experiences of sexual harassment, which usually are not serious but could occur relatively often, can lead women to be fearful and restrict themselves to their homes. A distinction was made between vi

  15. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun


    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  16. Do infertile women and their partners have equal experiences with fertility care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huppelschoten, A.G.; Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Bommel, P.F. van; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To study the possible differences between women and their partners' experiences with patient-centered fertility care. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Thirty-two Dutch fertility clinics. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,620 infertile women and their partners, under treatment in one of th

  17. Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in Sudan. (United States)


    The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in Sudan, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.

  18. Preferential treatment of women and psychological reactance theory: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vrugt


    187 male academic staff members read a low- or high-threat (freedom restricting) description of measures for the preferential treatment of women in job selection for academic staff functions. The high-threat condition evoked more psychological reactance than the low-threat condition. Ss with high se

  19. Nomadic Turns: Epistemology, Experience, and Women University Band Directors (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth


    Music education occupations in the U.S. have been segregated by gender and race for decades. While women are most likely to teach young students in classroom settings, men are most likely to teach older students in all settings, but most particularly in wind/percussion ensembles. Despite gender-affirmative employment practices, men constitute a…

  20. Church Attendance as a Predictor of Number of Sexual Health Topics Discussed Among High-Risk HIV-Negative Black Women. (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A


    Research suggests that sexual health communication is associated with safer sex practices. In this study, we examined the relationship between church attendance and sexual health topics discussed with both friends and sexual partners among a sample of urban Black women. Participants were 434 HIV-negative Black women who were at high risk for contracting HIV through heterosexual sex. They were recruited from Baltimore, Maryland using a network-based sampling approach. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews. Fifty-four percent of the participants attended church once a month or more (regular attendees). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that regular church attendance among high-risk HIV-negative Black women was a significant predictor of the number of sexual health topics discussed with both friends (AOR = 1.85, p = .003) and sexual partners (AOR = 1.68, p = .014). Future efforts to reduce HIV incidence among high-risk Black women may benefit from partnerships with churches that equip faith leaders and congregants with the tools to discuss sexual health topics with both their sexual partners and friends.

  1. "I am nothing": experiences of loss among women suffering from severe birth injuries in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mselle Lilian T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG, the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This

  2. Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs. (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C


    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use.

  3. Women's and healthcare professionals' preferences for prenatal testing: a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, L.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Faas, B.H.W.; Feenstra, I.; Groenewoud, H.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Bekker, M.N.


    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates pregnant women's and healthcare professionals' preferences regarding specific prenatal screening and diagnostic test characteristics. METHOD: A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess preferences for prenatal tests that differed in seven attributes: minimal

  4. BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment): Preliminary results on Antarctic black cryptoendolithic fungi in ground based experiments


    C. Pacelli; Selbmann, L.; S. Onofri; de Vera, J.P.P.


    The main goal for astrobiologists is to find traces of present or past life in extraterrestrial environment or in meteorites. Biomolecules, such as lipids, pigments or polysaccharides, may be useful to establish the presence of extant or extinct life (Simoneit, B et al., 1998). BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment) aims to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The experiment has just been la...

  5. Experiences of women living with fibromyalgia: an exploratory study of their information needs and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Daraz


    Full Text Available Women living with fibromyalgia consistently report experiencing a change in their lives in terms of stigma, inability to work, isolation from society and difficulty in managing their illness. Lack of understanding and knowledge about their disease has been linked to compromised health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of information use of women living with fibromyalgia. A descriptive phenomenology was used for this study. Participants were identified through gatekeepers for women living with fibromyalgia across Canada. Data was collected via taperecorded interviews. The study was conducted in Canada between 2009-2010. Ten women (18 or older participated in the research. Three essential themes emerged from the analysis that were vital to understand the unique experiences of women: i understanding the need for information required to live with fibromyalgia, ii struggling to meet vital and fundamental information needs and iii transforming themselves to improve health and quality of life. Women living with fibromyalgia have vital and specific information needs and struggle to find and access appropriate information. They use diverse strategies in overcoming some of the challenges in accessing information. Most significantly, women draw on the information to make changes and to begin to coordinate their lives to live with fibromyalgia. For women living with fibromyalgia, the phenomenon of information use has a significant effect on their lives. Healthcare providers are perceived as an important source of information and need to be better informed, more prepared and dedicated to assisting women with their information needs.

  6. Health care providers' perspective of the gender influences on immigrant women's mental health care experiences. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Joyce M; Donnelly, Tamphd T


    The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and post migration stress disorders. Evidence has shown that immigrant women experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. Informed by the post-colonial feminist perspective, this qualitative exploratory study was conducted with seven health care providers who provide mental health services to immigrant women. In-depth interviews were used to obtain information about immigrant women's mental health care experiences. The primary goal was to explore how contextual factors intersect with race, gender, and class to influence the ways in which immigrant women seek help and to increase awareness and understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the mental health care needs of the immigrant women. The study's results reveal that (a) immigrant women face many difficulties accessing mental health care due to insufficient language skills, unfamiliarity/unawareness of services, and low socioeconomic status; (b) participants identified structural barriers and gender roles as barriers to accessing the available mental health services; (c) the health care relationship between health care providers and women had profound effects on whether or not immigrant women seek help for mental health problems.

  7. Incest and Women of Color: A Study of Experiences and Disclosure. (United States)

    Tyagi, Smita Vir


    Experiences relating to community, culture, and family need to be acknowledged as salient aspects of the experiences of women of color who are also incest survivors. Twelve participants were interviewed regarding their experiences related to disclosure and coping. Participants described value systems, community mindedness, social attitudes,…

  8. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study


    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie


    Background Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these experiences, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal p...

  9. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie


    Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these experiences......, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal period....

  10. How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences? (United States)

    O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T


    The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD.

  11. Health care experiences of HIV-infected women with fertility desires in Mexico: a qualitative study. (United States)

    van Dijk, Marieke G; Wilson, Kate S; Silva, Martha; Contreras, Xipatl; Fukuda, H Dawn; García, Sandra G


    Increased access to antiretroviral therapy has enabled Mexican HIV-infected women to resume healthy sexual and reproductive lives and reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. However, little information is available on the experiences of HIV-infected women desiring children. In this qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 31 HIV-infected women in four Mexican cities. The findings indicated that most of the women were given limited information on their pregnancy options. With some exceptions, the women felt they were denied the option to have (or to have more) children and advised to undergo tubal ligations or abortions. The findings of this study indicate that ongoing efforts are needed to promote the reproductive rights of HIV-infected women in Mexico and to ensure that they receive options aligned with their fertility desires.

  12. Why Women Join the Military: Enlistment Decisions and Postdeployment Experiences of Service Members and Veterans. (United States)

    Mankowski, Mariann; Tower, Leslie E; Brandt, Cynthia A; Mattocks, Kristin


    Over the past three decades women's enlistment has continued to increase. In an effort to help social workers better meet the needs of female veterans, this study sought to learn women's enlistment motivations and postdeployment experiences. This qualitative study was nested within the Women Veterans Cohort Study. Using a semistructured interview guide, authors interviewed 18 enlisted female service members and veterans. The themes that emerged, based on grounded theory, included not only opportunity and calling, but also outcomes. Unexpectedly, enlistment resulted in a professional military career, with over half of the participants making the military their life's work. Further study on the motivation, retention, and the reintegration needs of women postmilitary is necessary, particularly with military recruitment targets of 20 percent women by the year 2020 and the increased awareness of the military as a potentially hostile work environment for women.

  13. Residue cover effects on soil erosion and the infiltration in black soil under simulated rainfall experiments (United States)

    Xin, Yan; Xie, Yun; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Hongyuan; Ren, Xiaoyu


    Residue cover is widely used in the Northeastern China Black Soil Region for soil erosion control due to the large annual production of crop residues. Quantitative evaluations of the residue cover effects on preventing soil loss and on the cumulative infiltration amount are thus desirable. Herein, rainfall simulation experiments were conducted using simulators and soil flumes to study the effects of residue cover on soil erosion and infiltration under various rainfall events. Laboratory experiments were designed utilizing five levels of residue cover (bare, 15%, 35%, 55% and 75%), four rainfall intensities (30 mm/h, 60 mm/h, 90 mm/h and 120 mm/h), two soil moistures (dry and wet run) and a fixed slope of 7%. The results indicated that residue cover strongly affects runoff, soil loss and infiltration. Equations for predicting the soil loss ratio and infiltration ratio (the ratio of residue cover soil to bare soil) are herein proposed based on nonlinear curve regression. An empirical approach presented as the infiltration ratios multiplied Philip's equation derived from bare soil was established for estimating the cumulative infiltration amounts under various residue covers. The equation was demonstrated to be suitable for infiltration prediction for black soil by the root mean square error value and 1:1 line method. In addition, the relationship between the residue cover and biomass of corn residues was provided in order to enable accurate measurement of the residue coverage. These derived equations could be used for soil erosion and infiltration prediction under no-till and residue cover management conditions in the black soil region.

  14. An Examination of Black Science Teacher Educators' Experiences with Multicultural Education, Equity, and Social Justice (United States)

    Atwater, Mary M.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Carlton Parsons, Eileen R.


    Diversity, multicultural education, equity, and social justice are dominant themes in cultural studies (Hall in Cultural dialogues in cultural studies. Routledge, New York, pp 261-274, 1996; Wallace 1994). Zeichner (Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 737-759, 2005) called for research studies of teacher educators because little research exists on teacher educators since the late 1980s. Thomson et al. (2001) identified essential elements needed in order for critical multiculturalism to be infused in teacher education programs. However, little is known about the commitment and experiences of science teacher educators infusing multicultural education, equity, and social justice into science teacher education programs. This paper examines twenty (20) Black science teacher educators' teaching experiences as a result of their Blackness and the inclusion of multicultural education, equity, and social justice in their teaching. This qualitative case study of 20 Black science teacher educators found that some of them have attempted and stopped due to student evaluations and the need to gain promotion and tenure. Other participants were able to integrate diversity, multicultural education, equity and social justice in their courses because their colleagues were supportive. Still others continue to struggle with this infusion without the support of their colleagues, and others have stopped The investigators suggest that if science teacher educators are going to prepare science teachers for the twenty first century, then teacher candidates must be challenged to grapple with racial, ethnic, cultural, instructional, and curricular issues and what that must mean to teach science to US students in rural, urban, and suburban school contexts.

  15. Experiences of women with bulimia nervosa in a mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. (United States)

    Proulx, Kathryn


    The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater self-awareness, acceptance, and compassion. They reported less emotional distress and improved abilities to manage stress. This treatment may help the 40% of women who do not improve with current therapies and might be useful to prevent symptoms in younger women.

  16. Women's experiences of participation in a feminist group for women with complex mental health issues. (United States)

    Clements Eaton, Emma Catherine; Cox, Rachel


    A sample of women (n = 5) participated in a qualitative service evaluation concerning an open-ended, therapeutic group for women only. Data analysis followed suggestions by Halcomb and Davidson (2006). Main themes derived from the evaluation included: 'Groups are different from individual work', 'Belonging/ not being alone', 'Performance in the group', 'The group as a safety net', 'Life improvements and hope for the future' and 'The extent of emotional despair felt'. In this paper, several sub-themes within the main themes and relevant theories and implications for theory and service provision are discussed.

  17. Disclosure, discrimination and desire: experiences of Black and South Asian gay men in Britain. (United States)

    McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan


    Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research.

  18. Amniocentesis in HIV pregnant women: 16 years of experience. (United States)

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina


    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population.

  19. Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females. (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.


    Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…

  20. Assessment of women's perspectives and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care using Q-methodology. (United States)

    Shabila, N P; Ahmed, H M; Yasin, M Y


    To complement standard measures of maternity care outcomes, an assessment of women's satisfaction with care is needed. The aim of this study was to elicit the perspectives and experiences of Iraqi women about childbirth and postnatal care services. The study participants were a sample of 37 women of different educational and socioeconomic status who had given birth during the previous 6 months. Q-methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Three distinct viewpoints and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care services were identified: a general perception of poor childbirth and postnatal care with lack of appropriate interpersonal care and support; a high satisfaction and positive experience with childbirth and postnatal care services among the confident and well-supported women; and poor satisfaction with the childbirth and postnatal care services in terms of meeting traditional cultural practices. Needs assessment around providers' skills and attitudes and the wider sociocultural environment of childbirth and postnatal care is necessary in Iraq.

  1. Women's experience of postpartum psychotic episodes--analyses of narratives from the internet. (United States)

    Engqvist, Inger; Ferszt, Ginette; Ahlin, Arne; Nilsson, Kerstin


    The aim of this study was to gain an insight into women's experiences of postpartum psychosis (PPP). Ten narratives taken from the Internet, which met the definition of PPP, were analyzed using cross-case and content analyses. The results revealed women's experience of having unfulfilled dreams, being enveloped by darkness, having disabling symptoms, and being abandoned. The women's experiences point to the importance of further education of nurses and doctors concerning PPP. It is vital not only for those working in psychiatric health care but also midwives and nurses who are working in maternity wards and child welfare centers. This would facilitate early recognition of signs and symptoms of the disorder, which, in turn, would make early treatment possible, thus supporting recovery. Furthermore, greater knowledge could contribute to providing more effective and compassionate care for these women.

  2. Healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Smith, Riley


    Understanding the health needs and experiences of South African lesbian and bisexual women is imperative for implementing effective and inclusive public health strategies. Such understanding, however, is limited due to the exclusion of these women from most existing research on healthcare access in the region. This paper bridges that gap by investigating the healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town. Data were gathered from 22 interviews with self-identified lesbian and bisexual community members and university students in the Cape Town area. Interviews explored obstacles women face in accessing affirming services, different experiences with public and private healthcare, fear of stigma/discrimination, availability of relevant sexual health information and suggestions to improve existing programmes. Findings suggest that South African lesbians and bisexual women may have a range of both positive and negative experiences in public and private health services, that they use protective strategies when 'coming out' and that they find that sexual health information pertinent to them is largely unavailable. These discussions contribute to a more inclusive understanding of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare and other services and help to inform providers, thereby enabling them to deliver more meaningful care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in South Africa.

  3. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women (United States)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  4. Leadership Development Experiences of Women Leaders in State-Owned Enterprises in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Dewi


    Full Text Available Similar to many other countries in the world, Indonesia has been experiencing the increasing num- ber of women workers participation both in formal and informal sectors. While in formal sector the number of female employees has increased from around 10 millions in 2008 to nearly 13 mil- lions in 2011; in informal sector the figure is even doubled: more than 28 millions in 2008 to more than 30 millions in 2011. However to date, women workers are associated with low-skilled, low- wage workers who work in precarious working environment. Women are seldom hold managerial position both in public and private sector. The proportion of women in Indonesia who sit in the board of directors is only 6% from the entire women workers. Thus, this research aims to explore their development experience along the way. In order to obtain initial information, interviews with nine women managers from State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs were conducted. SOEs were chosen for convenience reason. The research indicates the low ratio number of women in SOEs management team although there is an optimism that the number would increase. Key point discovered in this research is that development experience is mainly done by the participants own initiatives whereas organisational supports are found very limited. This findings will be further explored and confirmed by involving more women managers from various sectors.

  5. The experience of depression, anxiety, and mania among perinatal women. (United States)

    Kim, J Jo; Silver, Richard K; Elue, Rita; Adams, Marci G; La Porte, Laura M; Cai, Li; Kim, Jong Bae; Gibbons, Robert D


    We assessed differential item functioning (DIF) based on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to examine how perinatal mood disorders differ from adult psychiatric disorders. The CAT-Mental Health (CAT-MH) was administered to 1614 adult psychiatric outpatients and 419 perinatal women with IRB approval. We examined individual item-level differences using logistic regression and overall score differences by scoring the perinatal data using the original bifactor model calibration based on the psychiatric sample data and a new bifactor model calibration based on the perinatal data and computing their correlation. To examine convergent validity, we computed correlations of the CAT-MH with contemporaneously administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scales (EPDS). The rate of major depression in the perinatal sample was 13 %. Rates of anxiety, mania, and suicide risk were 5, 6, and 0.4 %, respectively. One of 66 depression items, one of 69 anxiety items, and 15 of 53 mania items exhibited DIF (i.e., failure to discriminate between high and low levels of the disorder) in the perinatal sample based on the psychiatric sample calibration. Removal of these items resulted in correlations of the original and perinatal calibrations of r = 0.983 for depression, r = 0.986 for anxiety, and r = 0.932 for mania. The 91.3 % of cases were concordantly categorized as either "at-risk" or "low-risk" between the EPDS and the perinatal calibration of the CAT-MH. There was little evidence of DIF for depression and anxiety symptoms in perinatal women. This was not true for mania. Now calibrated for perinatal women, the CAT-MH can be evaluated for longitudinal symptom monitoring.

  6. Experiences of women who reported sexual assault at a provincial hospital, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Sebaeng


    Full Text Available Background: Sexual assault poses a serious health problem to both the survivor and the health system. Experiencing sexual assault requires women to seek medical and psychological assistance as part of their journey towards recovery. This study examined the experiences of women who received post-sexual assault services from a specialised care centre within a provincial hospital.Methods: A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design was used to explore and describe experiences of women. Data were obtained through individual in-depth interviews from a total of 18 women aged between 18 and 55 years. Interviews were supplemented by the researcher’s field notes and audiotape recordings.Results: Findings yielded two main themes: Women expressed their lived experiences of sexual assault characterised by different forms of trauma. The second theme was an expression of a need for safety and support.Conclusion: Women who experience sexual assault are left with devastating effects such as physical and psychological harm and social victimisation. There is also a need for safety and support towards the recovery of these women. This study recommends that professional practitioners involved in the management of sexual assault be sensitised regarding the ordeal experienced by women and stop perceiving survivors as crime scene ‘clients’ from whom only medico-legal evidence has to be collected. Professional practitioners and family members must be supportive, non-judgemental and considerate of the dignity of survivors. The establishment of sexual assault response teams (SART is also recommended. There should also be inter-professional education for better coordination of services rendered to sexually assaulted women.

  7. Premarital Cohabitation and the Risk of Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women


    Phillips, Julie A; Sweeney, Megan M.


    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. Our analysis expands upon the array of risk factors considered in prior investigations of racial and ethnic differences in disruption and is among the first to systematically examine marital disruption among recent cohorts of Mexican American women. We find that the nature and strength of the esti...

  8. Termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: a meta-ethnography of women's experiences. (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline


    Due to technological advances in antenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities, more women face the prospect of terminating pregnancies on these grounds. Much existing research focuses on women's psychological adaptation to this event. However, there is a lack of holistic understanding of women's experiences. This article reports a systematic review of qualitative studies into women's experiences of pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Eight databases were searched up to April 2014 for peer-reviewed studies, written in English, that reported primary or secondary data, used identifiable and interpretative qualitative methods, and offered a valuable contribution to the synthesis. Altogether, 4,281 records were screened; 14 met the inclusion criteria. The data were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Four themes were identified: a shattered world, losing and regaining control, the role of health professionals and the power of cultures. Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality can be considered as a traumatic event that women experience as individuals, in their contact with the health professional community, and in the context of their politico-socio-legal environment. The range of emotions and experiences that pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality generates goes beyond the abortion paradigm and encompasses a bereavement model. Coordinated care pathways are needed that enable women to make their own decisions and receive supportive care.

  9. A Thought Experiment to Distinguish the Kerr Black Hole and Over-spinning Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Joshi, Pankaj S


    We propose a thought experiment here to distinguish an over-spinning Kerr singularity from a Kerr black hole, using the gyroscopic precession due to the frame-dragging effect. We show that there is an important characteristic difference in behavior of the gyroscope precession frequency for these objects, which can be used to distinguish one from the other. Specifically, if we lower the gyroscope along the pole of the Kerr black hole, the precession frequency becomes arbitrarily high, blowing up as the event horizon is approached. However, in the case of an over-spinning Kerr singularity, this frequency always remains finite and is fully well-behaved. It turns out that this behavior is intimately related to and governed by the nature of ergoregions in each of these cases. Interestingly, it turns out that in the over-spinning singularity case, the precession frequency ($\\Omega_{LT}$) of the gyro decreases as ($\\Omega_{LT}\\propto r$) after reaching a maximum, in the limit of approach to the singularity. In princ...

  10. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D


    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV.

  11. [Stigma and discrimination: the experiences of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique]. (United States)

    Andrade, Rosário Gregório; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein


    The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a serious public health problem in Mozambique. The country has high prevalence rates, and the epidemic's impact is aggravated by the stigma affecting HIV-positive persons. This study takes a socio-anthropological perspective to analyze the experience of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo and the ways they cope with stigma and discrimination. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 HIV-positive women. The results show how gender inequalities increase women's vulnerability to HIV and contribute to their stigmatization and discrimination. In dealing with stigma, women try to keep their diagnosis confidential, seeking support in group meetings with others living with HIV. Public policies should focus on women's empowerment and the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  12. Hazarding health: experiences of body, work, and risk among factory women in Malaysia. (United States)

    Root, Robin


    In the 1970s, Malaysia launched an export-oriented development strategy as a means of financing the nation's modernization. The success of the strategy hinged significantly on intensive recruitment of women for factory employment. I draw on descriptive qualitative research, including interviews (51), surveys (106), and ethnography in Malaysia to investigate factory women's experiences of work and work-related health risks. Discourse analysis surfaced a latent consciousness of bodily changes in relation to work. A grounded theory analysis showed a compromised access to occupational risk knowledge that may bear negatively on women's well-being and the role women's new labor identities played in mediating the meanings of work and risks. Given the predominance of women workers in low-end manufacturing globally, I aimed to contribute to theoretical and applied understandings of gender, globalization, and health.

  13. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class. (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie


    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  14. The Lived Experiences of African American Women with Breast Cancer: Implications for Counselors (United States)

    Clay, LaTasha K.


    Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…

  15. Older Women and Sexuality: Experiences in Marital Relationships across the Life Course (United States)

    Clarke, Laura Hurd


    Rates of sexual activity have been found to decline over the life course, as individuals experience marital transitions and the loss of partners, health problems, and decreased sexual interest. This article compares and contrasts earlier and later-life sexual experiences and examines the changing meanings that older women ascribe to sexuality over…

  16. Experiences, feelings and thoughts of women undergoing second trimester medical termination of pregnancy.

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    Inga-Maj Andersson

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore women's expectations and experiences of undergoing second trimester abortion. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using a screening questionnaire and semi-structured interviews for data collection. Thirty-one women filled out the questionnaire and 23 of them were later interviewed. The questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Indications for the abortion were fetal malformation or unintended pregnancy. The women expressed similar feelings and these were irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Both physical and mental pain was experienced during the abortion process and described by the women. Taking the mifepristone-pill was experienced as especially emotionally difficult for many participants. Professional support from the staff together with support from the partner, a friend or relative helped in transforming the worries related to something unknown to feelings of coping with a new and hard experience. Prior to the abortion most women stated that they did not want to view the fetus but women who chose to view the fetus described this as a way of confronting the reality and an opportunity to say farewell to the pregnancy/fetus. The analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five themes mirroring the women's experiences, thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to undergo second trimester abortion sometimes exposes women to strong and conflicting emotions which are irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Despite this women do not regret their decision to terminate the pregnancy. This analysis shows that their rational thinking outweighs their emotionally difficult feelings. It is important for the attending staff to be responsive to the needs of each individual woman whatever the

  17. Experience of Thai women in Bangkok with Norplant-2 implants. (United States)

    Chompootaweep, S; Kochagarn, E; Tang-Usaha, J; Theppitaksak, B; Dusitsin, N


    A prospective study of the Norplant-2 contraceptive subdermal implant system was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, adverse effects, and overall acceptability of Norplant-2 implants. A total of 140 women were enrolled in a 3-year clinical trial. The mean age was 29 years. Of all the acceptors, 70% had completed primary school. The continuation rates at years 1, 2, and 3 were, respectively, 94%, 89%, and 83%. No accidental pregnancies occurred throughout the 3 years of use in this study. Personal reasons were the leading cause for termination of Norplant-2 implant use. The 3-year cumulative termination rate for personal reasons was 7.2%. These personal reasons were divorce, husband having vasectomy, and moving away from the study area. The other leading cause for termination was medical reasons; acne, headache, and pain at the implant site were the complaints. The termination rate for medical reasons in year 3 of the study was 4.6%. Prolonged menstrual flow was the other main reason for termination. The 3-year cumulative termination rate for menstrual irregularities was 3.8%. In this study, the cumulative termination for planned pregnancy at the end of the year 3 was only 1.6%. The incidence of difficult removals was 8%. Breakage of the rods on removal was encountered in the majority of these cases. The study findings presented suggest that the Norplant-2 implants are highly effective with high continuation rates. The Norplant-2 system could become another choice of long acting reversible contraception for Thai women.

  18. Modos de subjetivação de mulheres negras: efeitos da discriminação racial Black women subjectivity: effects of racial discrimination

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    Maria Luisa Pereira de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Neste estudo, buscou-se compreender os efeitos da discriminação racial na identidade e subjetividade de mulheres negras atendidas no programa SOS Racismo/Porto Alegre/RS. Essa pesquisa fundamentou-se em um grupo dispositivo, cujo objetivo foi ouvir as narrativas das mulheres que sofreram atos de racismo/discriminação e agenciar outras referências identitárias. O referencial teórico-metodológico utilizado para analisar o material empírico produzido nos grupos foi o das práticas discursivas, entendidas como a forma pela quais as pessoas produzem sentidos para experiências como as da violência racial. Os repertórios interpretativos presentes nos diálogos enunciados pelas mulheres referiam-se à discriminação racial e ao racismo e sinalizavam a construção de estratégias de enfrentamento e resistência. Acreditamos que a intervenção produziu efeitos políticos de reflexão e mudança, na medida em que o grupo construiu novos sentidos para as violências sofridas, transformando a narrativa pessoal em uma denúncia pública.In this study, we investigated the effects of racial discrimination on the identity and subjectivity patterns of black women assisted through the SOS Racism Program in Porto Alegre/RS. The research was based on a discussion group whose objective was to listen to the women's narratives of racial discrimination and agency other identity references. The theoretical and methodological support used to analyze the information was the discursive practice. This practice refers to the way by which people produce meaning in social interactions, like experiences of racial violence. The interpretative repertoires used by the women in the group dialogues were about racial discrimination and racism and pointed to the construction of resistance strategies. We believe that this intervention produces political effects of reflection and change, in the way that the group worked out new meanings for the violence suffered, changing

  19. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer. (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee


    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere.

  20. Hidden Voices: Disabled Women's Experiences of Violence and Support Over the Life Course. (United States)

    Shah, Sonali; Tsitsou, Lito; Woodin, Sarah


    Violence against women is a worldwide social and human rights problem that cuts across cultural, geographic, religious, social, and economic boundaries. It affects women in countries around the world, regardless of class, religion, disability, age, or sexual identity. International evidence shows that approximately three in five women experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner. However, across the globe, women and girls with impairments or life-limiting illnesses are more susceptible to different forms of violence across a range of environments and by different perpetrators including professionals and family members as well as partners. However, they are likely to be seriously disadvantaged in gaining information and support to escape the abusive relationships. This article stems from the United Kingdom part of a comparative study with three other countries (Austria, Germany, and Iceland) funded by the European Commission (EC; 2013-2015). It presents preliminary findings, generated from life history interviews, about disabled women's experiences of violence and access to support (both formal and informal) over their life course and their aspirations for the prevention of violence in the future. The article includes examples of impairment-specific violence that non-disabled women do not experience. By bringing the voices of disabled women into the public domain, the article will facilitate a historically marginalized group to contribute to the debate about disability, violence, and support.

  1. Korean immigrant women's physical activity experience: a situation-specific theory. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Nguyen, Giang; Stringer, Lynn; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice


    To develop successful physical activity promotion programs for midlife immigrant women, especially for Korean immigrant midlife women, concrete theoretical bases are needed. However, virtually no theoretical frameworks and/or theories exist that can explain the influences of immigration transition on the physical activity experience of midlife immigrant women in general or Korean immigrant midlife women in specific. The purpose of this article is to present a situation-specific theory on physical activity experience of Korean immigrant midlife women (SPAKIM) with its development process. An integrative approach was used to develop the theory based on the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity (MAPA) theory, the transitions theory, a review of the relevant literature, and two studies on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The proposed theory includes nature of transitions, nonmodifiable and modifiable transition conditions, contexts of daily life, patterns of response, and nursing therapeutics as major concepts, and each major concept includes several related subconcepts. Because several concepts of the theory were developed mainly based on the literature review, the major concepts and related subconcepts need to be further developed and evaluated in future studies.

  2. Experience of pregnancy for women with a history of eating disorders



    Aim: Women suffering from an actual eating disorder (ED) or women with a past history of ED can more and more easily access to motherhood. Due to the increasing rate of ED in our occidental countries and the possibility to access to assisted reproductive technologies: perinatality practitioners, thus in first place midwives, will have to deal with pregnant women with ED. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of an actual or past ED on the experience of motherhood, and to determine i...

  3. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study


    Tong Wen; Low Wah; Wong Yut; Choong Sim; Jegasothy Ravindran


    Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected ...

  4. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa


    S.M. Maputle; D.C. Hiss


    Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of ...

  5. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa


    Maputle, Sonto M.; D. H. Hiss


    Introduction:The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of u...

  6. Participation in ICZM initiatives: critical aspects and lessons learnt from the Mediterranean and Black Sea experiences. (United States)

    Soriani, Stefano; Buono, Fabrizia; Tonino, Marco; Camuffo, Monica


    Public participation is recognized as a necessary tool to ensure a successful implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) strategies and plans. This paper, based on the experiences carried out in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea within the EU FP7 project PEGASO, presents some critical aspects and lessons learnt regarding participation in ICZM projects. The research shows that data availability, the complexity of data interpretation, an inadequate legal and cultural framework and the difficulties in promoting integration of all the components of coastal management within short term projects are all elements that if not properly considered since the beginning of the participatory process may hinder public participation effectiveness. Moreover the definition of the spatial scale of coastal phenomenon as well as the discrepancy between the local scale of coastal governance and the complex multi-scale nature of coastal systems remain highly critical aspects to be addressed.


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    Kandashova K. A.


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory modeling of gleyisation and its effect on the biological properties of soils with stagnant regime in ordinary black soils. Gleyisation is a complex biochemical process that occurs under oxygen reduction conditions. Anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of organic substances, and the constant or prolonged waterlogging of individual horizons or the entire soil profile promote gleyisation. Model experiments revealed that gleyisation increase the total number of bacteria and suppresses number of actinomycetes, micromycetes and growth of fungal mycelium. Gleyisation decreases the activity of oxidoreductases and increases the hydrolases activity. In addition, the second content of humus slightly increases and active acidity (pH changes to neutral. Accumulation of large amounts of iron oxide (II in soil is revealed

  8. Inflationary primordial black holes for the LIGO gravitational wave events and pulsar timing array experiments

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    Inomata, Keisuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Tada, Yuichiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T


    Primordial black holes (PBHs) are one of the candidates to explain the gravitational wave (GW) signals observed by the LIGO detectors. Among several phenomena in the early Universe, cosmic inflation is a major example to generate PBHs. In this paper, we discuss the possibility to interpret the observed GW events as mergers of PBHs which are produced by cosmic inflation. We point out that the current pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments already put severe constraints on GWs generated via the second-order effects. In particular, it is found that the scalar power spectrum should have a very sharp fall-off above $f \\gtrsim 10^{-9}$ Hz to evade these constraints. Simple inflation models that generate PBHs via fluctuations of slowly rolling inflaton could be probed/excluded in the future.

  9. Profiles and experiences of women undergoing genital fistula repair: findings from five countries. (United States)

    Landry, Evelyn; Frajzyngier, Vera; Ruminjo, Joseph; Asiimwe, Frank; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Bello, Abubakar; Danladi, Dantani; Ganda, Sanda Oumarou; Idris, Sa'ad; Inoussa, Maman; Kanoma, Bashir; Lynch, Maura; Mussell, Felicity; Podder, Dulal Chandra; Wali, Abba; Mielke, Erin; Barone, Mark A


    This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3-26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery.

  10. Use of multivitamins, folic acid and herbal supplements among breast cancer survivors: the black women's health study

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    Palmer Julie R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use, including herbals and multivitamin supplements, is quite common in the U.S., and has been shown to be highest in breast cancer survivors. However, limited data are currently available for CAM usage among African Americans. Thus, we sought to determine the prevalence of multivitamins, folic acid and herbal supplement usage in African American breast cancer survivors, and to compare the characteristics of users and nonusers. Methods A cohort study of breast cancer survivors, who completed the 1999 Black Women's Health Study questionnaire and self-reported having been diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1999, comprised the study population. In this study, the intake of natural herbs, multivitamins and folic acid at least three days per week within the past two years was used as a proxy for typical usage of this complimentary alternative medicine (CAM modality. Results A total of 998 breast cancer survivors were identified. Overall, 68.2% had used either herbals or multivitamin supplements or both. The three most frequently used herbals were garlic (21.2%, gingko (12.0%, and echinacea (9.4%. The multivariate analysis determined that single marital status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.04-2.41, and alcohol consumption of 1-3 drinks per week (OR = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.28-2.68 were significantly associated with increased herbal use. Multivitamin use was significantly lower among obese women (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.46-0.94 and current smokers (OR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.34-0.82. Conclusions A significant number of African American breast cancer survivors are using herbals and multivitamins as CAM modality. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of herbals and multivitamins in African American breast cancer survivors.

  11. Tensions around risks in pregnancy: a typology of women's experiences of surveillance medicine. (United States)

    Hammer, Raphaël P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine


    The experience of pregnancy is currently driven by the development of surveillance medicine focused on the monitoring of a wide range of risks. Research usually relies on binary categories opposing women accepting medical surveillance to those resisting it. Recent studies have however underlined the complexity of women's experiences, as well as the ambivalence of their attitudes toward medical procedures and recommendations. Based on 47 qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted in Switzerland between 2008 and 2009, this paper presents the diversity of pregnant women's experiences of surveillance medicine through the description of four contrasting groups: "endorsing surveillance medicine", "coping with risks", "striving for certainty" and "questioning surveillance medicine". Taking into account various risks related to pregnancy, these empirically-grounded groups are discussed in relation to the cultural dynamics of contemporary risk discourses.

  12. Perceptions And Experiences Of Overweight Among Women In The Ga East District, Ghana

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    Richmond Nii Okai Aryeetey


    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are a growing public health challenge among women of reproductive age. While cultural norms suggest preference for an overweight body image, limited evidence exists regarding women’s beliefs and experiences of overweight in Ghana. The current study explored beliefs, perceptions, experiences and practices concerning overweight among women living in suburban Accra, Ghana.Methods: Four focus group discussions, and 10 in-depth interviews (IDI were implemented among 42 adult women (>18y seeking preventive child health services in Dome, Accra. All the women in the IDI were overweight. In addition to notes, interviews and discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed for systematic content and narrative analysis. Results: Overweight was considered undesirable by most women. Overweight individuals were often stigmatized using uncomplimentary names like cargo, obolo, etc. However, some weight gain was admired and expected by women and their family and friends. Weight gain that was considered beautiful was believed to ‘evolve naturally’. Weight gain that is either medically-induced perceived as excessive, was not viewed positively. Weight gain by women was perceived as a sign of financial prosperity and good care by a spouse. Overweight was perceived to be linked with heredity, childbirth, gluttony, and contraception. Adverse experiences of overweight included poor self-image, declining social lifestyle, increased disease risk, and feeling tired always. Strategies which had been used in order to lose weight included skipping meals, avoiding carbohydrate-based foods, and drinking herbal teas. Conclusion: There is admiration for some weight gain among women but when it is excessive, overweight is stigmatized. Misperceptions regarding partner expectations, determinants of overweight, and weight reduction strategies requires effective behavior change interventions in Ghana.

  13. Women's Management of Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis and Experiences of Clinical Care: A Qualitative Study.

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    Jade Bilardi

    Full Text Available Few data are available on how women manage recurring bacterial vaginosis (BV and their experiences of the clinical care of this condition. This study aimed to explore women's recurrent BV management approaches and clinical care experiences, with a view to informing and improving the clinical management of BV.A descriptive, social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty-five women of varying sexual orientation who had experienced recurrent BV in the past 5 years took part in semi-structured interviews.The majority of women reported frustration and dissatisfaction with current treatment regimens and low levels of satisfaction with the clinical management of BV. Overall, women disliked taking antibiotics regularly, commonly experienced adverse side effects from treatment and felt frustrated at having symptoms recur quite quickly after treatment. Issues in clinical care included inconsistency in advice, misdiagnosis and inappropriate diagnostic approaches and insensitive or dismissive attitudes. Women were more inclined to report positive clinical experiences with sexual health physicians than primary care providers. Women's frustrations led most to try their own self-help remedies and lifestyle modifications in an attempt to treat symptoms and prevent recurrences, including well-known risk practices such as douching.In the face of considerable uncertainty about the cause of BV, high rates of recurrence, unacceptable treatment options and often insensitive and inconsistent clinical management, women are trying their own self-help remedies and lifestyle modifications to prevent recurrences, often with little effect. Clinical management of BV could be improved through the use of standardised diagnostic approaches, increased sensitivity and understanding of the impact of BV, and the provision of evidence based advice about known BV related risk factors.

  14. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  15. Dietary intake of pregnant women and their infants in a poor black South African community

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    D Mostert


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to determine the dietary intake of women in a poor rural area during pregnancy and lactation, and (ii to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of their infants at age 6 months. We recruited 46 women, below 40 years old, in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy. The subjects were living in a rural area of Limpopo Province. Their heights and weights were recorded, as were their diets during pregnancy and for the first 6 months after delivery. We also recorded weights, lengths, and dietary intake of the infants at 3 and 6 months after birth. The subjects were living in severe poverty: none had running water and almost all did their cooking over an open fire. None of the subjects smoked and only one consumed alcohol. The diets of the subjects consisted mainly of maize, brown bread, sweetened beverages (cold drink and tea, and small amounts of vegetables and chicken. The diets were adequate in protein but were marginal in energy and in dietary fibre, and may be deficient in numerous micronutrients, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, C, E, and B6. This was seen during pregnancy and lactation. Blood analysis 6 months after birth revealed normal levels of vitamins A and E and an absence of anaemia. Body mass index (BMI of the women was 23.9 } 5.3 kg/m2 (mean } SD when measured 6 months after birth. Those above 25 years old had a higher BMI than did younger subjects (25.5 vs. 22.2; p= 0.028. Overall, 24% were overweight (BMI 25-30 while 9% were obese (BMI > 30. Most infants (93% were breastfed for at least 6 months but exclusive breastfeeding was only done by 65% of mothers. One-third of breastfed infants also received formula. The use of formula while breastfeeding was twice as common among mothers aged above 25 years (46% vs. 23%. Early introduction of solid foods was very common in this group. Younger mothers introduced solids in the first month (51% more often compared with

  16. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women.

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    Leith León-Maldonado

    Full Text Available HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico's early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP. Research on Mexican women's perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants.We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women's understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender.Women's confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men's sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes' desire for sex as natural but understood men's negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women's HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission.These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women's negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could be ameliorated with better health

  17. Returning to life, the Lived Experiences of Pregnancy in Women with HIV: A Phenomenological study

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    Z Khalajinia


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pregnancy is every woman's stage of life. During this period, women experience physical, mental and social changes. It is very sensitive, challenging and therefore a critical period for every woman particularly in HIV-positive women. During pregnancy, an HIV-positive mother is facing a psychological crisis which includes fear of transmission to children, death, leaving children to the family or a guardian, adverse effects during pregnancy and the effects of pregnancy on their health. Therefore, HIV-positive pregnant women are vulnerable and require supportive interventions.  Care for pregnant women with HIV negative women are unique and different. However, no more information about experience of pregnancy in HIV positive women exists. Therfore, the aim of the present study was to explore the lived experience of pregnancy in HIV-positive women. Methods: The present qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach included 12 HIV-infected pregnant women who referred to the counseling center for behavioral diseases at Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences who were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data saturation was achieved after 16 interviews, each 40 to 90 min of duration with participants and then was analyzed by the method proposed by Diekelmann (1989. Results: The participants in the present study were of 22- 39 years of age. After data analysis, the main themes and 3 sub-themes emerged. These themes included: “return to life” with the three sub-themes of experience of motherhood, stability and protection, and gratification. Conclusion: The results revealed that although the experience of pregnancy in HIV-positive women was associated with a deep sense of fear of transmission of the disease and having children was viewed as a way of hope. Motherhood gave their lives meaning and provided for them to return to life

  18. A narrative investigation into the meaning and experience of career success: Perspectives from women participants

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    Willie T. Chinyamurindi


    Full Text Available Orientation: In South Africa opportunities are being created that encourage more women to enter the workforce. Understanding how women conceptualise and experience career success affects not only their individual career development but also their general outlook in life.Research purpose: To investigate how a sample of previously disadvantaged women distance learners conceptualise and experience the notion of career success.Motivation for the study: Calls have been made for research incorporating a subjective understanding regarding career success, especially amongst minority groups.Research approach, design and method: An interpretive approach was employed aimed at understanding individual experience and the interpretation of it. Unstructured interviews were conducted shaped by the objectives of the study amongst a sample of women (n = 25.Main findings: Through narratives and stories, findings revealed career success to be conceptualised and experienced as (1 a means of professional attainment and recognition, (2 a contribution to society and (3 evident in material and non-material artefacts. Further, from the sample of women used in this research, the experience of career success considered not only socio-historical issues and community but also the cultural milieu. Education emerged as an enabler of individual pursuit and goals leading to career success.Practical/managerial implications: An understanding of how career success is conceptualised and experienced by previously disadvantaged women can serve as a forerunner to individual specific career development interventions. The results of the study are therefore useful to both academics and practitioners in their formulation of interventions that enable individual career development.Contribution: The experience of career success as found in this study through participant narratives and stories gave a picture of career development processes amongst previously disadvantaged groups in South

  19. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  20. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo;


    This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed...... comprising three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. Three key themes emerged: 1) being diagnosed, 2) being prescribed medical treatment, and 3) being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis. The findings suggest a need for improved support...

  1. Research suggests that one in two women, possibly more, experience violence in their lives. (United States)


    This editorial discusses domestic violence, which is the main topic of articles in this issue of Links. All contributing authors participated in Oxfam's workshop on violence against women held in Sarajevo. The workshop included 60 women from 25 countries who shared experiences and exchanged strategies for overcoming violence against women. Plans in 1999 include the domestic violence meeting in March of the Preparatory Committee for the International Criminal Court (ICC). Progress in changing social acceptance of domestic violence and in changing laws will depend upon governments' willingness to sign UN conventions and withdraw reservations. The UN Commission on the Status of Women will meet to review and appraise implementation of the Beijing Plan of Action. Oxfam has been active in pressuring the ICC to prosecute all forms of sexual violence as war crimes and as crimes against humanity. The first such prosecution in a Rwanda case is included in this issue. This issue also includes articles that reveal the experiences of women's organizations which are active in ending violence against women. These groups have used awareness-raising strategies, information gathering, lobbying for the creation and implementation of national and international laws, and establishment of services such as shelters and telephone support lines. The common thread regardless of country of origin is the suffering in silence and sense of isolation experienced by victims of violence and the difficulty of leaving violent domestic situations due to traditional values and social structures.

  2. Experiences of social support among women presenting for obstetric fistula repair surgery in Tanzania (United States)

    Dennis, Alexis C; Wilson, Sarah M; Mosha, Mary V; Masenga, Gileard G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Terroso, Korrine E; Watt, Melissa H


    Objective An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration. Patients and methods The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59) and in-depth interviews (n=20). Results Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs. Conclusion Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic care for patients. PMID:27660492

  3. Effects of gender identity on experiences of healthcare for sexual minority women. (United States)

    Hiestand, K R; Horne, S G; Levitt, H M


    While research examining healthcare experiences of sexual minority individuals is growing, thus far research has been limited on lesbian gender identity and its relationship to physical and mental health. This study explores access to and experiences of healthcare with a sample of 516 butch and femme identified lesbian and bisexual women. In comparison to femme-identified women, it was found that butch women had routine gynecological examinations significantly less frequently, perceived poorer treatment in healthcare settings, were more likely to be out within healthcare settings, placed more importance on securing LGBT-positive healthcare practitioners, and had more difficulty finding LGBT-positive medical doctors. No differences were found for mental health. The results suggest that butch women may be more at risk for physical health concerns than femme women, in particular those illnesses that can be prevented or treated with regular gynecological care (e.g., uterine or cervical cancer). Implications of the study include greater awareness among healthcare professionals of sexual minority gender identity in addition to sexual identity, and more support for butch-identified women to access vital healthcare services.

  4. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia. (United States)

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette


    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities.

  5. The experiences and perceptions of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rees


    Full Text Available Objective: Although much has been documented about the experience of breast cancer, the accounts of young women have been relatively neglected, despite that around 20% of the breast cancer diagnoses occur in women under the age of 50. In particular, the voices of young women diagnosed during pregnancy are missing from research. Breast cancer is the most common cancer associated with pregnancy, and it is diagnosed in about 1 in 3000 pregnancies. Methods: This study presents data from three women drawn from a larger study of women who had been diagnosed under the age of 45 and had completed their treatment for breast cancer. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken, with a methodology informed by social constructionist grounded theory and feminism. Results: The findings here report the ways that having breast cancer during pregnancy disrupted taken-for-granted assumptions about their pregnancies, new motherhood, and their future life course, and how this occurred within the context of gendered ideas about femininity and motherhood. Conclusions: Breast cancer during pregnancy has a far-reaching impact on young women's lives, and women affected may need practical support in caring for young children, and counselling may be appropriate. Further research is needed in this important area.

  6. Factors associated with pregnant women's anticipations and experiences of HIV-related stigma in rural Kenya. (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M


    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women's empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination.

  7. From Matriculation to Engagement on Campus: Delineating the Experiences of Latino/a Students at a Public Historically Black University (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.; Ozuna Allen, Taryn; Goings, Ramon B.


    Drawing from a larger study on Asian Americans and Latino/as at HBCUs, this chapter focuses exclusively on the Latino/a students, sheds light on factors that motivated Latino/a students to attend a historically Black university, and discusses the on-campus experiences of these students. The chapter provides insight into what HBCUs might do to help…

  8. High-Achieving Black Students, Biculturalism, and Out-of-School STEM Learning Experiences: Exploring Some Unintended Consequences (United States)

    McGee, Ebony O.


    In this article, the author discusses the complex challenges of high-achieving Black students who are successful in becoming immersed in predominately White STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) spaces and how such immersion can exacerbate their experiences of racial stereotyping and other forms of racial bias. The author…

  9. Study on knowledge, experiences and barriers to mammography among working women from Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khokhar


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammography is not a popular screening tool for deducting breast cancer in India although regular screening is associated with reduced mortality from breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to find out knowledge, experiences and barriers to mammography among working women of Delhi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 among working women from Delhi, India. The study was conducted as a part of ongoing training workshops organized for women on early detection of breast cancer. Total of eight such programs were organized and were attended by a total of 439 women. Each participant got a self-administered questionnaire to fill. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel and analysis was done using Statistical product and service solutions (SPSS version 21 (IBM. RESULTS: A total of 439 participants were included in the study. 230 (52.4% of the women were more than 40 years of age. Only four participants (1% had not heard about the term mammography before. Less than half (45.1% of the participants knew correctly the purpose of a mammogram. Only 11.8% of the women knew correctly about the age of getting the first baseline mammogram. Knowledge of frequency of getting the mammogram was also low only 95 (21.6% correctly knew about it. Only 59 (11.9% correctly responded that one needs to go to an imaging facility located either in a hospital or elsewhere to get mammogram done. Main experience shared by the women regarding mammography was that 42 (95.45% did not know anything about the procedure when they went for this investigation. Out of a total of 230 women over 40 years of age only 38 (16.5% had ever got a mammogram carried out. There is a statistically significant association between education status and practice of mammography (P < 0.05. There were 18 women with family history of breast cancer out, of which 10 (55.5% had got mammography carried out. 192 out of

  10. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. (United States)

    Mallory, Caroline


    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  11. Contextualizing the trauma experience of women immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico. (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; Hurtado de Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J


    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women.

  12. Breastfeeding mothers returning to work: experiences of women at one university in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Gilmour, Carole; Monk, Hilary; Hall, Helen


    Working women need to juggle work, child care and family to continue to breastfeed. This qualitative study's aim was to explore women's experiences of returning to work following the birth of their baby. Focus groups were held with women within one multi-campus university, who had commenced breastfeeding at birth and had returned to work or study within 12 months. In addition, educators working with babies in childcare centres on two of the campuses were interviewed. Thematic analysis was employed used Rogoff's (2003) three planes of analysis, the individual, the interpersonal and the cultural-institutional. Three themes, proximity, flexibility, and communication, were identified relating to the factors impacting on women and their choices to breastfeed or wean on returning to work. From a socio-cultural perspective these themes can be understood as situated within the interrelated contexts of workplace, child care and family. Limitations of the study include the small number of participants and recruitment from one university.

  13. Women's rights and women's health during HIV/AIDS epidemics: the experience of women in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Dugassa, Begna F


    Twenty-five years have passed since HIV/AIDS was recognized as a major public health problem. Although billions of dollars are spent in research and development, we still have no medical cure or vaccination. In the early days of the epidemic, public health slogans suggested that HIV/AIDS does not discriminate. Now it is becoming clear that HIV/AIDS spreads most rapidly among poor, marginalized, women, colonized, and disempowered groups of people more than others. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is exacerbated by the social, economic, political, and cultural conditions of societies such as gender, racial, class, and other forms of inequalities. Sub-Saharan African countries are severely hit by HIV/AIDS. For these countries the pandemic of HIV/AIDS demands the need to travel extra miles. My objective in this article is to promote the need to go beyond the biomedical model of "technical fixes" and the traditional public health education tools, and come up with innovative ideas and strategic thinking to contain the epidemic. In this article, I argue that containing the HIV/AIDS epidemic and improving family and community health requires giving appropriate attention to the social illnesses that are responsible for exacerbating biological disorders.

  14. The experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Dias Aldrighi


    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify in the literature how the experiences of women age 35 or above are described in terms of pregnancy. METHOD Integrative review based on MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, with no time period constraint. RESULTS Eighteen studies that dealt with the experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age were selected and analyzed. The studies evidenced four theme categories: the search for information, which pointed to a deficit of information supplied by health care professionals; perceiving the risks, which pointed to women's concerns about their own health and their children's; the ideal moment for motherhood, with different reasons for postponing it; and adjusting to a new routine, showing a concern regarding changes in daily life. CONCLUSION From the results, it was possible to understand that other factors, in addition to those that include risks, are present in the experiences of older pregnant women and point to a need to involve such aspects in nursing care to create comprehensive strategies that are aligned with these women's needs.

  15. Living large: the experiences of large-bodied women when accessing general practice services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell N


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies report high levels of stigma and discrimination experienced by obese/overweight women within the health care system and society at large. Despite general practice being the most utilised point of access for health care services, there is very little international or national exploration of the experiences of large-bodied women (LBW accessing these services. The aim of this study was to explore LBW's experiences of accessing general practice services in New Zealand. METHODS: This is a qualitative, descriptive, feminist study. Local advertising for participants resulted in eight self-identified, large-bodied women being interviewed. A post-structural feminist lens was applied to the data during thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The women in this study provided examples of verbal insults, inappropriate humour, negative body language, unmet health care needs and breaches of dignity from health care providers in general practice. Seven themes were identified: early experiences of body perception, confronting social stereotypes, contending with feminine beauty ideals, perceptions of health, pursuing health, respecting the whole person, and feeling safe to access care. CONCLUSION: Pressure for body size vigilance has, in effect, excluded the women in this study from the very locations of health that they are 'encouraged' to attend-including socialising and exercising in public, screening opportunities that require bodily exposure, and accessing first point of care health services.

  16. The experiences of prepregnancy care for women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forde R


    Full Text Available Rita Forde, Evridiki E Patelarou, Angus Forbes Department of Adult Nursing, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London, London, UK Background: Diabetes is one of the most common medical conditions affecting pregnancy and is associated with a number of adverse fetal, infant, and maternal outcomes. These adverse outcomes can be avoided or minimized with appropriate prepregnancy care (PPC. However, the uptake of PPC is limited in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The reasons for poor uptake are multifactorial, reflecting both women’s understanding of pregnancy risks, and limitations in care delivery.Methods: A systematic literature review with meta-synthesis was undertaken to identify qualitative studies exploring experiences of PPC for women with T2DM incorporating the views of women with T2DM and health care professionals (HCPs. Identified studies included were synthesized in a meta-ethnography to develop an understanding of the elements contributing to the uptake of PPC among women with T2DM.Results: The systematic review identified seven studies yielding data from 28 women with T2DM and 83 HCPs. The following six third-order constructs were identified from the synthesis: understanding PPC, emotive catalysts, beliefs about reproduction among women with T2DM, relationships and social factors, HCP behaviors and perspectives, and health care system factors. These constructs were used to develop a multifactorial model expressing the interactive issues that shape the reproductive health-seeking behaviors of women with T2DM to identify potential areas for intervention.Conclusion: The uptake of PPC among women with T2DM seems to be informed by their personal orientation to their reproductive needs, their interactions with HCPs, and system-level influences. Future interventions to enhance PPC uptake need to address these underlying issues. Keywords: systematic literature, pre-conception counseling, women

  17. Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Rebecca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4% were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG; diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support.

  18. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter P;


    National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study...

  19. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter P;


    National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study w...

  20. Just Desserts? Exploring Constructions of Food in Women's Experiences of Bulimia. (United States)

    Churruca, Kate; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette


    Bulimia, an eating disorder that affects more women than men, involves binging and compensatory behaviors. Given the importance of food in experiences of these behaviors, in this article, we examine constructions of food in accounts of bulimic behavior: how these constructions relate to cultural discourses, and their implications for subjectivity. Fifteen women who engaged in bulimic behaviors were interviewed. Through a thematic decomposition of their accounts, we identified six discursive constructions of food: "good/healthy" or "bad/unhealthy," "contaminating body and soul," "collapsed into fat," "pleasurable reward," "comfort," and "fuel for the body." Many constructions were consolidated through participants' embodied experiences, but made available through discourses in public health, biomedicine, and femininity, and had implications for subjectivity in terms of morality, spirituality, and self-worth. Thus, despite women deploying these constructions to make sense of their bulimic behaviors, they are culturally normative; this point has implications for therapeutic and preventive strategies for bulimia.

  1. The impact of birthplace on women's birth experiences and perceptions of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane


    , admitted between JanuaryeOctober 2006, and an obstetrically/socio-demographically matched control group of 218 low-risk women admitted to an OU were invited to participate. Three hundred and seventy-five women (86%) responded. Birth experience and satisfaction with care were rated significantly more...... positively by FMU than by OU women. Significantly better results for FMU care were also found for specific patient-centred care elements (support, participation in decision-making, attentiveness to psychological needs and to wishes for birth, information, and for women’s feeling of being listened to......). Adjustment for medical birth factors slightly increased the positive effect of FMU care. Subgroup analysis showed that a significant, negative effect of low education and employment level on birth experience was found only for the OU group. Our results provide strong support of FMU care and underline the big...

  2. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. (United States)

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F


    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  3. Household Financial Management and Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in the Philippines: A Study Using Propensity Score Methods. (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco


    This study explores the causal impact of independent management of household finances upon women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Philippines. Propensity score matching is used to generate a casual estimate of the impact of women's roles as household financial managers on their experiences of IPV. Findings demonstrate that managing household finances independently significantly increased the severity of IPV women experienced from their partners compared with women who managed finances jointly with partners. Findings reinforce the importance of explicit attention to intrahousehold power dynamics and gender norms in the implementation of microfinance interventions intended to empower women.

  4. Breast cancers from black women exhibit higher numbers of immunosuppressive macrophages with proliferative activity and of crown-like structures associated with lower survival compared to non-black Latinas and Caucasians. (United States)

    Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Santander, Ana M; Miao, Feng; Sanchez, Lidia G; Jorda, Merce; Glück, Stefan; Ince, Tan A; Nadji, Mehrad; Chen, Zhibin; Penichet, Manuel L; Cleary, Margot P; Torroella-Kouri, Marta


    Racial disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome are a major health care challenge. Patients in the black race group more likely present with an early onset and more aggressive disease. The occurrence of high numbers of macrophages is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in solid malignancies. Macrophages are observed in adipose tissues surrounding dead adipocytes in "crown-like structures" (CLS). Here we investigated whether the numbers of CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and/or CD163+ CLS are associated with patient survival and whether there are significant differences across blacks, non-black Latinas, and Caucasians. Our findings confirm that race is statistically significantly associated with the numbers of TAMs and CLS in breast cancer, and demonstrate that the highest numbers of CD163+ TAM/CLS are found in black breast cancer patients. Our results reveal that the density of CD206 (M2) macrophages is a significant predictor of progression-free survival univariately and is also significant after adjusting for race and for HER2, respectively. We examined whether the high numbers of TAMs detected in tumors from black women were associated with macrophage proliferation, using the Ki-67 nuclear proliferation marker. Our results reveal that TAMs actively divide when in contact with tumor cells. There is a higher ratio of proliferating macrophages in tumors from black patients. These findings suggest that interventions based on targeting TAMs may not only benefit breast cancer patients in general but also serve as an approach to remedy racial disparity resulting in better prognosis patients from minority racial groups.

  5. The lived experience of women with cancer: phenomenological findings expressed through poetry. (United States)

    Duffy, Lynne; Aquino-Russell, Catherine


    Cancer rates for Canadian women between the ages of 22 and 44 are increasing. Improved survival times and more treatment choices, however create new challenges. Little research has been done to uncover the lived experience of long-term survival. This pilot study describes the meaning of living with cancer for three Canadian women who were diagnosed more than four years ago. The process of inquiry was Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method for analysis-synthesis of a general structural description (the meaning of the experience). The findings have been interpreted creatively through poetry in an effort to enhance understanding of the experience of living with cancer Each section of the poem is discussed in relation to the literature to encourage nurses and other health professionals to consider the importance of understanding patients' lived experiences and the meanings they ascribe, in order to provide quality, holistic, and individualized care.

  6. Two Brief Interventions to Mitigate a "Chilly Climate" Transform Women's Experience, Relationships, and Achievement in Engineering (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M.; Logel, Christine; Peach, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P.


    In a randomized-controlled trial, we tested 2 brief interventions designed to mitigate the effects of a "chilly climate" women may experience in engineering, especially in male-dominated fields. Participants were students entering a selective university engineering program. The "social-belonging intervention" aimed to protect…

  7. The Lived Experience of Work and Career: Women Whose Parents Lack Postsecondary Education (United States)

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John


    There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…

  8. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina


    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  9. Life stories of young women who experience rejection from their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina C. Mosman


    Full Text Available Background: When a daughter perceives rejection from her mother, she is bound to be sensitive to rejection for most if not all of her life. Such an experience influences almost all future relationships.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the life stories of young women who perceived rejection from their mothers and to formulate guidelines to assist them.Method: A phenomenological interpretive method that is explorative, descriptive, and contextual was used to explore everyday life experiences. Network sampling was used. In-depth phenomenological interviews were conducted with the young women so that they could define the most important dimensions of their life stories and elaborate on what is relevant to them. They were asked: ‘Tell me your life story.’ One of the authors also had a life story of perceived maternal rejection; hence an auto-ethnography was critical and was included in the study. Thematic data analysis was applied.Results: Themes that emerged from the data were that the young women: (1 perceive ongoing challenges in forming and sustaining relationships in their lives; (2 experience their lives as conflicted because their relationship with the central core of their existence, their mother, is perceived as tumultuous; and (3 experience fundamental links to be missing in their ‘motherdaughter relationship’.Conclusion: Only a few women were interviewed regarding perceived rejection from their mothers. Further research in this regard is imperative.

  10. Examining the Experiences, Perceptions, and Challenges of Women Leaders in Private, Nonprofit Universities (United States)

    Cox, Barbara Jean


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to interview women presidents and leaders in private, nonprofit universities regarding commonalities of perceptions and experiences in the leadership role, to examine the meaning of reactive behavior in the perceptions about their role, how they react or behave in their role, and if they perceived gender…

  11. Women’s Experiences of Sexual Problems after Cervical Cancer Treatment: Lessons from Indonesian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Afiyanti


    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women. It is the second major cause of women’s deaths in Asia as well as in Indonesia. Cervical cancer treatment also raises issues of long-term physical, psychological, sexual, and social adaptation. The purpose of the study was to describe and to interpret the experiences of Indonesian women who have experienced sexual dysfunction after cervical cancer treatment. Thirteen Indonesian women who were participated in this study described their experiences on the first to two years after cervical cancer treatment. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Four themes were identified (1 physical and psychological sexual complaints after cancer treatment; (2 negative effects of cancer treatment towards intimate relationship with their spouse; (3 efforts to overcome sexual problems; and (4 women’s needs for help to improve their sexual health. These study findings offer providing new insights into the experiences of Indonesian women with sexual health problems following cervical cancer treatment. This study can provide nurses and other health care providers with better understanding of the experiences, concern and needs of the cancer survivors.

  12. Exploring Women Faculty's Experiences and Perceptions in Higher Education: The Effects of Feminism? (United States)

    Midkiff, Brooke


    This study analyses women faculty's discourse about feminism, themselves, and their professional experiences as scholars in the North American university context. This case study pushes at the boundaries of what we believe we know about "the gender question" in the academy, opening a discursive space for scholars to examine university…

  13. Walking the Woods: The Lived Experience of Sexual Assault Survival for Women in College (United States)

    Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.


    This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…

  14. Prevalence, outcome, and women's experiences of external cephalic version in a low-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, M.; Offerhaus, P.; Dommelen, P. van; Wiegers, T.; Buitendijk, S.


    Background: Until recently, external cephalic version to prevent breech presentation at birth was not widely accepted. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence, outcomes, and women's experiences of external cephalic version to improve the implementation of the procedure in the Netherl

  15. Capturing sexual violence experiences among battered women using the revised sexual experiences survey and the revised conflict tactics scales. (United States)

    Moreau, Catherine; Boucher, Sophie; Hébert, Martine; Lemelin, Jacinthe


    The assessment of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) has garnered increased attention in recent years. However, uncertainty about which measure best captures experiences of IPSV remains. The present study focused on the direct comparison of two widely used measures of IPSV: the revised Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) and the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). A secondary aim of the study was to extend the scope of IPSV acts by evaluating the presence of pornographic acts and experiences of forced sexual relations with other individuals. The current sample consisted of 138 battered women using the services of shelters. Results indicated that 79.7 % of women reported at least one incident of IPSV on either the CTS2 or the SES. The concordance rate between both measures was 76.8 %, with the highest concordance being for severe sexual violence. The Sexual Violence scale of the CTS2, which is more concise than the SES, identified 16.7 % more cases of IPSV. In addition, 26.1 % of women reported at least one incident involving pornography and 9.4 % had been forced to engage in sexual activities with other individuals. Women who reported experiences associated with pornography were 12-20 times more likely to be victims of severe sexual violence on the two measures. Such findings confirm the high prevalence of sexual violence among this population and indicate how rates can vary depending on the measures used. This study also underscores the relevance of investigating diverse types of violent acts to better understand how IPSV manifests itself.

  16. A natural experiment on the condition-dependence of achromatic plumage reflectance in black-capped chickadees (United States)

    D'Alba, L.; Van Hemert, C.; Handel, C.M.; Shawkey, M.D.


    Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.

  17. Living with Advanced Breast Cancer among Ghanaian Women: Emotional and Psychosocial Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Bemah Bonsu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the emotional and psychosocial experiences of Ghanaian women living with advanced breast cancer in the Kumasi metropolis. The study employed a qualitative exploratory descriptive design. Purposive sampling approach was used and data was saturated with 10 participants aged between 32 and 65 years. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data was analyzed concurrently based on the techniques of content analysis. Anonymity and confidentiality were ensured. Women experienced emotional reactions such as sadness, fear, and anxiety. Pain was severe and led to suicidal ideations. Women experienced lost hopes regarding their marriage, parenting, and work. They received support from their families, spouses, colleagues, health professionals, and spiritual leaders. Women coped by accepting the disease and surrendering to God and having the will to live. Five major themes described were emotional reactions, pain, lost hope, support, and coping. It was recommended that health care providers involved in breast cancer management should be trained to enhance effective and holistic care of women and their families. Also, patients with advanced disease should be given effective pain management and a multidisciplinary palliative care team should be instituted to care for the women.

  18. The best laid plans? Women's choices, expectations and experiences in childbirth. (United States)

    Malacrida, Claudia; Boulton, Tiffany


    The past decades have seen a drastic increase in the medicalization of childbirth, evidenced by increasing Caesarean section rates in many Western countries. In a rare moment of congruence, alternative health-care providers, feminist advocates for women's health and, most recently, mainstream medical service providers have all expressed serious concerns about the rise in Caesarean section rates and women's roles in medicalization. These concerns stem from divergent philosophical positions as well as differing assumptions about the causes for increasing medicalization. Drawing on this debate, and using a feminist and governmentality framing of the problem, we interviewed 22 women who have recently had children about their birthing choices, their expectations and their birth experiences. The women's narratives revealed a disjuncture between their expectations of choosing, planning and achieving as natural a birth as possible, and their lived experiences of births that did not typically go to plan. They also reveal the disciplining qualities of both natural and medical discourses about birth and choice. Furthermore, their narratives counter assumptions that women, as ideal patient consumers, are driving medicalization.

  19. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.


    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  20. Experiences of Cigarette Smoking among Iranian Educated Women: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza


    Background: Smoking is a well-known public health problem in women as well as men. In many countries including Iran, there is an increase in tobacco use among women. Exploring the experience of smoking by educated women in order to develop effective tobacco prevention programs in these women is necessary. This study aimed to explore the experiences of smoking among Iranian educated women. Methods: This study used a method of qualitative content analysis with the deep individual, semi-structured interviews on a sample of 14 educated female smokers, selected purposefully. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with conventional approach while being collected. Results: The data analysis led to 16 subcategories which were divided into four main categories: (1) Personal factors including subcategories of imitation, show-off and independence, inexperience and curiosity, personal interest and desire, improved mood, and social defiance; (2) family factors including smokers in the family, intrafamily conflicts, and family strictures and limitations; (3) social factors including subcategories of effects of work and school environment, gender equality symbols, peer pressure, and acceptance among friends; and (4) negative consequences of smoking including subcategories of a sense of being physically hurt, psychological and emotional stress, and being looked upon in a negative and judgmental manner. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that smoking among Iranian educated women is a multifactorial problem. Thus, it is necessary to address smoking among educated women in a holistic approach that focuses on different determinants including personal, family, and social factors particularly the gender roles and stereotypes. PMID:27563429

  1. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiona Martin


    Full Text Available Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations.Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths.Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women’s experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations.Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology.Main findings: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women’s unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women’s resilience included the use of femininity, adopting male characteristics, mentorship and intrinsic motivational factors. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide organisations to develop and implement policies, strategies and initiatives geared towards attracting, integrating, retaining, supporting and motivating women who are, or wish to be, employed in historically maledominated occupations.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to an evolving body of knowledge aimed at understanding how to integrate and retain women in male-dominated occupations better.

  2. The experiences of prepregnancy care for women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-synthesis (United States)

    Forde, Rita; Patelarou, Evridiki E; Forbes, Angus


    Background Diabetes is one of the most common medical conditions affecting pregnancy and is associated with a number of adverse fetal, infant, and maternal outcomes. These adverse outcomes can be avoided or minimized with appropriate prepregnancy care (PPC). However, the uptake of PPC is limited in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The reasons for poor uptake are multifactorial, reflecting both women’s understanding of pregnancy risks, and limitations in care delivery. Methods A systematic literature review with meta-synthesis was undertaken to identify qualitative studies exploring experiences of PPC for women with T2DM incorporating the views of women with T2DM and health care professionals (HCPs). Identified studies included were synthesized in a meta-ethnography to develop an understanding of the elements contributing to the uptake of PPC among women with T2DM. Results The systematic review identified seven studies yielding data from 28 women with T2DM and 83 HCPs. The following six third-order constructs were identified from the synthesis: understanding PPC, emotive catalysts, beliefs about reproduction among women with T2DM, relationships and social factors, HCP behaviors and perspectives, and health care system factors. These constructs were used to develop a multifactorial model expressing the interactive issues that shape the reproductive health-seeking behaviors of women with T2DM to identify potential areas for intervention. Conclusion The uptake of PPC among women with T2DM seems to be informed by their personal orientation to their reproductive needs, their interactions with HCPs, and system-level influences. Future interventions to enhance PPC uptake need to address these underlying issues. PMID:27994487

  3. Relationships between experiences of parental violence during childhood and women's self-esteem. (United States)

    Downs, W R; Miller, B A


    The interrelationships between experience of parental verbal aggression and physical violence during childhood and the development of low self-esteem during adulthood were explored separately for the father-daughter and mother-daughter relationships. Data were collected from 472 women between the ages of 18 and 45 during in-depth interviews drawn from five sources: outpatient alcoholism treatment, DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) education programs, shelter for battered women, outpatient mental health treatment, and randomly from the community. Control variables included respondents' alcohol problems and help-seeking behavior, parental alcohol problems, number of changes in childhood family (e.g., divorce), and respondents' race and social class. Controlling for these variables, experiences of father-to-daughter verbal aggression, moderate violence, and severe violence were found related to lower self-esteem in adulthood for women. Conversely, controlling for these variables, experiences of mother-to-daughter verbal aggression, moderate violence, and severe violence were not found related to lower self-esteem in adulthood for women.

  4. A comparison of labour and birth experiences of women delivering in a birthing centre and at home in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borquez, H.A.; Wiegers, T.A.


    OBJECTIVE: to compare the labour and birth experiences of women who delivered at home without complications with the experiences of women who delivered in a birth centre without complications. DESIGN: a descriptive study using postal questionnaires at 1-6 months after birth of a consecutive sample o

  5. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D


    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...

  6. Health as Submission and Social Responsibilities: Embodied Experiences of Javanese Women With Type II Diabetes. (United States)

    Pitaloka, Dyah; Hsieh, Elaine


    By examining women's experiences with type II diabetes, we explore how illness can provide resources to construct meanings of everyday life in Javanese culture. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants in Central Java, Indonesia, and adopted grounded theory for data analysis. We identified four themes that diabetes serves as resources for women in Indonesia to (a) normalize suffering, (b) resist social control, (c) accept fate, and (d) validate faith. We concluded by noting three unique aspects of Javanese women's illness management. First, through the performance of submission, our participants demonstrated spirituality and religiosity as essential elements of health. Second, diabetes empowers individuals in everyday suffering through two divergent processes: embracing submission and resisting control. Finally, diabetes provides opportunities for individuals within a social network to (re)negotiate social responsibilities. In summary, diabetes provides unique resources to empower our participants to obtain voices that they otherwise would not have had.

  7. Transgender women and the Gender Reassignment Process: subjection experiences, suffering and pleasure in body adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analídia Rodolpho Petry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to understand the experiences of transgender women in relation to the hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery that make up the Gender Reassignment Process. METHOD: It is a qualitative study inserted into the field of cultural and gender studies. Data collection used narrative interviews, conducted in 2010 and 2011, with seven transsexual women who had been undergoing the Gender Reassignment Process for at least two years. The data was submitted to a thematic analysis. RESULTS: The results show that the transformation processes for construction of the female body include behavior adaptation, posture modification, voice modulation, hormone use, vaginal canal dilation and surgical complications. Such processes subject the body to be built as idealized to fit the gender identity, infringing on pleasures and afflictions. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the discussion involving the Gender Reassignment Process brings allowances for nursing regarding body changes experienced by transgender women.

  8. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård;


    Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...... using a descriptive analysis methodology. Results: Motivational interviewing is an excellent technique in the operation of daily clinics in obstetrics when communicating with obese pregnant women or pregnant women in general. The technique makes the healthcare professionals more aware of their own...... communication style. Time must be dedicated to the technique, but it enables the healthcare professionals to become more professional and assists them in handling difficult workloads. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals experienced motivational interviewing to be a useful tool when working in obstetrics...

  9. Being the mother of a child with Asperger's syndrome: women's experiences of stigma. (United States)

    Gill, Jessica; Liamputtong, Pranee


    In this article, we explore the experience of stigma amongst mothers of children who have Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Fifteen women participated in in-depth interviews; six produced a solicited diary that offered a more in-depth insight into the experiences of stigma amongst these mothers. We employed thematic analysis to analyze the data. We found that mothers perceived themselves to be stigmatized specifically in the school and community environments. Participants also compared their own experiences of stigma with other families with physically disabled children. Several strategies were established by these mothers in order to allow them to deal with this stigma better.

  10. Experiences of social support among women presenting for obstetric fistula repair surgery in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis AC


    Full Text Available Alexis C Dennis1 Sarah M Wilson1–3 Mary V Mosha4 Gileard G Masenga4 Kathleen J Sikkema1,5,6 Korrine E Terroso1 Melissa H Watt1 1Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, 2Department of Veterans Affairs, Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, 3Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Moshi, Tanzania; 5Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Objective: An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration.Patients and methods: The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59 and in-depth interviews (n=20.Results: Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs.Conclusion: Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic

  11. PMS as a process of negotiation: women's experience and management of premenstrual distress. (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette


    The absence of reports of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in contexts such as China, Hong Kong, and India has led to the conclusion that PMS is a culture-bound syndrome. This qualitative study examines whether is it possible for women in a Western cultural context to negotiate negative premenstrual change in order to effectively avoid or reduce premenstrual distress. Sixty women who self-defined as a 'PMS sufferer' took part in one-to-one interviews, which were analysed using theoretical thematic analysis from a material-discursive-intrapsychic (MDI) perspective. Three major themes were consistently identified across relationship type and context, reflecting women's strategies of premenstrual self-regulation and coping: 'Self-monitoring and awareness: recognition and acceptance of premenstrual change'; 'Coping through self-regulation of premenstrual distress', including: 'avoidance of stress and conflict', 'escaping relational demands and responsibilities', and 'care of the self'; and 'Coping as an inter-subjective experience'. These findings challenge the view of PMS as a fixed unitary syndrome, suggesting that premenstrual change is an ongoing process of negotiation, in which women are agentic subjects, not passive 'PMS sufferers'. This has implications for therapists working with women reporting moderate-severe PMS, suggesting that the reframing of 'symptoms' as normal change, behavioural coping strategies, and self-monitoring, can effectively reduce premenstrual distress.

  12. [Rape-related pregnancy in Brazil: the experience of women seeking legal abortion]. (United States)

    Machado, Carolina Leme; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Makuch, Maria Yolanda


    In Brazil, abortion is permitted by law in cases of rape-related pregnancy. This study reports on various aspects in the experience of women that have been sexually assaulted: diagnosis of the pregnancy, seeking legal abortion, and hospitalization in a university hospital. This was a qualitative study that interviewed ten women 18 to 38 years of age, with at least eight years of schooling, one to five years after legal abortion. The women had been previously unaware of their right to a legal abortion, were ashamed about the sexual assault, kept it secret, and had not sought immediate care. The diagnosis of pregnancy provoked anxiety and the wish to undergo an abortion. Women treated through private health plans received either insufficient orientation or none at all. Respectful treatment by the healthcare staff proved relevant for the women to cope with the abortion. The study highlights the need to publicize the right to abortion in cases of rape-related pregnancy and the healthcare services that perform legal abortion, in addition to training healthcare and law enforcement teams to handle such cases.

  13. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  14. Experiences of Trans Women and Two-Spirit Persons Accessing Women-Specific Health and Housing Services in a Downtown Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada (United States)

    Krüsi, Andrea; Pierre, Leslie; Smith, Adrienne; Small, Will; Shannon, Kate


    Abstract Purpose: Little is known about trans womens' experiences accessing gender-segregated health and housing services, particularly services for marginalized individuals living in poverty. As such, we conducted a qualitative investigation into experiences of accessing women-specific health and housing services among trans women and two-spirit persons in a downtown neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Methods: Between June 2012 and May 2013 interviews were conducted with 32 trans women and two-spirit individuals who had accessed women-specific health and/or housing services. Participants were recruited from four open prospective cohorts of sex workers and individuals who use drugs. Interview data were analyzed using a participatory analysis approach with two participants who were hired as research assistants. Results: Participants were generally able to access women-specific services in the neighborhood. However, there were reports of discrimination related to gender identity, discrimination based on gender expression (e.g., requirement of a feminine gender expression), and lack of staff intervention in harassment from other service users. Conclusion: Trans women and two-spirit persons in our study relied upon services for their health and safety and, therefore, exclusion from women-specific services had potentially severe adverse consequences such as homelessness and sexual violence. Recommendations to improve accessibility, including policy development and procedural recommendations, are put forth. PMID:27575593

  15. Breaking up is hard to do: Women's experience of dissolving their same-sex relationship. (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B


    While prior research has compared same-sex to heterosexual relationships, very little attention has been paid to the unique experiences of women dissolving same-sex relationships, especially in the context of shifting legal and social policies. The current study examined the experience of 20 women who dissolved their same-sex relationship between 2002 and 2014. Participants were drawn from a longitudinal sample of same-sex and heterosexual couples and were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol. Interviews focused on three primary research questions: reasons for dissolution, emotional reactions, and role of legal status. While reasons for dissolution largely mirrored literature on women in heterosexual relationships, emotional reactions and the role of legal status were both influenced by sexual minority-specific factors related to minority stress and the recent societal changes pertaining to legal relationship recognition. Results are interpreted in a framework of minority stress and the ongoing legacy of institutional discrimination experienced by women in same-sex relationships.

  16. [Loss and grieving: the experiences of women who terminate a pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformations]. (United States)

    Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Petean, Eucia Beatriz Lopes


    The scope of this study was to investigate the grieving experiences of women who terminated pregnancies under judicial authorization, due to life-incompatible fetal malformation. Ten women attended in the Fetal Medicine Department of Botucatu Clinical Hospital participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews forty days after termination. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full, with the data analyzed from the thematic content analysis perspective. The results revealed that the mothers sought explanations and meanings for the loss, with religious responses and self-blame being very frequent. The reports were marked by feelings of sadness, longing and sensations of emptiness due to the loss of the child, revealing the need of the mothers to dwell on the issue. The mothers were and continued to be linked to their children; the termination of the pregnancy, although being a choice to minimize the pain of an inevitable loss, did not spare the women from experiences of great suffering.>The study includes input for the discussion and planning of health approaches and care for women who terminate their pregnancy due to lethal fetal malformation, by means of judicial authorization.

  17. Textual Silences and the (Re)Presentation of Black Undergraduate Women in Higher Education Journals: A Critical Discourse Analysis (United States)

    Everett, Kimberly Deion


    Academic journals serve as a discipline's official discourse reflecting what has been deemed important in that discipline at a specific point in time. For the better part of 20 years, discourses in the field of student affairs have constructed Black men as a population in need of specific attention. The proliferation of scholarship on Black men…

  18. Black middle managers' experience of affirmative action in a media company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnard B Motileng


    Full Text Available Affirmative action remains one of the most highly sensitive, emotive and hotly debated subjects in South Africa. It is nevertheless an important legislated strategy that needs to be thoroughly researched and constructively debated to bring change to the lives of previously disadvantaged individuals. The present study describes how five black middle managers experience affirmative action at a media company. Emphasis was placed on how these managers define affirmative action, whether they feel that others question their abilities because of this policy, and the extent to which affirmative action affects their job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation. Results of the study revealed that participants experienced affirmative action positively as a mechanism that provides employment opportunities, but encounter many challenges and obstacles. These problems can be addressed by sustained commitment from organisations to make the function of the affirmative action policy explicit and to create a shared culture in the workplace. Opsomming Regstellende aksie is tans ’n sensitiewe saak wat vurige debat en emosies in Suid Afrika uitlok. Dit is egter ’n belangrike wetlike strategie wat deeglik nagevors en konstruktief gedebatteer moet word om verandering in die lewens van vorige benadeeldes te bring. Die huidige studie beskryf hoe vyf middelvlak bestuurders regstellende aksie by ’n mediamaatskappy beleef het. Klem word geplaas op hoe hierdie bestuurders regstellende aksie definieer, of hulle voel dat ander hul vaardighede betwyfel as gevolg van hierdie beleid, en die mate waartoe regstellende aksie hul werksbevrediging en verbintenis tot die organisasie beïnvloed. Resultate wys dat die deelnemers regstellende aksie positief beleef het as ’n meganisme wat werksgeleenthede skep maar data heelwat uitdagings en struikelblokke beleef word. Hierdie probleme kan aangespreek word deur volgehoue verbintenis van organisasies om die regstellende aksie

  19. Multiple case study analysis of young women's experiences in high school engineering (United States)

    Pollock, Meagan C.

    At a time when engineers are in critical demand, women continue to be significantly underrepresented in engineering fields (11.7%) and degree programs (21.3%) in the United States. As a result, there is a national demand for improved K-12 STEM education and targeted efforts to improve equity and access to engineering and science careers for every underrepresented group. High school engineering has become a nascent and growing market for developers and an emergent opportunity for students across the United States to learn introductory engineering skills through strategic career pathways; however there is a disparity in participation at this level as well. Much useful research has been used to examine the problematization of underrepresentation (K Beddoes, 2011), but there is a dearth of literature that helps us to understand the experiences of young women in high school engineering. By examining the experiences of young women in high school engineering, we can learn ways to improve the curriculum, pedagogy, and environment for underrepresented groups such as females to ensure they have equitable access to these programs and are subsequently motivated to persist in engineering. Understanding the needs of marginalized groups is complex, and intersectional feminism seeks to understand gender in relation to other identities such as race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and nationality. This theory asserts that gender alone is neither a total identity nor a universal experience, and it is thus advantageous to consider each of the intersecting layers of identity so as to not privilege a dominate group as representative of all women. Thus, to understand how female students engage with and experience engineering in grade school, it is useful to examine through the lens of gender, class, race, and sexuality, because this intersection frames much of the human experience. The purpose of this study is to examine high school females' experiences in engineering, with a goal to

  20. Role flexing: how community, religion, and family shape the experiences of young black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oster, Alexandra M; Viall, Abigail H; Heffelfinger, James D; Mena, Leandro A; Toledo, Carlos A


    While the disproportionate impact of HIV on young black men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, the reasons for this disparity remain less clear. Through in-depth interviews, we explored the role of familial, religious, and community influence on the experiences of young black MSM and identified strategies that these young men use to negotiate and manage their sexual minority status. Between February and April 2008, 16 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young (19- to 24-year-old) black MSM in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Results suggest that overall, homosexuality remains highly stigmatized by the men's families, religious community, and the African American community. To manage this stigma, many of the participants engaged in a process of "role flexing," in which individuals modified their behavior in order to adapt to a particular situation. The data also provided evidence of internalized homophobia among a number of the participants. The impact of stigma on risk behavior should be more fully explored, and future intervention efforts need to explicitly address and challenge stigma, both among young men themselves and the communities in which they reside. Attention should also be paid to the role masculinity may play as a driver of the HIV epidemic among young black MSM and how this knowledge can be used to inform prevention efforts.

  1. Building a new nest: the experience of women relocating to a seniors-designated apartment building. (United States)

    Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne M


    Although relocation has been a subject of research for the last 30 years, few studies have described the experience of relocating to congregated housing for the elderly. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to describe women's experiences of relocating to an apartment building for seniors and the factors that influence relocation. The 11 women interviewed identified the central issue in relocation as re-establishing the self: the physical and psychosocial changes entailed in constructing a supportive and aesthetically pleasing living space while maintaining a sense of well-being. The basic social process that emerged was building a new nest, a non-linear process comprising 3 phases. The findings offer new insights into an aspect of relocation that is rarely explored in nursing research.

  2. Scandinavian women's experiences in connection with "abortion on request": a systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mille Nyboe; Fandt Hansen, Christl


    The objective of this review is to investigate Scandinavian women’s experiences in connection with "abortion on request”. Types of participants: This review will consider studies that include adult women from age 18 living in (but not necessarily legal citizens of) Scandinavia, defined as Denmark...... and after the intervention - an abortion on request and in investigating possible and self-reported psychosocial or psychological health consequences following the abortion. Types of context: This review will focus on Scandinavian women who have had a legal abortion on request in a Scandinavian hospital......, Sweden and Norway, who have experienced an induced (medical or surgical) abortion without a medical reason, described here as an “abortion on request”. Phenomena of interest: The objective of this review is to investigate Scandinavian women’s experiences in connection with – meaning before, during...

  3. Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Related Problems


    Elisabeth Isman; Amina Mahmoud Warsame; Annika Johansson; Sarah Fried; Vanja Berggren


    Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate midwives experiences in providing care and counselling to women with FGM related problems. Setting. The study was conducted at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Method. A qualitative, inductive study were performed with eight midwives living in Somaliland. The interviews had semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used for the analysis. Findings. The main findings of the present study were how midwives are challenged by culture and...

  4. Responding to trauma : handbook based on experiences of Afghan refugee women living in Finland


    Mäki-Soini, Sandi


    As more traumatized refugees are coming to settle in Finland, it would be beneficial for social and health workers to understand basic trauma theories, symptoms and reactions and support methods. It is for this purpose that the following thesis booklet was written, regarding responding to trauma, based on experiences from Afghan women. While there are few books written on this topic, it is helpful to have a compact handbook, with precise information, for students and work...

  5. The lived experience of women pregnant (including preconception) post in vitro fertilization through the lens of virtual communities. (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve; Montgomery, Rebecca M


    In this study, researchers explore and describe the experience of pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF). The lived experience portrayed herein represents the experience of women from at least seven different countries (the United States, Australia, England, Ireland, Canada, Columbia, and Borneo). Professionals from multiple disciplines may use insights gained from this study to better understand emotional, psychological, and physical health needs of women pregnant post IVF.

  6. Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women's experience of group prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeil Deborah A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Methods The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010. Results Six themes emerged: (1 "getting more in one place at one time"; (2 "feeling supported"; (3 "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4 "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5 "connecting"; and (6 "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met. Conclusions Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women

  7. [Lived experience of women with fetal chromosomal abnormality receiving termination at second trimester]. (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Mei; Su, Tsann-Juu; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Hwang, Jiann-Lonng


    Fetal chromosomal examination helps screen fetal chromosomal abnormalities prenatally. Diagnosis of such anomalies allows pregnancy termination, but causes tremendous trauma during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities who are urgently required to terminate their pregnancy. The qualitative field study was conducted at a medical center in Taipei. The researcher, a primary nurse, conducted interviews with five women face to face or over the phone to collect the data. The period of care lasted for two weeks, beginning with confirmed diagnosis of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, followed by the subjects' decision on pregnancy termination, and ending up with their discharge from the hospital. The study is presented in narrative form and the data analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology. Three categories of lived experience emerged from the data: (1) recurring nightmares, (2) the torment from making the decision of pregnancy termination, and (3) frustration or sadness afterwards. The results illustrated that the lived experience of the women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities and receiving termination was a continuous process. We suggest that medical staff concern themselves with the issue and provide humanistic caring for patients during the various different phases.

  8. Abortamento induzido: vivência de mulheres baianas Induced abortion: the experience of women from the Brazilian state of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do Nascimento Pereira


    study was conducted in a public maternity hospital in the city of Salvador (Northeastern Brazil, and the subjects were nine women hospitalized due to induced abortion. To collect data, we used the interview accompanied by a semi-structured form. Ethical aspects were considered based on Resolution 196/96 of the National Health Council. For the analysis of the discourses, we used Bardin's content analysis technique. The sample was characterized by predominantly black adult women, married or in a stable union, financially dependent on the partner. In the analysis, two themes emerged: motivation and feelings. Among the reasons leading to abortion, there are financial difficulties, the number of children, the experience of domestic violence and the loss of their autonomy. The process of aborting generates fear of death, sadness and relief. Women experiencing induced abortion revealed a very painful process from the moment they discover the pregnancy until the difficult decision to interrupt it. When they are not helped, these women perpetuate the pain, living days of anguish and guilt. The exercise of listening and welcoming these women must be present in the lives of health professionals, regardless of their views on abortion, so that the women can express their feelings, and then get appropriate help and referral.

  9. Public self-consciousness moderates the link between displacement behaviour and experience of stress in women. (United States)

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart


    When stressed, people typically show elevated rates of displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching that seem irrelevant to the ongoing situation. Growing evidence indicates that displacement behaviour may play a role in regulating stress levels, and thus may represent an important component of the coping response. Recently, we found evidence that this stress-regulating effect of displacement behaviour is found in men but not in women. This sex difference may result from women's higher levels of public self-consciousness, which could inhibit expression of displacement behaviour due to the fear of projecting an inappropriate image. Here, we explored the link between public self-consciousness, displacement behaviour and stress among 62 healthy women (mean age = 26.59 years; SD = 3.61). We first assessed participants' public self-consciousness, and then quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Public self-consciousness was negatively correlated with rate of displacement behaviour, and positively correlated with both the subjective experience of stress post-TSST and the number of mistakes in the cognitive task. Moderation analyses revealed that for women high in public self-consciousness, high levels of displacement behaviour were associated with higher reported levels of stress and poorer cognitive performance. For women low in public self-consciousness, stress levels and cognitive performance were unrelated to displacement behaviour. Our findings indicate that public self-consciousness is associated with both the expression of displacement behaviour and how such behaviour mediates responses to social stress.

  10. On the experience of feeling powerful: perceived power moderates the effect of stereotype threat on women's math performance. (United States)

    Van Loo, Katie J; Rydell, Robert J


    This research examined whether feeling powerful can eliminate the deleterious effect of stereotype threat (i.e., concerns about confirming a negative self-relevant stereotype) on women's math performance. In Experiments 1 and 2, priming women with high power buffered them from reduced math performance in response to stereotype threat instructions, whereas women in the low and control power conditions showed poorer math performance in response to threat. Experiment 3 found that working memory capacity is one mechanism through which power moderates the effect of threat on women's math performance. In the low and control power conditions, women showed reduced working memory capacity in response to stereotype threat, accounting for threat's effect on performance. In contrast, women in the high power condition did not show reductions in working memory capacity or math performance in response to threat. This work demonstrates that perceived power moderates stereotype threat-based performance effects and explains why this occurs.

  11. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

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    Tong Wen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected from an urban family planning clinic in Penang, Malaysia based on inclusion criteria of being aged 21 and above and having experienced an induced abortion. A semi-structured interview guide consisting of open ended questions eliciting women’s experiences and needs with regard to abortion were utilized to facilitate the interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results Thirty-one women, with ages ranging from 21–43 years (mean 30.16 ±6.41, who had induced surgical/medical abortions were recruited from an urban family planning clinic. Ten women reported only to have had one previous abortion while the remaining had multiple abortions ranging from 2–8 times. The findings revealed that although women had abortions, nevertheless they faced problems in seeking for abortion information and services. They also had fears about the consequences and side effects of abortion and wish to receive more information on abortion. Women with post-abortion feelings ranged from no feelings to not wanting to think about the abortion, relief, feeling of sadness and loss. Abortion decisions were primarily theirs but would seek partner/husband’s agreement. In terms of the women’s needs for abortion, or if they wished for more information on abortion, pre and post abortion counseling and post-abortion follow up. Conclusions The existing abortion laws in Malaysia should enable the government to provide abortion services within the

  12. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study

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    Liliana González-Juárez


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place.METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups.RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman.CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration.

  13. Women's participation in the medical profession: insights from experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana; Jagsi, Reshma


    Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States.

  14. "I should live and finish it": A qualitative inquiry into Turkish women's menopause experience

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    Unalan Pemra C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While bio-medically, menopause could be treated as an illness, from a psychosocial and cultural perspective it could be seen as a "natural" process without requiring medication unless severe symptoms are present. Our objective is to explore the perceptions of Turkish women regarding menopause and Hormone Therapy (HT to provide health care workers with an insight into the needs and expectations of postmenopausal women. Methods A qualitative inquiry through semi-structured, in-depth interviews was used to explore the study questions. We used a purposive sampling and included an equal number of participants who complained about the climacteric symptoms and those who visited the outpatient department for a problem other than climacteric symptoms but when asked declared that they had been experiencing climacteric symptoms. The interview questions focused on two areas; 1 knowledge, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about menopause and; 2 menopause-related experiences and ways to cope with menopause and perception of HT. Results Most of the participants defined menopause as a natural transition process that one should go through. Cleanliness, maturity, comfort of not having a period and positive changes in health behaviour were the concepts positively attributed to menopause, whereas hot flushes, getting old and difficulties in relationships were the negatives. Osteoporosis was an important concern for most of the participants. To deal with the symptoms, the non-pharmacological options were mostly favoured. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study which focuses on Turkish women's menopausal experiences. Menopause was thought to be a natural process which was characterised by positive and negative features. Understanding these features and their implications in these women's lives may assist healthcare workers in helping their clients with menopause.

  15. Brazilian policy responses to violence against women: government strategy and the help-seeking behaviors of women who experience violence. (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte


    Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision

  16. Conquering the Black Girl Blues. (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly


    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points.

  17. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women. (United States)

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  18. Perinatal factors related to negative or positive recall of birth experience in women 3 years postpartum in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, M.; Baston, H.; Schönbeck, Y.; Pal, K. van der; Prins, M.; Green, J.; Buitendijk, S.


    Background: Little research has been conducted to date on women's postnatal emotional well-being and satisfaction with the care received in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to investigate Dutch women's views of their birth experience 3 years after the event. Methods: A questionnaire was ma

  19. Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering: Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Undergraduate Research Experiences (United States)

    Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.


    Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…

  20. "Kitchen cupboard drinking": a review of South African women's secretive alcohol addiction, treatment history, and barriers to accessing treatment. (United States)

    Pretorius, Liezille; Naidoo, Av; Reddy, S P


    How Black women are represented, conceptualized, and researched in the field of psychology has dramatic and far-reaching effects on arriving at an understanding of personality and psychopathology. This point becomes especially salient as researchers try to develop alternative strategies for researching gendered experiences and for generating meaningful information about African women's experiences of alcohol misuse. On the African continent, there is a paucity of research on Black women's access to alcohol treatment. Therefore, this review has implications for research and practice with the potential to stimulate future health disparities research affecting Black African women. The article focuses on a South African population and explores the importance of theorizing alcohol misuse and sex by discussing the history of alcohol misuse in South Africa, women and alcohol misuse in South Africa, and women's treatment history; interpreting women's experiences of treatment; and addressing recommendations for future research.

  1. Considering the use of a personal emergency response system: an experience of frail, older women. (United States)

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H


    The individual considerations of frail women who are elderly as to the use of personal emergency response systems (PERS) are discussed within this article, and they derived from a larger longitudinal study that explores the home care experience of older widows. Participants were 11 frail women (aged 81-94) who perceived a risk of "falling and not being found" and did not have a PERS. A descriptive phenomenological method was used to analyze PERS-related data obtained during interviews with each woman in her home. With regard to considering the use of a PERS, experiences were structured variously by "getting by fine without it," "waiting to get it until I really need it," "convincing myself that I might get it later," and "borrowing no more trouble than I already have." Consistent interventions by home care professionals may perhaps be needed to increase PERS utilization rates. To develop effective interventions, further descriptive research is deemed necessary to explore drawbacks and barriers to PERS use by older frail women.

  2. Transforming hope: the lived experience of infertile women who terminated treatment after in vitro fertilization failure. (United States)

    Su, Tsann-Juu; Chen, Yueh-Chih


    Assisted reproductive treatments provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women who terminated treatment after in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. Using a qualitative research design, 24 subjects were recruited who had experienced IVF failure and decided to terminate their treatment. Data were collected through interviews, and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology. This study protocol was reviewed and approved by the University Review Board for Research. Informed consent was obtained from each subject. The theme of lived experience which emerged from the data was "transforming hope". This theme included three categories: (1) accepting the reality of infertility, (2) acknowledging the limitations of treatment involving high technology, and (3) re-identifying one's future. The results illustrated that counseling for these women should involve the provision of both positive and negative information, evaluation of the response to treatment, and assistance in defining their future.

  3. Black Achievers' Experiences with Racial Spotlighting and Ignoring in a Predominantly White High School (United States)

    Carter Andrews, Dorinda J.


    Background/Context: Despite a history of racial oppression and degradation in U.S. schools, African Americans have responded to racism and discrimination in ways that promote educational attainment and school success. Many Black adolescents have been empowered to succeed academically partly because of their awareness of racist practices in…

  4. Experience of sexuality after breast cancer: a qualitative study with women in rehabilitation1 (United States)

    Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Santos, Daniela Barsotti; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Giami, Alain


    Objective to comprehend the psychosocial and cultural repercussions of breast cancer and its treatment on the sexuality of women. Method this is a qualitative study grounded in the Sexual Scripts Theory with the participation of 23 women who were interviewed and participated in focus groups discussion. Results each category was related to a level of the sexual scripts. At the cultural scenario level a discourse on sexuality that includes definitions of sexual attractiveness and sexuality was highlighted. The interpersonal scripts level focused on the communication regarding sexuality established with the partner and with healthcare professionals category; and at the subjectivity scripts level the reports of improvement, deterioration and no change in the sexual life after cancer were analyzed. Conclusion the experience of cancer involves cultural, relational, and subjective aspects that affect the sexual life, therefore, healthcare professionals should be aware of them to improve integral healthcare. PMID:25029051

  5. The magnitude of reciprocity in chronic pain management: experiences of dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women. (United States)

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Zander, Viktoria; Eriksson, Henrik


    Dispersed ethnic populations believe their health to be worse than the ethnic majority group in Sweden. Most studies in rehabilitation exclude dispersed ethnic populations who can not read or speak the national language although this group seems to be in need of rehabilitation to a larger extent than privileged majority groups. The aim of the study was to examine the experience of living with musculoskeletal pain and experience of health care among dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women. The method used was inspired by Grounded Theory in this study. Interviews were made with five first-generation Muslim immigrant women who had come to Sweden via Iraq as refugees. Two interviews were performed with interpreters. A preliminary core category 'The magnitude of reciprocity' based on three categories emerged from the analysis: (1) Impact of pain, (2) Managing pain and (3) Facing health care. Chronic pain limited the informants physically and emotionally, as well as impacting on their everyday life. Informants managed their pain primarily through medicine and physical activity, which gave at least temporary relief. Health care providers were perceived as doing their best but experiences of bad meetings were also witnessed. The factors important in achieving a good meeting in this study appeared to be; time, dialogue, honesty and understanding. Communication skills, feelings of being taken seriously and a sense of security were additional factors. Not being properly examined, or offered optimal treatment, not being believed or understood, were all seen as signs of dismissal within health care. The limitations of this study are primarily concerned with language difficulties resulting in various shortcomings. Reciprocal recognition and support connected to the specific life experiences of women that come with forced resettlement from the Muslim world to the European diaspora is a vital part of a holistic approach to pain management.

  6. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants’ experiences with non-western immigrant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Francke, A.L.; Reep, M. van de; Manniën, J.; Wiegers, T.A.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.


    Background: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the

  7. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants' experiences with non-western immigrant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Boerleider; A.L. Francke; M. van de Reep; J. Manniën; T.A. Wiegers; W.L.J.M. Devillé


    Background: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the

  8. Women in nursing teams: organizational identification and experiences of pleasure and suffering

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    Adriane Vieira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the degree of influence of the organizational identification on the experiences of pleasure and suffering of women who are members of the nursing staff of two general hospitals in Belo Horizonte. METHOD: a quantitative study was conducted with 97 nurses and 414 nursing technicians chosen by convenience in their workplaces. We used a self-administered questionnaire containing four Likert-type scales: self and hetero-perceptions; identification with the organization; and experiences of pleasure and pain at work. RESULTS: the structural relations explained a small percentage of the variability of organizational identification, showing that the self and hetero-perception are presented as relevant factors in professional identification with the organization. When considering how much the self and the hetero-perception and organizational identification all together impact in the experiences of pleasure and pain, a higher explanatory power is observed for: professional exhaustion, lack of recognition, freedom of expression and professional achievement.

  9. Women's Experiences of Publicly Funded Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Ontario, Canada: Considerations for Health Technology Policy-Making. (United States)

    Vanstone, Meredith; Yacoub, Karima; Giacomini, Mita; Hulan, Danielle; McDonald, Sarah


    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) via fetal DNA in maternal blood has been publicly funded in Ontario, Canada, for high-risk women since 2014. We solicited women's experiences and values related to this new health technology to describe how this test is currently being used in Ontario and to provide information about patient priorities to inform future policy decisions about the use of NIPT. Guided by constructivist grounded theory methodology, we interviewed 38 women who had diverse personal experiences with NIPT. Participants' accounts of their values for decision making about NIPT heavily relied on three mutually modulating factors: timing, accuracy, and risk. The values expressed by women conflict with the way that publicly funded NIPT has typically been implemented in Ontario. We offer recommendations for how NIPT might be integrated into prenatal care pathways in a way more consistent with women's values.

  10. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

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    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian


    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  11. Conditions and life experiences of indigent pregnant women living in the northwest metropolitan of San José

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    Mónica Granados Hernández


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into the conditions and life experiences ofindigent women. Involved four indigent pregnant women. The investigation was prompted by aphenomenological, qualitative design. The data collection was carried out by applying depth interviews, usingrecording for repeated observations, then the data were analyzed and contrasted with the framework. Among themost important characteristics that form a profile of a indigent pregnant woman found common factors:alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, physical violence, sexual and psychological and crime. We conclude thatthe conditions of life are intertwined with the life experiences of homeless pregnant women, from the conditionwhich determines their profile.

  12. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria. (United States)

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj


    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery.

  13. Women Exiting Street-Based Sex Work: Correlations between Ethno-Racial Identity, Number of Children, and Violent Experiences. (United States)

    Hankel, Jennifer; Dewey, Susan; Martinez, Nina


    Through this article the authors examine data collected from 126 women seeking services at a transitional housing facility, primarily for women leaving street-based prostitution. Descriptive statistics on the women's ethno-racial identity, numbers of children, and experiences with violence are presented and analyzed to determine correlations and implications for social service providers working with this unique population of women. Nearly half of respondents are women of color, a majority have given birth to at least one child, and more than half are in a non-commercial intimate partnership, with a significant number reporting extensive experiences with violent trauma and abuse. Results indicate statistically significant differences in women's ethno-racial self-identification and their experiences of sex work and violence, as well as their marital status. Most notably, African-American and Hispanic women face the greatest and most diverse forms of intimate partner violence and negative sex industry experiences, with African-Americans more likely to engage in sex work as minors, be sexually abused as children, work for a pimp, and face physical assault and instances of sex trafficking. Results also support existing research showing correlations between traumatic childhood events and adult substance abuse, sexual assault, and other negative outcomes.

  14. 'My culture haunts me no matter where I go': Iranian-American women discussing sexual and acculturation experiences. (United States)

    Rashidian, Mitra; Hussain, Rafat; Minichiello, Victor


    Iranian-American womens' perceptions of their sexual-selves and gender roles are influenced both by the cultural context of their life experience in Iran and their acculturation in the USA. In a qualitative study, using narrative as methodology and a feminist theoretical framework, individual interviews were conducted with 24 first-generation Iranian-American women in southern California. The narratives revealed that these Iranian-American women felt attached to their home culture while also having a desire to distinguish themselves from it. In so doing, they realised that their individual sexual-selves and gender roles stemmed from their life experiences, such as home culture memories and new cultural exposures. The degrees of adjustment during the acculturation process provided women with challenges in dealing with the consequences of new experiences and the shame and guilt of shedding old cultural norms. Acculturation offered these Iranian-American women a fuller understanding of their gender role and sexual-self perceptions. An understanding of cultural impact on women's life experiences may assist healthcare professionals in their efforts to assist women in determining innovative intervention where the needs of gender role and sexual-self-concept are concerned.

  15. Women Treated for Breast Cancer Experiences of Chemotherapy-Induced Pain (United States)

    Hellerstedt-Börjesson, Susanne; Nordin, Karin; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Holmström, Inger K.; Arving, Cecilia


    Background: Breast cancer survivors make up a growing population facing treatment that poses long-standing adverse effects including chemotherapy-related body function changes and/or pain. There is limited knowledge of patients’ lived experiences of chemotherapy-induced pain (CHIP). Objective: The aim of this study was to explore CHIP and any long-standing pain experiences in the lifeworld of breast cancer survivors. Methods: Fifteen women participated in a follow-up interview a year after having experienced CHIP. They were interviewed from a lifeworld perspective; the interviews were analyzed through guided phenomenology reflection. Results: A past perspective: CHIP is often described in metaphors, leads to changes in a patient’s lifeworld, and impacts lived time. The women become entirely dependent on others but at the same time feel isolated and alone. Existential pain was experienced as increased vulnerability. Present perspective: Pain engages same parts of the body, but at a lower intensity than during CHIP. The pain creates time awareness. Expected normality in relationships/daily life has not yet been achieved, and a painful existence emerges in-between health and illness. Future perspective: There are expectations of pain continuing, and there is insecurity regarding whom to turn to in such cases. A painful awareness emerges about one’s own and others’ fragile existence. Conclusions: Experiencing CHIP can impact the lifeworld of women with a history of breast cancer. After CHIP, there are continued experiences of pain that trigger insecurity about whether one is healthy. Implications for Practice: Cancer survivors would likely benefit from communication and information about and evaluation of CHIP. PMID:26632880

  16. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea (United States)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.


    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  17. Infertility experience and health differentials - a population-based comparative study on infertile and non-infertile women (the HUNT Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostad, Berit; Schmidt, Lone; Sundby, Johanne


    OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that health complaints, distress and poor life satisfaction are associated with infertility experience. Research on health consequences of infertility experience in women has relied heavily on clinic-based samples. This population-based study investigates the association...... between infertility and health and life satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based health study, conducted between 2006 and 2008. SETTING: All women in a county in Norway were invited. The current material is restricted to women aged 20-49 years. POPULATION: A total of 9200 women participated....... METHODS: Health measures were compared between women with infertility experience (infertile women) and women without infertility experience (non-infertile women). Disparities in health and life satisfaction among the infertile women were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported health, functional...

  18. The experience of women in hospital rest with preterm premature rupture of de amniotic membranes

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    María del Mar Fernández Míguez


    Full Text Available Hospital bed rest in a preterm premature rupture of the amniotic membranes involves a crisis situation for women with very high emotional effects.To understand the needs felt of the gestantes with pregnancies of high risk on the part of the professionals, it will improve the quality of the attention and it can help to diminish the stress levels at this vulnerable period and to confronting the maternity.Aim: Investigate women´s experience when they are resting in hospital in cases de preterm premature rupture of membranes.Methodology: Phenomenological study, It has taken as a population of study to women hospitalized in the plant of obstetrics of high risk from Gregorio Marañón Hospital, with preterm premature rupture of membranes between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation.Data collection: Was be carried out by means of the individual interviews in hospitable environment; observation and withdrawal of notes during the accomplishment of this one.

  19. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    S.M. Maputle


    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized.Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  20. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    Sonto M. Maputle


    Full Text Available Introduction:The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized.Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  1. "We are Arabs:" The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women's Lived Experiences. (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S


    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.

  2. The experience of women with abortion during adolescence as demanded by their mothers

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    Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca Domingos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the experience of women who induced an abortion during adolescence as demanded by their mothers. METHOD: qualitative study with a social phenomenology approach conducted in 2010 with three women through interviews with open questions. RESULTS: the participants tried to hide their pregnancies from their mothers and when the mothers found out about the pregnancies they decide to interrupt it, demanding that their daughters have an abortion, which was performed in an unsafe manner, regardless of the adolescents' desire. After the abortion, the adolescents experienced suffering, guilt, and regret for not having fought against their mothers' decisions. These women expect to be autonomous to make their own decisions, take care of their own health and become pregnant again. CONCLUSION: the study evidenced the decision for an abortion was centered on the adolescents' mothers, a result that deserves to be further explored in future research deepening the relationship established between daughter and mother in the situation of an induced abortion. We suggest the creation of opportunities for the triad of health professional/adolescent/family to dialogue, especially the mother, who in the context of family relations, can help the daughter to safely deal with an early pregnancy and prevent it instead of influencing the adolescent to induce an abortion.

  3. Navigating a strange and complex environment: experiences of Sudanese refugee women using a new nutrition resource

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    Mannion CA


    Full Text Available Cynthia A Mannion, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal, Christena Jane HenshawFaculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Refugees experience dietary changes as part of the daily challenges they face resettling in a new country. Sudanese women seek to care and feed their families, but face language barriers in the marketplace, limited access to familiar foods, and forced new food choices. This study aimed to understand the acceptability of a purse-sized nutrition resource, “The Market Guide”, which was developed to help recently immigrated Sudanese refugee women identify and purchase healthy foods and navigate grocery stores.Methods: Eight women participated in a focus group, four of whom were also observed during accompanied grocery store visits. Individual interviews were conducted with four health care workers at the resettlement center to gather perceptions about the suitability of The Market Guide. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data from field notes and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory for preliminary open codes, followed by selective and theoretical coding.Results: The Market Guide was of limited use to Sudanese women. Their response to this resource revealed the struggles of women acculturating during their first year in Calgary, Canada. We discovered the basic social process, “Navigating through a strange and complex environment: learning ways to feed your family.” Language, transportation, and an unfamiliar marketplace challenged women and prevented them from exercising their customary role of “knowing” which foods were “safe and good” for their families. The nutrition resource fell short of informing food choices and purchases, and we discovered that “learning to feed your family” is a relational process where trusted persons, family, and friends help navigate dietary acculturation.Conclusion: Emergent theory based on the basic social process may

  4. Preference for dry sex, condom use and risk of STI among HIV-negative black women in the Western Cape province, South Africa

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    Robert Ruiter


    Full Text Available The practice of dry sex is reportedly common among young black women in South Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women’s preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 446 women completed a behavioural survey in isiXhosa which assessed demographic information, sexual behaviours, condom use behaviour and other potential correlates. In total, 159 (36.72% women indicated preferring dry sex. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that participants who preferred dry sex were more likely to report past STI episodes and to have a partner who also preferred dry sex. The findings indicate that dry sex behaviour was not directly associated with condom use and STI (CT, NG, and TV prevalence but may have been associated with relationships in which sexual preferences of the male partner were dominant.

  5. A Black Experience-Based Approach to Gender-Based Violence (United States)

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.


    Gender-based violence (GBV) affects women across race, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, religion, sexual orientation, and geographic boundaries. No segments of society are immune from the vestiges of this problem. Yet GBV has been particularly harmful within communities of African ancestry African American communities suffer with greater…

  6. "It Really Is Not Just Gay, but African American Gay": The Impact of Community and Church on the Experiences of Black Lesbians Living in North Central Florida. (United States)

    Walsh, Clare F


    The experiences of Black lesbians highlight the unique circumstance found at the intersection of sexuality, race, and gender. However, most sexuality research tends to focus on White lesbians and White gay men, and most race research tends to focus on Black heterosexuals. Furthermore, research on the Black gay community tends to focus on those living in the Northeast or on the West Coast, neglecting experiences of those living in the more politically, socially, and religiously conservative South. This article draws on data obtained from semistructured interviews with 12 Black lesbians living in north central Florida, exploring their perspectives as they negotiate a social world of intersecting oppressions. Participants especially highlight how they contextualized their sexuality in racialized terms and negotiated it in racially defined communities.

  7. More in hope than expectation: a systematic review of women's expectations and experience of pain relief in labour

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    Macphail Sheila


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childbirth is one of the most painful events that a woman is likely to experience, the multi-dimensional aspect and intensity of which far exceeds disease conditions. A woman's lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits of the various methods of pain relief can heighten anxiety. Women are increasingly expected, and are expecting, to participate in decisions about their healthcare. Involvement should allow women to make better-informed decisions; the National Institute for Clinical Excellence has stated that we need effective ways of supporting pregnant women in making informed decisions during labour. Our aim was to systematically review the empirical literature on women's expectations and experiences of pain and pain relief during labour, as well as their involvement in the decision-making process. Methods A systematic review was conducted using the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Bath Information and Database Service (BIDS, Excerpta Medica Database Guide (EMBASE, Midwives Information and Resource (MIDIRS, Sociological Abstracts and PsychINFO. Studies that examined experience and expectations of pain, and its relief in labour, were appraised and the findings were integrated into a systematic review. Results Appraisal revealed four key themes: the level and type of pain, pain relief, involvement in decision-making and control. Studies predominantly showed that women underestimated the pain they would experience. Women may hope for a labour free of pain relief, but many found that they needed or benefited from it. There is a distinction between women's desire for a drug-free labour and the expectation that they may need some sort of pain relief. Inaccurate or unrealistic expectations about pain may mean that women are not prepared appropriately for labour. Many women acknowledged that they wanted to

  8. How do women prepare for pregnancy? Preconception experiences of women attending antenatal services and views of health professionals.

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    Judith Stephenson

    Full Text Available To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy.Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals.We recruited 1173/1288 (90% women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54-3.54 for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42-3.36 for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care.Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.

  9. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia. (United States)

    Theeke, Laurie A; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy


    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations.

  10. Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM Related Problems

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    Elisabeth Isman


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate midwives experiences in providing care and counselling to women with FGM related problems. Setting. The study was conducted at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Method. A qualitative, inductive study were performed with eight midwives living in Somaliland. The interviews had semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used for the analysis. Findings. The main findings of the present study were how midwives are challenged by culture and religion when providing FGM counselling. The most prominent challenge is the perception that FGM is an important part of the culture and from this point of view the midwives work is apprehended as interfering and subverting the Somali culture. Having personal experience of FGM emerged as a benefit when counselling women. Conclusion. There is a contradiction between the professional actions of performing FGM despite a personal belief against FGM. Midwives as a professional group could be important agents of change and further research is needed about the midwives role in this process.

  11. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women. (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki


    Although the inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of diabetes has been reported numerous times, the role of caffeine intake in this association has remained unclear. We evaluated the consumption of coffee and other beverages and food containing caffeine in relation to the incidence of diabetes. The study participants were 5897 men and 7643 women in a community-based cohort in Takayama, Japan. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea and chocolate snacks were measured with a semi-quantitative FFQ in 1992. At the follow-up survey in 2002, the development of diabetes and the time of diagnosis were reported. To assess the association, age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, education in years, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, fat intake and women's menopausal status were adjusted. Among men who consumed one cup per month to six cups per week and among those who consumed one cup per d or more, the associated hazard ratios were 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.97) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.98) compared with those who drank little to no coffee, with a P value for trend of 0.32. The hazard ratios for women with the same coffee consumption patterns were 1.08 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.60) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.44, 1.12), with a P value for trend of 0.03. The association between estimated total caffeine intake and risk of diabetes was insignificant both among men and among women. The results imply that coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake.

  12. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab. (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Shahid, Umber; Levay, Adrienne


    While infertility is a global challenge for millions of couples, low income countries have particularly high rates, of up to 30%. Infertility in these contexts is not limited to its clinical definition but is a socially constructed notion with varying definitions. In highly pronatalistic and patriarchal societies like Pakistan, women bear the brunt of the social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness. While the often harsh consequences of childlessness for Pakistani women have been widely documented, there is a dearth of exploration into the ways in which prescribed gender roles inform the experiences of childlessness among Pakistani women and men. The aim of this study was to explore and compare how gender ideologies, values and expectations shape women's and men's experiences of infertility in Pakistan. Using an interpretive descriptive approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women and 8 men experiencing childlessness in Punjab, Pakistan from April to May 2008. Data analysis was thematic and inductive based on the principles of content analysis. The experience of infertility for men and women is largely determined by their prescribed gender roles. Childlessness weakened marital bonds with gendered consequences. For women, motherhood is not only a source of status and power, it is the only avenue for women to ensure their marital security. Weak marital ties did not affect men's social identity, security or power. Women also face harsher psychosocial, social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness than men. They experienced abuse, exclusion and stigmatization at the couple, household and societal level, while men only experienced minor taunting from friends. Women unceasingly sought invasive infertility treatments, while most men assumed there was nothing wrong with themselves. This study highlights the ways in which gender roles and norms shape the experiences associated with involuntary childlessness for men and women in

  13. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer - complications, women´s experiences, quality of life and a health economic evaluation. (United States)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth


    This thesis contains four studies all focusing on women with endometrial cancer undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH). Women with endometrial cancer are typically elderly with co-morbidities. RALH is a relatively new treatment option which has been introduced and adopted over the last decade without randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to prove superiority over other surgical alternatives. The purpose of the thesis was to explore and describe patient and health economic outcomes of RALH for women with endometrial cancer using different research approaches. The first study was a retrospective descriptive cohort study with 235 women. The aim was to explore types and incidence of post-operative complications within 12 months after RALH reported with the Clavien-Dindo scale. We found that 6% had severe complications and that women with lymphadenectomy did not have an increased rate of complications. Urinary tract and port site infections were the most frequent complications. The second study was a qualitative interview study where we explored the experience of undergoing RALH. Using content analysis, we analysed semi-structured interviews with 12 women who had undergone RALH on average 12 weeks earlier. The women were positive towards the robotic approach and felt recovered shortly after. They expressed uncertainty with the normal course of bleeding and bowel movement post-operatively as well as with the new anatomy. The third study was an economic evaluation; an activity-based costing study including 360 women comparing total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) to RALH. This study showed that for women with endometrial cancer, RALH was cheaper compared to TAH, mainly due to fewer complications and shorter length of stay (LOS) that counterbalanced the higher robotic expenses. When including all cost drivers the analysis showed that the RALH procedure was more than 9.000 Danish kroner (DKK) cheaper than the TAH. Increased age and Type 2 diabetes appeared

  14. Going the distance: overcoming challenges in recruitment and retention of Black and White women in multisite, longitudinal study of predictors of coronary heart disease. (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Fischer, Ellen P; Spellman, Alisa


    High recruitment and retention rates are hallmarks of scientifically rigorous longitudinal research. However, recruitment and retention are challenging, especially with older adults and minorities. In this article, we discuss strategies that have enabled us to retain more than 80% of both Black and White women in a 5-year observational study. To overcome challenges such as staff turnover and introduction of computerized record systems, we developed a time-saving handout, streamlined procedures for documenting contact information, and motivated site staff through weekly personal contact. We responded to problems with mailed privacy consent forms by garnering approval for verbal consent that allowed immediate response to participants' questions. In addition to standard steps to minimize attrition, we encouraged ongoing participation with personal letters following interviews, "refrigerator reminders" of the next interview date, and "missing you" letters following missed appointments. We believe these and other strategies described in this article were responsible for our high retention rate.

  15. Understanding Engagement in HIV Risk and Prevention Research Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in the District of Columbia (United States)

    Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya


    Abstract Purpose: To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16–21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Results: Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. Conclusion: BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention. PMID:26651365

  16. When Failing Doesn't Matter: A Narrative Inquiry into the Social Work Practice Learning Experiences of Black African Students in England (United States)

    Tedam, Prospera


    This paper reports the findings of a small-scale empirical study into the practice learning experiences of black African students of social work in England. Undertaken in the form of a pilot study, the findings reveal that practice learning experiences can be beneficial in enhancing skills and knowledge but can also cause distress, lower…

  17. Women's perspectives on the context of violence and role of police in their intimate partner violence arrest experiences. (United States)

    Li, Simiao; Levick, Ani; Eichman, Adelaide; Chang, Judy C


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) accounts for up to 50% of all calls to police. In an effort to standardize arrest criteria, mandatory arrest laws were established. It is unclear whether subsequent increased rates of female arrest are due to greater recognition of female IPV perpetrators or of women acting in self-defense. This study aims to understand the context and consequences of IPV-related arrest from perspectives of women arrested in a single metropolitan area. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with women arrested and court-ordered to attend IPV education groups at a women's shelter in the Northeast United States. Interviews addressed circumstances surrounding arrest, experience with past violence, and reasoning regarding use of partner violence. Two researchers independently coded transcripts and met to iteratively refine the code and review transcripts for themes. Eighteen women were interviewed. Major themes that emerged were as follows: (a) Women's use of violence occurred within the context of their own victimization; (b) the arrest included a complex interplay between subject, partner, and police; (c) women perceived police arrest decisions to be based on a limited understanding of context; and (d) women experienced both positive and negative consequences of arrest. Many relationships did not fall under the traditional victim/perpetrator construct. Rather, women's use of violence evolved, influenced by prior experiences with violence. More appropriate methods must be developed for making arrest decisions, guiding justice system responses, and developing interventions for couples experiencing IPV. Recognition that women's use of partner violence often represented either a retaliatory or self-defensive gesture within the context of prior victimization suggests that victims' interventions should not only focus on empowerment but also provide skills and strategies to avoid temptation to adopt aggression as a primary method of self-protection.

  18. Making Meaning of Adversity: Experiences of Women Leaders in Higher Education (United States)

    Diehl, Amy B.


    Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…

  19. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara


    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  20. Black Is Cool!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston


    Do you remember the colors the college freshmen dyed their hair when you were here? Turquoise, orange, bright yellow.... Things have changed. Black has (?)ome the color of choice among the young people. Young men and women alike dye their hair coal black. The women let their hair grow very long. and it hangs straight and stringy down their backs. The young men leave it long on

  1. Younger women's experiences of deciding against delayed breast reconstruction post-mastectomy following breast cancer: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. (United States)

    Holland, Fiona; Archer, Stephanie; Montague, Jane


    Most women do not reconstruct their breast(s) post-mastectomy. The experiences of younger women who maintain this decision, although important to understand, are largely absent in the research literature. This interview-based study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the experiences of six women, diagnosed with primary breast cancer in their 30s/40s, who decided against delayed reconstruction. Findings reported here focus on one superordinate theme (decision-making) from a larger analysis, illustrating that the women's drive to survive clearly influenced their initial decision-making process. Their tenacity in maintaining their decision is highlighted, despite non-reconstruction sometimes being presented negatively by medical teams. Patient-centred support recommendations are made.

  2. The experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment: A phenomenological study (United States)

    White, Susan M.

    Women engineers remain underrepresented in employment in engineering fields in the United States. Feminist theory views this gender disparity beyond equity in numbers for women engineers and looks at structural issues of women's access, opportunities, and quality of experience in the workplace. Research on women's success and persistence in engineering education is diverse; however, there are few studies that focus on the early years of women's careers in engineering and less using a phenomenological research design. Experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment are presented using a phenomenological research design. Research questions explored the individual and composite experiences for the co-researchers of the study as well as challenges and advantages of the phenomenon of having completed one to five years of professional engineering employment. Themes that emanated from the data were a feeling that engineering is a positive profession, liking math and science from an early age, having experiences of attending math and science camps or learning and practicing engineering interests with their fathers for some co-researchers. Other themes included a feeling of being different as a woman in the engineering workplace, taking advantage of opportunities for training, education, and advancement to further their careers, and the role of informal and formal mentoring in developing workplace networks and engineering expertise. Co-researchers negotiated issues of management quality and support, experiences of gender discrimination in the workplace, and having to make decisions balancing their careers and family responsibilities. Finally, the women engineers for this research study expressed intentions to persist in their careers while pursuing expertise and experience in their individual engineering fields.

  3. Decolonizing Higher Education: Black Feminism and the Intersectionality of Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Safia Mirza


    Full Text Available Drawing on black feminist theory, this paper examines the professional experiences of postcolonial diasporic black and ethnicized female academics in higher education. The paper explores the embodiment of gendered and racialized difference and reflects on the power of whiteness to shape everyday experiences in such places of privilege. The powerful yet hidden histories of women of color in higher education, such as the Indian women suffragettes and Cornelia Sorabji in late nineteenth century, are symbolic of the erasure of an ethnicized black feminist/womanist presence in mainstream (white educational establishments. The paper concludes that an understanding of black and ethnicized female agency and desire for education and learning is at the heart of a black feminist analysis that reclaims higher education as a radical site of resistance and refutation.

  4. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study. (United States)

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J


    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  5. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer - complications, women´s experiences, quality of life and a health economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth


    . These changes should be addressed in the preoperative information and at the post-operative follow-up. It is difficult imagining a RCT of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy being conducted in the future due to reluctance towards randomisation to open surgery. However, it would be advisable continuously...... to monitor relevant surgical and patient-reported outcomes as indications for robotic surgery may alter, experiences may develop and further technical advances may change robotic surgery for women with endometrial cancer in the future.......This thesis contains four studies all focusing on women with endometrial cancer undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH). Women with endometrial cancer are typically elderly with co-morbidities. RALH is a relatively new treatment option which has been introduced and adopted over...

  6. Hoping for the Best, Preparing for the Worst: The lived experiences of women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L.; Blaakaer, J.;


    In this study, the lived experiences of women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery were explored, aiming to provide a patient perspective on being newly diagnosed and starting treatment for ovarian cancer. The study period ran from the first visit in the outpatient clinic, till 8 weeks later, when t....... By offering targeted family counselling and taking good care of the women's general health and well-being, hope could be sustained and early cancer rehabilitation initiated....

  7. Marriage as a risk factor for HIV: learning from the experiences of HIV-infected women in Malawi. (United States)

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Wendland, Claire; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne; Kibicho, Jennifer


    The gender inequalities that characterise intimate partner relationships in Malawi, a country with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world, arguably place marriage as an important risk factor for HIV infection among women, yet few studies detail the complex interactions of marriage and risk. In order to develop HIV-prevention interventions that have lasting impacts in such communities, we need a deeper understanding of the intricacies of women's lives, how and why they are involved in marital relationships, and the implications of these relationships for HIV transmission or prevention. This article describes how women understand marriage's effects on their lives and their HIV risks. Drawing from focus group discussions with 72 women attending antiretroviral clinics in Malawi, we explore why women enter marriage, what women's experiences are within marriage and how they leave spouses for other relationships. Based on their narratives, we describe women's lives after separation, abandonment or widowhood, and report their reflections on marriage after being married two or three times. We then review women's narratives in light of published work on HIV, and provide recommendations that would minimise the risks of HIV attendant on marriage.

  8. Factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. (United States)


    Domestic violence against women is an important social and public health problem worldwide resulting from unequal power relationships between men and women. The purpose of the present cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. The data were collected from a representative sample of women (n = 873) in 2012. The socio-demographic questionnaire and the World Health Organization's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women were used for data collection. The study results revealed that of the women, 14.8% were exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence/abuse and 11.2% to economic violence/abuse within the last 12 months. Lower income level, lower social status, lower educational level, unemployment, being exposed to parental violence during childhood and being married to husbands exposed to parental violence during childhood were associated risk factors with domestic violence. The study results indicate that domestic violence against women is a common phenomenon in Manisa.

  9. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants

  10. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh

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    Nahar Tasmin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.

  11. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab

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    Mumtaz Zubia


    Full Text Available Abstract While infertility is a global challenge for millions of couples, low income countries have particularly high rates, of up to 30%. Infertility in these contexts is not limited to its clinical definition but is a socially constructed notion with varying definitions. In highly pronatalistic and patriarchal societies like Pakistan, women bear the brunt of the social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness. While the often harsh consequences of childlessness for Pakistani women have been widely documented, there is a dearth of exploration into the ways in which prescribed gender roles inform the experiences of childlessness among Pakistani women and men. The aim of this study was to explore and compare how gender ideologies, values and expectations shape women’s and men’s experiences of infertility in Pakistan. Using an interpretive descriptive approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women and 8 men experiencing childlessness in Punjab, Pakistan from April to May 2008. Data analysis was thematic and inductive based on the principles of content analysis. The experience of infertility for men and women is largely determined by their prescribed gender roles. Childlessness weakened marital bonds with gendered consequences. For women, motherhood is not only a source of status and power, it is the only avenue for women to ensure their marital security. Weak marital ties did not affect men’s social identity, security or power. Women also face harsher psychosocial, social, emotional and physical consequences of childlessness than men. They experienced abuse, exclusion and stigmatization at the couple, household and societal level, while men only experienced minor taunting from friends. Women unceasingly sought invasive infertility treatments, while most men assumed there was nothing wrong with themselves. This study highlights the ways in which gender roles and norms shape the experiences associated with involuntary

  12. Health and reproductive experiences of women with an FMR1 premutation with and without fragile X premature ovarian insufficiency

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    Anne Caroline Wheeler


    Full Text Available Recently, research has indicated an increased risk for greater medical and emotional comorbidity and physical health symptoms among women with an FMR1 expansion. However, these studies have generally been limited in their ability to model multiple risk factors associated with these symptoms by small numbers (n = 112 to 146 of participants. This study used survey methodology to examine the health experiences of 458 adult women with the premutation with and without a history of an FXPOI diagnosis. Results suggest similar findings to those reported in the literature with regard to the frequency of medical, emotional, and reproductive experiences of women with the premutation. In addition to expected reproductive differences, women with a diagnosis of FXPOI were also more likely to experience dizziness, nausea, and muscle weakness than women without a diagnosis of FXPOI. Women with and without FXPOI were more likely to have used reproductive assistance and were more likely to have experienced preeclampsia during at least one pregnancy than is reported in the general population. Having comorbid depression and anxiety was predictive of increased medical conditions and increased daily physical health symptoms.

  13. Women's experiences of sexual health when living with Rheumatoid Arthritis - an explorative qualitative study

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    Josefsson Kristina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICF core sets for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA acknowledge sexual function and intimate relationships as important since the patients' sexual health can be affected by the disease. About 36-70% of all RA-patients experience a reduced sexual health, and their perceived problems are directly or indirectly caused by their disease. Physiotherapy is often used as non-pharmacological treatment for RA. Mobility treatment, pain reduction, and physical activities are often included in physiotherapy for patients with RA. The aim of the study was to explore sexual health in relation to physiotherapy in women living with RA. Method An explorative qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. The study consisted of ten interviews with women with RA. The analysis was performed according to Giorgi. Results The main theme that emerged in the material was that the body and the total life situation affected sexual health. Three categories were included in the theme: 1 sexual health - physical and psychological dimensions, 2 Impacts of RA, and 3 Possibilities to increase sexual health - does physiotherapy make a difference? Conclusions Sexual health was affected by RA in different ways for the informants. Possibilities to improve sexual health were improved partner communication and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can play an active role in improving sexual health for patients with RA.

  14. Vietnamese Women in Academic Leadership: Experiences of Mid-Level Women Leaders in Universities and Colleges in the Mekong Delta (United States)

    Dang, Ngoc Lan Thi


    Academic women in the Mekong Delta (MD) in southern Viet Nam remain underrepresented in key leadership positions and other positions of power and influence in their institutions. This situation exists regardless of various local, national, and international policies on gender equality and the implementation of numerous action plans, strategies,…

  15. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole;


    'burned out', 'powerless' and 'stressed' as they felt they had a communication method in handling difficult workloads. CONCLUSION: healthcare professionals experienced motivational interviewing to be a useful method when working perinatally. The motivational interviewing method permitted heightened......OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. DESIGN: a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11...... obstetric healthcare professionals working in a perinatal setting. METHODS: a thematic descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional׳s experiences were recorded verbatim during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed, and analysed using...

  16. The Influence of Clinical Experience and Photographic Presentation on Age Assessment of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare


    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported that a higher perceived age is associated with poor health and higher mortality. However, the method used for the assessment of perceived age differs between studies with regard to age, gender, the number and occupation of assessors as well...... as the presentation of participants. OBJECTIVE: It is not known whether the clinical experience of the assessor or photographic presentation have an influence on the assessment of perceived age, which the present study aimed to investigate. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years, 10...... consultants and 10 residents were asked to estimate the age of each participant using three different photographic presentations: facial photograph, whole-body photograph, and combined facial and whole-body photographs. Data were analyzed by means of summary statistics and linear mixed models. RESULTS...

  17. Expressing sexuality in nursing homes. The experience of older women: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Martínez-Piedrola, Rosa María; Pérez-de-Heredia, Marta; Huertas-Hoyas, Elisabet; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar

    In nursing homes, a number of barriers to the expression of sexuality exist, such as the lack of privacy, certain attitudes on behalf of the staff and the family, the lack of a sexual partner, and physical limitations. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experience of sexuality in elderly Spanish women residing in nursing homes. A qualitative phenomenological approach was followed. Data were collected over an 18-month period between 2013 and 2015. Purposeful sampling was conducted with Spanish residents in nursing homes in Madrid. Data were collected using unstructured and semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Twenty female residents participated. Three main themes emerged from the data: a) expressing sexuality, b) sexuality as a duty and c) respecting vows. Female residents reported key elements influencing how they manage their sexuality in Nursing Homes. These results serve to improve our understanding regarding the expression of sexuality in older female nursing home residents.

  18. Towards a Different Construction of Blackness: Black Immigrant Scholars on Racial Identity Development in the United States (United States)

    Hernandez, Kathy-Ann C.; Murray-Johnson, Kayon K.


    In this collaborative autoethnography, two immigrants interrogate their evolving self-definitions as Black women in the U.S. academy. Using a variety of data sources, they uncover several commonalities and differences in their experiences which have coalesced into a four-part model in their journey towards a different construction of Black…

  19. Life Brought at a Tender Age: The Lived Experiences of Filipino Teenage Pregnant Women

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    Full Text Available Unintended teenage pregnancy is an ever-present issue in developing countries such as the Philippines. The impact of teenage pregnancy affects the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well being of the adolescents. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother and the baby. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of the teenage pregnant women. Six adolescent female aged 12-19 years old who were pregnant with their first child agreed to participate. A qualitative inquiry, specifically Husserlian descriptive phenomenology was employed. Semi-structured in depth face-to-face interviews were undertaken, audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. The richness of the experiences shared by the selections provided the necessary information to understand and describe the essence of the phenomenon understudy. Cool and warm analyses captured the following emergent themes of Trends toward issues, Fortified faith, and Optimistic outlook. For the selections in this study, being pregnant at a young age did not mean that their life and future were all over. The women were optimistic about their futures. The findings of the study have vital implications in offering specific programs and services and in developing educational materials that focus on preventing teen pregnancy. While health nurse practitioners primarily provide services and education to teens and parents in various health care facilities, they also can be significant participants in prevention activities and coalitions that are based in a community. The outcomes of the study have possible contributions to the nursing practice, to policies that facilitate the promotion of the health of the teenage mothers and the prevention of teenage pregnancies, and in building future researches especially in the education of the teens about the consequences of

  20. Differential Experiences of Women and Minority Engineering Students in a Cooperative Education Program (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew M.; Abbott, Gypsy

    Although slight gains have been made in attracting women and minority students to the field of engineering, the differences are not great enough to meet current economic demands [National Academy of Sciences (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future, Washington, DC: National Academies Press]. Therefore, it has become imperative that colleges and universities increase efforts to both recruit and retain these students who express interest in the STEM fields [National Science Foundation (2006), Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering, NSF 4-311, Arlington, VA: NSF]. In engineering, one promising venue for students to gain professional experience as part of their undergraduate training is through cooperative education (co-op). However, there is a dearth of information in the research literature regarding how co-op programs can be structured to address the needs of diverse students. There is consensus, however, about one aspect of addressing the needs of diverse students, namely, mentoring and role models are key strategies for success. In this study, a mixed methods design was used to examine students' perceptions of mentoring in a cooperative education program in a southeastern university. Using Noe's [Noe, R. (1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships. Personnel Psychology, 1, 457-479] mentoring functions scales, which described psychosocial and career-related support, research findings indicated a statistically significant difference between gender and the psychosocial aspect of mentoring. Analysis of the qualitative data further confirmed differences in cooperative education experiences with respect to both gender and ethnicity.

  1. Racism, anti-racist practice and social work: articulating the teaching and learning experiences of Black social workers


    Wainwright, John


    In the mid 1990s a Black practice teacher programme was established in Manchester and Merseyside with the primary aim to increase the number of Black practice teachers in social work organisations, and in turn provide a supportive and encouraging learning environment for Black student social workers whilst on placement. In the north‐west of England research has been undertaken, to establish the quality of the practice teaching and student learning taking place with Black practice teachers and...

  2. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona


    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  3. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children. (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B


    We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families.

  4. The construction of work–life balance: The experience of Black employees in a call-centre environment

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    Sonia C.B. Potgieter


    Full Text Available Orientation: Work–life balance, as a crucial aspect of employee and organisational wellness, remains an interesting field of research, especially due to the changing demographic employee profile.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore Black employees’ construction of work–life balance in a customer care environment.Motivation for the study: The conceptual debate regarding the construct of work–life balance in general as well as limited qualitative research with regard to Black employees’ experience of work–life balance in a South African context motivated the study.Research design, approach and method: This qualitative study was designed from an interpretivist perspective. Ten employees, selected through purposeful sampling, participated in the study. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews and grounded theory was applied during data analysis.Main findings: The grounded theory analysis of the data yielded six themes central to participants’ construction of work–life balance. The findings suggest that work–life balance is conceptualised as a continuous, subjective and holistic valuation of satisfaction derived from multiple roles in relation to the importance to the individual at a given point in time.Practical/managerial implications: Findings provide valuable managerial information to guide suitable strategies enhancing the work–life balance experience and by implication employees’ general wellbeing, job satisfaction and commitment.Contributions/value-add: This study contributes to the evolving body of knowledge with regard to work–life balance and provides a unique context-specific perspective to the conceptual understanding of the construct.

  5. A cross-cultural comparison of the stress experienced by high-level career women

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    Henriette S. van den Berg


    Full Text Available This study examines differences in the experience of work-related stress and of exposure to work-related stressors among South African career women of different ethnic groups. A sample of 732 women working in administrative, semi-professional, professional and managerial positions was involved. Analyses of covariance found signifcant differences in the level of stress reported by the different groups, with black women reporting the highest level of stress. Stressors pertaining to a lack of infrastructure and resources in the environment signifcantly contributed to the stress experienced by black women. All four groups reported discontent with their remuneration and fringe benefts.

  6. Muscle gains and emotional strains: conflicting experiences of change among overweight women participating in an exercise intervention program. (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Sedgwick, Whitney A; Crocker, Peter R E


    In this study we explored the experiences of women who were classified as overweight while they participated in a physical activity intervention. In line with interpretative phenomenological analysis, eight women were interviewed prior to and following a 12-week dragon boat physical activity intervention. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to individual-level content analysis to explore change that informed group-level idiographic analysis. From the idiographic analysis three distinct profiles were created: (a) women who consistently struggled with negative self-perceptions; (b) women who consistently experienced positive self-perceptions; and (c) women who began with negative self-perceptions and developed more positive self-images. These profiles appeared to be associated with age, since the youngest women placed significant emphasis on the body and physical appearance, whereas the oldest participants reported the most significant shift from importance of body to a greater emphasis on health and well-being. The findings, which are reported in the context of self-determination theory, suggest that women in each of these profiles had unique physical and social self-perceptions and distinct social interactions within the dragon boat intervention.

  7. Working in the margins women's experiences of stress and occupational health problems in part-time and casual retail jobs. (United States)

    Zeytinogla, Isik Uurla; Seaton, M Bianca; Lillevik, Waheeda; Moruz, Josefina


    Women workers dominate the labor market of part-time and casual jobs in Canada and other industrialized countries, particularly in the retail trade and consumer services sector. However, research into the occupational health consequences of part-time and casual jobs for this large group of women workers is still in its early stages. Emerging evidence suggests that part-time and casual jobs contribute to stress and result in health problems for women. To learn about the impact of part-time and casual jobs on women's experiences of stress and their resulting physical and emotional health, we conducted interviews and focus groups with occupational health and safety union representatives and female workers in retail and consumer services. Results show that stress is a major occupational health problem for these women, due to the working conditions in part-time and casual jobs, the psychosocial work environment, and the gendered work environment in the retail trade and consumer services. Stress from part-time and casual jobs results in repetitive strain injuries, migraine headaches, and feelings of low self-esteem, low motivation, and job dissatisfaction for women. The disconcerting implication of our research is that part-time and casual employment comes at a cost for some women.

  8. A project for future life—Swedish women's thoughts on childbearing lacking experience of giving birth and parenthood

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    Kyllike Christensson


    Full Text Available A lifeworld hermeneutic approach was used in order to understand Swedish women's thoughts on childbearing. Nine women were interviewed, and they ranged in age from 22 to 28 years and represented diverse socioeconomic, educational, sexual, and fertility backgrounds. All women were similar in that they lacked experience of giving birth and parenthood. The analysis showed that childbearing includes dimensions of both immanence and transcendence. Immanence, as childbearing is seen as stagnant to women's freedom in present life. Transcendence, as childbearing is thought of as a project for future life, a part of female identity, and a conscious standpoint for which the woman wants to be prepared and for which she wants to create the best conditions.

  9. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women. (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  10. The impact of program experiences on the retention of women engineering students in Mexico (United States)

    Villa, Maria Del Carmen Garcia

    This qualitative study sought to describe and understand the experiences of female students attending engineering colleges in Mexico and the sources of support and strategies that helped them persist in their programs. The participants were 20 women engineering students enrolled in at least their third year in selected colleges of engineering in Mexico, in both public and private universities, and pursuing a variety of engineering majors. Findings focus on the experiences of female students that helped them stay in their programs. Participants described their experiences in college as very challenging and perceived the environment as hostile and uncertain. In addition, patriarchal Mexican cultural values and stereotypes were identified by students as influencing and helping shape the engineering environment. However, in this context, participants were able to find sources of support and use strategies that helped them remain in their majors, such as a strong desire to succeed, a perceived academic self-ability; and support from their families, peers, institutions, and---most importantly---their professors. Furthermore, the fact that participants were able to persist in their programs gave them a sense of pride and satisfaction that was shared by their families, peers, and faculty. In addition, participants experienced contradictory forces and were constantly negotiating between rejecting traditional gender norms and upholding the norms that are so deeply engrained in Mexican society. Finally, as the students advanced in their programs and became "accepted to the club," they tended to reproduce the male-dominated value system present in engineering colleges accepting their professors' expectations of being "top students," accepting the elitist culture of engineering superiority, and embracing the protection given by their male peers. Retention of Mexican female engineering students is important for all engineering colleges, but cultural factors must be taken into

  11. The comparative experiences of women in control: diabetes self-management education in a virtual world. (United States)

    Mitchell, Suzanne E; Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C; Wiecha, John


    The purpose was to characterize participants' experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted.

  12. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Niemann


    Full Text Available Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n=28 with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n=29, who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached.

  13. Loss of Resources and Hurricane Experience as Predictors of Postpartum Depression Among Women in Southern Louisiana (United States)

    Ehrlich, Matthew; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen


    Abstract Background After a natural disaster, mental disorders often become a long-term public health concern. Previous studies under smaller-scale natural disaster conditions suggest loss of psychosocial resources is associated with psychological distress. Methods We examined the occurrence of depression 6 and 12 months postpartum among 208 women residing in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina's landfall. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of both tangible/financial and nontangible (psychosocial) loss of resources (LOR) on the outcome of depression, measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We also investigated the influence on depression of individuals' hurricane experience through a Hurricane Experience Score (HES) that includes such factors as witnessing death, contact with flood waters, and injury to self or family members. Results Both tangible and nontangible LOR were associated with depression cross-sectionally and prospectively. Severe hurricane exposure (high HES) was also associated with depression. Regression analysis showed LOR-associated depression was explained almost entirely by nontangible rather than tangible factors. Consistent with COR theory, however, nontangible LOR explained some of the association between severe hurricane exposure and depression in our models. A similar result was seen prospectively for depression at 12 months, even controlling for depression symptoms at 6 months. Conclusions These results suggest the need for preventive measures aimed at preserving psychosocial resources to reduce the long-term effects of disasters. PMID:20438305

  14. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women (United States)

    Niemann, Claudia; Godde, Ben


    Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n = 28) with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n = 29), who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory) nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus) were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average) has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached. PMID:27738528

  15. An investigative study of the experiences of elderly people in a South African black township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Chigali


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences which impact on aspects of the lives and sense of well-being of elderly people in a township in South Africa in order to make recommendations for future service delivery. A cross- sectional, qualitative survey was carried out in Mfuleni Township, a part of the Cape Metropolitan Region in the Western Cape.  Sixteen people of ages ranging from 60-82 years were conveniently selected from a group of elderly people who meet regularly at a community centre. Data were collected through focused  group discussions and unstructured interviews. Analysis of data revealed three main categories namely, psychological/ emotional, socio-economic and health, under which different themes emerged. The experiences of individuals in a given society may vary, but somehow, their basic rights tend to be universal as revealed by the literature. Loneliness and isolation, lack of recreation facilities, loss of dignity and respect, poor health services and lack of shelter are some of the experiences expressed by the elderly people in this sample. These experiences highlight the need for clearly stated policies andcommitment by governmental and non-governmental structures, appropriate health service strategies and improved socio-economic standards supported by properly researched data.

  16. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff


    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  17. 'Do You Ride on Elephants' and 'Never Tell Them You're German': The Experiences of British Asian and Black, and Overseas Student Teachers in Southeast England (United States)

    Cole, Mike; Stuart, Janet S.


    In this article we report on part of a small-scale study into the experiences of 28 British-born Asian and black, and overseas student teachers, who were following both Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) and school-based routes to qualified teacher status (QTS), in Sussex and Kent. The results indicate worrying degrees of racism,…

  18. The influence of social experience on the ontogenetic change in the relation between aggression, fear and display behaviour in black-headed gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Ton; Mulekom, Leo van


    This study investigated whether changes in motivation of displays, occurring during normal ontogeny in black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus, are under the influence of social experience. To this end, birds were rearerd either in isolation or in groups of three. In the latter, the birds had social in

  19. Females and STEM: Determining the K-12 Experiences that Influenced Women to Pursue STEM Fields (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Marie

    In the United States, careers in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are increasing yet there are not enough trained personnel to meet this demand. In addition, of those that seek to pursue STEM fields in the United States, only 26% are female. In order to increase the number of women seeking STEM based bachelor's degrees, K-12 education must provide a foundation that prepares students for entry into these fields. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the perceived K-12 experiences that influenced females to pursue a STEM field. Twelve college juniors or seniors seeking a degree in Biology, Mathematics, or Physics were interviewed concerning their K-12 experiences. These interviews were analyzed and six themes emerged. Teacher passion and classroom characteristics such as incorporating challenging activities played a significant role in the females' decisions to enter STEM fields. Extra-curricular activities such as volunteer and mentor opportunities and the females' need to benefit others also influenced females in their career choice. Both the formal (within the school) and informal (outside of the traditional classroom) pipeline opportunities that these students encountered helped develop a sense of self-efficacy in science and mathematics; this self-efficacy enabled them to persist in pursuing these career fields. Several participants cited barriers that they encountered in K-12 education, but these barriers were primarily internal as they struggled with overcoming self-imposed obstacles in learning and being competitive in the mathematics and science classrooms. The experiences from these female students can be used by K-12 educators to prepare and encourage current female students to enter STEM occupations.

  20. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter? (United States)

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu


    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…