WorldWideScience

Sample records for black women experience

  1. Spoke"tokenism": Black Women "Talking Back" about Graduate School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Subrina J.

    2013-01-01

    Black women still experience racial oppression in the academy. In this study, I draw on Black feminist theory and oral narrative research to examine the narratives of Black women graduate students discussing their educational experiences. Black female graduate students deal with acts of everyday racism and instances of structural and internalized…

  2. Challenges in Theorising "Black Middle-Class" Women: Education, Experience and Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Uvanney; Williams, Katya

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint draws on discussions at two seminars to consider ambivalent attitudes amongst a group of Black women towards considering themselves and/or other Black people as "middle class". The first seminar highlighted the experiences of a group of Black "middle-class" parents and the second, which was organised as a result of the reaction the…

  3. Black men's experiences regarding women's and children's rights : a social work perspective / S.E. Mogosetsi

    OpenAIRE

    Mogosetsi, Seipati Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    The promotion of women's and children's rights excluded men from the process. The implementation of these rights called for a shift in domestic power relations. Men, especially certain black men, were plunged in predicament as some felt that the changes undermined their cultural and traditional masculine identities and that women and children abused their rights. In many cases the relationships between men, women and children came under pressure. This research is conducted a...

  4. Experiences of sexual relationships of young black women in an atmosphere of coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clüver, Frances; Elkonin, Diane; Young, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Negotiations surrounding sexual activity are characterised by multiple power disparities that include race, social status and age, with gender being the most dominant differential in heterosexual interactions. Research has shown that women are physiologically more at risk of contracting HIV than men, as indicated by the higher infection rates of the former. Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even greater risk of HIV infection. In this qualitative phenomenological study, four black school-going adolescent women living in Grahamstown were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to gather data. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on the data to provide subjective insights of the experiences of the participants with regard to their interactions with men. From the findings, it became apparent that the participants felt pressured, coerced or manipulated by male counterparts. This pressure and coercion was not just felt in their interactions with older men, but also in their romantic partnerships. Three of the participants experienced pressure to engage in sexual intercourse with their boyfriends when they were unwilling or unready, and they reported being faced with additional pressure to engage in unprotected sex. Furthermore, it became apparent that each participant had an underlying fear of being raped and considered this as a genuine threat to her safety and sexual health. The atmosphere within which these participants negotiate their sexual agency is thus heavily informed by male control, coercion and the threat of violence or rape. PMID:23777540

  5. Childhood sexual experiences among substance-using non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Ellen; Downing, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored potential variations in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) by examining qualitative accounts of first sexual experiences among non-disclosing, non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). We analyzed data from semi-structured qualitative interviews with 33 MSMW who described first sexual experiences with male and female partners. Thematic analysis revealed four patterns of first sexual experiences including: unwanted sexual experiences with a male or fema...

  6. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Stephanie

    1989-01-01

    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  7. Exploring the Cervical Cancer Screening Experiences of Black Lesbian, Bisexual, and Queer Women: The Role of Patient-Provider Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Bailey, Zinzi; Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S Bryn; Gottlieb, Barbara R

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the health and health care of U.S. black lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. To understand the facilitators of and barriers to cervical cancer screening in this population, focus group discussions were conducted in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts between November and December 2012. Using purposive sampling methods, the authors enrolled 18 black LBQ women who participated in one of four focus groups. Using thematic analysis, patient-provider communication was identified, which consisted of four sub-themes--health care provider communication style and demeanor; heteronormative provider assumptions; heterosexism, racism, and classism; and provider professional and sociodemographic background--as the most salient theme. Participants reported fears and experiences of multiple forms of discrimination and preferred receiving care from providers who were knowledgeable about same-sex sexual health and shared their life experiences at the intersection of gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. The cervical cancer screening experiences of black LBQ women would be improved by training all health care providers in same-sex sexual health, offering opportunities for clinicians to learn about the effects of various forms of discrimination on women's health care, and increasing the presence of LBQ women of color in health care settings. PMID:25909663

  8. Feminism and the Subtext of Whiteness: Black Women's Experiences as a Site of Identity Formation and Contestation of Whiteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, George

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes how the structure of whiteness has shaped the feminist movement, marginalizing the voices of black women. Shows how racism forms the core ideology of feminism, suggesting that the hegemonic racial epistemological standpoint of feminism is limited. Argues that black women's standpoint must be understood within the framework of their unique…

  9. A Special Issue on Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Saundra Rice, Ed.; Scott, Patricia Bell, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    In six articles presents research reflective of the diversity and commonalities of the Black female experience. Deals with educational, career, and psychological issues surrounding Black adolescents, working and professional women, college students, and employed mothers. Discusses militancy, fear of success, coping, nontraditional careers, and…

  10. Teaching and Learning Color Consciousness in Black Families: Exploring Family Processes and Women's Experiences with Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, JeffriAnne; Cain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Family is regarded as a powerful force in the lives of Black Americans. Often-times, families function as an agent of socialization that counters racism. At the same time, however, Black families can perpetuate skin tone consciousness and bias, or "colorism." Although there is an extensive body of revisionist literature on Black families and a…

  11. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...

  12. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  13. Column: Black women health - Breastfeeding: Empowering Black Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is related to women’s reproduction and health. All women have the right to breastfeed as enshrined in the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC. Breastfeeding also is related to women’s sexuality so, it is a gender issue and takes place to empowering women. Breastfeeding is particularly difficult for the black woman, marginalized by poverty, violence, poor nutritional status, job insecurities and gender/race inequalities.

  14. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2014-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability o...

  15. Black Women's Leadership: Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Davidson, Leslie

    1987-01-01

    Responds to presentations made at a 1986 symposium on black women's leadership in the United States. Asserts that the symposium participants successfully celebrated black women, but few were willing to discuss the connection between systems of oppression (i.e., racial and sexist), and there was little recognition of class distinctions among black,…

  16. The Experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean Women in STEM: Voices to Inform Work with Black Females in STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently…

  17. The experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM: Voices to inform work with Black females in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.

  18. Black Women in The Color Purple and Sula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽

    2009-01-01

    The process of black women's awakening idea, seeking themselves, struggling for freedom, equality and inde-pendence is the reflection of black women's partieular beauty, meanwhile it is a kind of declaration to America, even to the whole world.

  19. Representation of Black women in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Tiphaine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This project aims to confirm the assumption that L’Oreal over represents beauty standards in its advertising. From a social constructivist approach, and using advertising theories, this study explores the marks left by colonialism and post colonialism in the beauty context of black women. This research is based upon L’Ore...

  20. Through the Lens of Race: Black and White Women's Perceptions of Womanhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Isis H.; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection of race and gender may create unique experiences for Black and White women in terms of work, family, domestic roles, and interpersonal relationships. Dissimilar gender-role norms may foster different perceptions of gender for these two groups of women. In the current study, we examined similarities and differences in Black and…

  1. Explaining racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes: unique sources of stress for Black American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2011-03-01

    The infant mortality rate for Black Americans in the US is more than twice the rate for White Americans, with similar racial disparities existing in rates of low birthweight and preterm delivery. Survivors of these adverse birth outcomes have poorer development and health in infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Increasingly, evidence suggests that maternal stress is an important risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. We offer a novel perspective on racial disparities in birth outcomes suggesting that Black American women are subject to unique sources of stress throughout their lives and particularly during pregnancy based on their multiple identities as women, Black, and pregnant. We draw on interdisciplinary work to examine three unique sources of stress for Black American women that elevate their risk for adverse birth outcomes: 1) abuses of Black American women by the medical system and issues of power in obstetrics that disadvantage Black American women; 2) contradictory societal pressures exerted on Black American women about whether they should have children; and 3) historical and contemporary stereotypes about Black American women related to sexuality and motherhood. We discuss implications of this analysis, including applications to research and intervention. Developing a better understanding of the experience of Black American women during pregnancy and throughout their lives offers insight into ways to reduce racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes and their lifelong consequences. PMID:21345565

  2. The social construction of race and gender: Black women officers in the U.S. Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Kathleen B.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis explores the impact of life histories on the attitudes and experiences of Black women officers. In-depth, personal interviews with fifteen women officers, concentrating heavily on life histories, were the major source of data. Literature and studies concentrating on military Black women are few and limited in scope. This thesis attempts to unveil the importance of understandi...

  3. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W

    2014-07-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  4. Mental Health and Service Delivery Systems for Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elsie H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines mental health issues, especially alcoholism, suicide, and social depression, related to the counseling of Black women. Recommends improved mental health services, counselor/clinical training programs, and additional research focusing on the causes of stress among Black women. (Author/MW)

  5. Race, Gender and Educational Desire: Why black women succeed and fail

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Race, Gender and Educational Desire reveals the emotional and social consequences of gendered difference and racial division as experienced by black and ethnicised women teachers and students in schools and universities. It explores the intersectionality of race and gender in education, taking the topic in new, challenging directions and asking: How does race and gender structure the experiences of black and ethnicised women in our places of learning and teaching? Why, in the context of en...

  6. The Role of the Black Women in the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement and on to Transnational Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    "As the title states I will be discussing the role that Black women in the USA have played in two major social movements in this Century - the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement. Their roles were critical and pertinent forces in both movements. Subsequently, I will discuss their vision regarding globalization and transnational feminism." (author's abstract)

  7. Equity Issues and Black-White Differences in Women's ERA Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Susan E.

    1990-01-01

    Using data from 1982 National Opinion Research (NORC) General Social Survey, examines women's support for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) by analyzing attitudes about gender and racial equality, and socioeconomic status. Explains Black women's higher ERA approval as deriving from gender-role attitudes, but more important, from experience with,…

  8. Women's experience of waterbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Helen

    2003-03-01

    Five birthing centres were approached for permission to administer a questionnaire, giving a sample of 189 mothers who had experienced waterbirth. Mothers who had Apgars lower than 7 at 1 were excluded from the sample for ethical reasons. The results showed that waterbirth is a consumer-led trend, mainly pursued by educated middle class women. Better antenatal preparation is needed to reduce the need for other forms of analgesia when women are in water. Most women desired waterbirth as they thought it was a natural drug-free method and would be a less painful birth. They also wanted a gentle delivery for the baby and thought waterbirth seemed the right medium for this. They felt more in control of their environment in water, and particularly liked the relaxing calming quality of the water, the physical support it gave them and being able to hold their babies immediately after birth. Women's responses to the survey suggested that mothers perceived waterbirth as therapeutic. They demonstrated a strong desire for water in labour. There were no significant behaviour differences between water-born babies and non water-born babies. PMID:12677840

  9. Age and Parenting Skill Among Black Women in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Duffield, Barbara N.

    1986-01-01

    Using a sample of 158 low-income black women and their infants, this study examined the relation between mother's age and measures of maternal behavior reflecting verbal responsivity, punitiveness, and instrumental support for intellectual development. (Author/NH)

  10. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-06-01

    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes. PMID:24583415

  11. Black Feminist Thought: Implications for a Transformative Women's Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawn D.

    1996-01-01

    The history of black women's social reform work remains unrecognized in the academy and the general culture. The contributions of courageous black feminist authors such as bell hooks, Nikki Giovanni, and Audre Lorde are important for all students. Hooks works with educators to denounce sexist and racist stereotypes, Giovanni stresses the concept…

  12. Increased breastfeeding rates in black women after a treatment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Margaret G; Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R

    2013-12-01

    There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

  13. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  14. Experiences of Black Families as Adoptive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Gwendolyn S.; King, Lula T.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted descriptive study in which 12 Black families shared their ideas about adoptive parenthood. Found most common reason for adopting was inability to have children biologically. Found need for post-adoptive services for Black families on an as-needed basis. Recommends adoption agencies and communities build on positive experiences of Black…

  15. Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms, and Emotion Regulation among Black Women

    OpenAIRE

    Racine, Christie; Kalra, Kaushal; Ceide, Mirnova; Williams, Natasha J.; Zizi, Ferdinand; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study explored the associations between sleep duration and emotion regulation among urban black women (mean age=59 ± 7 yrs). Method Eligible women (n=523) provided sociodemographic data during face-to-face interviews. We used the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Examination Physical to measure health status; women also estimated their habitual sleep duration. We utilized a modified version of Weinberger’s conceptual model of repression, the Index of Self-Regulation (ISE...

  16. The Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black Women Leaders in Fortune 500 Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, LaTonya R.

    2012-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…

  17. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  18. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chithambo, Taona P.; Stanley J. Huey

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body...

  19. Racism, Segregation, and Risk of Obesity in the Black Women's Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to ...

  20. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  1. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Tiffany L.; Renee Desmond; Sharonda Hardy; Sh’Nese Townsend; Ard, Jamy D; Karen Meneses; Partridge, Edward E.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-s...

  3. Early Family Formation among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landale, Nancy S.; Schoen, Robert; Daniels, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, this study examines early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) are estimated using discrete-time multinomial logistic…

  4. Mental health effects of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence among Black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne; Jasinski, Jana L

    2013-12-01

    An important aspect of Johnson's intimate terrorism (IT) and situational couple violence (SCV) typology is his assertion that victims experience different negative outcomes depending on which category of violence they endure. Anderson calls for reexamining this typology to highlight the importance of coercive control with or without physical violence present. Similar to most studies, Anderson's research uses a sample that includes mostly White women. The current study employs Anderson's methods and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses, but uses a sample of predominantly Black women and Latinas from the 1998 Chicago Women's Health Risk Study. PMID:24493663

  5. "Outstanding Services to Negro Health": Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, Dr. Virginia M. Alexander, and Black Women Physicians' Public Health Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2016-08-01

    An examination of the lives and careers of physician-activists Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1898-1972) and Virginia M. Alexander (1899-1949) demonstrates how Black physicians in the first half of the 20th century used public health to improve the health of Black Americans and provides insights into the experiences of Black women physicians. I discuss their professional and personal backgrounds and analyze their divergent strategies to address health inequities. Ferebee used her leadership in Black women's organizations to develop public health programs and become a national advocate for Black health. Alexander, a Quaker, used her religious connections to urge Whites to combat racism in medicine. She also conducted public health research and connected it to health activism. Both were passionate advocates of health equity long before it gained prominence as a major public health issue. An analysis of their work illuminates past efforts to improve the health of Black Americans. PMID:27310348

  6. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taona P. Chithambo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body mass index (BMI and perceived attractiveness among overweight and obese women. Participants were 1,694 respondents of Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health ( years. Black ( or White ( obese or overweight women were included in the current study. As expected, Black women reported lower perceived weight and higher attractiveness than White women, despite higher body mass for Black women. Furthermore, race moderated the relationship between BMI and perceived attractiveness; for White women, a negative relationship existed between BMI and attractiveness, whereas for Black women, BMI and attractiveness were not related. The study findings provide further support for the buffering hypothesis, indicating that despite higher body mass, overweight Black women are less susceptible to thin body ideals than White women.

  7. Women's experience of group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S; Groce, Nora E; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2011-01-01

    Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women's experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of women's expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women's experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized; however, there were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations. PMID:20693516

  8. Impact of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health Screening in Black Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, Charles P.; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Taylor, Teletia R.; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be related to health screening behavior. The present study examines the effect of discrimination on cancer screening among women in the Black Women’s Health Study. Five self-report items measured discrimination in everyday life and three items measured experiences of major discrimination. Logistic regression was used to test associations of discrimination with Pap smear, mammography, or colonoscopy utilization. At the start of follow-up, 88.8% had a ...

  9. "Say Africa When You Pray": The Activities of Early Black Baptist Women Missionaries Among Liberian Women and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sylvia M.

    1986-01-01

    The place of Black Baptist women missionaries has been obscured in history. These women served conscientiously in Africa and helped the Baptist mission movement there during the nineteenth century. They made a considerable impact on African women and children. Case studies of these women are presented. (VM)

  10. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  11. Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F

    2004-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance. PMID:15113284

  12. Fear experience reading: women reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant, the fears experienced by women in the process of constructing themselves as such are also constant. She concludes that the only course to follow is necessarily a way where feminine consciousness must be integrated, both in men and women, as a previous step in the construction of a reality based on equals, though, at the same time, different. This would allow us to discover the masculine and feminine dimension in all of us.

  13. Sassin' through Sadhana: Learned Leadership Journeys of Black Women in Holistic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Women of color, especially Black women, are underrepresented in the extant literature and research of adult development and mind, body, spirit leadership. This in-depth qualitative portraiture study explored the lives of three Black women who have been leading their communities as adult educators of mind, body, spirit practices. This examination…

  14. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  15. Fear experience reading: women reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant,...

  16. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257

  17. Women's Hysterectomy Experiences and Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Uskul, Ayse K.; Ahmad, Farah; Leyland, Nicholas A.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine women's experiences with gynaecologic symptoms and how they decided to undergo hysterectomy. For this purpose, twenty-nine women were interviewed in hospital within three days of undergoing hysterectomy. The interviews elicited information about the nature of the problem that caused the women to seek medical help, actions taken to solve their problem, their relationship with their gynaecologist, information seeking patterns and decision-making about hyster...

  18. Women's Experience of Miscarriage: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Donna P.; Bass, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Physicians lack knowledge on how to help women who have miscarried deal with their emotional distress. We interviewed 16 women 4 and 12 weeks after a miscarriage. The women described their experience of miscarriage and perceptions of what helped or hindered their emotional recovery, particularly physicians' actions. A grief reaction that can be divided into five stages and that was modified through the support of family and friends was identified. The intensity of the grief was related to the...

  19. BRCA sequencing and large rearrangement testing in young Black women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Tuya; Bonner, Devon; Cragun, Deborah; Johnson, Sharland; Akbari, Mohammad; Servais, Lily; Narod, Steven; Vadaparampil, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women in the United States are disproportionately afflicted with breast cancer, a proportion of which may be due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) gene mutations. In a cancer registry-based sample of young Black women with breast cancer, we evaluated: (1) the prevalence of BRCA mutations detected through full gene sequencing and large rearrangements testing and (2) proportions that accessed genetic services pre-dating study enrollment. Black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer ≤ag...

  20. Formal Opportunity, Informal Barriers: Black Women Managers within a Local Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Liff; Karen Dale

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the equal opportunities policies of a local authority which were intended to improve the representation of black women managers. It reports the types of initiatives and proportions of black women employed in different grades over time; and discusses the organisational context, contrasting the views of personnel and line managers, and EO specialists, with those of black women who had achieved senior positions. These latter accounts illustrated how inequalities were sustai...

  1. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which a general model for understanding and predicting Black mental health problems accounts for the particular problem of alcohol consumption in an urban sample of 289 African American women. The general model consists of eight variables: life events, social support, religious orientation, internalized racialism, physical health problems, marital status, socioeconomic status, and developmental status. In Part I expected interrelationships among variables are presented, from which a structural equation model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption is formulated. Methods for evaluating the model are described in Part II (International Journal of the Addictions, Vol. 25, No. 12). PMID:2090628

  2. Experiments on black liquor splashplate nozzle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, K.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of a throttled black liquor splashplate nozzle was studied in this work. A series of industrial-scale experiments were performed using mass flow rate as a variable at a fixed temperature. The experiments were carried out in a spraying chamber next to the recovery boiler with real mill liquor. The disintegration process of the liquor sheet was videotaped for analyzing. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with a collector. The liquor drops produced by the nozzle were videotaped and measured with a video image analysis technique. The industrial-scale experiments were afterwards repeated on a small scale in the laboratory environment which made it possible to study the liquid sheet disintegration process thoroughly. The small-scale experiments were carried out with a solution of water and glycerol and a splashplate nozzle of approximately one tenth the size of full-scale nozzle. The whole liquid sheet and close-up exposures of the plate area were videotaped. However, the videotaping equipment (camera and objective) were not capable of observing the very thin and transparent liquid sheet. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with steps of 2.5 deg from the plate centerline with a collector device. The drop sizes were measured from various sheet angles with Malvern Particle Sizer and a phase Doppler particle anemometer (Aerometrics). The modeling was based on dimensional analysis. The objective was to compare these two experimental settings and to find out whether small-scale experiments can be used in predicting the spraying characteristics in the full-scale. It was also of interest to test the measured black liquor drop sizes against drop size correlations obtained from the literature. (31 refs.)

  3. An assessment of American Indian women's mammography experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseru Babalola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from breast cancer has increased among American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN women. Despite this alarming reality, AI/AN women have some of the lowest breast cancer screening rates. Only 37% of eligible AI/AN women report a mammogram within the last year and 52% report a mammogram within the last two years compared to 57% and 72% for White women. The experiences and satisfaction surrounding mammography for AI/AN women likely are different from that of women of other racial/ethnic groups, due to cultural differences and limited access to Indian Health Service sponsored mammography units. The overall goals of this study are to identify and understand the mammography experiences and experiential elements that relate to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with mammography services in an AI/AN population and to develop a culturally-tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction survey. Methods and Design The three project aims that will be used to guide this work are: 1 To compare the mammography experiences and satisfaction with mammography services of Native American/Alaska Native women with that of Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Black women, 2 To develop and validate the psychometric properties of an American Indian Mammography Survey, and 3 To assess variation among AI/AN women's assessments of their mammography experiences and mammography service satisfaction. Evaluations of racial/ethnic differences in mammography patient satisfaction have received little study, particularly among AI/AN women. As such, qualitative study is uniquely suited for an initial examination of their experiences because it will allow for a rich and in-depth identification and exploration of satisfaction elements. Discussion This formative research is an essential step in the development of a validated and culturally tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction assessment. Results from this project will provide a springboard from which a maximally

  4. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. PMID:26513636

  5. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27188876

  6. Normative Ideals, “Alternative” Realities: Perceptions of Interracial Dating among Professional Latinas and Black Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family types continue to expand in the U.S., yet normative patterns of endogamy and the privileging of nuclear families persist. To understand how professional women of color navigate endogamy and family ideals, I draw on 40 in-depth interviews of professional Black women and Latinas to ask how they construct partner preferences. I find that professional Latinas and Black women prefer same-race, similarly educated partners but report significant barriers to satisfying these desires. Respondents’ experiences with racism, the rejection of ethno-racial and cultural assimilation, gendered racism from men of color, and the college gender gap emerge as mechanisms for endogamous preferences. These preferences resist and support hegemonic family formation, an ideological and behavioral process that privileges, white, middle class, endogamous, heteronormative ideals for families comprising courtship, marriage, and biological childbearing. By challenging the racial devaluation of people of color while preferring the normativity that endogamy offers, the women in this study underscore the fluidity embedded in endogamy.

  7. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  8. Perceptions of Race/Ethnic Discrimination in Relation to Mortality Among Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A.; Cozier, Yvette; Ridker, Paul M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Glynn, Robert J.; Rose, Lynda; Halevy, Nitsan; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Background Because racial discrimination is a form of chronic psychological stress that might unfavorably affect health, we examined whether perceived experiences of racism among black women are associated with mortality. Methods We followed 48 924 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (mean age, 40.5 years) for 8 years to assess the risk of all-cause mortality associated with perceived experiences of racism. Subanalyses of cancer and cardiovascular mortality were also conducted. Perceived racism was evaluated by 8 questions about institutionalized racism (unfair treatment on the job, in housing, or by the police) and everyday experiences of racism (eg, others acting as if the woman was not intelligent). We estimated the relative risk of death with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for traditional and socioenvironmental risk factors. Results During 412 224 person years of follow-up from 1997 to 2005, there were 920 deaths, including 277 due to cancer and 195 due to cardiovascular causes. All-cause mortality was not associated with institutionalized racism (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.2) for the highest category vs the lowest or with everyday racism (relative risk, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.2) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest. Risk estimates for the highest categories of perceived racism relative to the lowest were greater than 1.0 for cancer deaths and less than 1.0 for cardiovascular disease death but were not statistically significant. Conclusions In this large prospective study of black women, reported experiences of racism were not significantly related to mortality. Longer follow-up of this relatively young cohort and further work is warranted in this complex area of research because continued race/ethnic disparities in mortality are not entirely explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:20498418

  9. "Why don't they come to Pike Street and ask us"?: Black American women's health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, T G

    1998-10-01

    It is well known that black American women are poorly represented in medically oriented research and that this has far reaching implications for their personal health, the health of their families and the overall health of the larger society. The research reported was premised on the assumption that learning more about black American women's beliefs and values regarding health and illness could inform public policy initiatives in the area of cancer prevention and control so that a more equitable basis for participation could be achieved in future medical and scientific research. Qualitative methods of research were used in this investigation. A semi-structured interview guide was used in 36 h. of in-depth and face-to-face interviews with 13 black American women recruited to the study using a snowball technique. The women interviewed were middle-class, professional and semi-professional women. The results of the study indicate that there is a poor understanding by the dominant white medical community concerning the beliefs and values of black patients and that this compromises their health and illness care. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is often used as the rationale for the low recruitment of black women into clinical trials both therapeutic and non-therapeutic. The women interviewed do not agree with this claim. These women suggest that if they were asked to participate in trials and the trial was relevant to their primary medical concerns they would consider joining. The research results indicate the importance of using specific research methodologies and a number of recommendations are presented. PMID:9722113

  10. A Repository of Hope for Social Justice: Black Women Leaders at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.

    2006-01-01

    The 1954 ruling of "Brown v. Board of Education" by the U.S. Supreme Court impacted the social lives of African Americans. The primary purpose of this research was to examine the experiences and struggles for social justice in education and educational institutions as viewed from the context of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU)…

  11. The association of perceived stress, contextualized stress, and emotional eating with body mass index in college-aged Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4 years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (β=0.036, S.E.=.0118, pstress interaction was observed for BMI (β=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted. PMID:26496005

  12. The Association between Trust in Health Care Providers and Medication Adherence among Black Women with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Willie M.; Jimmy T. Efird

    2013-01-01

    Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens. Methods: Black women (N = 80) who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed th...

  13. Normative Ideals, “Alternative” Realities: Perceptions of Interracial Dating among Professional Latinas and Black Women

    OpenAIRE

    Rocio Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Family types continue to expand in the U.S., yet normative patterns of endogamy and the privileging of nuclear families persist. To understand how professional women of color navigate endogamy and family ideals, I draw on 40 in-depth interviews of professional Black women and Latinas to ask how they construct partner preferences. I find that professional Latinas and Black women prefer same-race, similarly educated partners but report significant barriers to satisfying these desires. Responde...

  14. Missing Motherhood: Jordanian Women's Experiences with Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mahmoud Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim, Background, and Introduction. Bearing and rearing children are an important part of life in nearly all cultures and are a central role for Jordanian Muslim women. Infertility can create anxiety, stress, and depression for couples who are infertile. Women frequently bear the emotional stigma of a couple’s infertility. There is a paucity of literature focusing on Jordanian Muslim women experiencing infertility and failed assistive reproductive technology. Therefore, this study explored these women’s lived experience. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 30 Jordanian Muslim women who experienced failed assistive reproductive technology for infertility. Perceptions of experiences with failed treatment of infertility were documented and analyzed. Results. Major themes were identified: missing out on motherhood and living with infertility, experiencing marital stressors, feeling social pressure, experiencing depression and disappointment, having treatment associated difficulties, appreciating support from family and friends, using coping strategies, and fear of an unknown future. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Clinical Practice. Being infertile significantly influences the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health of Jordanian Muslim women as well as their quality of life. Perceived social support and personal coping strategies were used by study participants to mediate failed attempts to conceive. Designing and implementing culturally appropriate interventions for Muslim women globally who are experiencing infertility are essential.

  15. Kinsey revisited, Part II: Comparisons of the sexual socialization and sexual behavior of black women over 33 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G E; Peters, S D; Guthrie, D

    1988-08-01

    Kinsey's findings regarding the sexual behavior of black women were compared with data from a more recent study of sexual socialization and experiences among women in Los Angeles County, Ca. The study examined responses from two groups of college-educated black women, ages 18 to 36, 196 women from the original Kinsey sample and 64 women from the new sample. Log-linear analyses were used to control for differences between the samples on age and marital status. Comparisons were conducted in the areas of childhood family characteristics; sexual socialization and education; sexual behavior in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; contraceptive practices; and child sexual abuse. Results reflected changes that have taken place in society and in patterns of sexual behavior. Differences in sexual socialization pointed to the increased role of the media and the schools and to more relaxed attitudes about nudity in the home. Shifts in sexual behavior were particularly dramatic. As compared to women in the Kinsey sample, newer subjects began intercourse earlier, were less likely to have a fiance or husband as their first partner, reported a higher number of sexual partners, and participated in a broader range of sexual behaviors. Contraceptive practices differed considerably, especially among never-married women. Women in this study were slightly more likely to report instances of child sexual abuse. Methodological and social factors contributing to the findings are discussed. PMID:3421826

  16. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188651

  17. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap. PMID:19771940

  18. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Neal

    2004-01-01

    Taken as a whole, the literature on black-white wage inequality suggests that racial gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women, and further that one can accurately assess black-white gaps in potential wages among women without accounting for black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply. This paper challenges both pieces of this conventional wisdom. I provide several estimates of the black-white gap in potential wages for the year 1990 using data from the Natio...

  19. The mental health of US Black women: the roles of social context and severe intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Krim K. Lacey; Parnell, Regina; Mouzon, Dawne M; Matusko, Niki; Head, Doreen; Abelson, Jamie M.; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Black women continue to have rates of mental health conditions that can be negative for their well-being. This study examined the contribution of social and contextual factors and severe physical intimate partner violence on the mental health of US Black women (African-American and Caribbean Black). Setting Data were largely collected via in-person community interviews at participants’ homes. Participants We studied 3277 African-American and Black Caribbean women from the 2001–2003 ...

  20. Unsung, Unwavering: Nineteenth-Century Black Women's Epistemologies and the Liberal Problematic

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Regis Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Unsung, Unwavering deploys African Americanist and feminist literary criticism in order to problematize how scholars have read nineteenth-century African-American women's activism and knowledge production. I simultaneously expand contemporary critical inquiry in (at least) two key ways: I analyze nineteenth-century black women's interrogation of the effects of liberalism as juridical, economic, and affective performance; and I unsettle sedimented perspectives of black resistance as inherentl...

  1. The Criminalization of Black Angeleno Women: Institutionalized Racism and Sexism in Los Angeles, 1928-1938

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Kaitlin Therese

    2012-01-01

    "The Criminalization of Black Angeleno Women" illuminates what happened in early 20th century Los Angeles when African American women, particularly working poor females, came into contact with the Los Angeles Police Department, the court system and the local, mainstream media. Individually, but especially collaboratively, these institutions lead to the overrepresentation of Black, statistically and in the public mind, in the local sex trade. Essentially, this thesis traces the biases of the...

  2. Perceptions of Power and Faith among Black Women Faculty: Re-Thinking Institutional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kirsten T.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I report on the perceptions and attitudes of Christian Black women faculty members in regards to religious difference at both historically Black colleges and universities [HBCUs] and predominantly White institutions [PWIs]. By taking a focused look at "uncomplicated Christian privilege" at HBCUs, the study asked what…

  3. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  4. Differences in calcium metabolism between black and white men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D D; Ettinger, B; Sidney, S; Tekawa, I S; Tolan, K

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether environmental factors influence racial differences in calcium metabolism, the authors evaluated the influence of three factors (season, length of sunlight exposure, and diet) on calciotropic hormones, renal calcium excretion, and markers of bone turnover in an ambulatory population aged 25-36 years. Included were 109 black men, 114 white men, 95 black women, and 84 white women. Compared with white subjects, black subjects of both genders showed lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and higher levels of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]. The mean winter levels of 25-OHD were 19 to 29% lower than the summer levels in all groups. The urinary calcium excretion was 26% lower in black men than in white men and was 36% lower in black women than in white women. The parathyroid hormone levels were 29% higher in black women than in white women, but no statistically significant racial differences in parathyroid hormone levels were seen in men. Bone turnover markers (serum osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, urinary pyridinoline cross-link excretion) did not show consistent racial differences. Racial and gender differences in calcium excretion did not significantly correlate with differences in lifestyle or with levels of the calciotropic hormones. Environmental factors such as diet and sunlight exposure do not appear to influence racial differences in the levels of the calciotropic hormones or renal calcium excretion. PMID:10436403

  5. "Bringing home more than a paycheck:" an exploratory analysis of Black lesbians' experiences of stress and coping in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye

    2008-01-01

    Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination. PMID:19042294

  6. Mental Health and Sexual Self-Concept Discrepancies in a Sample of Young Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Marcelle Christian

    2002-01-01

    Addressed the mental health consequences of sexual self-concept discrepancies among young black women. Participant surveys examined differences between their actual, ideal, and "ought" sexual selves. Overall, sexual self-concept discrepancies did not predict mental health outcomes. Women who were bothered by the differences between whom they…

  7. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  8. Toward the Development of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…

  9. From Mammy to Superwoman: Images that Hinder Black Women's Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Dobbs, Wendy; Thomas, Kecia M.; Harrison, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01

    Black women, like other women of color, find themselves at the intersection of both racism and sexism in the workplace. Due to their unique dual status as racial and gender minorities, they encounter unique and unexplored barriers that inhibit their career as well as leadership development. The goal of this article is to highlight the emerging…

  10. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  11. The Sexual Assault of Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…

  12. The experience of women with genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roets

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept genital prolapse indicates the transposition of the pelvic organs. These include the bladder, uterus, vaginal dome and the rectum. Regardless of the stage of genital prolapse, it can have a drastic influence on the quality of a woman’s life. It may lead to incontinence of urine and faeces, sexual problems as well as pelvic discomfort. The way in which a patient experiences these symptoms is of value to the nurse for whom holistic care is important. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe the experiences of women with a diagnosis of genital prolapse. A qualitative study was carried out from a phenomenological viewpoint. Individual in-depth interviews were used as the method of data collection. The interviews took place in a relaxed, familiar environment. One open-ended question was asked, namely: “Please describe to me how you experience the symptoms of your condition”.

  13. Reproducing Black's experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after Black. The depression of the freezing point can hardly be fitted in the framework of the caloric theory of heat, which was taken for granted by Black, and the instantaneous freezing of supercooled water also poses some difficulties for that theory. (author)

  14. Sport, race and gender: the experiences of black Norwegian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Massao, Prisca Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I explored how racism and marginalization in Norwegian sport are experienced by black Norwegian athletes. To accomplish this, I used the following research questions: 1. How are individual and institutional racism manifested in Norwegian organized sport? 2. What is the influence of gender on black athletes’ experiences of racism in Norwegian organized sport? In the first chapter, I outline the background, aim and scope of the study and the literature review...

  15. Creating a “Safe and Supportive Environment:” Mentoring and Professional Development for Recent Black Women Doctoral Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Bertrand Jones; La'Tara Osborne-Lampkin; Danielle Joy Davis; Shawna M. Patterson

    2015-01-01

    Formal structures that support doctoral student socialization are limited, while formal programs for Black women doctoral students specifically are even more scarce. The purpose of this research was to examine an early career professional development program for Black women doctoral students and its influence on the mentoring relationships developed by participants. We conducted individual interviews with six Black women who participated in the Research BootCamp®, an early career professional...

  16. Troubling Success: Interviews with Black Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nivischi N.; Beverly, Monifa Green; Alexander-Snow, Mia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the complexity of success for Black female faculty members based on six Black women at a public research oriented university in the Southeast. All women shared the challenges they experience as Black female faculty members. Findings indicate that while these women seemingly have attained professional success, they are leery of…

  17. The Church: Black Catholic Women Religious in Antebellum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation of the Oblate Sisters of Providence and the Congregation of the Holy Family, two orders of Black nuns founded in the American South prior to the Civil War for the purposes of educating Black children and caring for orphans and elderly, abandoned slaves. (GC)

  18. Construction and initial validation of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jioni A; Neville, Helen A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one's race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed's (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.'s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25867696

  19. Hair penalties: The negative influence of Afrocentric hair on ratings of Black women's dominance and professionalism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R. Opie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women are penalized if they do not behave in a stereotype-congruent manner (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Heilman, 1983; 2001. For example, because women are not expected to be agentic they incur an agency penalty for expressing anger, dominance or assertiveness (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008; Eagly & Karau, 2002; Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012; Rudman, 1998; Rudman & Fairchild, 2004; Rudman & Glick, 1999, 2001. Yet, all women are not equally penalized (Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012. We make a novel contribution by examining how both White and Black evaluators respond to Black women’s dominance, in this case, whether Black women choose to wear Afrocentric or Eurocentric hairstyles. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted three experimental studies to examine the influence of target hairstyle and participant race on ratings of the target’s professionalism (Studies 1, 2 and 3 and dominance (Study 2. Study 1 was an online experimental study with 200 participants (112 females, 87 males, 1 missing gender; 160 Whites, 19 Blacks, 11 Latinos, 7 Asian Americans and 3 who identify as other; Mage= 35.5, SD = 11.4. Study 2 was an online experimental study with 510 participants (276 women, 234 males; 256 Blacks, 254 Whites; Mage = 41.25 years, SD = 12.21. Study 3 was an online experimental study with 291 participants (141 Blacks, 150 Whites, Mage= 47.5 years, SD = 11.66. Findings: Black, as compared to White, evaluators gave higher agency penalties to Black employment candidates when they donned Afrocentric versus Eurocentric hair, rating them as more dominant and less professional. Implications: The present research illustrates the significance of considering both target and evaluator race when examining the influence of agency, and specifically dominance, on ratings of professionalism.

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Carson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  1. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:26770698

  2. Black women queering the mic: Missy Elliott disturbing the boundaries of racialized sexuality and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nikki

    2011-01-01

    Though there were and always have been djs, dancers, graffiti artists, and rappers who were Black women, they are placed on the periphery of hip-hop culture; their voices, along with "gay rappers" and "white rappers" devalued and their contribution to the global rise of hip-hop either forgotten or eschewed. This article is an attempt to articulate the existence of Black women who work outside of the paradigms of the "silence, secrecy, and a partially self-chosen invisibility" that Evelynn Hammonds describes. At the center of this article lies an attempt to locate a new configuration and expression of desire and sexuality, opening a door, wide open, to gain a different view of Black women, their sexuality, their expression of it, and the complexities that arise when they attempt to express it in hip hop nation language. PMID:21740210

  3. Race and region have independent and synergistic effects on dietary intakes in black and white women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby P K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the effects of race and region on dietary intakes and the evidence on racial and regional disparities among women is limited. We aimed to examine whether race and region were associated with nutrient intakes among black and white women living in the Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, and Other regions in the United States. We hypothesized that significant differences would be observed among population sub-groups and that the effects of race on dietary intakes would vary across regions. Methods This study included dietary data from 12,105 women from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (United States. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Results Blacks consumed 1.05% lower energy from saturated fat (95% CI: -0.95, -1.16, and intakes were also lower in the Buckle (β = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.32 and Belt (β = -0.35; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.46 compared to the Other regions. Within each region, sodium, potassium, and magnesium intakes were all lower among black women compared to white women (P P Conclusions Race and region were significantly associated with nutrient intakes in a large study of black and non-Hispanic white women in the United States. Intakes of trans fat, calcium, and cholesterol among black and white women differed across regions. Race and region thus interact to impact dietary intakes, and their effects may be mediated by such factors as the broader food environment and food availability as well as food customs and culture. Race, region, and their correlates should therefore be considered together when examining diet and disease associations and planning dietary advice for population sub-groups.

  4. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…

  5. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  6. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  7. Childhood Educational Experiences of Women with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Donna; Mandleco, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the childhood experiences of women with cerebral palsy (CP), from the perspectives of these women. Using the feminist biographical method, eight women with CP participated in two in-depth interviews. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 55 years and had moderate to severe athetoid or spastic CP. Four…

  8. Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2006-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…

  9. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  10. "They Are Hiring the White Women but They Won't Hire the Colored Women": Black Women Confront Racism and Sexism in the Richmond Shipyards During World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Tuft, Paige

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, black women migrated largely out of the South to take advantage of the growing defense industries in California. Black women flocked to the shipbuilding industry in Richmond for the great economic opportunities industrial jobs offered. What they found when they arrived and attempted to secure jobs in the shipyards hardly lived up to their dreams and expectations. Black women found themselves faced with dual discrimination due to their race and gender. The shortage of a...

  11. Four Criteria for Labeling Black Women and Their Community as 'Others' in Toni Morrison's Novels

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Herminingrum

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of Black women's life, from Slavery Era to Women Rights Movement in 1980-s, highlighted by Morrison in The Bluest Eyes, Sula, Song of Solomon, Tar Baby, Beloved, Jazz, Paradise, and Love is cultural expression which is in a non-exclusive territory. By applying interdisciplinary approach - integrating theories and perspectives of some disciplines, including the intersectional zone of the study of gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity - to research these eight novels, it was disco...

  12. Adapting a Brief Evidence-Based Intervention for Text Message Delivery to Young Adult Black Women

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Tiffany Monique

    2016-01-01

    Young adult Black women have the highest sexually transmitted disease rates among all U.S. women. There are several evidence-based interventions (EBIs) targeted toward this population, yet they each require travel to a healthcare facility or other location. With the increased use of mobile devices, mobile health technology is being utilized more frequently to deliver health interventions. Instead of creating entirely new technologically savvy interventions, the CDC recommends adaptation of EB...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    OpenAIRE

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic h...

  14. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Louis Jessy; Consedine Nathan S; Magai Carol; Jean-Louis Girardin; Zizi Ferdinand; Casimir Georges J; Belzie Louis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years) participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk fa...

  15. Black-white differences in alcohol use by women: Baltimore survey findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Lillie-Blanton, M; MacKenzie, E; Anthony, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Although black women suffer disproportionately from alcohol-related illnesses and causes of death, little is known about the extent to which poorer outcomes are a function of differences in drinking, the use of health services, or some combination of these factors. This study, using interview data obtained in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area household survey, compares racial differences in alcohol use and abuse among a sample of 2,100 women. After controlling for differences in soci...

  16. Breast cancer characteristics and outcomes among Hispanic Black and Hispanic White women

    OpenAIRE

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Li, Christopher I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating breast cancer outcomes specific to Hispanics of different race (e.g. Hispanic Black, Hispanic White) may further explain variations in the burden of breast cancer among Hispanic women. Using data from the SEER 17 population-based registries, we evaluated the association between race/ethnicity and tumor stage, hormone receptor status, and breast cancer-specific mortality. The study cohort of 441,742 women, aged 20–79, who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between Ja...

  17. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Loutfy; Wangari Tharao; Carmen Logie; Muna A Aden; Chambers, Lori A.; Wei Wu; Marym Abdelmaseh; Liviana Calzavara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effe...

  18. From pillar to post: homeless women's experiences of social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ailsa; Abrahams, Hilary; Morgan, Karen; Williamson, Emma; Henry, Lorna

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports findings from a longitudinal study of homeless women. Thirty-eight women were recruited with a retention rate of 58% over three rounds of interviews. Interviews explored specific events in women's lives, their current living arrangements and how their experiences and needs, including for social care, changed over time. Data were analysed thematically using a priori codes. Women reported a range of complex issues, consistent with experiences of deep social exclusion and received support from both statutory and voluntary agencies. Although women appreciated the support they received, many reported that services were fragmented and rarely personalised to their needs. PMID:25721440

  19. The perspectives and experiences of Black female naval officers

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Voresa E.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines the perspectives and experiences of Black female naval officers and explores reasons why they joined the Navy and their attitudes toward continued service. Eighteen in depth interviews were conducted in Monterey, California and Washington, DC. Twelve general themes were developed as a result of the interviews. These themes covered topics such as reasons for joining, experiences while in the Navy, concerns about recruitment of minorities, perceptions about racism, percepti...

  20. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  1. Candid Reflections on the Departure of Black Women Faculty from Academe in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Crystal Renee

    2012-01-01

    Critical content analysis is used to identify content within blogs, exposing views within academe that reinforce and normalize racist, sexist, and interactively racist and sexist perspectives. The two themes explored here are unfairness and subjectivities within personnel processes and the qualifications of Black women faculty, as raised through a…

  2. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  3. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women - Waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, RP; Veenhouwer, JF; Grobbee, DE

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between measures of. obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated. black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without k

  4. Increasing Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality From 1979 to 2010 for US Black Women Aged 20 to 49 Years

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Yang, Jianing; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist, and young Black women have higher disease incidence compared with White women. We compared trends in breast cancer mortality for young Black and White women with mortality trends for other common diseases from 1979 to 2010. In contrast to other cancers, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, the breast cancer mortality disparity has widened over the past 30 years, suggesting that unique aspects of disease biology, prevention, and treatment m...

  5. Promoting the Inclusion of Tenure Earning Black Women in Academe: Lessons for Leaders in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Reynolds, Rema; Jones, Tamara Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    This narrative work highlights one Black female faculty participant's experience of the Sisters of the Academy (SOTA) Research Boot Camp. She shares the benefits of the initiative, as well as how the program influenced her research and writing productivity as a faculty member. SOTA leadership supports Black female tenure-track and tenured faculty…

  6. Four Criteria for Labeling Black Women and Their Community as 'Others' in Toni Morrison's Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Herminingrum

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Black women's life, from Slavery Era to Women Rights Movement in 1980-s, highlighted by Morrison in The Bluest Eyes, Sula, Song of Solomon, Tar Baby, Beloved, Jazz, Paradise, and Love is cultural expression which is in a non-exclusive territory. By applying interdisciplinary approach - integrating theories and perspectives of some disciplines, including the intersectional zone of the study of gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity - to research these eight novels, it was discovered that there are four points engendering Black women regarded as 'other'. (1 Mother-centered culture practice. (2 Double lives for racism and sexim. (3 The impact of White culture invasion. (4 The struggle for building self dignity.

  7. Labor Force Experiences of Nonmetropolitan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokemeier, Janet L.; Tickamyer, Ann R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines characteristics of work, job conditions, and financial rewards of nonmetropolitan Kentucky women, revealing no difference between Appalachian and non-Appalachian residents. Finds that occupation and industrial makeup of the labor market have a major impact on womens' work; education is the most significant individual factor associated…

  8. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  9. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Linda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001 and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001 were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population.

  10. THE SUFFERS OF BLACK WOMEN IN ALICE WALKER’S NOVELS THE COLOR PURPLE AND MERIDIAN AND TONI MORRISON’S NOVELS BELOVED AND THE BLUEST EYE*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Cercis TANRITANIR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study “the suffers of black women” in Alice Walker’s novels The Color Purple and Meridian and Toni Morrison’s novels Beloved and The Bluest Eye, the popular and significant works of African-American Literature are examined. It is obvious that the authors’ source knowledge about suffers of the black women is their life experiences in the black community. One can say that being colored women, both Walker and Morrison have the advantage of portraying what it is to be a woman of color in the society. It is obvious that their slave ancestors and the years of struggle of woman rights give them the opportunity to create life-like characters in their novels.

  11. Older women and cosmetic tattooing experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Saunders, Jana C; Roberts, Alden E

    2009-01-01

    Aging for the older women in the 21st century is more than medical issues. In this study, 62 women (ages 51-81+) obtained a total of 97 permanent makeup procedures. Procurement cues included self-improvement and friend's appearance, consistent with internal, external, and appearance perspectives of body image. Poor eyesight was also of concern (14/23%). Actual benefits included saving makeup time and money (external), while achieving personal goals (internal). This study seems to confirm that for these older women, body image remains important, especially qualities of the face. They did not shed their internal, external, nor appearance concerns associated with body image, as they aged. PMID:20183144

  12. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Jessy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  13. The Black Woman Cross-Culturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steady, Filomina Chioma, Ed.

    This is a collection of anthropological and sociological articles on the black woman. Essays cover the experiences of black women in Africa, the Caribbean, South America, and the United States in politics, business, the community, the arts, the family, and social change. Several themes are present throughout this anthology, including black women's…

  14. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora. However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs, non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods: The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results: Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.

  15. Migrant Breadwinning: Experiences of Eastern European Women in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Hellermann, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    In my research I examine the situation of women from Eastern Europe who migrate alone to Portugal. Many had to leave behind their families and children. This Thesis explores the women's decisions for leaving their home countries, and looks at the experiences and challenges they face in Portugal. The impact of the women's often undocumented legal status and the precarious work conditions is explained. Central to the Thesis is the migrants' possibilities for agency and the meaning of migration ...

  16. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose–response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-...

  17. Women's experiences of general practitioner management of miscarriage.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, T

    1989-01-01

    A study of 67 women one month after miscarriage identified significant levels of dissatisfaction with their medical care. There are particular problems in managing miscarriage which is very distressing for many women but a common clinical presentation for doctors. The reasons for women's dissatisfaction with their management are explained. Greater understanding of the experience of miscarriage should lead to better management and suggestions are made for better care for this common distressin...

  18. Women in situations of gender violence: meanings of affective experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Fernandes Martins Catão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed in this study to analyze - women in situations of gender violence: meanings ofaffective experience, for women receiving care in the Reference Center in Northeast Brazil. Study participants: 10 women, between 27 and 67 years old. It is used semi-open questionnaire and semi-structured interview. The data were subjected to thematic content analysis in the light of Socio-Historical Psychology. The analysis identifies three interrelated themes: conceptions of gender violence, amounting to 59.9% of the meanings elaborated; difficulties with 22.4% of speech; prospect of change with 17.7% The study highlights the affective experience of women in gender violence, as expressed by the affections, by suffering psychosocial, by the reflection of the lived. Concluded with the affective experience (perejivânie is related to the intensity with which these women live the gender violence, reflect on the lived, create projects life in the pursuit of transformative actions.

  19. Minimizing the Pervasiveness of Women's Personal Experiences of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…

  20. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Women's Dental Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kate F.; Stanley, Sheila F.

    1996-01-01

    Compared the dental experiences of 132 women with a history of sexual abuse to 49 women reporting no such history. Findings show that a history of abuse, especially the severity of abuse, predicted different patterns in making and keeping dental appointments, stress-related dental problems, and post-traumatic-stress-disorder-type symptoms while at…

  1. Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences and Alcohol Consumption among Women Entering College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Kolars, Candace L. Kurth; Krahn, Dean D.; Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky; Clark, Ginna; Niehaus, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between precollege nonconsensual sexual experiences (NSEs) and drinking among women entering college. College women (N = 797) at a midwestern university participated. Eighteen percent reported one or more NSE prior to arriving at college. Having a precollege NSE was associated with recent drinking, binge…

  2. Black Feminism: What Women of Color Went Through in Toni Morrison’s Selected Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two of Toni Morrison’s novels, The Bluest Eye and Beloved in the lights of black feminism, racism, realism and naturalism. It is an attempt to reflect the powerlessness, inhumanity, and pains that women of color went through.  By using a feminist racist and naturalist filter,  a descriptive-analytical method of study and by analyzing the situations, the characters and themes, the status of women of color  in Literature based on Morrison’s selected  novels are revealed and represented. Morrison very well describes how different women characters react and respond differently to the injustice and the inhumanity imposed on them through for example the contrasting nature of Sethe in Beloved and Pauline in The Bluest Eye. She depicts the bravery and courage in Sethe , the self-absorbedness in Pauline and the passiveness in Pecola all of which raise powerful questions regarding black-women’s self-identity, self-concept, and  struggles to achieve freedom as a living being if not a human being: a path which will deepen our understanding of  women issues in general. The researcher believes that a womanish and racist study of the selected novels would contribute to broaden our views of humanity. The researcher selected women of color because she thinks the sorrows of black women, and the pains and toils they went through have always been deeper than those of the white ones.Keywords: Feminism, Naturalism, Racism, Postmodernism, Sexism, Scapegoat

  3. Weight gain prevention among black women in the rural community health center setting: The Shape Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Perry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years with a BMI of 25–34.9 kg/m2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership. Participants are followed over 18 months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4 years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2 kg/m2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold

  4. Mortality risk of black women and white women with invasive breast cancer by hormone receptors, HER2, and p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black women are more likely than white women to have an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with higher mortality and this may contribute to the observed black-white difference in mortality. However, few studies have investigated the black-white disparity in mortality risk stratified by breast cancer subtype, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, it is not known whether additional consideration of p53 protein status influences black-white differences in mortality risk observed when considering subtypes defined by ER, PR and HER2 status. Four biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue from 1,204 (523 black, 681 white) women with invasive breast cancer, aged 35–64 years at diagnosis, who accrued a median of 10 years’ follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to assess subtype-specific black-white differences in mortality risk. No black-white differences in mortality risk were observed for women with triple negative (ER-negative [ER-], PR-, and HER2-) subtype. However, older (50–64 years) black women had greater overall mortality risk than older white women if they had been diagnosed with luminal A (ER-positive [ER+] or PR+ plus HER2-) breast cancer (all-cause hazard ratio, HR, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.18 to 2.99; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.74). This black-white difference among older women was further confined to those with luminal A/p53- tumors (all-cause HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.79; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.93 to 3.86). Tests for homogeneity of race-specific HRs comparing luminal A to triple negative subtype and luminal A/p53- to luminal A/p53+ subtype did not achieve statistical significance, although statistical power was limited. Our findings suggest that the subtype-specific black-white difference in

  5. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-12-01

    An eight-variable model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption in a sample of 289 African American women is evaluated using a structural equation methodology. We found that life events, physical health problems, and internalized racialism played important roles in accounting for variance in alcohol consumption. Marital status did not have the predicted inverse effect on alcohol consumption. While religious orientation did not have the expected inverse effect on alcohol consumption, it had an unexpected direct effect on internalized racialism, which had a direct effect on alcohol consumption. We found that the effects of socioeconomic status and developmental status on alcohol consumption were mediated through other variables specified in the model. Overall the model, which provided partial to complete support for five of eight hypotheses, provided a statistically adequate fit. PMID:2094681

  6. Controversies on cosmetic outcomes in black women after breast conservation therapy: hyperperception or hyperpigmentation?

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards-Bennett, Sophia M.; Brown, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    Sophia M Edwards-Bennett1, Carol L Brown21Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL; 2Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, USAAbstract: Multiple studies have reported inferior cosmetic outcomes after breast conservation surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy in black women. However, cosmetic analysis scales contemporarily utilized in the field of radiation oncology rely largely on subjective visual and tactile per...

  7. Association between Traffic-Related Black Carbon Exposure and Lung Function among Urban Women

    OpenAIRE

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Gryparis, Alexandros; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Rosalind Jo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although a number of studies have documented the relationship between lung function and traffic-related pollution among children, few have focused on adult lung function or examined community-based populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between black carbon (BC), a surrogate of traffic-related particles, and lung function among women in the Maternal–Infant Smoking Study of East Boston, an urban cohort in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: We estimated local BC levels us...

  8. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, N; H.R Zakeri; G Amin ansafi; A. Shafiee; Sarkhail, P.; Heshmat, R; H Sereshti; B Larijani

    2010-01-01

    "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa) seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic wo...

  9. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  10. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  11. Mammography discomfort: a holistic perspective derived from women's experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Mammography discomfort has the potential to deter women from attending for regular breast screening. Previous studies have focussed on the pain/discomfort of the mammography procedure itself. The purpose of this study was to consider discomfort from a holistic perspective of the mammography experience derived from the women themselves. Methods: Qualitative research methods were employed. Using theoretical sampling, 12 women who had recently experienced mammography were interviewed. The interview questions aimed to explore the experience of women attending for a mammogram from arrival to departure and beyond in order to identify aspects which potentially increase discomfort. Data analysis involved coding and categorisation and identification of key concepts and their relationships. Results: A conceptual framework was developed that demonstrates the contributors to mammography discomfort and the relationships between these as identified by the women. Conclusions: The conceptual framework has important implications for clinical practice and future research

  12. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  13. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance among black and white women

    OpenAIRE

    Landgren, Ola; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Kyle, Robert A.; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Cai, Qiuyin; Goldin, Lynn R.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; William J Blot; Signorello, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and black race have been associated with excess risk of multiple myeloma. The association of obesity with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is unknown. Further, it is not known whether the increased risk of multiple myeloma and MGUS in blacks is related to socioeconomic status, genetic susceptibility, or both. We screened 1000 black and 996 white women (range, 40-79 years) of similar socioeconomic status for MGUS; the aim of the study was to assess MGUS risk in...

  14. Developmental Networks, Black Feminist Thought, and Black Women Federal Senior Executives: A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Brian Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Private and public sector organizations have become increasingly interested in promoting diversity. Due to barriers attributed to race and gender, women and minorities often find it hard to break through the glass ceiling. Mentoring is a tool to assist with breaking through the glass ceiling. This interest has led to extensive growth in mentoring research and the design of a more expanded concept, developmental networks. Little empirical research informs our understanding of B...

  15. Exploratory Study of Childbearing Experiences of Women With Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marcia; Suplee, Patricia D; Bloch, Joan; Lecks, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of girls have been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the past two decades; therefore, more women with ASDs are entering the childbearing phase of their lives. Little is known about the childbearing experiences of women with ASDs. This qualitative study describes the childbearing experiences of eight women with Asperger syndrome. Four major themes emerged: Processing Sensations, Needing to Have Control, Walking in the Dark, and Motherhood on My Own Terms. Clinicians can provide sensitive, individualized care by asking women with Asperger syndrome about their specific sensory experiences, counseling them about coping strategies for sensory intrusions, providing targeted support, and modifying the clinical environment to decrease distressing stimuli. PMID:26902438

  16. LIFE EXPERIENCES OF AFGHAN WOMEN IN FINLAND : a study of everyday life experiences of Afghan women in Helsinki Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, Sumbal; Lama, Smriti Madonna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sumbal, Ghaffar and Smriti, Madonna Lama, Life of Afghan Women in Finland, A Study of everyday life experiences of Afghan Women living in Helsinki Region, Diak south, Helsinki, Spring 2014 Language: English, Helsinki-- pages, 47, Appendices, 7. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Degree program in Social Services and Community Development, Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. The aim of the research was to show and highlight the everyday life experiences of Afghan wom...

  17. The differential impact of discrimination on health among Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed. PMID:26973034

  18. Candies in hell: women's experiences of violence in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberg, M; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15-49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and narratives from these interviews were analysed and compared with the survey data. Among ever-married women 52% reported having experienced physical partner abuse at some point in their lives. Median duration of abuse was 5 years. A considerable overlap was found between physical, emotional and sexual violence, with 21% of ever-married women reporting all three kinds of abuse. Thirty-one percent of abused women suffered physical violence during pregnancy. The latency period between the initiation of marriage or cohabitation and violence was short, with over 50% of the battered women reporting that the first act of violence act took place within the first 2 years of marriage. Significant, positive associations were found between partner abuse and problems among children, including physical abuse. Both the survey data and the narrative analysis pointed to extreme jealousy and control as constant features of the abusive relationship. Further, the data indicate that battered women frequently experience feelings of shame, isolation and entrapment which, together with a lack of family and community support, often contribute to women's difficulty in recognizing and disengaging from a violent relationship. These findings are consistent with theoretical conceptualisations of domestic violence developed in other countries, suggesting that, to a large degree, women's experiences of violence transcend specific cultural contexts. PMID:11072881

  19. Women's empowerment and reproductive experiences over the lifecourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rife, Susan M

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the complex interplay between reproductive experiences and women's empowerment using rich life history data from a survey in India. Previous research has examined the influence of a rather limited range of reproductive events, focusing on how many children or sons a woman has borne, and has only superficially incorporated the insights of lifecourse theory. Furthermore, it has often conceptualized empowerment as a static characteristic rather than a time-varying one, and has often failed to examine the influence of empowerment resources or previous empowerment levels. I focus on the cumulative influence of less-studied reproductive events-including unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, stillbirths, miscarriages, and abortions-on several dimensions of women's empowerment, including mobility, financial decision-making, experiences of violence, and threats of abandonment or homelessness using data collected from 2435 women in Madhya Pradesh, India during a 2002 household-based probability sample survey. Logistic regression revealed that, notably, few reproductive events have an impact on women's current empowerment, but rather, the extent of empowerment immediately after marriage emerges as a strong determinant of their current empowerment. However, women who have had abortions have higher odds of experiencing domestic violence, and experiencing mistimed pregnancies lowers the odds of violence. Incorporating the potential influence of prior life events and conditions, accounting for the possibility that experiences may accumulate to shape women's current empowerment portrays women's lives more completely and helps to identify key points of intervention. PMID:20621752

  20. Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in obese black South African women : a focus on risk factors / by Elmarié Jonker

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Elmarié

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: High rates of obesity occur in black South African women, up to double the rate in whites. Concern about the potential health burden of obesity in these women as well as a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms of obesity, motivated the POWIRS study (Profiles of Women with the Insulin Resistance Syndrome). Subjects and methods: The study population consisted of 100 urbanised black women of the North- West Province, South Africa. These women we...

  1. What Black Women Know and Want to Know About Counseling and Testing for BRCA1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Inez; Christopher, Juleen; Williams, Karen Patricia; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-06-01

    Black women are just as likely to have hereditary breast cancer mutations as White women, yet their participation in genetic counseling and testing is substantially lower. This study sought to describe Black women's awareness and perceptions of BRCA1/2 testing and to identify barriers and motivators to seeking BRCA1/2 services. Fifty intercept interviews were conducted with Black women in public places (a professional women's basketball game, a grocery store, a faith-based community event, and the waiting area at a breast care clinic) in Washington, DC. More than half of the women (54%) were aware that genetic tests to determine risk for certain breast and ovarian cancers exist, but the majority (88%) had never heard of BRCA1/2, specifically. After hearing a description of BRCA1/2 genetic markers, 82% stated that they would agree to BRCA1/2 testing if it was offered to them. Perceived advantages of testing included cancer prevention and the ability to share information with family members. Perceived disadvantages included emotional distress associated with identification of the mutation and the potential misuse of results to deny healthcare or employment. Physician recommendation, self-care, and known family history were among the motivators for testing. Women listed possible media and venues for intervention. In spite of low rates of BRCA1/2 testing in the Black community, women in this sample were open to the idea. Interventions that address barriers and include cultural tailoring are necessary. PMID:25301325

  2. Unmasking the Inequitable Discipline Experiences of Urban Black Girls: Implications for Urban Educational Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Lewis, Chance W.; Darensbourg, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    There is a large body of research examining the discipline experiences of Black males (Lewis et al. in "Souls: A Critical Journey of Black Politics, Culture, and Society," 2009; Skiba et al. in "The Urban Review," 34, 317-348, 2002); however, less is known about the types of behavioral infractions Black female students exhibit and the discipline…

  3. Absence and reliance : Liberian women's experience of vaginal fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Söderbäck, Maja; Wilhelmsson, Emma; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    Childbirth entails considerable risk in developing countries. A prolonged labour process can cause the woman sustained injuries and lead to the death of the unborn child. Many women in Africa suffer from vaginal fistulas, causing a constant leakage of urine and/or faeces. The aim of this study was to explore and describe women's experiences of living with fistulas and how the condition affects their daily life. An ethnographic-inspired design involving observation, group- and individual conve...

  4. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clin...

  5. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  6. Domestic violence against women in Kosovo: a qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Kaltrina

    2015-02-01

    Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence. PMID:24923893

  7. I am Black AND Jewish: Black Jewish Women’s Experiences in “White” Jewish Communities in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gondek, Abby S.

    2008-01-01

    Afro-Brazilian Jewish women struggle against racism, sexism and classism within their Jewish communities, but they continue to practice Judaism and raise their children Jewish. They affirm their identities as both Black and Jewish in the face of rejection from white Jewish communities as well as their Afro-Brazilian communities. Because Brazil has consistently made efforts to make Jews into symbols of otherness and at the same time rhetorically valued the mulato identity as a symbo...

  8. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it. PMID:26529099

  9. Fantasies of Consent: Black Women's Sexual Labor in 19th Century New Orleans

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Emily Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Fantasies of Consent: Black Women’s Sexual Labor 19th Century New Orleans draws on Louisiana legal statutes and Louisiana State Supreme Court records, alongside French and Spanish Caribbean colonial law, slave narratives, and pro-slavery writing, to craft legal, affective, and economic history of sex and slavery in antebellum New Orleans. This is the first full-length project on the history of non-reproductive sexual labor in slavery: I historicize the lives of women of color who sold, or wer...

  10. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed. PMID:9460026

  11. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA. PMID:23558712

  12. Experiences of childbirth in Natal Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    H.B. Brookes

    1991-01-01

    Through fifteen in-depth case studies of primipara, Natal Indian women’s experiences of childbirth have been described Common problems were identified, including lack of a family support person throughout labour, lithotomy position for delivery, episiotomies and their sequelae, breast-feeding difficulties and lack of professional support in the early puerperium at home. Preparation for common medical interventions in labour, breast-feeding and parenting appeared inadequate. Pertinent sociocul...

  13. Experiences of Racism and the Incidence of Adult-Onset Asthma in the Black Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeffrey; O’Connor, George T.; Brown, Timothy A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic stress resulting from experiences of racism may increase the incidence of adult-onset asthma through effects on the immune system and the airways. We conducted prospective analyses of the relation of experiences of racism with asthma incidence in the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort of black women in the United States followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Methods: Among 38,142 participants followed from 1997 to 2011, 1,068 reported incident asthma. An everyday racism score was created based on five questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency in daily life of experiences of racism (eg, poor service in stores), and a lifetime racism score was based on questions about racism on the job, in housing, and by police. We used Cox regression models to derive multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for categories of each racism score in relation to incident asthma. Results: The IRRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19-1.78) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of the 1997 everyday racism score (P for trend <.0001) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.18-1.75) for the highest compared with the lowest category of 1997 lifetime racism. Among women who reported the same levels of racism in 1997 and 2009, the IRRs for the highest categories of everyday and lifetime racism were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55-2.91) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.20-2.30), respectively. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of experiences of racism and asthma in black women in the United States, a positive association between racism and asthma is of public health importance. PMID:23887828

  14. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Petersen, Mette H; Larsen, Tine B;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...

  15. Qualitative Inequality: Experiences of Women in Ethiopian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…

  16. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  17. Everyday Racism in Colombian Universities: The Experience of Black Students in Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A. Quintero Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a sociological research on racial discrimination in Colombian universities. Racism is understood as a social process and based on an empirical qualitative work from in-depth interviews, the article approaches the everyday racism experienced by students in universities in Bogotá who are racialized as black men or black women according to the constructions of racial otherness in Colombia. The main mechanisms of manifestation of racism and discrimination identi...

  18. Mother of a New World? Stereotypical Representations of Black Women in Three Postapocalyptic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima K. Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores three cinematic representations of Black matriarchs who play prophetic roles in redeeming humanity in the midst of apocalyptic change: Ika (Quest for Fire, Kee (Children of Men, and The Oracle (The Matrix trilogy. Not only do these courageous women resist the politics of domination, rebelling against a dying status quo, but they "give birth" to the leaders needed to rebuild a world in chaos and decay. One film ends with a pregnant woman rubbing her belly as she stands on the precipice of evolutionary change; another positions a mother and newborn adrift, waiting to be found by leaders of a new world order; in the third, a character sacrifices herself to empower resistance fighters with ideas and the means to choose their survival in a postapocalyptic world. Defying the politics of an annihilating patriarchy, these women portend a return to a naturally evolving world. However, despite their powerful influence, they can be understood, problematically, as modern-day reinventions of Black female stereotypes—Ika as Jezebel, Kee as Hagar, the Oracle as Mammy—because they, and the indices for understanding their roles in the community, are wedded to White patriarchs and to their own gendered functions as nurturing or sexual(ized beings.

  19. Experiences of childbirth in Natal Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Brookes

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Through fifteen in-depth case studies of primipara, Natal Indian women’s experiences of childbirth have been described Common problems were identified, including lack of a family support person throughout labour, lithotomy position for delivery, episiotomies and their sequelae, breast-feeding difficulties and lack of professional support in the early puerperium at home. Preparation for common medical interventions in labour, breast-feeding and parenting appeared inadequate. Pertinent sociocultural aspects have been identified. These include continuing family support and culturally prescribed behaviour pertaining most importantly to the early puerperium and affecting the maternal-neonatal dyad. In the early adaptation to motherhood informants continued their role as daughter or daughter-in-law and would only actively continue their role as wife later or at the end of the puerperium. These traditional patterns of behaviour persist despite marked changes in educational level, language spoken and employment status. In the light of this research and founded on scientific evidence, a number of recommendations are made and areas for further research are identified

  20. The multidimensional relationship between early adult body weight and women's childbearing experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L; Weden, Margaret M; Lippert, Adam M; Burnett, Kristin D

    2012-06-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States' women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women's social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women's educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  1. Creating a “Safe and Supportive Environment:” Mentoring and Professional Development for Recent Black Women Doctoral Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Bertrand Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal structures that support doctoral student socialization are limited, while formal programs for Black women doctoral students specifically are even more scarce. The purpose of this research was to examine an early career professional development program for Black women doctoral students and its influence on the mentoring relationships developed by participants. We conducted individual interviews with six Black women who participated in the Research BootCamp®, an early career professional development program, as doctoral students. Two salient features of the program were identified, including its structure and intentional focus on intersectionality. Our findings also indicate that early career professional development provided opportunities for participants to develop sustainable mentoring relationships. The formal structure of the Research BootCamp® facilitated Black women doctoral students in developing mentoring networks through continued engagement with senior scholars and peers, provided social support, created outlets for professional development, built research capacity, and contributed to Black women’s overall socialization to the academy.

  2. A produção escrita das mulheres negras The written production of black women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Lopes Fontoura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma análise dos escritos publicados por Maria Mulher – Organização de Mulheres Negras, tendo em vista atender a sua missão institucional.Inicialmente, é feita uma apresentação da forma como a organização presta informações para as mulheres, em especial, as negras, visando ao combate às discriminações sexista, de raça/etnia e de classe social dentro dos programas que desenvolve. O texto faz também referência à falta de organizações que incentivem a produção intelectual de entidades feministas negras. Finalmente, para aumentar o número de publicações das organizações de mulheres negras, o trabalho aponta para a produção de obras em conjunto, as quais abordarão temas de acordo com a vocação de cada instituição.The paper presents an analysis of the articles published for Maria Mulher Organização de Mulheres Negras, in order of taking care of its institucional mission. Initially it is made a presentation of the form that the organization gives information for the women, in special, for the blacks, in order to combat the discriminations by sex, of race/ethnic and of social class, in the programs that develops. The text also makes reference to the lack of organizations that stimulates the intellectual production of entities black feminists. Finally, the work points to the production of workmanships in order to increase the number of publications from the black women organizations, in accordance with the vocation of each institution.

  3. Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Joanne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively California Women's Health Survey (CWHS, a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mental health (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress, were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted. When adult mental health and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mental health status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mental health symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.

  4. American Muslim women's experiences of leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh-Phillips, D

    2001-06-01

    American Muslim women are a growing population whose experiences of abuse remain largely unstudied. To begin to amend this gap in knowledge, this article examines American Muslim women's experiences of leaving abusive partners as reported in a larger narrative study. The process of leaving as described by participants includes four stages: reaching the point of saturation, getting khula (an Islamic divorce initiated by wives), facing fimily and/or community disapproval, and reclaiming the self. Each of these stages illustrates the significance of group-oriented cultural values in shaping participants' experiences of leaving their abusers. I compare study findings with existing literature and conclude by offering suggestions for research and practice in this area. PMID:11813788

  5. Investigating Black Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences in Campus Residence Halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.; Mullins, Taris G.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand the challenges that Black gay male undergraduates confront in campus residence halls and the supports that enabled their success in facing them. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 29 participants, we found that Black gay men report varied encounters with subtle and overt forms of racism among White…

  6. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory). PMID:27166510

  7. Spinning black hole in the puncture method: Numerical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong-field region inside a black hole needs special attention during numerical simulation. One approach for handling the problem is the moving puncture method, which has become an important tool in numerical relativity since it allows long term simulations of binary black holes. An essential component of this method is the choice of the '1+log'-slicing condition. We present an investigation of this slicing condition in rotating black hole spacetimes. We discuss how the results of the stationary Schwarzschild '1+log'-trumpet change when spin is added. This modification enables a simple and cheap algorithm for determining the spin of a non-moving black hole for this particular slicing condition. Applicability of the algorithm is verified in simulations of single black hole, binary neutron star and mixed binary simulations

  8. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Valizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to Calcium-D supplements (2 tablets per day all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o. or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. "nResults: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. "nConclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.

  9. The physical activity and health status of two generations of Black South African professional women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J.L. Venter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased health risks associated with physical inactivity in the Black population have been reported in recent years. Black women, suffering the highest levels of inactivity, overweight and obesity, are at greatest risk of developing chronic diseases of lifestyle. This explorativedescriptive study investigated the physical activity patterns and health status of two generations of Black professional women, reflecting pre-democracy and post-democracy age groups. Quantitative measures were used, including the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. Sample groups comprised teachers, nurses, social workers and public sector managers. Participants aged between 35 and 45 years were allocated to the older generation group (n = 111, whilst those aged between 18 and 21 years (students in the mentioned professional fields were allocated to the younger generation group (n = 69. The results indicated that these women displayed lower levels of health-promoting behavioural practices than expected, significantly lower levels of physical activity and significantly higher levels of overweight and obesity than the South African norms. The observation that the younger group appeared to be replicating the patterns of the older women is a cause of concern. Greater compliance to health-promoting behaviours was expected in this group owing to participants’ professional involvement in health, education and social development fields. Wide-ranging initiatives are necessary to promote physical activity and health amongst the Black female population in South Africa.

    Opsomming
    Gedurende die afgelope jare het navorsing onder die Swart bevolking ʼn toename in gesondheidsrisiko’s wat met fisieke onaktiwiteit geassosieer is, getoon. Swart vroue, wat die hoogste vlakke van onaktiwiteit, oorgewig en obesiteit toon, blyk ook die grootste risiko te loop om

  10. Long term exposure to NO2 and diabetes incidence in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F; White, Laura F; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T; Marshall, Julian D; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael

    2016-07-01

    While laboratory studies show that air pollutants can potentiate insulin resistance, the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association of air pollution with diabetes incidence is conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of the traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the incidence of diabetes in a longitudinal cohort study of African American women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes associated with exposure to NO2 among 43,003 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). Pollutant levels at participant residential locations were estimated with 1) a land use regression model for participants living in 56 metropolitan areas, and 2) a dispersion model for participants living in 27 of the cities. From 1995 to 2011, 4387 cases of diabetes occurred. The hazard ratios per interquartile range of NO2 (9.7 ppb), adjusted for age, metropolitan area, education, vigorous exercise, body mass index, smoking, and diet, were 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06) using the land use regression model estimates and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.10) using the dispersion model estimates. The present results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to NO2 contributes to diabetes incidence in African American women. PMID:27124624

  11. Pregnancy loss in lesbian and bisexual women: an online survey of experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Peel, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although pregnancy loss is a distressing health event for many women, research typically equates women's experiences of pregnancy loss to ‘married heterosexual women's experiences of pregnancy loss’. The objective of this study was to explore lesbian and bisexual women's experiences of miscarriage, stillbirth and neonatal death. METHODS This study analysed predominantly qualitative online survey data from 60 non-heterosexual, mostly lesbian, women from the UK, USA, Canada and Austr...

  12. Sexual Harassment in a Residential Occupation: The Experiences of Women Seafarers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michelle A

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This paper reports women seafarers' experiences of sexual harassment. Design: Data reported in this paper were collected as part of a larger study exploring company policies and practices relating to women seafarers and the experiences of women seafarers themselves. Setting: Data reported here was collected with women from seven…

  13. Understanding Women's Differing Experiences of Distress after Colposcopy: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Mairead

    2015-01-01

    Women who have an abnormal cervical cytology test may be referred for a colposcopy. Accumulating evidence suggests some women may experience distress after colposcopy. This exploratory study examined women\\'s differing experiences of post-colposcopy distress with the aim of identifying factors that are predictive of, or protective against, distress.

  14. “Coming to Town”: The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Chyvette T.; Grier, Sonya A.; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, whi...

  15. 'Not enough people to look after you': an exploration of women's experiences of childbirth in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Women\\'s experiences of childbirth have far reaching implications for their health and that of their babies. This paper describes an exploration of women\\'s experiences of childbirth in the Republic of Ireland.

  16. A survey experiment of women's attitudes about intimate partner violence against women in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Head, Sara

    2013-02-01

    According to the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in poorer countries, 50 % of women of reproductive age report that wife hitting or beating is justified. Such high rates may result from structural pressures to adopt such views or to report the perceived socially desirable response. In a survey experiment of 496 ever-married women aged 18-49 years in rural Bangladesh, we compared responses to attitudinal questions that (1) replicated the 2007 Bangladesh DHS wording and portrayed the wife as transgressive for unstated reasons with elaborations depicting her as (2) unintentionally and (3) willfully transgressive. The probabilities of justifying wife hitting or beating were consistently low for unintended transgressions (.01-.08). Willful transgressions yielded higher probabilities (.40-.70), which resembled those based on the DHS wording (.38-.57). Cognitive interviews illustrated that village women held diverse views, which were attributed to social change. Also, ambiguity in the DHS questions may have led some women to interpret them according to perceived gender norms and to give the socially desirable response of justified. Results inform modifications to these DHS questions and identify women for ideational-change interventions. PMID:22956416

  17. Women's experiences of breastfeeding: an interpretive phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Rachael Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is a key public health issue, conferring benefits associated with both infant and maternal health. Despite an increasing research base about what helps or hinders breastfeeding, there is a dramatic drop in breastfeeding prevalence within the first six weeks following birth. The reasons that mothers give for stopping breastfeeding suggest that few mothers gave up because they planned to. This would appear to suggest that there is a gap between women's experiences ...

  18. An Evaluation of the Reliability and Construct Validity of Eating Disorder Measures in White and Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Bair, Carrie E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most measures of eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were developed in predominantly White female samples. Yet eating disorders affect individuals of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. Black women appear more vulnerable to certain forms of eating pathology, such as binge eating, and less susceptible to other eating disorder symptoms and risk…

  19. Social Cognitive Predictors of Academic Interests and Goals in Engineering: Utility for Women and Students at Historically Black Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Schmidt, Janet; Brenner, Bradley R.; Gloster, Clay S.; Wilkins, Gregory; Schmidt, Linda C.; Lyons, Heather

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) in predicting engineering interests and major choice goals among women and men and among students at historically Black and predominantly White universities. Participants (487 students in introductory engineering courses at 3…

  20. Expanding the Psychological Wellness Threshold for Black College Women: An Examination of the Claiming Your Connections Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani V.; Ahn, Suran; Chan, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of a culturally congruent group intervention program entitled ''Claiming Your Connections (CYC)'' aimed at reducing stress and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black college women. Method: Using an experimental design, a total of 96…

  1. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care. PMID:26653073

  2. (Re)Defining Departure: Exploring Black Professors' Experiences with and Responses to Racism and Racial Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kimberly A.; Pifer, Meghan J.; Humphrey, Jordan R.; Hazelwood, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that many college environments present challenges for black professors, particularly as they face institutional and personal racism. While scholars have linked these experiences to their attrition, this qualitative study explores black professors' larger range of responses to difficult professional…

  3. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Zena

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool…

  4. Perceptions of Black College Women on Barriers to HIV-Risk Reduction and Their HIV Prevention Intervention Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions. PMID:26875473

  5. EXPERIENCES AND VIEWS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urve Kaasik-Aaslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people, from which 200-250 million  are women, smoke. Based on the Estonian Medical Birth Register data,  in 2010,  7,5% of pregnant women were smokers, and  in 2012, 7% of pregnant women were smoking during their pregnancy. Thus, smoking rates among pregnant women fell only 0,5%. The objective of the research was to find out the views of pregnant women who were smoking during pregnancy of the effect of smoking on the health of them and their babies, and experiences in quitting smoking, changing indicators, e.g. smoking and socioeconomical status (initial exposure to smoking, employment, long-term partnerships etc. in 2009-2013.Methods: This research is a phenomenological study, which was being carried out from October 2009 until January 2013. Data collection methods were semi-structured interviews with 45 pregnant women smoking during their pregnancy and being  registered for antenatal care  in three health care institutions of Republic of Estonia. An inductive approach for qualitative analysis was used.Results: Most women smoking during pregnancy started smoking in their teens, their parents smoked, they were under 30 years old housewives or unemployed. On an average of 11-20 cigarettes were consumed each day, the pregnancy of the research group did not influence frequency and tobacco intake. The participants in the research group reported that tobacco consumption helped them relax, gave them a chance to spend time in a good company, and it was not regarded as a bad habit but a social addiction, being caused by availability of tobacco products. Although most of them had an opinion about  harmful effects of smoking, e.g. a cough, asthma and rapid fatigue,  on the health of them and less on their expected babies, they continued smoking.Conclusions: The smoking and socioeconomical status of women smoking during pregnancy in 2009-2013 has not changed,  health awareness of them is low and has

  6. Is Empowerment or Women's Subjugation? Experiences of Interpersonal Sexual Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Sáez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal sexual objectification is defined as the act of reducing a woman to her body or body parts. It could be considered as a form of sexist discrimination, in which women have a differential treatment minimizing the importance of their inner qualities. The aim of this study, in which involved 251 participants, was to analyze the perception of interpsersonal sexual objectification in men and women. In addition, we examined the relationship between the interpersonal sexual objectification and ideological variables (sexism and power as well as self-esteem and enjoyment of sexualization. Results showed gender differences in interpersonal sexual objectification. Women experienced more sexual objectification in their interpersonal relationships. Also, results showed the effect of gender in the variables that predicted interpersonal sexual objectification. In men, self-esteem and power were related with more experiences of sexual objectification. Specifically, power predicted the perception of objectification and this effect was mediated by enjoyment of sexualization. However, in women, benevolent sexism predicted the perception of interpersonal sexual objectification and this effect was mediated by enjoyment of sexualization.

  7. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimbalale, F C; Khoza, L B

    2010-06-01

    Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women's experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14). PMID:21469513

  8. Patterns of Utilization of Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Outcomes in Black Women After Breast Conservation at a Large Multidisciplinary Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Population-based studies have reported that as many of 35% of black women do not undergo radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservation surgery (BCS). The objective of the present study was to determine whether this trend persisted at a large multidisciplinary cancer center, and to identify the factors that predict for noncompliance with RT and determine the outcomes for this subset of patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2007, 83 black women underwent BCS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and were therefore eligible for the present study. Of the 83 women, 38 (46%) had Stage I, 38 (46%) Stage II, and 7 (8%) Stage III disease. Of the study cohort, 31 (37%) had triple hormone receptor-negative tumors. RT was recommended for 81 (98%) of the 83 patients (median dose, 60 Gy). Results: Of the 81 women, 12 (15%) did not receive the recommended adjuvant breast RT. Nonreceipt of chemotherapy (p = .003) and older age (p = .009) were associated with nonreceipt of RT. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 3-year local control, locoregional control, recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 99% (actuarial 5-year rate, 97%), 96% (actuarial 5-year rate, 93%), 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 92%), 92% (actuarial 5-year rate, 89%), and 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 91%), respectively. Conclusion: We found a greater rate of utilization adjuvant breast RT (85%) among black women after BCS than has been reported in recent studies, indicating that excellent outcomes are attainable for black women after BCS when care is administered in a multidisciplinary cancer center.

  9. A Thought Experiment to Resolve the Black Hole Information Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Felde, Kay zum

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed \\cite{almheiri2012,almheiri2013} that the black hole information paradox is been solved by assuming so-called firewalls, which destroy incoming observers. They violate $CPT$ invariance are thus violate quantum mechanics. Hawking \\cite{hawking2014} objected these proposals, proposing recently that information is not lost behind the event horizon. Thus the horizon is becoming apparent. The forming of the black hole becomes chaotic. It will be like weather forecast on earth, unitarity is conserved. Vaz showed justified that view and evaluated that no singularity is coming into existence, while building a black hole \\cite{vaz2014}. We propose two mechanisms how the black hole information paradox can be resolved. This incorporates also the so-called firewall paradox. The first process is that the black hole shrinks by a first order transition, where the entropy is discontinuous, and which results in a latent heat. The first order transition is a transition from a spacetime which is build of cu...

  10. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  11. Subsatellite experiments in a coastal region of the Black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhanov, V.; Bogatov, N.; Ermoshkin, A.; Kazakov, V.; Kemarskaya, O.; Lobanov, V.; Repina, I.; Titov, V.; Troitskaya, Yu.; Zuikova, E.

    2009-04-01

    The results of field experiments carried out in 2007, 2008 in a north-east part of the Black sea in region of city Gelendzhik, are given. Experiments targeted the development of a bottom topography remote (radar and optical) diagnostics. Experimental area is characterized by abrupt depth dumping (fall 50 - 1250 m), and irregularity of a bank vault (numerous canyons). Such bottom topography in the presence of alongshore current creates favorable conditions for hydrodynamic perturbations on thermocline and corresponding anomalies on sea surface and in atmospheric surface layer characteristics. The simultaneous measurement of atmospheric near-surface layer, sea surface and sea bulk parameters synchronously with reception of the radar image from the satellite ENVISAT was feature of the given experiment. The ground-based measurements were carried out simultaneously from high coast by means of X-band radar and from R/V "Aquanaut" (Institute of Oceanology RAS). The meteorological conditions during observations varied considerably. The wind velocity changed from 0 up to 10 m/c, heaving - from 0 up to 4 balls. The short-term atmospheric precipitations were observed. The bottom topography was measured by echo-sounder. Investigation of the hydrological characteristics was carried out by combined SVP-CTD probe. The current field was measured by ADCP. The surface wave characteristics in length range 4 mm - 1 m were measured by X and Ka radar and two-dimensional optical spectrum analyzer. Air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction were measured. Sonic anemometer-thermometer for recording horizontal and vertical components of the wind and temperature fluctuations in the surface layer was used. The connection of current field heterogeneities with a bottom configuration in region of depth dumping is investigated. The correlation of radar signal with current speed in near-surface region is observed also. For example, the slicks are observed

  12. Direitos sexuais, direitos reprodutivos: concepções de mulheres negras e brancas sobre liberdade Sexual and reproductive rights: the conceptions of black and white women regarding freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Souzas

    2007-08-01

    is of a qualitative nature and approaches reproductive issues of women based on an outline of gender and race. Thirty-six women were interviewed, self-classified as white and black (black and mulatto, in conjugal union for, at least, one year. The discourses were analyzed articulating race/ethnicity and different levels of schooling. Overall, one can observe that the life conditions and reproductive health of black and white women differ due to socio-economic and cultural conditions. Comparatively, the discourses of the two groups can be interpreted in two characteristic levels, those of private life and public space: while white women focus on the delay of women in the equitable exercise of freedom compared to men, but highlight achievements in the world of labor, black women view freedom as concerning the possibility of a democratic experience of conjugality. The differences in discourses as to freedom can be related as much to the issue of racism in Brazil suffered daily by black women throughout history, as to the specifically cultural issues of the two groups that were studied.

  13. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  14. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  15. The Experience of Women Veterans Coming Back from War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiocco, Gina; Smith, Mary Jane

    2016-06-01

    Issues surrounding mental health are common for women veterans who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan wars. The goal of this phenomenological study was to document themes in the stories gathered from eight women veterans who had come back from war. Themes in the stories were: arriving with mixed sentiments; evolving to a changed view of self; permeating aggravation; confounding broken relationships, frequent deployments, and change in military status; remembering war experiences; and seeking opportunity for what is possible. Mental health issues can be observed in the themes. Including story as part of the mental health visit with veterans may be beneficial to veterans as they deal with the transition of coming back. PMID:27256947

  16. Denying and preserving self: Batswana women's experiences of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogobe, Dintle K

    2005-08-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to understand and theoretically explain infertility from the perspective of 40 infertile women and four members of the traditional health care system. Symbolic interaction and feminism were combined to under-gird the study. Through ongoing data collection and analysis, a theoretical framework of denying and preserving self was constructed. Preserving self or self-preservation means developing personal measures aimed at preventing o rreducing harm inflicted by others as a result of one's infertility. Contributory factors to denying of self include denial of status as a woman; denial of immortality; denial of experiences of pregnancy, labour and delivery; denial of economic and social security; and the belief that they are being chastised by God and the forefathers. In addition, the women develop strategies to deal with such denials by looking for deeper meaning, working it out, giving in to feelings, getting more involved, getting away, and doin gadoption. Implications of the study are discussed. PMID:16485584

  17. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yull, Denise G.

    2014-01-01

    Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US) school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, ra...

  18. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Acculturative Experiences of Black-African International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo-Arthur, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of international students pursuing higher education in the U.S. since 2001. Upon arrival, students are often beset with feelings of isolation and alienation, which are characteristic of adjusting to a new culture. African International students, specifically Black-African international students,…

  20. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Madzimbalale

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.

  1. Shame Experiences Underlying Depression of Adult Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Sevda; Gençöz, Faruk

    2016-07-01

    Shame is a major component of many mental health problems and affects symptoms, coping styles, remission, and therapeutic ruptures. There are few qualitative studies aimed at understanding shame and its role for patients diagnosed with depression. In this research, we explored the origins of shame, and the coping strategies that patients diagnosed with depression employ to cope with shame. This qualitative research aimed at an in-depth analysis of shame experiences of adult women who had been diagnosed with depression and treated with cognitive behavioral psychotherapy in a Women Health Center in Turkey. Purposive sampling yielded nine high shame prone adult women who were married and had children. Four semi-structured interviews were conducted with each of the nine participants, and 36 semi-structured interviews were analyzed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. According to the results of the analysis, four themes emerged. These were "substitution of rage for the feeling of shame and unworthiness," "perfection struggle to overcompensate the belief of being inadequate," "feeling shame for their own body and sexual acts," and "need for individuation." The results were interpreted by considering the social context and culture of Turkey, and the clinical implications were discussed. PMID:25823845

  2. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education. PMID:21305979

  3. College Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence: Exploring Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, F. Scott; Kisler, Tiffani S.

    2012-01-01

    College women's experiences with sexual and physical violence are so common that campus interventions are needed. To help guide these, we surveyed 339 college women and asked: (a) are college women's experiences with different types of relational violence interrelated; and (b) are there patterns of association between types of violence and mental…

  4. Australian women's use of complementary and alternative medicines to enhance fertility: exploring the experiences of women and practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies exploring the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM to enhance fertility are limited. While Australian trends indicate that women are using CAM during pregnancy, little is known about women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. With the rising age of women at first birth, couples are increasingly seeking assisted reproductive technologies (ART to achieve parenthood. It is likely that CAM use for fertility enhancement will also increase, however this is not known. This paper reports on an exploratory study of women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. Methods Three focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia in 2007; two with women who used CAM to enhance their fertility and one with CAM practitioners. Participants were recruited from five metropolitan Melbourne CAM practices that specialise in women's health. Women were asked to discuss their views and experiences of both CAM and ART, and practitioners were asked about their perceptions of why women consult them for fertility enhancement. Groups were digitally recorded (audio and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed thematically. Results Focus groups included eight CAM practitioners and seven women. Practitioners reported increasing numbers of women consulting them for fertility enhancement whilst also using ART. Women combined CAM with ART to maintain wellbeing and assist with fertility enhancement. Global themes emerging from the women's focus groups were: women being willing to 'try anything' to achieve a pregnancy; women's negative experiences of ART and a reluctance to inform their medical specialist of their CAM use; and conversely, women's experiences with CAM being affirming and empowering. Conclusions The women in our study used CAM to optimise their chances of achieving a pregnancy. Emerging themes suggest the positive relationships achieved with CAM practitioners are not always attained with orthodox medical providers

  5. Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and hiv-related sexual risk behavior between black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, TP; Regan, R; Wilton, L.; Harawa, NT; Ou, SS; Wang, L.; Shoptaw, S.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed associations in substance use, psychosocial characteristics, andHIVrelated sexual risk behaviors, comparing characteristics of Black men who only have sex with other men only (BMSMO; n=839) to Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW; n=590). The study analyzed baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN061), a feasibility study of amulti-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Bivariate analyses compared BMSMO to BMSMWalong dem...

  6. Differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in recalled childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G; Over, R

    1995-02-01

    Heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women recalled the extent to which they had engaged in gender conforming (female-stereotypic) behaviors and gender nonconforming (male-stereotypic) behaviors in childhood. Heterosexual women were more likely to recall having had female-stereotypic experiences as children, whereas lesbian women often recalled a childhood characterized by male-stereotypic experiences. Multiple discriminant function allowed the heterosexual women in the sample to be distinguished from the lesbian women with 80% accuracy in classification of individual cases on the basis of four recollected attributes (imagined self as a male character, wished to become a mother, preference for boys' games, and considered a tomboy as a child). However, some heterosexual women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of lesbian women, and some lesbian women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of heterosexual women. Such diversity raises questions about the nature of the relationship between experiences in childhood and adult sexual orientation. PMID:7733801

  7. Everyday Racism in Colombian Universities: The Experience of Black Students in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Quintero Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a sociological research on racial discrimination in Colombian universities. Racism is understood as a social process and based on an empirical qualitative work from in-depth interviews, the article approaches the everyday racism experienced by students in universities in Bogotá who are racialized as black men or black women according to the constructions of racial otherness in Colombia. The main mechanisms of manifestation of racism and discrimination identified in the research are expressed subtly or from euphemisms and they tend to generate and reproduce a supposed inferiority and subordination of black students at universities in Bogotá, paradoxically to the core values and principles of universality and meritocracy present in the very origins of university ethos in the country.

  8. Large scale experiments and modeling of black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasification could provide a basis for increased electricity and engine fuel production from a renewable source in the pulp and paper industry. This work focuses on the largest byproduct available at the pulp mills, black liquor. Black liquor is a mixture of spent cooking chemicals, dissolved lignin, dissolved carbohydrates and a small portion of inorganic compounds found in the wood. The conventional technology to recover the cooking chemicals and the chemical energy as heat is combustion in large boilers. Here, gasification could be an alternative, replacing or complementing the boilers. The gasification technology produces a combustible gas that can be cleaned to produce electricity in a gas turbine/engine or, be synthesized into valuable chemicals or liquid engine fuels. The technology has been demonstrated in development scale since 2005 and appears to be promising. Still, commercial plants have not yet been built. This thesis focuses on the understanding of the oxygen blown, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasification technology. The main goals have been to increase the understanding about the dominating mechanisms in black liquor gasification and to develop an engineering tool that can be used to design and optimize, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasifiers. To accomplish these goals gas samples were extracted from the gasification reactor using a gas sampling probe that was developed within this work. Gas samples were also collected downstream the quench located underneath the reactor and the results were compared. Finally, an existing numerical model was developed so it can predict the behavior of the black liquor gasifier within reasonable accuracy. Even though the actual mechanisms in the reactor and quench are very complex it appears that they can be described with relatively simple global mechanisms. The main gas components are dictated by the water gas shift reaction. At the outlet of the reactor the gas composition is

  9. Brief Group Psychotherpay for Women after Divorce: Planning a Focused Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, Judith; Goldman, Janice

    1979-01-01

    A model for a brief, focused group psychotherapy experience for women, led by women therapists, is suggested as an effective means to ease the transition from marriage and to allow a redefinition of the self as a single individual. (Author)

  10. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  11. A Thought Experiment to Distinguish the Kerr Black Hole and Over-spinning Singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Kocherlakota, Prashant; Joshi, Pankaj S

    2016-01-01

    We propose a thought experiment here to distinguish an over-spinning Kerr singularity from a Kerr black hole, using the gyroscopic precession due to the frame-dragging effect. We show that there is an important characteristic difference in behavior of the gyroscope precession frequency for these objects, which can be used to distinguish one from the other. Specifically, if we lower the gyroscope along the pole of the Kerr black hole, the precession frequency becomes arbitrarily high, blowing ...

  12. The Transition from School to Work: The Experiences of Blacks and Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Meyer; Wise, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Because much of the concern about youth unemployment is motivated by the large differences between the rates for blacks and whites, we have pursued our earlier work by analyzing separately for black and white youth the relationship between high school preparation and early labor force experience. We find no striking differences between the determinants of weeks worked by whites and non-whites upon graduation from high school. Although vocational training in high school bears little relationsh...

  13. The Use of a Stress and Coping Model to Understand Women's Experiences with Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Moscovis Denny, Christa A.

    2001-01-01

    Six women participated in a qualitative study to understand women's experiences with abortion. The women ranged in age from 52 to 26, and were at least five years post-abortion. A questionnaire was developed using a stress and coping model as a guide to answer the following: relevant primary and reappraisal processes; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies; resources; and personal and environmental constraints. The results give the women's individual experiences as well as t...

  14. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and likelihood of breast cancer among black and white women: a report from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Matthews, Charles E.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Lipworth, Loren; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Increased physical activity has been shown to be protective for breast cancer although few studies have examined this association in black women. In addition, limited evidence to date indicates that sedentary behavior may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. We examined sedentary behavior and physical activity in relation to subsequent incident breast cancer in a nested case-control study within 546 cases (374 among black women) and 2,184 matched controls enrolled in the Southern ...

  15. One size does not fit all: using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M

    2015-04-01

    Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women's feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women's body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants' body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. PMID:25150817

  16. No more Black and Blue: Women Against Violence Against Women and the Warner Communications boycott, 1976-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    In the mid-1970s, Women Against Violence Against Women (WAVAW), the first national feminist organization to protest mediated sexual violence against women, pressured the music industry to cease using images of violence against women in its advertising. This article presents a case study of WAVAW's national boycott of Warner Communications, Inc. and documents the activists' successful consumer campaign. The study reveals that media violence was central to feminist organizing efforts, and that WAVAW and related organizations helped establish a climate of concern about violence that motivated scientific research on the relationship between exposure to media violence and subsequent aggression. PMID:18359878

  17. Entrained Flow Black Liquor Gasification - Detailed Experiments and Mathematical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per (Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)), e-mail: per.carlsson@etcpitea.se

    2009-07-01

    Black liquor, a by-product from the Kraft pulping process is a highly viscous fluid consisting of approximately 30% water, 30 % alkali salts and 40 % combustible material. The alkali salts originating from the pulp making process need to be recovered in order for the pulp mill to be economical and to satisfy environmental regulation. Currently, the recovery takes place in large boilers called Tomlinson recovery boilers. However, a more energy efficient way to recover the chemicals could be via gasification in a pressurized, entrained flow, high temperature gasifier. To demonstrate this technology a development plant (DP1) was built in 2005 by the technology vendor Chemrec. Since then, the plant has been running for more than 10,000 h and frequently been updated and optimized. As steps towards commercialization and scale-up different computational models of varying sophistication are used as design and optimization tools for the process. Still, the engineering tools can only provide sensible predictions if they are properly validated and verified. This thesis is concerned with validation of a comprehensive mathematical model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) describing the gasification reactor and experimental investigations of the process characteristics in the DP1 gasifier. Paper A describes the system design and methodology for high temperature gas sampling during pressurized black liquor gasification. In this work a water-cooled gas sampling probe is installed in the hot part of the DP1 gasification reactor and several gas samples are withdrawn and analyzed. The experimentally obtained data in Paper A are then used as validation data for the CFD-model described in Paper B. In Paper C the obtained data from Paper A are thoroughly analyzed and the influence of reactor operation on producer gas composition is determined. In Paper D black liquor sprays from a gas assisted nozzle is experimentally investigated using high speed photography. Furthermore, the

  18. A Qualitative Study on African American and Caribbean Black Males' Experience in a College of Aeronautical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Hall-Greene, Deborah L.

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the experiences of a small group of Black males in a college of aeronautical science, a major traditionally dominated by White males. The study also considered the differences in how African American males and Caribbean black males perceived and acted upon the same experiences. Through a social learning theoretical approach, the study examined the relevant factors, processes, and experiences involved in these Black malesâ choice of aeronautical science as...

  19. Pathways to success in science: A phenomenological study, examining the life experiences of African-American women in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giscombe, Claudette Leanora

    This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and

  20. Health and widowhood: Meanings and experience of elderly women in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Osorio-Parraguez

    2013-01-01

    Aging and widowhood signal a real and symbolic landmark of change toward new vital experiences of elderly people. In the aging experience of women, there are three social age markers that participate directly in the construction of their identity as women during old age: menopause, work and widowhood. The present paper reports the results of a research on widowhood in old age and the experience of aging in elderly women in Chile. Through a qualitative methodological strategy, in depth biogra...

  1. A Match-and-Motivation Model of How Women Label Their Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Muehlenhard, Charlene L.

    2011-01-01

    Many rape victims are unacknowledged rape victims--they report an experience meeting researchers' operational definitions of rape but do not label their experience as rape. The purpose of this study was to investigate women's decisions about whether to label their experiences as rape. Participants were 77 college women (predominantly White; mean…

  2. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  3. Women Flock to Graduate School in Record Numbers, but Fewer Blacks Are Entering the Academic Pipeline: Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1986-01-01

    Many academic administrators consider the future job market "a golden opportunity" for universities to increase the representation of women on their faculties. However, lingering sexual bias in hiring and promotion decisions, as well as a shortage of women with doctorates in scientific fields, may cloud that promise. (MLW)

  4. CANADA - INCLUSIVE DISTANCE EDUCATION: Experiences of Four Canadian Women

    OpenAIRE

    VASKOVICS, Christine; SMITH, Fiona L.

    2015-01-01

    Women's participation in higher education in Canada has changed over the past two decades and no longer is the gender gap in university attainment in favour of men. Today young women are graduating from university in higher numbers than are men. Even those women who, for one reason or other, are unable to attend traditional universities are also choosing to participate in higher education. Women not only make up the majority of university graduates they also make up the majority of distance e...

  5. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States. PMID:25894533

  6. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  7. Challenges and Mental Health Experiences of Lesbian and Bisexual Women Who Are Trying to Conceive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Christina; Brennan, David; Steele, Leah S.; Epstein, Rachel; Ross, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    To date, there is little evidence to inform social work practice with lesbian and bisexual women who are trying to conceive (TTC). The authors report a preliminary examination of the mental health experiences of lesbian and bisexual women who are TTC, through a comparison with lesbian and bisexual women in the postpartum period (PP). Thirty-three…

  8. Examining Objectification Theory: Lesbian and Heterosexual Women's Experiences with Sexual- and Self-Objectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Melanie S.; Fischer, Ann R.

    2008-01-01

    Many theorists have suggested that living in a culture in which women's bodies are sexually objectified socializes girls and women to treat themselves as objects. This study developed a theory-based measure of cultural sexual objectification and explored the relationship between women's reports of cultural sexual objectification experiences and…

  9. Surviving Women's Learning Experiences from the Tsunami in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yan Fang Jane; Yusof, Qismullah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated surviving women's learning experiences from the 2004 tsunami in Aceh. Women were the majority of casualties and the most vulnerable after the tsunami. Almost a decade later, we used a conceptual framework of experiential learning, critical reflection, and transformative learning to understand the surviving women's…

  10. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color. PMID:26073263

  11. E ffect of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa on Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes. Conclusion:According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms.

  12. Black Feminism: An Integrated Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity. PMID:26930767

  13. Racism in the Gay Community and Homophobia in the Black Community: Negotiating the Gay Black Male Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Clarence Ezra

    2008-01-01

    This research posed the question â How does racism in the gay community and homophobia in the Black community restrict gay Black maleâ s life chances and life opportunities?â Previous research has uncovered racist attitudes within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community as well as homophobic attitudes within the Black community. Because of conflicting social identifiers (Is it possible for one to be both homosexual and Black?) and the invisibility of a gay Black voi...

  14. Exploring negative dating experiences and beliefs about rape among younger and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, M; Wood, E; Desmarais, S; Verberg, N; Senn, C Y

    1998-04-01

    Although there is extensive research describing negative dating experiences and rape myth beliefs among university- and college-age women, there is little exploration of these issues among older dating women. An exploratory study that extends existing research by investigating rape myth beliefs and negative dating experiences of women ranging in age from 18 to 85 years is described. Participants (N = 115) completed a questionnaire which included a standardized measure of rape myth adherence (R-Scale; Costin, 1985), and a series of questions that assessed concerns about the potential for negative experiences while dating and actual negative dating experiences (ranging from unwanted affection to rape). There were remarkable similarities among younger and older women with respect to their dating behaviors and experiences. Women from both age groups reported being the target of negative dating experiences and being concerned about these experiences--with older women expressing slightly more concern. Older women, however, endorsed rape myths to a greater extent. This suggests that older women may be at greater risk for self-deprecation because they may be more likely to attribute the negative experiences they encounter to personal faults. Findings highlight the need for more life-span research of dating experiences and attitudes towards dating violence. PMID:9562898

  15. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  16. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. PMID:26276120

  17. Women can't jump?-An experiment on competitive attitudes and stereotype threat

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Günther; Neslihan Arslan Ekinci; Christiane Schwieren; Martin Strobel

    2010-01-01

    Gneezy et al. (2003) offer a partial explanation for the wage gap between men and women. In an experiment they found that women react less to competitive incentives. The task they used in their experiment can however be considered a male task. We replicate the experiment and extend it by treatments with a gender neutral task and a female task. For the male task we replicate their results, but for the neutral task women react as strongly to incentives than men and for the female task women rea...

  18. Surprise, Sensemaking, and Success in the First College Year: Black Undergraduate Men's Academic Adjustment Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Newman, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about Black undergraduate men's out-of-class engagement and social experiences, identity development, participation in intercollegiate athletics, and college enrollment and completion rates. Too little is known about their academic readiness and first-year college adjustment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was…

  19. Negotiating Identity: A Look at the Educational Experiences of Black Undergraduates in Stem Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Oren L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the mathematics educational experiences of Black undergraduate students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines at the University of Virginia. Using Murrell's (2009) situated-mediated identity theory as the theoretical framework, this study examines…

  20. Diminished emotion expressivity but not experience in men and women with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Mote, Jasmine; Stuart, Barbara K.; Kring, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies indicate that men with schizophrenia are less outwardly expressive but report similar emotion experience as healthy people. However, it is unclear whether women with schizophrenia show this same disconnect between expressivity and experience. Men (n=24) and women (n=25) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and women without schizophrenia (n=25) viewed emotionally evocative film clips and were video recorded to assess facial expressivity. Participants also reported thei...

  1. Women's Experiences of Rage towards their Intimate Partners: Diverse Voices within the Criminal Justice System

    OpenAIRE

    Flemke, Kimberly Renee

    2003-01-01

    "Women's Experiences of Rage towards their Intimate Partners: Diverse Voices within the Criminal Justice System" By: Kimberly R. Flemke Abstract A multi-method study investigating incarcerated womenâ s experiences of rage towards their intimate partners was conducted. The sample was drawn from a Philadelphia prisonâ s recovery unit for women. Phenomenological and feminist critical theory perspectives guided the study; these combined approaches captured the essence of rage, while a...

  2. Emotional Intelligence of Women Who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Violence in family constitutes serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in emotional functioning of victim and, secondarily, also perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine emotional intelligence of women experiencing domestic violence. INTE, i.e. Polish version of "Assessing Emotional Scale" by Schutte, was used to study two groups of women. Study (criterion) group included 40 women aged 23-47 years (mean age 35.28) using assistance of Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. Reference (control) group was well-matched in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and consisted of 140 women not experiencing domestic violence. Study women experiencing domestic violence have significantly lower scores on all INTE indicators (general score, Factor I and Factor II). Women not experiencing domestic violence achieved significantly higher scores on Factor I than on Factor II. In this group all INTE components (general score, Factor I, Factor II) are positively correlated, whereas in group of women experiencing domestic violence there is no significant correlation between Factor I and Factor II and coefficients are lower. Emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence is lower than emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. Their abilities and skills making up emotional intelligence are also less developed. The internal structure of emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence differs from emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. It seems advisable to consider emotional intelligence in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help. PMID:25982081

  3. Health of Homeless Women with Recent Experience of Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Leake, Barbara D.; Gelberg, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the physical health, mental health, and substance use or abuse correlates of sexual violence against homeless women. This study documents the association of rape with health and substance use or abuse characteristics reported by a probability sample of 974 homeless women in Los Angeles. Controlling for potential confounders, women who reported rape fared worse than those who did not on every physical and mental health measure and were also more likely to have...

  4. Emotional Intelligence of Women Who Experience Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Violence in family constitutes serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in emotional functioning of victim and, secondarily, also perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine emotional intelligence of women experiencing domestic violence. INTE, i.e. Polish version of “Assessing Emotional Scale” by Schutte, was used to study two groups of women. Study (criterion) group included 40 women aged 23–47 years (mean age 35.28) using ass...

  5. Racial Microaggressions: The Schooling Experiences of Black Middle-Class Males in Arizona’s Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaylan Allen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Black education has often neglected significant analysis of life in schools and the experience of racism among Black middle-class students in general and Black middle-class males specifically. Moreover, the achievement gap between this population and their White counterparts in many cases is greater than the gap that exists among working-class Blacks and Whites. This study begins to document the aforementioned by illuminating the racial microaggressions experienced by Black middle-class males while in school and how their families’ usage of social and cultural capital deflect the potential negative outcomes of school racism.

  6. 2003 Carolyn Sherif Award Address: What College Women Do and Do Not Experience as Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Arnold S.

    2004-01-01

    College women who did (n=33) and did not (n=56) label their sexual assault experience as rape provided written descriptions of their sexual assaults. From these descriptions we identified eight different sexual assault situations. Women who labeled their experience as rape were most likely to have been assaulted forcefully by an acquaintance,…

  7. [The experience of women after breast cancer mastectomy: objectification theory perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Ying; Chiu, Shing-Charn; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2011-08-01

    The female breast is intimately tied to social values that define the ideal body standard for women. As such, women's bodies are regarded as objects to be evaluated and judged. This paper analyzed the experience of women with breast cancer after mastectomy from the perspective of objectification theory. The authors found that not only medical technology but women themselves objectified the female body. The process of patient-physician communication also strengthened the objectification phenomenon for post-mastectomy women. We found that women with breast cancer worried about facing critical evaluation from the public after losing their breasts and needed to cope with the stress of losing a part of their physical self. Social and cultural antecedents that regard breasts as "objects" strongly influence the perspectives of women facing breast cancer. We hope this analysis may assist healthcare professionals to understand how women's bodies are objectified after mastectomy and consider how to care for this population more appropriately. PMID:21809290

  8. Women's experiences of mammography: A thematic evaluation of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse relevant literature to understand women's experiences of mammography-both screening and symptomatic. Method: A structured literature search was performed to locate relevant research. Research articles published between 2002 and 2013 were identified in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Science Direct. The quality of the research was assessed using an appropriate critical appraisal tool to enable a systematic and consistent assessment. Results: Qualitative thematic analysis of the literature identified five themes: fear, pain and discomfort, waiting, the physical environment and staff interactions. Whilst it is accepted that women's experiences are unique and diverse, literature suggested that these themes do influence women's experiences. Conclusion: Women's experiences of mammography were not limited to the examinations alone but encompassed the entire encounter. The themes identified influenced women's experiences and their perception of care

  9. The Experience of Miscarriage in First Pregnancy: The Women's Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber-Epstein, Paula; Leichtentritt, Ronit D.; Benyamini, Yael

    2009-01-01

    The study is a qualitative analysis of 19 interviews with Israeli women who have lost a first pregnancy to miscarriage. Neither the public nor health care professionals are fully aware of the implications and significance of miscarriage to the woman who has lost the pregnancy. The goal of this study was to understand and give voice to the women's…

  10. "Coming to town": the impact of urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and network norms on the smoking attitudes of black women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted. PMID:18563573

  11. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. PMID:27088658

  12. Observing women caregivers' everyday experiences: new ways of understanding and intervening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the practice implications of videographic research examining the everyday lived experiences of 5 women family caregivers of older adults with chronic illness. The women's nonverbal expressions and gestures revealed how caregiving is accomplished and lived on a daily basis, in particular through emotion and body management, abnegation, and performance. The findings from this microethnographic study suggest that observing women caregivers' everyday experiences can open new avenues for holistic intervention with this population. Observing nonverbal cues can offer a way for practitioners to better understand women caregivers' realities, to question their practice, and to adapt their interventions accordingly. PMID:24999610

  13. Notes from the back room: gender, power, and (In)visibility in women's experiences of masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Breanne; Frank, Elena

    2014-01-01

    While popular culture has more frequently depicted women's masturbation in recent years, scholarly attention to women's own meaning making about masturbation remains largely absent. Existing research that emphasizes women's masturbation frequency, health correlates, masturbation as a factor in couples therapy, and masturbation as a substitute for partnered sexual behaviors have dominated the research, largely neglecting social identity correlates and women's subjectivities about masturbation. This study drew upon qualitative interviews with 20 women (mean age = 34, SD = 13.35) from diverse backgrounds to illuminate five themes in women's experiences with masturbation: (a) assumptions that most women self-penetrate during masturbation even when primarily using clitoral stimulation; (b) masturbation as sexual labor; (c) masturbation as a threat to male dominance; (d) masturbation as routine tension release; and (e) masturbation as a source of joy, fun, and pleasure. Because women revealed such a diverse set of experiences, we explored the advantages and disadvantages of the invisibility of women's masturbation. As a result of the internalization of stereotypically masculine scripts about sexuality-including an imagined penetrative focus, goal-oriented drive toward orgasm, sex as labor, and masturbation as nonemotional-women's masturbation experiences, regardless of sexual orientation, revealed the power imbalances often present in partnered (hetero)sexual dynamics. PMID:23631671

  14. Trans women and Michfest: An ethnophenomenology of attendees' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Kozlowski, Christine; Shattell, Mona; Todd, Nathan R

    2016-01-01

    The rise of queer and transgender studies has greatly contributed to feminist and lesbian understandings of sex, gender, and sexuality and also has resulted in rifts, tensions, and border wars. One such tension is around the inclusion of trans women in women-only space, such as the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival (Michfest). In this ethnophenomenological study, we interviewed and surveyed 43 cisgender women who attended Michfest in 2013. Participants had a variety of perspectives on trans inclusion and on the dialogue surrounding it, and these paralleled intersections, frictions, and tensions between feminism, queer theory, and transgender studies. PMID:26701767

  15. Experiences and influences of women with cosmetic tattooing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jana C; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2005-02-01

    Cosmetic tattooing (permanent makeup of eyebrows, eyeliner, or lipliner) procedures are flourishing among women worldwide. Recurrent themes provide knowledge and understanding so dermatology nurses can aid in their procedural decision making. PMID:15782924

  16. Diversity in the Irish workplace - lesbian women's experience as nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Mel

    2010-01-01

    Work is an area which represents an important part of people’s lives where they encounter the Other. It provides an individual with a sense of who they are in society, through their membership of communities. Through work, a lesbian woman’s identity has to be negotiated as private lives and public lives can overlap. For lesbian women, work and identity intersect, providing a coherent sense of accomplishment. Research has shown that lesbian women are aware of the attitudes that pre...

  17. Is Empowerment or Women's Subjugation? Experiences of Interpersonal Sexual Objectification

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Sáez; Inmaculada Valor-Segura; Francisca Expósito

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal sexual objectification is defined as the act of reducing a woman to her body or body parts. It could be considered as a form of sexist discrimination, in which women have a differential treatment minimizing the importance of their inner qualities. The aim of this study, in which involved 251 participants, was to analyze the perception of interpsersonal sexual objectification in men and women. In addition, we examined the relationship between the interpersonal sexual objectificat...

  18. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    OpenAIRE

    F.C. Madzimbalale; L B Khoza

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live wi...

  19. Ties that bind: community attachment and the experience of discrimination among Black men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Van Sluytman, Laurens; Spikes, Pilgrim; Nandi, Vijay; Van Tieu, Hong; Frye, Victoria; Patterson, Jocelyn; Koblin, Beryl

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, the impact of psychological distress may be greater for Black men who have sex with men given that they may experience both racial discrimination in society at large and discrimination due to sexual orientation within Black communities. Attachments to community members may play a role in addressing psychological distress for members of this vulnerable population. This analysis is based on 312 Black men who have sex with men recruited for a behavioural intervention trial in New Yor...

  20. Women's Identity in a Country in Rapid Social Change: The Case of Educated Black South African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde van Vlaenderen; Mandisa Cakwe

    2003-01-01

    African societies are currently going through a period of accelerated social change, charac terised by increasing population, rapid urbanisation, high regional, national and inter national migration and the assimilation of western values. These changes are increasingly eroding the clear gender role divisions, characteristic of traditional African society, leaving women with a greater personal responsibility to develop their identities. This article focuses on the identity formation of a group...

  1. Opening the Black Box: Women's Empowerment and Innovative Secondary Education in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…

  2. Reflecting about gender violence and african american women: The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and...

  3. Improving women's access to higher education : a review of World Bank project experience

    OpenAIRE

    Dundar, Halil; Haworth, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    World Bank project experience on what works to improve women's access to tertiary education is so limited that it may be premature to draw firm conclusions. Many of the projects with interesting multiple interventions are ongoing. But two conclusions emerge. First, the most essential factor for successful intervention seems to be a strong demand for educated women in the labor market combined with a high private demand for higher education by women (and their parents). How well a project succ...

  4. The experiences, needs and concerns of younger women with breast cancer: a meta-ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Eike; McCann, Lisa; Armes, Jo; Richardson, Alison; Stark, Daniel; Watson, Eila; Hubbard, Gill

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This meta-ethnography synthesises the evidence on the experiences, needs and concerns of younger women with breast cancer. Methods: Using a method called reciprocal translation we developed a conceptual model to reflect the local and social contexts, issues, processes, needs and concerns of importance in this literature. Findings: Key findings relate to the particular point in the life-course at which young women with breast cancer stand. Issues for these women relate to ...

  5. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Baheiraei; Mojgan Mirghafourvand; Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi; Eesa Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age....

  6. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women

    OpenAIRE

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2014-01-01

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55–81, this article con...

  7. Development and operational experience of a new pigging technology for effective black powder removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Hubert [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Over the last decade, the occurrence of black powder has attracted increased attention in the natural gas industry worldwide. Pipeline operators now regularly deal with the existence, formation and consequences of black powder in their systems. Black powder not only has adverse effects on pipeline systems by a gradual drop in pressure and by clogging installations and instruments, but also on the product quality itself. In addition, it also interferes with pigging activities by potentially increasing the friction and wear on polyurethane discs or cups in particular and by hampering precise measurements with inspection tools due to sensor lift-off. Both its adverse effects on the condition of pipeline systems themselves and its interference with effective in-line activities call for effective methods to remove black powder. This paper describes the development and operational experience of a new type of mechanical cleaning tool to remove black powder from pipelines in order to prepare them for in-line inspections. It also explains the flushing technology's mode of operation and presents results from various runs conducted. The results reveal that the new technology is able to remove remarkable volumes of black powder from a pipeline (e.g. 7 m{sup 3} dust in one 48 inch run) but also an inconsistent behavior of the tools. Based on the on board data acquisition the behavior analyzed leading to an improved understanding of the interaction between tool, pipeline and powder accumulation. Finally the tool design was adapted and creating a consistent behavior. (author)

  8. Explaining age differences in women's emotional well-being: The role of subjective experiences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E; Toothman, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines explanations for the "paradox" of older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women. We consider the role of subjective experiences of aging in a society that devalues older women. Using a sample of women (n = 872) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1995-1996 and 2004-2006), we examine the role of five components of the subjective experience of aging in explaining older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women: age identity, conceptions of the timing of middle age, aging attitudes, aging anxieties, and self-assessed physiological changes. We find that, compared with women 50-54 years old, those 35-39 years old report lower positive affect, and those 25-49 report higher negative affect. These patterns are partially explained by younger women's greater anxiety about declines in health and attractiveness and older women's more youthful identities. Our study underscores the value of considering the implications of our ageist and sexist society for women's emotional well-being across adulthood. PMID:27029460

  9. A feminist critique of research on menopausal experience of Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, E O; Meleis, A I; Park, Y S

    1999-10-01

    Despite the increasing number of studies on the menopausal experience of Asian women, the focus of the studies has been on simple comparisons of their symptoms with Western women's and other disease-oriented research topics. To propose directions for future research on menopause, we analyzed and critiqued 158 studies on the menopausal experience of a group of Asian women-Korean women. The studies were retrieved through a search of computerized databases in the United States and South Korea, and they were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued with a feminist perspective. Many of the studies have problems with (a) conceptualization, including ethnocentric and androcentric views of menopause, biomedical perspectives, and language difficulties; (b) research methods, such as inadequate instruments, passive relationships between researchers and research participants, culturally inappropriate communication styles, inadequate study designs, and homogeneous research participants; and (c) interpretation and communication of study findings. These issues undermine the conclusions drawn about the nature of the menopausal experience of Korean women. PMID:10520193

  10. Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861

  11. Disclosure, discrimination and desire: experiences of Black and South Asian gay men in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    McKeown, E.; Nelson, S; Anderson, J.; Low, N.; Elford, J

    2010-01-01

    Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion, and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture a...

  12. Black and minority ethnic trainees’ experiences of physical education initial teacher training

    OpenAIRE

    Flintoff, A; Chappell, A.; Gower, C; Keyworth, S; Lawrence, J.; Money, J; Squires, S; Webb, L.

    2008-01-01

    The official published version can be accessed at the link below. This report draws together the findings of research that aimed to explore black and minority ethnic (BME) trainees’ experiences of Physical Education (PE) initial teacher training (ITT). Although the numbers of BME trainees opting to enter teaching have improved considerably over the last few years, PE remains one of three specific subject areas where they remain significantly under-represented. Current figures suggest that ...

  13. Education services and resilience processes: Resilient Black South African students' experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Linda C. Theron; Adam M.C. Theron

    2014-01-01

    The resilience literature is increasingly drawing attention to formal service provision as a means for social ecologies to support children's and youths' positive adjustment to challenging life circumstances. This article interrogates the universality and simplicity of this argument. Using a secondary data analysis of the life stories of 16 resilient, Black South African students from impoverished families, we show that education services predominated students' childhood and youth experie...

  14. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  15. The Work Experience of Undocumented Mexican Women Migrants in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rita J.; DeLey, Margo

    1984-01-01

    Undocumented Mexican women workers in Los Angeles were interviewed about their work experience in the United States. Most of them work in factories, not in domestic service. Most earn a salary above minimum wage but below that earned by documented women, and 80 percent believe their treatment at work equals that of other workers. (KH)

  16. Spirituality as a Lived Experience: Exploring the Essence of Spirituality for Women in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K.

    2012-01-01

    Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over…

  17. Gender, Forced Migration and Education: Identities and Experiences of Refugee Women Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on narrative data from women teachers in a refugee camp in northern Ethiopia, this article explores how women's lived experiences of being teachers in a very local context are shaped within and against globalised geographies. Particular attention is paid to the forces of forced migration, to the complexities of local-global economies and…

  18. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  19. Bad experience, good birthing: Dutch low-risk pregnant women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.M. van der Hulst; G.J. Bonsel; M. Eskes; E. Birnie; E. van Teijlingen; O.P. Bleker

    2006-01-01

    Objective. The long-term effects on women in childbirth with a history of sexual abuse have only been studied to a limited degree. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime experience among low-risk pregnant women (non-clinical) in the Netherlands as well as the association with (1) psycho-social outc

  20. Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes and Experience among Women and Men in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV-prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women aged 15 to 49 and men aged 15 to 54 were collected between May and October 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.…

  1. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  2. Prediction of Sexual Assault Experiences in College Women Based on Rape Scripts: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Irvin, Clinton R.; Chau, Minna; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault…

  3. Violence against women in the militarized Indian frontier: beyond "Indian culture" in the experiences of ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2012-03-01

    Violence against women (VAW) in India is commonly attributed to an overarching metacultural patriarchal framework. Focusing on this national culture of violence obscures the experiences of VAW among ethnic minority women. This article focuses on VAW in Northeast India, a region populated by large numbers of Scheduled Tribes with different cultural norms, and where society has become militarized by ongoing insurgency and counterinsurgency. Though tempting, militarization alone is not a sufficient explanation for VAW; instead, this article focuses on the interplay between nonfamilial and familial contexts in creating a "frontier culture of violence" in which VAW is experienced and contested. PMID:22615121

  4. Voices from the Hinterland: lesbian women's experience of Irish health care

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about lesbian women's lives and social experiences in Irish society. Lesbian women's invisibility is reinforced and permeated in all ocial institutions in society such as religion, education and the family. This thesis eals with the nature of being-in-the-world of health care: the nature of being esbian women both as service users and nurses working in the health care nvironment. In their day to day living, lesbian women know bow to act, react and behave to exist ...

  5. "I am nothing": experiences of loss among women suffering from severe birth injuries in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mselle Lilian T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG, the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This

  6. Women care about local knowledge, experiences from ethnomycology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garibay-Orijel Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gender is one of the main variables that influence the distribution of local knowledge. We carried out a literature review concerning local mycological knowledge, paying special attention to data concerning women’s knowledge and comparative gender data. We found that unique features of local mycological knowledge allow people to successfully manage mushrooms. Women are involved in every stage of mushroom utilization from collection to processing and marketing. Local mycological knowledge includes the use mushrooms as food, medicine, and recreational objects as well as an aid to seasonal household economies. In many regions of the world, women are often the main mushroom collectors and possess a vast knowledge about mushroom taxonomy, biology, and ecology. Local experts play a vital role in the transmission of local mycological knowledge. Women participate in the diffusion of this knowledge as well as in its enrichment through innovation. Female mushroom collectors appreciate their mycological knowledge and pursue strategies and organization to reproduce it in their communities. Women mushroom gatherers are conscious of their knowledge, value its contribution in their subsistence systems, and proudly incorporate it in their cultural identity.

  7. Obstetric MR imaging: Experience with 75 pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-five pregnant women underwent MR imaging at 0.35 T. The subjects fell into two broad categories: women with suspected medical or surgical disease (n = 37), and women with abnormal gestations, as determined by prior US studies (n = 38). In the first group, MR imaging depicted a wide variety of maternal ailments, including abnormalities in the brain, chest, liver, adrenals, kidneys, and pelvis. There were no false-positive MR imaging studies. There were two true-negative studies in this group. The only false-negative examination occurred in a patient with a tubal ectopic pregnancy. In the second group, MR imaging depicted fetal anomalies in all 24 cases identified on US. However, in every instance, US provided equivalent or more morphologic information and also physiologic information not available from MR imaging. MR imaging may be useful for evaluating pregnant women with medical or surgical diseases, but currently it provides only limited morphologic data on the fetus, in comparison to US

  8. Women's Leadership: A Study of African American Female Principal Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, women's leadership has been overlooked and underappreciated by researchers and policymakers although this leadership has been vital to America's ultimate success and infrastructure. Simply stated, contributions of female leadership have been overshadowed by a system that primarily values patriarchal forms of leadership and oppresses…

  9. Migration and maternal health: experiences of brazilian women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to characterize maternal and neonatal healthcare provided to Brazilian population, assessing key factors: access, use and quality of care received during this period. The goal was to assess possible differences regarding women's perceptions regarding the quality and appropriateness of care received, providing qualitative information, as part of a holistic perspective. METHODS: the present study adopted a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analyzing data. Possible differences in women's perceptions regarding the quality and appropriateness of care received were assessed, providing qualitative information, as part of a holistic perspective. The present study was based on privileged information obtained from Brazilian women, residing in the metropolitan area of Porto, regardless of their legal status. RESULTS: a certain dissatisfaction emerged among Brazilian women regarding the quality of information provided by health professionals, the communications skills of these professionals, in addition to a perception of reduced access to medical specialties, especially in primary care. Misinformation about legal rights and inappropriate clarification during medical appointments were frequently reported and interacted with social determinants to result in poorer medical care. CONCLUSIONS: special attention should be given to the specific needs and understanding of immigrants during pregnancy and motherhood in order to improve healthcare. New challenges tend to lie not only in ensuring access, but mostly in promoting equity, as away of providing high-quality care for all.

  10. Schooling, fertility and the labour market experience of married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, G

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses the role of formal schooling and child rearing in the determination of career path choice of women in the US. Data were collected from the adult educational component of the 1991 US National Household Education Survey. Data are available for about 12,568 respondents, of whom 6860 are female. It is established that, amongst others, expected earnings significantly affect the career path and the hours of work chosen by American women. Based on the results of the study, a number of conclusions have been drawn: 1) expectations of earnings affect women's choice of career path, including decisions such as labor market participation, the part-time work versus full-time work decision, and occupational choice; 2) the indirect and indirect effects of schooling and other variables on regime choice has been studied; the impact of schooling and fertility on women's labor supply follows an intuitively plausible pattern; 3) evidence provided here on the private rate of return to education confirms the findings of Bland that part-time workers do not receive a lower return than others; and 4) the importance of correcting for endogeneity and sample selection biases in the problem of earnings determination and career choice has been established. PMID:12322341

  11. The Wreading Experiment: Performative Strategies for Teaching Women's Innovative Poetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Emily

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an upper-level, special topics English course she designed as a "workshop" in "wreading" contemporary women's innovative poetries. She was inspired to "wreading" by Charles Bernstein's essay "Creative Wreading: A Primer," in which he offers interactive and reactive responses to assigned texts as the grounds…

  12. Experiences of women living with fibromyalgia: an exploratory study of their information needs and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Daraz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women living with fibromyalgia consistently report experiencing a change in their lives in terms of stigma, inability to work, isolation from society and difficulty in managing their illness. Lack of understanding and knowledge about their disease has been linked to compromised health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of information use of women living with fibromyalgia. A descriptive phenomenology was used for this study. Participants were identified through gatekeepers for women living with fibromyalgia across Canada. Data was collected via taperecorded interviews. The study was conducted in Canada between 2009-2010. Ten women (18 or older participated in the research. Three essential themes emerged from the analysis that were vital to understand the unique experiences of women: i understanding the need for information required to live with fibromyalgia, ii struggling to meet vital and fundamental information needs and iii transforming themselves to improve health and quality of life. Women living with fibromyalgia have vital and specific information needs and struggle to find and access appropriate information. They use diverse strategies in overcoming some of the challenges in accessing information. Most significantly, women draw on the information to make changes and to begin to coordinate their lives to live with fibromyalgia. For women living with fibromyalgia, the phenomenon of information use has a significant effect on their lives. Healthcare providers are perceived as an important source of information and need to be better informed, more prepared and dedicated to assisting women with their information needs.

  13. Coping with Racism: What Works and Doesn't Work for Black Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…

  14. Enhancing Visibility in Graduate Education: Black Women' Perceptions of Inclusive Pedagogical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuitt, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research methods were used to develop a deeper understanding of how nine Black female graduate students described and understood the pedagogical practices they perceived as enhancing their visibility in the learning environment. Framed through Ralph Ellison's concept of invisibility, a modified grounded theory analytic approach was…

  15. Women's experiences of making healthcare decisions about their breast cancer: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mo; Stone, Teresa E; Turale, Sue; Petrini, Marcia A

    2016-09-01

    There are few studies about how healthcare decisions are made for women with breast cancer in China and this knowledge is vital, both to further develop person-centered health care and to ensure that women have a voice in their healthcare decisions. This phenomenological study explored the meaning of women's lived experiences of making healthcare decisions about their breast cancer in China. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight women with breast cancer. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analytic method. The results of this study identified four themes: authority and expertise, lack of knowledge, family support, and Chinese cultural and social influences. Women were deferential to medical authority and perceived expertise, but they wanted to be involved to a greater degree in healthcare decisions. It is important for health professionals to optimize women's participation in decision-making by removing barriers and advocating on their behalf. PMID:26817836

  16. "What will happen if I tell you?" Battered Latina women's experiences of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ursula

    2006-12-01

    Identifying and appropriately responding to victims of intimate partner abuse is a standard of health care. The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to improve health-care providers' understanding of the health-care experiences of battered Latina women. Seventeen women were interviewed in either Spanish or English. Data were analyzed using van Manen's approach. The themes of fear, worry, and uncertainty were found to permeate the women's lives. The women's fear of their abusers and the abuse was matched by their fear of detection and disclosure of the abuse to health-care providers. Their fears were based on the consequences of the abuse becoming known. Despite their fears, the women wanted to be asked about intimate partner abuse and to receive help. Several parallels in the women's relationships with the abusers and with their health-care providers were identified. Requisites for safe disclosure of intimate partner abuse to health-care providers are discussed. PMID:17290956

  17. How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

    2013-10-01

    The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

  18. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these experiences, the...... objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal period....

  19. A qualitative study of women's experiences of communication in antenatal care: Identifying areas for action

    OpenAIRE

    Raine, R; Cartwright, M; Richens, Y.; Muhamed, Z.; Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    To identify key features of communication across antenatal (prenatal) care that are evaluated positively or negatively by service users. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to explore communication experiences of thirty pregnant women from diverse social and ethnic backgrounds affiliated to a large London hospital. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Women reported a wide diversity of experiences. From the users’ perspective, constructive communication on the part of...

  20. Perceptions And Experiences Of Overweight Among Women In The Ga East District, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond Nii Okai Aryeetey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity are a growing public health challenge among women of reproductive age. While cultural norms suggest preference for an overweight body image, limited evidence exists regarding women’s beliefs and experiences of overweight in Ghana. The current study explored beliefs, perceptions, experiences and practices concerning overweight among women living in suburban Accra, Ghana.Methods: Four focus group discussions, and 10 in-depth interviews (IDI) were implemented...

  1. Perceptions and Experiences of Overweight among Women in the Ga East District, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Aryeetey, Richmond Nii Okai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are a growing public health challenge among women of reproductive age. While cultural norms suggest preference for an overweight body image, limited evidence exists regarding women’s beliefs and experiences of overweight in Ghana. The current study explored beliefs, perceptions, experiences, and practices concerning overweight among women living in suburban Accra, Ghana. Methods Four focus group discussions, and 10 in-depth interviews (IDI) were implemented...

  2. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health. PMID:23475348

  3. Incest and Women of Color: A Study of Experiences and Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Smita Vir

    2001-01-01

    Experiences relating to community, culture, and family need to be acknowledged as salient aspects of the experiences of women of color who are also incest survivors. Twelve participants were interviewed regarding their experiences related to disclosure and coping. Participants described value systems, community mindedness, social attitudes,…

  4. Racial Identity Attitudes, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Self-Esteem in African American College Women Attending Historically Black Single-Sex and Coeducational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Sherry Kay

    2006-01-01

    This study examines racial identity attitudes, womanist identity attitudes, and self-esteem of 111 African American college women attending two historically Black higher educational institutions, one coeducational and one single-sex. The major findings indicate that pre-encounter and encounter attitudes of racial and womanist identity are…

  5. Comparing Sexual Harassment Subtypes among Black and White Women by Military Rank: Double Jeopardy, the Jezebel, and the Cult of True Womanhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.; Woods, Krystle C.

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon feminist analyses of double jeopardy and the cult of true womanhood, we examine race, rank, sexual harassment frequency, and psychological distress for Black and White female military personnel (N= 7,714). Results indicated that White women reported more overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and crude behavior, whereas Black…

  6. Becoming a mother--an analysis of women's experience of early motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L; Everitt, L; Rogan, F; Schmied, V; Wyllie, A

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative study conducted by midwife researchers into women's experience of new motherhood. Data were collected using focus groups involving 55 first-time mothers and analysed using grounded theory method. The analysis produced six categories: 'realizing', 'unready', 'drained', 'aloneness', 'loss' and 'working it out'. The core category, 'becoming a mother', integrates all other categories and encapsulates the process of change experienced by women. Also explained are factors mediating the often distressing experience of becoming a mother. The analysis provides a conceptualization of early motherhood enabling the development of strategies for midwives, nurses and other helping women negotiate this challenge. PMID:9104667

  7. The politics of particularism: HBCUs, Spelman College, and the struggle to educate Black women in science, 1950--1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Olivia A.

    Since the close of World War II, higher education has been central to the growth of U.S. science, but the role of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) has been under-explored within this narrative. The nation's 105 HBCUs constitute less than one percent of the U.S. higher education community, but consistently have served as a major conduit for the production of African Americans in the sciences, technology, mathematics and engineering. National Science Foundation data reflect an average 29 percent share for the period 1994-2001. The output is even more striking when examined by degrees awarded in disciplinary clusters---50 percent in the agricultural sciences, 45 percent in the physical sciences and mathematics, and 42 percent in the biological sciences. This research explores the role of HBCUs in educating African Americans in science from the boosterism period shortly following World War II, through affirmative action legislation of the 1960s and 1970s, and concluding with current federal policies. A particular analysis is undertaken of Spelman College, a private liberal arts college founded by New England missionaries in the South during the late 19th century as a seminary for former slave women and girls. Spelman presents a unique case to analyze the particularistic characteristics of race, gender and institutional setting within the context of a so-called normative structure of science. Over a 25-year period, Spelman was able to rise beyond the structural limitations of its position as a Black college, a women's college, and a southern college to become one of the single most productive undergraduate institution for African American women earning the baccalaureate degree in science. What new perspectives might the Spelman story specifically and the history of HBCUs generally offer about the history of U.S. science, the notion that careers be open to talent, and current public policy discourse regarding efforts to increase the participation of

  8. Women Health Outreach Program; a New Experience for all Egyptian Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global health community faces a challenge with breast cancer being the most common cause of cancer related death among women around the globe. Since breast cancer’s pathogenesis is poorly understood, primary prevention is still a distant goal. Thus secondary prevention through early detection is the only feasible approach at present. With this strong conviction, the launching o f the first Egyptian national screening program Women Health Outreach Program(WHOP), was announced on October 30 th 2007. This project is a government- funded program that offers free breast screening for all Egyptian women above the age of 45 years. In addition to free mammograms, the program gives the participants a chance to be screened for diabetes, hypertension and obesity as well. Positively detected cases are also offered the option of free management. During the period from October 30 th , 2007, up to February 9 th , 2009, 20, 098 women in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez governorates were screened for breast cancer, diabetes, hypertension and obesity through the program. In this article we will represent the achievements, challenges and services delivered by WHOP

  9. Healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Riley

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the health needs and experiences of South African lesbian and bisexual women is imperative for implementing effective and inclusive public health strategies. Such understanding, however, is limited due to the exclusion of these women from most existing research on healthcare access in the region. This paper bridges that gap by investigating the healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town. Data were gathered from 22 interviews with self-identified lesbian and bisexual community members and university students in the Cape Town area. Interviews explored obstacles women face in accessing affirming services, different experiences with public and private healthcare, fear of stigma/discrimination, availability of relevant sexual health information and suggestions to improve existing programmes. Findings suggest that South African lesbians and bisexual women may have a range of both positive and negative experiences in public and private health services, that they use protective strategies when 'coming out' and that they find that sexual health information pertinent to them is largely unavailable. These discussions contribute to a more inclusive understanding of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare and other services and help to inform providers, thereby enabling them to deliver more meaningful care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in South Africa. PMID:25291355

  10. Leadership Development Experiences of Women Leaders in State-Owned Enterprises in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Dewi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar to many other countries in the world, Indonesia has been experiencing the increasing num- ber of women workers participation both in formal and informal sectors. While in formal sector the number of female employees has increased from around 10 millions in 2008 to nearly 13 mil- lions in 2011; in informal sector the figure is even doubled: more than 28 millions in 2008 to more than 30 millions in 2011. However to date, women workers are associated with low-skilled, low- wage workers who work in precarious working environment. Women are seldom hold managerial position both in public and private sector. The proportion of women in Indonesia who sit in the board of directors is only 6% from the entire women workers. Thus, this research aims to explore their development experience along the way. In order to obtain initial information, interviews with nine women managers from State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs were conducted. SOEs were chosen for convenience reason. The research indicates the low ratio number of women in SOEs management team although there is an optimism that the number would increase. Key point discovered in this research is that development experience is mainly done by the participants own initiatives whereas organisational supports are found very limited. This findings will be further explored and confirmed by involving more women managers from various sectors.

  11. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  12. Prostitution as a social issue - the experiences of Russian women prostitutes in the Barents region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Skaffari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses prostitution in the Barents Region as a social question through the subjective experiences of female Russian prostitutes. The women who were interviewed for this research live their everyday lives in the context of Russia. The operational possibilities of the women are based on a sociocultural framework which differs from that of Western countries. This article addresses the following question: How does prostitution construct the agency of women in the Barents Region? The question is explored in terms of the social relationships of the women, their everyday agency within the local environment, their living conditions, and the marginal conditions of their lives. Our focus is on the social structures and the position of the women within them. The data used in this article consist of observational material as well as interviews with 17 women, wherein they discuss their experiences of prostitution in the Barents Region. All of the material was collected in Murmansk, Russia between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative content analysis was performed as a means to understand the aforementioned women’s experiences of prostitution and its relation to everyday life. Prostitution is a product of social structures, a woman’s position, the accessibility of support, and the available personal, social and mental resources. Sometimes prostitution is a way to survive. Women who practice prostitution are often seen only as stereotypes, but the individual paths of their lives and the social contexts in which they live are integral to an understanding of the causes and effects of sex work.

  13. ‘Elastic band strategy’: women's lived experiences of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Nur Hayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective: Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design: A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results: Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions: Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms.

  14. Race-Related Stress, Racial Identity Attitudes, and Mental Health among Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollie L.; Cross, William E., Jr.; DeFour, Darlene C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether racial identity attitudes moderate the relationship between racist stress events, racist stress appraisal, and mental health. One hundred eighteen African American and 144 self-identified Caribbean women completed the Cross Racial Identity Scale, the Schedule of Racist Events, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the…

  15. Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2003-01-01

    Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…

  16. The Declining Relative Status of Black Women Workers, 1980-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Raine

    2010-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, industrial restructuring led to a marked increase in wage inequality. Women, however, were not as negatively affected by declining manufacturing employment because their pay was relatively low within the industry, and their already high representation in the service sector provided access to newly created opportunities.…

  17. The experience of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sengane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article was to describe the experience of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labour. The research design entailed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study that was contextual to clinical nursing. A phenomenological approach to nursing research was utilized, whereby unstructured interviews were conducted with ten black fathers. Two groups of black fathers were purposively selected for the study. Group 1 consisted of fathers who provided support to their wives/partners during labour and Group 2 consisted of fathers who did not provide support during labour. A literature control was undertaken to verify and recontextualize data. The results indicate that most of the fathers in Group 1 experienced negative feelings of nervousness, helplessness and anxiety due to lack of information concerning childbirth. These were coupled with positive feelings such as excitement, overwhelming delight and a sense of miracle. Most of the fathers in Group 2 expressed a feeling of wanting to be there. Lack of information, fear and cultural factors were identified as stumbling blocks. Conclusions drawn from the study included positive attitudes that needed to be enhanced as well as negative attitudes that needed counteracting. The guidelines were based on overcoming the following: cultural taboos; lack of knowledge and fears concerning childbirth; lack of interest in childbirth; and childbirth being regarded as a woman’s department.

  18. A postcolonial feminist perspective inquiry into immigrant women's mental health care experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureen O'Mahony, Joyce; Truong Donnelly, Tam

    2010-07-01

    The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. As a result, there is greater emphasis on health care providers and the health care system to provide culturally appropriate and equitable care. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems and experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. In this paper we advocate for new ways of research inquiry in exploring immigrant women's mental health care experiences, ones that move beyond the individual experiences of health and illness toward recognition that the health of immigrant women must be addressed within the social, cultural, economic, historical, and political context of their lives. Drawing on past research we demonstrate how the postcolonial feminist perspective can be used to illuminate the ways in which race, gender, and class relations influence social, cultural, political, and economic factors, which, in turn, shape the lives of immigrant women. We suggest that postcolonial feminism provides an analytic lens to (a) generate transformative knowledge about immigrant women's mental health care experiences; (b) improve equitable health care; and (c) increase understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the immigrant women's health care needs. PMID:20521913

  19. Termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: a meta-ethnography of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Due to technological advances in antenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities, more women face the prospect of terminating pregnancies on these grounds. Much existing research focuses on women's psychological adaptation to this event. However, there is a lack of holistic understanding of women's experiences. This article reports a systematic review of qualitative studies into women's experiences of pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Eight databases were searched up to April 2014 for peer-reviewed studies, written in English, that reported primary or secondary data, used identifiable and interpretative qualitative methods, and offered a valuable contribution to the synthesis. Altogether, 4,281 records were screened; 14 met the inclusion criteria. The data were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Four themes were identified: a shattered world, losing and regaining control, the role of health professionals and the power of cultures. Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality can be considered as a traumatic event that women experience as individuals, in their contact with the health professional community, and in the context of their politico-socio-legal environment. The range of emotions and experiences that pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality generates goes beyond the abortion paradigm and encompasses a bereavement model. Coordinated care pathways are needed that enable women to make their own decisions and receive supportive care. PMID:25555776

  20. Reflecting about gender violence and african american women: The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report. 

  1. Treatment needs and experiences of Australian women with alcohol and other drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, W; Copeland, J

    1996-03-01

    Two hundred and sixty-seven women were interviewed as part of a national survey examining the treatment needs and experiences of Australian women who had received assistance for their alcohol and other drug problems. The majority of women had previously received assistance for their substance use, and of these most had left alcohol and other drug treatment programs before completion. While the women cited a number of ways in which they were helped by such services, several areas were identified by the women as important and amenable to improvement. Among the service issues raised were access, models of service delivery, service structure and staffing, physical environment, physical and psychological safety and the handling of issues such as health status and sexual assault. PMID:8861399

  2. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessogo, Wiliam R; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B; Messina Ondoua, Regine T; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  3. Women's Experience at the Time of Menopause: Accounting for Biological, Cultural and Psychological Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C

    2001-12-01

    In understanding health and illness, it has long been apparent that psychological and social aspects are as important as the biological explanations of the biomedical model. Recent studies of women's experience of menopause have demonstrated the psychological and social constructions of women's bodies, but have neglected to include individual embodiment and the notion of a social world that is inescapably embodied. This paper presents arguments for the consideration of an integrated approach to embodiment and, drawing upon recent theorizing, a conceptual framework that is able to take into account the integration of psyche, biology, and culture. The accounts of 80 New Zealand women, aged between 45 and 60, are analysed, using categories labelled, 'visceral', 'experiential', 'normative' and 'pragmatic', to provide a description of women's embodied and culturally embedded experience of menopause. The incorporation of these analytic categories, and the usefulness of the application of the model in contemporary applied work, is discussed. PMID:22049468

  4. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter P; Petersson, Kerstin; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2010-01-01

    National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study was...... to elucidate experiences and views of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women who were physically active prior to their pregnancy....

  5. Listening to the voices: an exploratory study of the experiences of women diagnosed and living with breast cancer in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzaga, Mubuuke Aloysius

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths amongst Ugandan women. Most women live through challenging and emotional experiences having been diagnosed with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of women diagnosed and living with breast cancer. Methods This was an exploratory qualitative study using a convenience sample (n = 12) of women confirmed with breast cancer and reporting to the Radiology department for imaging. In-de...

  6. Perspectives and Experiences of Muslim Women Who Veil on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Darnell; Ahmadi, Shafiqa

    2003-01-01

    Conducted prior to September 11, 2001, this qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of seven women who veiled on a large college campus in the Midwest. With national origins ranging from Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, to the United States, some participants reevaluated and subsequently unveiled due to their college experiences.…

  7. Sexual Revictimization in Adult Women: Examining Factors Associated with Their Childhood and Adulthood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Cassandra; Postmus, Judy L.; Lee, Inseon

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from a sample of adult women (n = 234), this study examined the relationship between the experience and disclosure of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent adult sexual violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical force during the childhood sexual abuse experience was significant in both children's decisions to…

  8. Premarital Cohabitation and the Risk of Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Julie A; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. Our analysis expands upon the array of risk factors considered in prior investigations of racial and ethnic differences in disruption and is among the first to systematically examine marital disruption among recent cohorts of Mexican American women. We find that the nature and strength of the esti...

  9. Hidden Voices: Disabled Women's Experiences of Violence and Support Over the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonali; Tsitsou, Lito; Woodin, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide social and human rights problem that cuts across cultural, geographic, religious, social, and economic boundaries. It affects women in countries around the world, regardless of class, religion, disability, age, or sexual identity. International evidence shows that approximately three in five women experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner. However, across the globe, women and girls with impairments or life-limiting illnesses are more susceptible to different forms of violence across a range of environments and by different perpetrators including professionals and family members as well as partners. However, they are likely to be seriously disadvantaged in gaining information and support to escape the abusive relationships. This article stems from the United Kingdom part of a comparative study with three other countries (Austria, Germany, and Iceland) funded by the European Commission (EC; 2013-2015). It presents preliminary findings, generated from life history interviews, about disabled women's experiences of violence and access to support (both formal and informal) over their life course and their aspirations for the prevention of violence in the future. The article includes examples of impairment-specific violence that non-disabled women do not experience. By bringing the voices of disabled women into the public domain, the article will facilitate a historically marginalized group to contribute to the debate about disability, violence, and support. PMID:26762144

  10. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere. PMID:25922881

  11. Paradox of Modern Pregnancy: A Phenomenological Study of Women's Lived Experiences from Assisted Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed-Reza; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was describing the meaning of pregnancy through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). A qualitative design with hermeneutic phenomenology approach was selected to carry out the research. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women who experienced assisted pregnancy. Three themes emerged from women's experience including finding peace in life, paradoxical feelings, and struggling to realize a dream. We concluded that pregnancy is the beginning of a new and hard struggle for women with fertility problems. The findings of our study resulted in helpful implications for the health care professionals managing assisted pregnancies. PMID:26064687

  12. A Qualitative Study Into Mental Health Tutors’ Experiences and Perceptions of Women and Self Harm.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Hayley

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research study was to explore mental health nursing tutors’ perceptions and experiences of issues surrounding women and self-harm. Between 0.4% and 2% of the population in the UK reports engaging in self-harm and it is thought that 80% of those are female. A review of the literature revealed reports from professionals of feeling largely unprepared and uncertain about dealing with women who self-harm. Perhaps as a result, many women who self-harm report poor healthcare trea...

  13. Women's Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemimah Ride

    Full Text Available Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women's preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families.

  14. Women's Preferences for Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women's preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women's sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096

  15. Professional caregivers’ experiences of caring for women with breast cancer on a surgical ward

    OpenAIRE

    Ödling, Gunvor

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of the thesis was to describe caregivers’ experiences of caring for women with breast cancer on a surgical ward. The study was based on interviews with narrative parts and tape-recorded clinical supervision sessions. The interviews and clinical supervision sessions were transcribed verbatim, and analysed by content analysis. Nurses (n=10) described life for women with breast cancer as either having freedom or not having freedom, with both physical and existential suffering. Dy...

  16. Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Rebecca; Gucciardi Enza; De Melo Margaret; Barata Paula

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC) in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 yea...

  17. Women's experiences of coping with pain during childbirth: A critical review of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Gucht, Natalie; Lewis, Kiara

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyse qualitative literature exploring women׳s experiences of coping with pain during childbirth. Design Critical review of qualitative research. Findings Ten studies were included, conducted in Australia, England, Finland, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran and Sweden. Eight of the studies employed a phenomenological perspective with the remaining two without a specific qualitative methodological perspective. Thematic analysis was used as the approach for s...

  18. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wen; Low Wah; Wong Yut; Choong Sim; Jegasothy Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected ...

  19. Access and utilisation of maternity care for disabled women who experience domestic abuse: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Breckenridge, Jenna P.; Devaney, John; Kroll, Thilo; Lazenbatt, Anne; Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods: Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data ...

  20. BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment): Preliminary results on Antarctic black cryptoendolithic fungi in ground based experiments

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pacelli; Selbmann, L.; Onofri, S.; de Vera, J.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal for astrobiologists is to find traces of present or past life in extraterrestrial environment or in meteorites. Biomolecules, such as lipids, pigments or polysaccharides, may be useful to establish the presence of extant or extinct life (Simoneit, B et al., 1998). BIOMEX (Biology and Mars Experiment) aims to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The experiment has just been la...

  1. An Examination of Black Science Teacher Educators' Experiences with Multicultural Education, Equity, and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Mary M.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Carlton Parsons, Eileen R.

    2013-12-01

    Diversity, multicultural education, equity, and social justice are dominant themes in cultural studies (Hall in Cultural dialogues in cultural studies. Routledge, New York, pp 261-274, 1996; Wallace 1994). Zeichner (Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 737-759, 2005) called for research studies of teacher educators because little research exists on teacher educators since the late 1980s. Thomson et al. (2001) identified essential elements needed in order for critical multiculturalism to be infused in teacher education programs. However, little is known about the commitment and experiences of science teacher educators infusing multicultural education, equity, and social justice into science teacher education programs. This paper examines twenty (20) Black science teacher educators' teaching experiences as a result of their Blackness and the inclusion of multicultural education, equity, and social justice in their teaching. This qualitative case study of 20 Black science teacher educators found that some of them have attempted and stopped due to student evaluations and the need to gain promotion and tenure. Other participants were able to integrate diversity, multicultural education, equity and social justice in their courses because their colleagues were supportive. Still others continue to struggle with this infusion without the support of their colleagues, and others have stopped The investigators suggest that if science teacher educators are going to prepare science teachers for the twenty first century, then teacher candidates must be challenged to grapple with racial, ethnic, cultural, instructional, and curricular issues and what that must mean to teach science to US students in rural, urban, and suburban school contexts.

  2. Antioxidant enzyme activity is associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness in black men and women: The SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Caitlynd; Huisman, Hugo W; Mels, Catharina M C

    2016-05-01

    In the urbanized black population of South Africa, oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Since oxidative stress may result from impaired antioxidant capacity we aimed to investigate antioxidant enzyme activity as well as its associations with vascular function and structure in a bi-ethnic population. Participants included 409 subjects almost equally stratified by ethnicity and sex. Blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were determined. GR activity was significantly higher in black men (7.71 nmol/min/ml vs 2.23 nmol/min/ml) and women (6.46 nmol/min/ml vs 2.86 nmol/min/ml) (p < 0.001) when compared to their white counterparts. In black women, GPx activity was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when compared to white women (31.9 nmol/min/ml vs 37.1 nmol/min/ml). In black men, cIMT was positively and independently associated with GR activity (R(2) = 0.30; β = 0.18; p = 0.048). In black women, systolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.21; β = -0.24; p = 0.014), diastolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.11; β = -0.20; p = 0.044) and mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.20; β = -0.31; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with GPx activity. No associations were found in the white groups. The positive association between GR activity and cIMT in black men may be the result of a compensatory response to prevent arterial remodelling. The inverse association between GPx activity and blood pressure in black women may indicate a role for decreased GPx activity in hypertension development in this population. PMID:26990726

  3. Women with Families and Experiences of Business Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Kähkönen, Saara

    2015-01-01

    The thesis studies how female business travellers with children experience business travel. The objective is to find out new ways and tools to make business trips easier for these travel-lers, make them have a better work-life balance and have a less stressful experience not only during their trips, but also after. The method used was semi structured interviews. The interview consisted of questions relat-ed to combining business travelling and family. The interviews took place in Spring 2...

  4. Modos de subjetivação de mulheres negras: efeitos da discriminação racial Black women subjectivity: effects of racial discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Pereira de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, buscou-se compreender os efeitos da discriminação racial na identidade e subjetividade de mulheres negras atendidas no programa SOS Racismo/Porto Alegre/RS. Essa pesquisa fundamentou-se em um grupo dispositivo, cujo objetivo foi ouvir as narrativas das mulheres que sofreram atos de racismo/discriminação e agenciar outras referências identitárias. O referencial teórico-metodológico utilizado para analisar o material empírico produzido nos grupos foi o das práticas discursivas, entendidas como a forma pela quais as pessoas produzem sentidos para experiências como as da violência racial. Os repertórios interpretativos presentes nos diálogos enunciados pelas mulheres referiam-se à discriminação racial e ao racismo e sinalizavam a construção de estratégias de enfrentamento e resistência. Acreditamos que a intervenção produziu efeitos políticos de reflexão e mudança, na medida em que o grupo construiu novos sentidos para as violências sofridas, transformando a narrativa pessoal em uma denúncia pública.In this study, we investigated the effects of racial discrimination on the identity and subjectivity patterns of black women assisted through the SOS Racism Program in Porto Alegre/RS. The research was based on a discussion group whose objective was to listen to the women's narratives of racial discrimination and agency other identity references. The theoretical and methodological support used to analyze the information was the discursive practice. This practice refers to the way by which people produce meaning in social interactions, like experiences of racial violence. The interpretative repertoires used by the women in the group dialogues were about racial discrimination and racism and pointed to the construction of resistance strategies. We believe that this intervention produces political effects of reflection and change, in the way that the group worked out new meanings for the violence suffered, changing

  5. Disclosure, discrimination and desire: experiences of Black and South Asian gay men in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research. PMID:20665298

  6. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  7. Women's Management of Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis and Experiences of Clinical Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Bilardi

    Full Text Available Few data are available on how women manage recurring bacterial vaginosis (BV and their experiences of the clinical care of this condition. This study aimed to explore women's recurrent BV management approaches and clinical care experiences, with a view to informing and improving the clinical management of BV.A descriptive, social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty-five women of varying sexual orientation who had experienced recurrent BV in the past 5 years took part in semi-structured interviews.The majority of women reported frustration and dissatisfaction with current treatment regimens and low levels of satisfaction with the clinical management of BV. Overall, women disliked taking antibiotics regularly, commonly experienced adverse side effects from treatment and felt frustrated at having symptoms recur quite quickly after treatment. Issues in clinical care included inconsistency in advice, misdiagnosis and inappropriate diagnostic approaches and insensitive or dismissive attitudes. Women were more inclined to report positive clinical experiences with sexual health physicians than primary care providers. Women's frustrations led most to try their own self-help remedies and lifestyle modifications in an attempt to treat symptoms and prevent recurrences, including well-known risk practices such as douching.In the face of considerable uncertainty about the cause of BV, high rates of recurrence, unacceptable treatment options and often insensitive and inconsistent clinical management, women are trying their own self-help remedies and lifestyle modifications to prevent recurrences, often with little effect. Clinical management of BV could be improved through the use of standardised diagnostic approaches, increased sensitivity and understanding of the impact of BV, and the provision of evidence based advice about known BV related risk factors.

  8. Perceptions And Experiences Of Overweight Among Women In The Ga East District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Nii Okai Aryeetey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are a growing public health challenge among women of reproductive age. While cultural norms suggest preference for an overweight body image, limited evidence exists regarding women’s beliefs and experiences of overweight in Ghana. The current study explored beliefs, perceptions, experiences and practices concerning overweight among women living in suburban Accra, Ghana.Methods: Four focus group discussions, and 10 in-depth interviews (IDI were implemented among 42 adult women (>18y seeking preventive child health services in Dome, Accra. All the women in the IDI were overweight. In addition to notes, interviews and discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed for systematic content and narrative analysis. Results: Overweight was considered undesirable by most women. Overweight individuals were often stigmatized using uncomplimentary names like cargo, obolo, etc. However, some weight gain was admired and expected by women and their family and friends. Weight gain that was considered beautiful was believed to ‘evolve naturally’. Weight gain that is either medically-induced perceived as excessive, was not viewed positively. Weight gain by women was perceived as a sign of financial prosperity and good care by a spouse. Overweight was perceived to be linked with heredity, childbirth, gluttony, and contraception. Adverse experiences of overweight included poor self-image, declining social lifestyle, increased disease risk, and feeling tired always. Strategies which had been used in order to lose weight included skipping meals, avoiding carbohydrate-based foods, and drinking herbal teas. Conclusion: There is admiration for some weight gain among women but when it is excessive, overweight is stigmatized. Misperceptions regarding partner expectations, determinants of overweight, and weight reduction strategies requires effective behavior change interventions in Ghana.

  9. The impact of birthplace on women's birth experiences and perceptions of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    , admitted between JanuaryeOctober 2006, and an obstetrically/socio-demographically matched control group of 218 low-risk women admitted to an OU were invited to participate. Three hundred and seventy-five women (86%) responded. Birth experience and satisfaction with care were rated significantly more......Overall birth experience is an important outcome of birth, and studies of psycho-social birth outcomes and women’s perspectives on care are increasingly used to evaluate and develop maternity care services. We examined the influence of birthplace on women’s birth experiences and perceptions of care...... positively by FMU than by OU women. Significantly better results for FMU care were also found for specific patient-centred care elements (support, participation in decision-making, attentiveness to psychological needs and to wishes for birth, information, and for women’s feeling of being listened to...

  10. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:25239137

  11. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leith León-Maldonado

    Full Text Available HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico's early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP. Research on Mexican women's perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants.We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women's understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender.Women's confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men's sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes' desire for sex as natural but understood men's negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women's HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission.These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women's negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could be ameliorated with better health

  12. The experience of First Sexual Intercourse: an Exploratory Study in Greek Women

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Moraitou; Dimitrios Hatzichristou; Evangelia Nakopoulou; Stamatis Papaharitou

    2011-01-01

    Background: A young person's first sexual intercourse is often a remarkable and memorable experience.However, little information exists regarding contextual factors of this first experience and the possible effects ontheir subsequent sexual lifeObjective: This study explored the conditions of and women’s emotional reactions to first sexual intercourse(FSI), as well as FSI’s impact on their future sexual experiences.Methodology: Participants were 899 women aged 19 to 40 yrs, registered in 23 a...

  13. Energy and Macronutrients Intake in Two Age Groups of Black South African Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Oguntibeju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a more westernized diets, became evident in the macronutrient intake of women in this study. The consumption of an energy-dense and diverse diet, typical of this transition, contributed to the high mean total energy and protein intakes. High mean total carbohydrate intakes, a staple diet of cereals and grains was also reported. The adequate intake of dietary fibre by the population group in this study was in contrast with international studies that reported that westernization leads to increased consumption of fibre-depleted carbohydrates. The high total fat intake observed in this study may be ascribed to the increasing preference for cheaper red meat, offal, eggs, full-cream milk, cheese, brick margarine and meat drippings used in food preparation. The inclusion of these foods in the diet could explain the high total cholesterol intake reported in this study. Although the food trends of the studied group of women tended to move towards a more westernized style, traditional foods have not been totally eliminated. It is thus clear that urbanisation in this study group has led to high consumption rates of carbonated drinks, cold drinks, coffee, tea and commercial beer. A cereal-based diet was still taken; unfortunately, many of these foods were consumed in the refined form.

  14. The Socialization Experiences of Minority Women in Educational Administration Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Roberta J.; Wright, Ruth L.

    The changing racial and ethnic makeup of Canadian society has had a dramatic impact on demands for representation in leadership positions. Policies will continue to be ineffective until a better understanding is gained of the typical experiences that minorities have in organizations, and, in particular, of the factors that impede and facilitate…

  15. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities. PMID:24087911

  16. A qualitative study of women's experiences of communication in antenatal care: identifying areas for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Rosalind; Cartwright, Martin; Richens, Yana; Mahamed, Zuhura; Smith, Debbie

    2010-07-01

    To identify key features of communication across antenatal (prenatal) care that are evaluated positively or negatively by service users. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to explore communication experiences of thirty pregnant women from diverse social and ethnic backgrounds affiliated to a large London hospital. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Women reported a wide diversity of experiences. From the users' perspective, constructive communication on the part of health care providers was characterised by an empathic conversational style, openness to questions, allowing sufficient time to talk through any concerns, and pro-active contact by providers (e.g. text message appointment reminders). These features created reassurance, facilitated information exchange, improved appointment attendance and fostered tolerance in stressful situations. Salient features of poor communication were a lack of information provision, especially about the overall arrangement and the purpose of antenatal care, insufficient discussion about possible problems with the pregnancy and discourteous styles of interaction. Poor communication led some women to become assertive to address their needs; others became reluctant to actively engage with providers. General Practitioners need to be better integrated into antenatal care, more information should be provided about the pattern and purpose of the care women receive during pregnancy, and new technologies should be used to facilitate interactions between women and their healthcare providers. Providers require communications training to encourage empathic interactions that promote constructive provider-user relationships and encourage women to engage effectively and access the care they need. PMID:19554436

  17. Use of multivitamins, folic acid and herbal supplements among breast cancer survivors: the black women's health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Julie R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use, including herbals and multivitamin supplements, is quite common in the U.S., and has been shown to be highest in breast cancer survivors. However, limited data are currently available for CAM usage among African Americans. Thus, we sought to determine the prevalence of multivitamins, folic acid and herbal supplement usage in African American breast cancer survivors, and to compare the characteristics of users and nonusers. Methods A cohort study of breast cancer survivors, who completed the 1999 Black Women's Health Study questionnaire and self-reported having been diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1999, comprised the study population. In this study, the intake of natural herbs, multivitamins and folic acid at least three days per week within the past two years was used as a proxy for typical usage of this complimentary alternative medicine (CAM modality. Results A total of 998 breast cancer survivors were identified. Overall, 68.2% had used either herbals or multivitamin supplements or both. The three most frequently used herbals were garlic (21.2%, gingko (12.0%, and echinacea (9.4%. The multivariate analysis determined that single marital status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.04-2.41, and alcohol consumption of 1-3 drinks per week (OR = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.28-2.68 were significantly associated with increased herbal use. Multivitamin use was significantly lower among obese women (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.46-0.94 and current smokers (OR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.34-0.82. Conclusions A significant number of African American breast cancer survivors are using herbals and multivitamins as CAM modality. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of herbals and multivitamins in African American breast cancer survivors.

  18. Study on knowledge, experiences and barriers to mammography among working women from Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khokhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammography is not a popular screening tool for deducting breast cancer in India although regular screening is associated with reduced mortality from breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to find out knowledge, experiences and barriers to mammography among working women of Delhi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 among working women from Delhi, India. The study was conducted as a part of ongoing training workshops organized for women on early detection of breast cancer. Total of eight such programs were organized and were attended by a total of 439 women. Each participant got a self-administered questionnaire to fill. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel and analysis was done using Statistical product and service solutions (SPSS version 21 (IBM. RESULTS: A total of 439 participants were included in the study. 230 (52.4% of the women were more than 40 years of age. Only four participants (1% had not heard about the term mammography before. Less than half (45.1% of the participants knew correctly the purpose of a mammogram. Only 11.8% of the women knew correctly about the age of getting the first baseline mammogram. Knowledge of frequency of getting the mammogram was also low only 95 (21.6% correctly knew about it. Only 59 (11.9% correctly responded that one needs to go to an imaging facility located either in a hospital or elsewhere to get mammogram done. Main experience shared by the women regarding mammography was that 42 (95.45% did not know anything about the procedure when they went for this investigation. Out of a total of 230 women over 40 years of age only 38 (16.5% had ever got a mammogram carried out. There is a statistically significant association between education status and practice of mammography (P < 0.05. There were 18 women with family history of breast cancer out, of which 10 (55.5% had got mammography carried out. 192 out of

  19. Depression and termination of pregnancy (induced abortion) in a national cohort of young Australian women: the confounding effect of women's experience of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Lyndsey F; Taft Angela J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Termination of pregnancy is a common and safe medical procedure in countries where it is legal. One in four Australian women terminates a pregnancy, most often when young. There is inconclusive evidence about whether pregnancy termination affects women's rates of depression. There is evidence of a strong association between partner violence and depression. Our objective was to examine the associations with depression of women's experience of violence, pregnancy termination...

  20. Substance use treatment experiences of transgender/transsexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Emilia

    2007-01-01

    Substance use treatment programs may not be sensitive to transgender/transsexual (trans) issues: thus, the needs of drug/alcohol involved trans men and women may go unmet. Data for this research was collected from a study examining the substance use issues of trans men and women. Confidential, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to trans men and women with current or previous problem (self-assessed) with drugs or alcohol. Trans individuals reported various problems with discrimination that may limit their ability to recover. Overall, there were significant barriers to recovery expressed by the study participants. Treatment and self-help programs need to make their programs more inclusive to trans men and women as the negative experiences experienced by them will likely affect their recovery. PMID:19835040

  1. A STUDY ON THE CONFLICTING IDEAS OF BLACK WOMEN'S ROLES IN SULA AND NEL'S FRIENDSHIP AS SEEN IN TONI MORRISON'S SULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hendaria Kamandhari

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Toni Morrison's Sula portrays the conflicting ideas of two black women, Sula and Nel who used to settle themselves as soulmates. Starting as friends of deepest emotion and sharing all the deepest dark secrets in Medallion, Sula and Nel continue their journeys of life in separation and come to the gate of adulthood which drags them to meet again in different encounter. Those years of separation between both of them have set enough barriers on their relationship to know each other better as they used to in the past. Sula's and Nel's teenagehood which has been spent on different places brought them into an unending conflict of black women's roles in their relationships as friends.

  2. Dietary intake of pregnant women and their infants in a poor black South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mostert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to determine the dietary intake of women in a poor rural area during pregnancy and lactation, and (ii to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of their infants at age 6 months. We recruited 46 women, below 40 years old, in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy. The subjects were living in a rural area of Limpopo Province. Their heights and weights were recorded, as were their diets during pregnancy and for the first 6 months after delivery. We also recorded weights, lengths, and dietary intake of the infants at 3 and 6 months after birth. The subjects were living in severe poverty: none had running water and almost all did their cooking over an open fire. None of the subjects smoked and only one consumed alcohol. The diets of the subjects consisted mainly of maize, brown bread, sweetened beverages (cold drink and tea, and small amounts of vegetables and chicken. The diets were adequate in protein but were marginal in energy and in dietary fibre, and may be deficient in numerous micronutrients, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, C, E, and B6. This was seen during pregnancy and lactation. Blood analysis 6 months after birth revealed normal levels of vitamins A and E and an absence of anaemia. Body mass index (BMI of the women was 23.9 } 5.3 kg/m2 (mean } SD when measured 6 months after birth. Those above 25 years old had a higher BMI than did younger subjects (25.5 vs. 22.2; p= 0.028. Overall, 24% were overweight (BMI 25-30 while 9% were obese (BMI > 30. Most infants (93% were breastfed for at least 6 months but exclusive breastfeeding was only done by 65% of mothers. One-third of breastfed infants also received formula. The use of formula while breastfeeding was twice as common among mothers aged above 25 years (46% vs. 23%. Early introduction of solid foods was very common in this group. Younger mothers introduced solids in the first month (51% more often compared with

  3. Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4% were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG; diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support.

  4. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

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    Baheiraei Azam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.

  5. Living large: the experiences of large-bodied women when accessing general practice services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies report high levels of stigma and discrimination experienced by obese/overweight women within the health care system and society at large. Despite general practice being the most utilised point of access for health care services, there is very little international or national exploration of the experiences of large-bodied women (LBW accessing these services. The aim of this study was to explore LBW's experiences of accessing general practice services in New Zealand. METHODS: This is a qualitative, descriptive, feminist study. Local advertising for participants resulted in eight self-identified, large-bodied women being interviewed. A post-structural feminist lens was applied to the data during thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The women in this study provided examples of verbal insults, inappropriate humour, negative body language, unmet health care needs and breaches of dignity from health care providers in general practice. Seven themes were identified: early experiences of body perception, confronting social stereotypes, contending with feminine beauty ideals, perceptions of health, pursuing health, respecting the whole person, and feeling safe to access care. CONCLUSION: Pressure for body size vigilance has, in effect, excluded the women in this study from the very locations of health that they are 'encouraged' to attend-including socialising and exercising in public, screening opportunities that require bodily exposure, and accessing first point of care health services.

  6. A qualitative analysis of women's experiences in single-gender versus mixed-gender substance abuse group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Cummings, Amanda M; Kuper, Laura E; Wigderson, Sara B; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2013-06-01

    The present study of women with substance use disorders used grounded theory to examine women's experiences in both the Women's Recovery Group (WRG) and a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Semi-structured interviews were completed in 2005 by 28 women in a U.S. metropolitan area. Compared to GDC, women in WRG more frequently endorsed feeling safe, embracing all aspects of one's self, having their needs met, feeling intimacy, empathy, and honesty. In addition, group cohesion and support allowed women to focus on gender-relevant topics supporting their recovery. These advantages of single-gender group therapy can increase treatment satisfaction and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23607675

  7. A Thought Experiment to Distinguish the Kerr Black Hole and Over-spinning Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Joshi, Pankaj S

    2016-01-01

    We propose a thought experiment here to distinguish an over-spinning Kerr singularity from a Kerr black hole, using the gyroscopic precession due to the frame-dragging effect. We show that there is an important characteristic difference in behavior of the gyroscope precession frequency for these objects, which can be used to distinguish one from the other. Specifically, if we lower the gyroscope along the pole of the Kerr black hole, the precession frequency becomes arbitrarily high, blowing up as the event horizon is approached. However, in the case of an over-spinning Kerr singularity, this frequency always remains finite and is fully well-behaved. It turns out that this behavior is intimately related to and governed by the nature of ergoregions in each of these cases. Interestingly, it turns out that in the over-spinning singularity case, the precession frequency ($\\Omega_{LT}$) of the gyro decreases as ($\\Omega_{LT}\\propto r$) after reaching a maximum, in the limit of approach to the singularity. In princ...

  8. Women's experiences of the breast cancer diagnostic process: A thematic evaluation of the literature; Recall and biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to use relevant literature to understand women's experiences of diagnostic breast cancer procedures; in this case their experiences of being recalled and of having a biopsy. Method: A structured literature search was performed to locate relevant research. Research articles published between 2002 and 2013 were identified in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Science Direct. The quality of the research was assessed using an appropriate critical appraisal tool to enable a systematic and consistent assessment. Results: Thematic analysis of the literature identified five themes: fear, pain and discomfort, waiting, the physical environment and staff interactions. Women's experiences are unique and diverse; however, literature suggests that these themes do summarise women's experiences. Conclusion: Women's experiences of diagnostic breast cancer procedures are not limited to the examinations alone but encompass the entire experience. These themes influence women's experiences and their perception of care

  9. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård;

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...... healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed...... using a descriptive analysis methodology. Results: Motivational interviewing is an excellent technique in the operation of daily clinics in obstetrics when communicating with obese pregnant women or pregnant women in general. The technique makes the healthcare professionals more aware of their own...

  10. Black holes in the lab: A review of accretion experiments using plasmas and liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Cary

    2016-04-01

    In this talk, we will survey recent liquid metal and plasma experiments attempting to study the magnetorotational instability, and ultimately, turbulent transport of angular momentum in laboratory plasmas that can mimic the Keplerian velocity profiles of accretion disks. We will describe the basic requirements of such experiments, the techniques used to create such laboratory experiments, and then review the results obtained thus far. The experiments fall into two camps, the first of which use resisitve liquid metal in couette flow geometry, and the second of which uses confined plasma that is stirred by induction on the plasma boundary. The regimes covered by liquid metals are compimentary: liquid metals are very resistive but nearly inviscid and may be appropriate for modeling protostellar disks, while hot plasmas are more viscous than resisitve and may be appropriate for hot accretion disks around black holes. Both approaches have overcome major experimental hurdles and now have dimensionless parameters that are in a regime where the MRI should be observed.

  11. Body size across the life course and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in Black women, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993–2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI). PURPOSE This study investigated associations between measures of body size across the life course and breast cancer risk among Black and White women living in the U.S. South. METHODS We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina women aged 20–74 years. We assessed nine body size variables, including age 10 relative weight; age 18 BMI; adult weight gain; “reference” BMI 1 year before interview; and post-diagnosis measured BMI and abdominal obesity measures. RESULTS Among premenopausal Whites, heavier childhood relative weight was associated with decreased cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]=0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33–0.70]). Among premenopausal Blacks, greater adult waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk (waist OR=1.40 [1.00–1.97] and high tertile WHR OR=2.03 [1.29–3.19]), with associations for WHR in a similar direction in Whites. Among postmenopausal women, recalled body size was not associated with risk, except for increased risk associated with adult weight gain among White non-hormone therapy users. ER/PR status and hormone therapy use also modified other associations. DISCUSSION In this population, greater adult BMI was not associated with increased breast cancer risk, but some measures of early-life body size and abdominal obesity were associated with risk. PMID:24924530

  12. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY BLACK SOILS AT GLEYISATION (MODEL EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandashova K. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory modeling of gleyisation and its effect on the biological properties of soils with stagnant regime in ordinary black soils. Gleyisation is a complex biochemical process that occurs under oxygen reduction conditions. Anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of organic substances, and the constant or prolonged waterlogging of individual horizons or the entire soil profile promote gleyisation. Model experiments revealed that gleyisation increase the total number of bacteria and suppresses number of actinomycetes, micromycetes and growth of fungal mycelium. Gleyisation decreases the activity of oxidoreductases and increases the hydrolases activity. In addition, the second content of humus slightly increases and active acidity (pH changes to neutral. Accumulation of large amounts of iron oxide (II in soil is revealed

  13. Two Brief Interventions to Mitigate a "Chilly Climate" Transform Women's Experience, Relationships, and Achievement in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M.; Logel, Christine; Peach, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized-controlled trial, we tested 2 brief interventions designed to mitigate the effects of a "chilly climate" women may experience in engineering, especially in male-dominated fields. Participants were students entering a selective university engineering program. The "social-belonging intervention" aimed to protect…

  14. Exploring Women's Experiences with Job Loss and Community College Retraining: What Do I Do Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    As the United States economy moves away from manufacturing, members of this workforce are facing an uncertain future. In this study, an interpretive methodological framework is used to explore women's experiences with textile manufacturing job loss, and subsequent retraining at a local community college. Narratives of four displaced workers and…

  15. Work Experiences of Foreign-Born Asian Women Counseling and Psychology Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Mok, Geoffrey; Nishida, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    Eleven foreign-born and -raised Asian women faculty in counseling and psychology programs in the United States were interviewed about their work experiences. Analysis using consensual qualitative research revealed 7 sources of stressors, 6 emotional reactions associated with stressors, 5 coping strategies, and 4 types of intrinsic rewards gained…

  16. A Critical Dialectical Pluralistic Examination of the Lived Experience of Select Women Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Rosli, Roslinda; Ingram, Jacqueline M.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and to understand the daily life experiences of 8 women doctoral students who were in pursuit of their doctorates. A partially mixed concurrent dominant status design was utilized in this study embedded within a mixed methods phenomenological research lens and driven by a critical dialectical pluralistic…

  17. Assessing Power Issues in Canadian and Jamaican Women's Experiences in Learning via Distance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a qualitative research study which examines the experiences of ten Jamaican and Canadian women engaged in learning via distance in a graduate adult education program. Using a critical feminist perspective, three power issues emerged as topics for discussion that are important for distance educators in higher education to take…

  18. The Effects of Mass Media Exposure on Acceptance of Violence against Women: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamuth, Neil M.; Check, James V. P.

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=271) were subjects in an experiment on the effects of exposure to films that portray sexual violence as having positive consequences. Results indicated that exposure to the films portraying violent sexuality increased male subjects' acceptance of interpersonal violence against women. Females exhibited tendencies in the opposite…

  19. The Shared Experiences: Facilitating Successful Transfer of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dimitra Lynette; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    2013-01-01

    This chapter addresses critical issues related to the transfer success of women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in STEM disciplines and will highlight implications for fostering a successful transfer experience for these populations. For the purposes of this chapter, URMs is defined by the National Science Foundation to include African…

  20. Young Muslim Women's Experiences of Islam and Physical Education in Greece and Britain: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagkas, Symeon; Benn, Tansin

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that Muslim women can experience particular problems when taking physical education (PE) lessons, for example with dress codes, mixed-teaching and exercise during Ramadan; and they can face restrictions in extra-curricular activities for cultural and religious reasons. The area is under-researched and there is little…

  1. Exploring Women Faculty's Experiences and Perceptions in Higher Education: The Effects of Feminism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midkiff, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses women faculty's discourse about feminism, themselves, and their professional experiences as scholars in the North American university context. This case study pushes at the boundaries of what we believe we know about "the gender question" in the academy, opening a discursive space for scholars to examine university…

  2. Family Formation, Labor Market Experience, and the Wages of Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John F.; Berger, Franklin

    The impact of the timing, spacing, and number of children on a married woman's wage growth over her life cycle was examined. The data used for the analysis were information pertaining to the labor market experience of women and the birth dates of their children, taken from the 1976 survey of the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics (IDP). There…

  3. Examining the Experiences, Perceptions, and Challenges of Women Leaders in Private, Nonprofit Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Barbara Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to interview women presidents and leaders in private, nonprofit universities regarding commonalities of perceptions and experiences in the leadership role, to examine the meaning of reactive behavior in the perceptions about their role, how they react or behave in their role, and if they perceived gender…

  4. College Experiences and Sex-Role Attitudes: Does a Women's College Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Bernal, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    This study tests the notion that single sex colleges provide a more "favorable climate" for women's achievement than do comparable coeducational institutions. Rather than outcomes, the following college experiences are compared: (1) students' activities; (2) relations with faculty and peers; and (3) sex-role attitudes. Qualified findings suggest a…

  5. Shame if you do--shame if you don't: women's experiences of infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Gill; Ebisch-Burton, Katherine; Flacking, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Emotions such as guilt and blame are frequently reported by non-breastfeeding mothers, and fear and humiliation are experienced by breastfeeding mothers when feeding in a public context. In this paper, we present new insights into how shame-related affects, cognitions and actions are evident within breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women's narratives of their experiences. As part of an evaluation study of the implementation of the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative Community Award within two primary (community based) care trusts in North West England, 63 women with varied infant feeding experiences took part in either a focus group or an individual semi-structured interview to explore their experiences, opinions and perceptions of infant feeding. Using a framework analysis approach and drawing on Lazare's categories of shame, we consider how the nature of the event (infant feeding) and the vulnerability of the individual (mother) interact in the social context to create shame responses in some breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding mothers. Three key themes illustrate how shame is experienced and internalised through 'exposure of women's bodies and infant feeding methods', 'undermining and insufficient support' and 'perceptions of inadequate mothering'. The findings of this paper highlight how breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women may experience judgement and condemnation in interactions with health professionals as well as within community contexts, leading to feelings of failure, inadequacy and isolation. There is a need for strategies and support that address personal, cultural, ideological and structural constraints of infant feeding. PMID:25138617

  6. The lived experience of aloneness for older women currently being treated for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, L; Pierce, L

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological study was conducted to answer the following question: What is the lived experience of aloneness for older women currently being treated for depression? Eight women from Northern Ohio composed the purposively selected sample. Transcriptions of each 1-hr interview were reviewed by use of Colaizzi's (1978) method of data analysis. The analysis identified two major experiences of self for all participants: aloneness in depression and aloneness in recovery. Five paired, and somewhat dichotomous, themes defined the essence of aloneness: (a) vulnerability versus self-reliance, (b) fear versus hope, (c) helplessness versus resourcefulness, (d) loss of self-control versus self-determination, and (e) identity confusion versus self-reflection. All the participants expressed profound feelings of moving between the five paired themes as they gained clarity of insight into their experiences of depression and recovery. Results of this study make a valuable contribution by providing important insights into the lived experience of aloneness among older women currently being treated for depression, offer direction in the assessment and treatment of these women, and serve as an impetus for further research. PMID:9256690

  7. In the footsteps of "Arundhati": Asian Indian women's experience of domestic violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S D; Warrier, S

    1996-09-01

    This study examined the ideologies and conditions that are creating women's vulnerability to spousal abuse in the Asian Indian community in the US. The study focused on the multiple factors involved in Asian Indian women's experiences of domestic violence in the US: their minority status, life as an immigrant, and pressures to preserve a flawless public image of their community. The data were collected from interviews with 12 highly educated women from India who had sought outside help due to spousal abuse. 10 of these women were foreign born, and 2 were brought up in the US. The study revealed that the most important factor in these women's lives seemed to be childhood indoctrination into the ideals of ¿good¿ wife and mother that include sacrifice of personal freedom and autonomy. Although majority of the women worked as professionals, economic independence did not seem to provide them with a sense of empowerment. Furthermore, they felt responsible for the reputation of their families in India, were eager not to compromise their families' honor with a divorce, and operated under the added pressures of preserving traditions and presenting an ¿unblemished¿ image of the community to the US mainstream. PMID:12295884

  8. Young Muslim women's experiences of Islam and physical education in Greece and Britain: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Benn, Tansin; Dagkas, Symeon

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that Muslim women can experience particular problems when taking physical education (PE) lessons, for example with dress codes, mixed-teaching and exercise during Ramadan; and they can face restrictions in extra-curricular activities for cultural and religious reasons. The area is under-researched and there is little evidence of comparative studies that explore similarities and differences in cross-national experiences, which is the aim of this paper. Two studies co...

  9. Support to women who denounce experiences of violence based on her social network1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Letícia Becker; Souza, Ivis Emília de Oliveira; Tocantins, Florence Romijn; Pina-Roche, Florentina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the possibilities of help/support through the mapping and acknowledgement of the social network of women who denounce experiences of violence at a Police Precinct for Women. Method: qualitative study based on the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network, through interviews with 19 women. Results: the analysis of the network maps evidenced that the primary social network was more present than the secondary on and, despite consisting of significant relations, it demonstrates limitations. The women access the secondary network occasionally in the violence problem and/or its repercussions in their life and health. The discrete presence of the health network in the composition of the social network was revealed and, when mentioned, the relation between the health professional and the woman was characterized as fragile. Conclusion: the importance of the social network relates to the creation of spaces of help/support for the women beyond the moment of the aggression, which accompany them throughout their process of emancipation from an experience annulled by violence, considering that each woman acts and makes decisions in the relational context when she is ready for it. PMID:26487136

  10. Sexual minority women's experiences of sexual pressure: a qualitative investigation of recipients' and initiators' reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Stephanie L; Keller, Bethany L; Sherry, Alissa R

    2015-05-01

    Sexual pressure can have detrimental effects to individuals both physically and emotionally; however, research in this area is lacking regarding the experiences by lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning (LGBQ) women. This online study qualitatively examined sexual pressure experienced and explained by LGBQ women (n = 50) using grounded theory methodology. Participants responded to open-ended questions by providing perspectives from both those who were on the receiving end of the sexual pressure (recipients) and from those who pressured their partners (initiators). Results indicated that there were eight overarching themes, 43 higher order categories, and 241 line-by-line codes. The eight overarching themes included: Reasons to Not Want Sex, Reasons for Pressuring, Reasons for Giving In, Actions of Initiators, Expectations, Communication, Negative Outcomes, and Positive Reactions. Negative Outcomes was the most common theme endorsed. Several higher order categories indicated the unique experiences of sexual minority women, namely trying to be "normal" (e.g., engaging in sexual acts as a result of internalized homophobia), experiencing more pressure from men, and self-consciousness (specifically related to lack of knowledge about sex with women). Implications for the current study include the importance of addressing sexual pressure with sexual minority women and creating interventions, such as assertiveness training and communication skills, that could assist both recipients and initiators with engaging in mutually satisfactory sexual practices. PMID:24872189

  11. Struggling to survive: the experiences of women sexually assaulted while intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmakis, Karen A

    2011-06-01

    Approximately half of all sexual assault cases involve substance abuse or misuse, yet no studies have focused specifically on women who were under the influence of a substance when assaulted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who were sexually assault while under the influence of a substance. A phenomenological approach was used to gather data using individual, in-depth interviews with women following a sexual assault while intoxicated. Interviews were conducted using open-ended and probing questions to explore participants' life experiences from childhood to the present. The study uncovered a continuous struggle to survive among the participants. Five themes including previous victimization, substance misuse, struggling with feelings, finding support, and struggling to break the cycle were found. This research revealed lives complicated by substance misuse and histories of victimization. Intoxication raises vulnerability and risk for sexual assault. Effective nursing interventions designed to address the women's history of victimization and substance misuse may benefit women sexually assaulted while intoxicated. PMID:21635677

  12. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiona Martin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations.Research purpose: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in maledominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths.Motivation for the study: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women’s experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations.Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology.Main findings: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women’s unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women’s resilience included the use of femininity, adopting male characteristics, mentorship and intrinsic motivational factors. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide organisations to develop and implement policies, strategies and initiatives geared towards attracting, integrating, retaining, supporting and motivating women who are, or wish to be, employed in historically maledominated occupations.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to an evolving body of knowledge aimed at understanding how to integrate and retain women in male-dominated occupations better.

  13. Women's experiences of infant feeding support in the first 6 weeks post-birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia; Barclay, Lesley

    2009-04-01

    Research suggests women find the first 2 to 6 weeks to be the most difficult time for breastfeeding. It has been identified that women need and seek support with breastfeeding during this time. Support is a difficult concept to define. When discussed by professionals, support for breastfeeding is generally viewed in terms of providing information and educational interventions. There is little understanding of the different elements of breastfeeding support strategies and the mechanisms by which support operates. Further, there is a paucity of qualitative research specifically reporting women's experiences and expectations of professional support. This paper describes women's expectations and experiences of 'infant feeding support' provided by health professionals in the first 6 weeks post-birth. The findings are drawn from a grounded theory study exploring women's infant feeding decisions in the first 6 weeks post-birth. Participants were recruited from a variety of socio-demographic areas of Sydney and the NSW Central Coast, Australia in 2003-2004. The women in this study discussed aspects of what they considered helpful and/or unhelpful in terms of professional support. In addition, they also provided insight into aspects of interactions that were deemed important to them as new mothers learning to feed their babies. The results are presented in three sections: expecting support, experiencing support and evaluating support. The findings help to better understand components of professional practices and behaviours that can be considered supportive. The support behaviours are far more complex than simply increasing education and knowledge of infant feeding. They demonstrate the need for sensitive individualized care and show that this type of support can increase women's confidence to breastfeed. PMID:19292748

  14. Major discriminatory events and risk for psychotic experiences among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Cogburn, Courtney D; Anglin, Deidre; Lukens, Ellen; DeVylder, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Racism is a multidimensional construct that impacts risk for psychosis through various complex pathways. Previous research has yet to fully explore how major racial discriminatory events contribute to risk for psychotic experiences in the general population. We examined the National Survey of American Life to analyze the effects of 9 major racial discriminatory events on lifetime psychotic experiences among Black Americans. By examining each event separately, we found that police discrimination was associated with increased risk for lifetime psychotic experiences after adjusting for demographic variables, socioeconomic status, and co-occurring psychological or social problems. Being denied a promotion, being a victim of police abuse, and being discouraged from pursuing education were associated with lifetime visual hallucinations, and being discouraged from pursuing education was also associated with lifetime delusional ideation. None of the events were associated with lifetime auditory hallucinations. As a count of events, experiencing a greater range of major racial discriminatory events was associated with higher risk, particularly for lifetime visual hallucinations. Our findings point to the need for early detection and intervention efforts in community settings and multilevel efforts to eliminate racial discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963179

  15. Pre-pregnancy counselling for women with chronic kidney disease:a retrospective analysis of nine years’ experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wiles, Kate S; Bramham, Kate Macpherson; Vais, Alina; Harding, Kate R; Chowdhury, Paramit; Taylor, Cath; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Women with chronic kidney disease have an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications in pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy counselling is recommended but the format of the counselling process and the experience of the patient have never been assessed. This study examines the experience of women with chronic kidney disease attending pre-pregnancy counselling and evaluates their pregnancy outcomes. Methods This is a cross-sectional assessment of 179 women with chronic kidney disease at...

  16. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  17. The experience of girls and young women with inherited bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, K; Holland, M; Pollard, D

    2013-09-01

    Haemophilia carriers and women with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) experience menorrhagia, bleed following dentistry, surgery, injury or childbirth. Symptoms are easily treated leading to full and active lives. Nevertheless, some girls and women suffer with abnormal bleeding for many years before diagnosis. We explored the experiences of girls and young women (aged 9-34 years) with IBD by means of focus groups which consisted of moderated discussion addressing specific aspects of bleeding, management and coping strategies. Subsequently, these issues were explored further though a paper-based questionnaire distributed via five specialist haemophilia centres in the UK. The study suggested that young women with IBD who are managed at haemophilia centres receive appropriate care and feel well supported. Although the clinic-based literature available to these women is "fit for purpose", it does not fully address the perceived needs specifically regarding sex, menorrhagia, conception and childbirth, the Pill, tattoos/piercings and so on, leading many to turn to other information sources. Most of those who responded to our survey are confident in their lives, able to manage their IBD and take pragmatic views towards the inherited nature of their condition. But there is a substantial subgroup of women who experience stigmatization, isolation and bullying and express concerns relating to fertility and conception. Overall, this cohort would benefit from opportunities for mutual support. This could be via Internet-based social networking and may be of particular value to those who are unable to seek help from traditional medical services due to religious or other cultural barriers. PMID:23607927

  18. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  19. Lesbian women's experience of coming out in an Irish hospital Setting: a hermeneutic phenomenological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Mel

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about lesbian women’s lives and social experiences in Irish society. In their day to day living, lesbian women know how to act, react and behave to exist within society, having developed what Draucker (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(2), p. 361; 1999) calls ‘everyday skilful coping’. However, these taken-for-granted ways of understanding of being in the world are thrown or brought to the forefront when lesbian women seek health care. The ...

  20. Scandinavian women's experiences in connection with "abortion on request": a systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mille Nyboe; Fandt Hansen, Christl

    2014-01-01

    after the intervention - an abortion on request and in investigating possible and self-reported psychosocial or psychological health consequences following the abortion. Types of context: This review will focus on Scandinavian women who have had a legal abortion on request in a Scandinavian hospital......The objective of this review is to investigate Scandinavian women’s experiences in connection with "abortion on request”. Types of participants: This review will consider studies that include adult women from age 18 living in (but not necessarily legal citizens of) Scandinavia, defined as Denmark...

  1. ‘Meeting People Where They’re At’: Experiences of Family Physicians Engaging Women Who Use Illicit Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Woolhouse, Susan; Brown, Judith Belle; Thind, Amardeep

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE There is little research exploring the experiences of family physicians caring for women who use illicit drugs. This study explores the experiences of these physicians in order to better understand the process of engaging these women in the patient-physician relationship.

  2. Breast cancers from black women exhibit higher numbers of immunosuppressive macrophages with proliferative activity and of crown-like structures associated with lower survival compared to non-black Latinas and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Santander, Ana M; Miao, Feng; Sanchez, Lidia G; Jorda, Merce; Glück, Stefan; Ince, Tan A; Nadji, Mehrad; Chen, Zhibin; Penichet, Manuel L; Cleary, Margot P; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome are a major health care challenge. Patients in the black race group more likely present with an early onset and more aggressive disease. The occurrence of high numbers of macrophages is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in solid malignancies. Macrophages are observed in adipose tissues surrounding dead adipocytes in "crown-like structures" (CLS). Here we investigated whether the numbers of CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and/or CD163+ CLS are associated with patient survival and whether there are significant differences across blacks, non-black Latinas, and Caucasians. Our findings confirm that race is statistically significantly associated with the numbers of TAMs and CLS in breast cancer, and demonstrate that the highest numbers of CD163+ TAM/CLS are found in black breast cancer patients. Our results reveal that the density of CD206 (M2) macrophages is a significant predictor of progression-free survival univariately and is also significant after adjusting for race and for HER2, respectively. We examined whether the high numbers of TAMs detected in tumors from black women were associated with macrophage proliferation, using the Ki-67 nuclear proliferation marker. Our results reveal that TAMs actively divide when in contact with tumor cells. There is a higher ratio of proliferating macrophages in tumors from black patients. These findings suggest that interventions based on targeting TAMs may not only benefit breast cancer patients in general but also serve as an approach to remedy racial disparity resulting in better prognosis patients from minority racial groups. PMID:27283835

  3. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  4. High-Achieving Black Students, Biculturalism, and Out-of-School STEM Learning Experiences: Exploring Some Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the complex challenges of high-achieving Black students who are successful in becoming immersed in predominately White STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) spaces and how such immersion can exacerbate their experiences of racial stereotyping and other forms of racial bias. The author…

  5. From silencing the self to action: experiences of women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, R F; Miller, K H; Patsdaughter, C A; Chisholm, M; Grindel, C G

    1998-01-01

    Feminist literature has demonstrated that women often maintain behaviors that support silencing of their voices. The critical issue is whether the silencing experience is (a) a destructive process of burying feelings and needs, (b) a protective strategy to preserve personal and professional relationships which they value, (c) a coping mechanism to divorce themselves from an androcentric/ethnocentric health care culture, or all of these. The transition from silence to action may be a process of reacting to a threat to self (i.e., HIV/AIDS diagnosis) where gender normative behaviors become irrelevant and self-advocacy becomes paramount for survival. Alternatively, the transition may be a conscious process of gaining insight into past behaviors that have been learned and culturally supported and making purposeful changes. Data for this study were extracted for secondary analysis from data from a larger study on experiences and needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Data were obtained from transcripts from three focus groups (N = 14 women) and six individual interviews. Women ranged in age from 21 to 55; 9 were European American, 7 were African American, and 4 were Latina American. Data were content analyzed and organized using four categories proposed by Jack (1991): (a) externalized self-perception, (b) care as self-sacrifice, (c) silencing the self, and (d) the divided self. Data supported that women with HIV/AIDS reported all four categories of silencing behaviors, particularly early in the HIV trajectory. For some women, an HIV/AIDS diagnosis ignited them to speak for themselves and to shape their own lives based on feelings and needs. For others, peer or professional support or both was the catalyst for the transition from silence to action. Findings suggest interventions that would assist women in judging themselves by internal versus external standards, putting their own needs before the perceived needs of others, expressing themselves toward action rather than

  6. A controlled snowmaking experiment testing the relation between black carbon content and reduction of snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Richard E.; Warren, Stephen G.; Clarke, Antony D.

    2011-04-01

    Radiative transfer modeling of the reduction of snow albedo by black carbon (BC) requires experimental verification. In natural snow the albedo reduction is at most a few percent, and even with accurate measurements, attribution is ambiguous because snow albedo depends on other variables. In this experiment, artificial snowpacks are made by freezing of water droplets produced by a snowmaking machine in an open field, using water with and without added soot, in amounts about 100 times natural background soot levels, so as to obtain a large signal on albedo. The optically effective snow grain size is determined from the measured near-infrared albedo; matching the measured visible albedo then requires addition of BC to the radiative transfer model. The BC content of the artificial snowpacks is measured by filtering the meltwater; the filters are analyzed by a laboratory spectrophotometer as is done for filters from samples of natural snow. The BC content indicated by the filters agrees with that required in the model to match the observed albedo, but significant uncertainties remain, so further experiments are needed.

  7. Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-07-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  8. Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  9. [Rape-related pregnancy in Brazil: the experience of women seeking legal abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina Leme; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Makuch, Maria Yolanda

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, abortion is permitted by law in cases of rape-related pregnancy. This study reports on various aspects in the experience of women that have been sexually assaulted: diagnosis of the pregnancy, seeking legal abortion, and hospitalization in a university hospital. This was a qualitative study that interviewed ten women 18 to 38 years of age, with at least eight years of schooling, one to five years after legal abortion. The women had been previously unaware of their right to a legal abortion, were ashamed about the sexual assault, kept it secret, and had not sought immediate care. The diagnosis of pregnancy provoked anxiety and the wish to undergo an abortion. Women treated through private health plans received either insufficient orientation or none at all. Respectful treatment by the healthcare staff proved relevant for the women to cope with the abortion. The study highlights the need to publicize the right to abortion in cases of rape-related pregnancy and the healthcare services that perform legal abortion, in addition to training healthcare and law enforcement teams to handle such cases. PMID:25760168

  10. Multiple case study analysis of young women's experiences in high school engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Meagan C.

    At a time when engineers are in critical demand, women continue to be significantly underrepresented in engineering fields (11.7%) and degree programs (21.3%) in the United States. As a result, there is a national demand for improved K-12 STEM education and targeted efforts to improve equity and access to engineering and science careers for every underrepresented group. High school engineering has become a nascent and growing market for developers and an emergent opportunity for students across the United States to learn introductory engineering skills through strategic career pathways; however there is a disparity in participation at this level as well. Much useful research has been used to examine the problematization of underrepresentation (K Beddoes, 2011), but there is a dearth of literature that helps us to understand the experiences of young women in high school engineering. By examining the experiences of young women in high school engineering, we can learn ways to improve the curriculum, pedagogy, and environment for underrepresented groups such as females to ensure they have equitable access to these programs and are subsequently motivated to persist in engineering. Understanding the needs of marginalized groups is complex, and intersectional feminism seeks to understand gender in relation to other identities such as race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and nationality. This theory asserts that gender alone is neither a total identity nor a universal experience, and it is thus advantageous to consider each of the intersecting layers of identity so as to not privilege a dominate group as representative of all women. Thus, to understand how female students engage with and experience engineering in grade school, it is useful to examine through the lens of gender, class, race, and sexuality, because this intersection frames much of the human experience. The purpose of this study is to examine high school females' experiences in engineering, with a goal to

  11. A natural experiment on the condition-dependence of achromatic plumage reflectance in black-capped chickadees

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, L.; Van Hemert, C.; Handel, C.M.; Shawkey, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.

  12. Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Related Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Isman; Amina Mahmoud Warsame; Annika Johansson; Sarah Fried; Vanja Berggren

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate midwives experiences in providing care and counselling to women with FGM related problems. Setting. The study was conducted at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Method. A qualitative, inductive study were performed with eight midwives living in Somaliland. The interviews had semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used for the analysis. Findings. The main findings of the present study were how midwives are challenged by culture and...

  13. How do women under the care of eating disorder services experience sibling relationships: a phenomenological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jennifer Anne

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders are increasing in our society and prior research has considered the role of families, carers, partners and children in the development of these difficulties. Siblings, however, have been largely overlooked. The role of sibling relationships is not well understood, despite siblings being a long term, significant feature of many individuals with eating disorders’ lives. This study aims to investigate the experiences of women with eating disorders and their sib...

  14. A qualitative investigation into women's experiences after a miscarriage: implications for the primary healthcare team.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Michael K; Crawford, Trevor J; Gask, Linda; Grinyer, Anne

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 16% of clinically confirmed pregnancies end in miscarriage. However, there is frequently no routine follow-up by the primary healthcare team (PHCT) to identify psychiatric morbidity after miscarriage. AIM: To explore women's experiences of miscarriage care that may impact on the ability of the PHCT to detect psychiatric morbidity after a miscarriage. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews of patients, and interviews of hea...

  15. Risk of Sexual Violence: Perspectives and Experiences of Women in a Hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihindula, Ganzamungu; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2015-08-01

    Sexual violence in conflict situations is gaining worldwide recognition as a human rights issue. There is growing awareness and concern about the risks associated with sexual violence against women. This study was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of the risk of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews with women at a hospital in Bukavu. The findings show that women suffered humiliation, torture and beatings during their rape. Most women were raped by a number of men and others were forced to have sex with close family members. The rapist often used extreme brutality against the women which had major long-term consequences for women including unwanted pregnancies and/or HIV/AIDS. Many of the women experienced great uncertainty about their future and that of their children. PMID:25649840

  16. Dominant Cultural Narratives, Racism, and Resistance in the Workplace: A Study of the Experiences of Young Black Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasford, Julian

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined lived experiences of racism and resistance in various contexts, relatively little research has examined such experiences among Black youth within the workplace-particularly in the Canadian context. In this study I use qualitative analyses of narrative interviews with 24 Black Canadian youth and young adults (aged 16-35) to examine the impact of dominant cultural narratives on lived experiences of workplace racism and resistance. Findings are presented using theatrical games as a central conceptual metaphor, suggesting that: (a) dominant cultural narratives have a major impact on relational dynamics of oppression in the workplace; (b) identity performance is a critical strategy for negotiating dominant cultural narratives in the workplace; and (c) panopticism (the internalized gaze) is a significant aspect of internalized oppression. Implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:27217319

  17. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  18. Racial Profiling as Institutional Practice: Theorizing the Experiences of Black Male Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Jaggers, Dametraus

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon racial profiling literature as an analytic lens with data collected in a qualitative study of Black males at one university. The authors argue that racial profiling provides a system of assumptions and rules that inform decisions made and attach to interactions between Black males and their faculty, staff, and peers. The…

  19. Abortamento induzido: vivência de mulheres baianas Induced abortion: the experience of women from the Brazilian state of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do Nascimento Pereira

    2012-12-01

    study was conducted in a public maternity hospital in the city of Salvador (Northeastern Brazil, and the subjects were nine women hospitalized due to induced abortion. To collect data, we used the interview accompanied by a semi-structured form. Ethical aspects were considered based on Resolution 196/96 of the National Health Council. For the analysis of the discourses, we used Bardin's content analysis technique. The sample was characterized by predominantly black adult women, married or in a stable union, financially dependent on the partner. In the analysis, two themes emerged: motivation and feelings. Among the reasons leading to abortion, there are financial difficulties, the number of children, the experience of domestic violence and the loss of their autonomy. The process of aborting generates fear of death, sadness and relief. Women experiencing induced abortion revealed a very painful process from the moment they discover the pregnancy until the difficult decision to interrupt it. When they are not helped, these women perpetuate the pain, living days of anguish and guilt. The exercise of listening and welcoming these women must be present in the lives of health professionals, regardless of their views on abortion, so that the women can express their feelings, and then get appropriate help and referral.

  20. Understanding the experiences and quality of life issues of Bahraini women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Ghufran A; Whitford, David L

    2014-04-01

    We explored the experiences of Bahraini women who have survived breast cancer and their perception of quality of life after diagnosis. We conducted in depth, semi-structured face-to-face interviews with twelve women diagnosed with breast cancer. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews on a purposive sample of 12 Bahraini women with breast cancer was conducted. Similarities and differences in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts using a constant comparative approach. The themes identified were meaning of cancer and quality of life, spirituality and beliefs about causes of breast cancer, coping mechanisms, impact of illness and change in relationships. Quality of life was framed in terms of the ability to perform daily duties with emphasis on the physical component of quality of life. Themes that differed from previous western studies included a heavy emphasis on spiritual practices for comfort; the use of traditional clothing (hijab and abaya) to hide hair and body changes; the important role played by the family and husband in treatment decisions and concerns regarding satisfying the sexual needs of the husband, which were related to a fear of losing the husband to a second wife. Evil eye, stress and God's punishment were believed to be fundamental causes of the disease. The emotional shock of the initial diagnosis, concerns about whether to reveal the diagnosis and a desire to live a normal life were consistent with previous studies. However, cultural and religious issues such as role of the husband and impact of prayers were also important here. These themes are important to healthcare professionals for ensuring an individualized approach to the treatment of women with breast cancer. PMID:24631996

  1. "Just Because It's Out There, People Aren't Going to Use It." HIV Self-Testing Among Young, Black MSM, and Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Wilton, Leo; Hirshfied, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Usher, DaShawn; Lucy, Debbie; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl; Kobin, Beryl

    2015-11-01

    HIV disproportionately affects young black MSM and transgender women in the US. Increasing HIV testing rates among these populations is a critical public health goal. Although HIV self-tests are commercially available, there is a need to better understand access to and uptake of HIV self-testing among this population. Here, we report results of a qualitative study of 30 young black MSM and transgender women residing in the New York City area to understand facilitators of and barriers to a range of HIV testing approaches, including self-testing. Mean age was 23.7 years (SD = 3.4). Over half (54%) had some college or an associate's degree, yet 37% had an annual personal income of less than $10,000 per year. Most (64%) participants had tested in the past 6 months; venues included community health/free clinics, medical offices, mobile testing units, hospitals, emergency departments, and research sites. Just one participant reported ever using a commercially available HIV self-test. Facilitators of self-testing included convenience, control, and privacy, particularly as compared to venue-based testing. Barriers to self-testing included the cost of the test, anxiety regarding accessing the test, concerns around correct test operation, and lack of support if a test result is positive. Participants indicated that instruction in correct test operation and social support in the event of a positive test result may increase the likelihood that they would use the self-test. Alongside developing new approaches to HIV prevention, developing ways to increase HIV self-testing is a public health priority for young, black MSM, and transgender women. PMID:26376029

  2. The AICCC Perspective of Career Management: A Strategy for Personal and Positional Power for Black Women in Higher Education Adminstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Martha A.; Scott, Barbara M.

    Currently, America's racial and ethnic minorities are under-represented in higher education and in almost all occupational fields that require a college education. To investigate the extent to which black females in higher education administration view race as a mediating factor in their career progression, 39 black female administrators in…

  3. The Power of a Single Mother: The Influence of Black Women on Their Sons' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Quintin L.; Werblow, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the ways single Black mothers contribute to the educational success of their 11th-grade sons, despite the fact that their sons are enrolled in "failing schools." Data from five interviews and one focus group reveal common characteristics of how single-Black mothers help their sons beat the odds.

  4. Women with disability: the experience of maternity care during pregnancy, labour and birth and the postnatal period

    OpenAIRE

    M. Redshaw; Malouf, R.; H. Gao(Duke U.); Gray, R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that 9.4% of women giving birth in the United Kingdom have one or more limiting longstanding illness which may cause disability, affecting pregnancy, birth and early parenting. No large scale studies on a nationally representative population have been carried out on the maternity experiences of disabled women to our knowledge. METHOD: Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 by English National Health Service Trusts on behalf of the Care Qual...

  5. Using an emergency response infrastructure to help women who experience gender-based violence in Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Jennifer A; Mahadevan, Swaminatha; Gohil, Narendrasinh; Jamshed, Roma; Prajapati, Jashvant; Rao, GV Ramana; Strehlow, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem Many women who experience gender-based violence may never seek any formal help because they do not feel safe or confident that they will receive help if they try. Approach A public–private-academic partnership in Gujarat, India, established a toll-free telephone helpline – called 181 Abhayam – for women experiencing gender-based violence. The partnership used existing emergency response service infrastructure to link women to phone counselling, nongovernmental organizations (...

  6. Exploring pregnancy termination experiences and needs among Malaysian women: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia has relatively liberal abortion laws in that they permit abortions for both physical and mental health cases. However, abortion remains a taboo subject. The stagnating contraceptive prevalence rate combined with the plunging fertility rate suggests that abortion might be occurring clandestinely. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of women and their needs with regard to abortion. Methods Women from diverse backgrounds were purposively selected from an urban family planning clinic in Penang, Malaysia based on inclusion criteria of being aged 21 and above and having experienced an induced abortion. A semi-structured interview guide consisting of open ended questions eliciting women’s experiences and needs with regard to abortion were utilized to facilitate the interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results Thirty-one women, with ages ranging from 21–43 years (mean 30.16 ±6.41, who had induced surgical/medical abortions were recruited from an urban family planning clinic. Ten women reported only to have had one previous abortion while the remaining had multiple abortions ranging from 2–8 times. The findings revealed that although women had abortions, nevertheless they faced problems in seeking for abortion information and services. They also had fears about the consequences and side effects of abortion and wish to receive more information on abortion. Women with post-abortion feelings ranged from no feelings to not wanting to think about the abortion, relief, feeling of sadness and loss. Abortion decisions were primarily theirs but would seek partner/husband’s agreement. In terms of the women’s needs for abortion, or if they wished for more information on abortion, pre and post abortion counseling and post-abortion follow up. Conclusions The existing abortion laws in Malaysia should enable the government to provide abortion services within the

  7. Containing Climate Change With Black Carbon Reductions: A Grand Challenge Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    The manmade greenhouse gases that are now blanketing the planet is thick enough to push the system beyond the tipping point for several elements of the climate system such as the arctic sea ice and the Himalayan-Tibetan glaciers, to name a few. Even with a targeted reduction in CO2 emission of 50% by 2050, we would still be adding more than 50 ppm of CO2 and thicken the manmade blanket by another 30%. Fortunately there are scientific ways to contain the warming and these will be outlined. But these need a truly transformational and interdisciplinary approach that brings together social scientists, natural scientists, energy experts and engineers to develop effective mitigation pathways. Towards this goal an interdisciplinary team of academics, NGOs and intergovernmental organizations from US, Europe and India have developed Project Surya to drastically decrease emissions of the major non-CO2 climate warmers (soot, methane, ozone precursor gases) from rural areas in India and China. Surya will undertake the most comprehensive data collection, to-date, on the impact of reducing biomass burning on climate forcing, health and the wellbeing of rural inhabitants most of whom live under a dollar a day. The experiment thus offers the opportunity to field test our ideas and hypotheses about the impact of black carbon and brown clouds on dimming, the Asian monsoon and the melting of the Himalayan-Tibetan glaciers. The data from this soft ‘geo-engineering’ experiment is also anticipated to lead to a sustainable way of energy consumption for the roughly 4 billion who are forced to use solid bio-fuels for all of their energy needs.

  8. Brazilian policy responses to violence against women: government strategy and the help-seeking behaviors of women who experience violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision

  9. Women, race, and science: The academic experiences of twenty women of color with a passion for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela C.

    Women of color drop out of science at higher rates than other students. This study is an ethnographic examination of why this occurs and how women of color can be supported in studying science. Through participant observation in science classes, labs, and a program supporting high-achieving students of color, as well as interviews with minority women science students, the student identities celebrated by science departments, as well as those embraced by my informants, were uncovered. Cultural norms of science classes often differed from those of the women in the study. Only one identity---apprentice research scientist---was celebrated in science settings, although others were tolerated. The women tended to either embrace the apprentice research scientist identity, form an alternative science-oriented identity, or never form a satisfying science student identity. Women who were more racially marked were more likely to fall into the second and third groups. This study uncovered difficulties which women students of color faced more than other science students. In addition, it uncovered several seemingly neutral institutional features of science lectures and labs which actually served to discourage or marginalize women students of color. It revealed values held in common by the women in the study and how those characteristics (especially altruism and pride and pleasure in academic challenge) led them to study science. It also revealed strategies used by the most successful women science students, as well as by professors and programs most successful at supporting women of color in the study of science. Based on this study, increasing the participation of women of color in science holds the possibility of altering the basic values of science; however, institutional features and personal interactions within science departments tend to resist those changes, primarily by encouraging women of color to abandon their study of science.

  10. Breastfeeding throughout legal separation: women's experiences of the Australian Family Law system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Linda

    2010-11-01

    In 2006, the Australian Government introduced the Family Law Amendment (Shared Parental Responsibility) Act 2006 (Cth), which put in place a legal presumption of shared parental responsibility for children after separation and which emphasizes "equal-time" parenting arrangements regardless of the child's age. A qualitative approach was taken to investigate breastfeeding women's experiences of the implementation of the act and its impact on their ability to maintain breastfeeding. Fifteen women responded to questions related to their breastfeeding and their engagement with the family law system. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and data were then analyzed thematically. These women experienced inconsistent advice from all facets of legal services, including opinions about the inappropriateness of breastfeeding for infants over 6 months of age. Breastfeeding was considered only as nutrition, without recognition of its immunological and cognitive benefits and the security and comfort it provides. Many participant women felt that they had been persuaded against discussing breastfeeding in the legal system, resulting in a sense of disempowerment. PMID:20841494

  11. Aloneness: the lived experience of women with cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, H; Clifford, C

    2011-11-01

    Cancer of the vulva is a rare condition that has been subject to limited research with a paucity of studies into the impact of this disease. Although the physical effects may readily be described, little is known about the psychological, emotional and social impact of this condition. To increase insights, a qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the experiences of women with vulval cancer living in the UK. An interpretive phenomenological approach based on the work of Heidegger and Van Manen was used to frame the study in which 13 women under 50 years of age were interviewed between 6 months and 5 years after their surgery. Data were analysed using framework analysis described by Ritchie and Spencer. This article describes the concept of aloneness which emerged from the data. This includes consideration of the women's sense of isolation due to the geographical distance between the woman's home and the hospital, and a sense of separation as they described their loss of sexual function and ability to enjoy the sexual relationship they had previously, following the onset of their symptoms of vulval cancer and subsequent treatment. The women's sense of aloneness was also manifest in their perception that there was a lack of knowledge and understanding about this condition both in their social world and the healthcare system in which they received treatment. PMID:21481049

  12. Insights from In-situ Measurements of Black Carbon During the Marine Stratus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M.; Chylek, P.; Arnott, P. W.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Varutbangkul, V.; Murphy, S. M.; Sorooshian, A.; Rissman, T. A.; Jonsson, H. H.; Buzorius, G.

    2005-12-01

    As part of DOE's marine stratus experiment (MASE) field campaign in Marina, CA a photoacoustic (PA) aerosol absorption instrument was deployed on the CIRPAS (Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies) Twin Otter during July 2005. The aim of these measurements was to elucidate aerosol processes regulating marine stratus clouds. Marine stratus play a dominant role in the Earth's radiative balance and improved stratus microphysical parameterizations are needed to quantify indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. In particular, the effects of black carbon on clouds physical and optical properties are still poorly understood, and in-situ, real-time measurements can be used to improve our physical and chemical understanding. The PA instrument developed at the Desert Research Institute of Reno, NV was installed on board the Twin Otter airplane and flown over the Pacific Ocean near Monterey, CA in proximity of the California coast, where marine stratus are a common occurrence. The instrument measured simultaneously aerosol absorption and ~180° integrated scattering at 870nm. The aircraft carried other instrumentation that measured microphysical and chemical properties of aerosols and clouds. We report here a preliminary analysis of absorption and scattering measurements together with data from other on-board instruments. The aerosol absorption was often low and indistinguishable from instrumental noise (~0.6 Mm-1 for 2 minutes averages), indicating clean conditions resulting from the offshore flow and an extensive marine stratus deck. However, we sampled interesting short-term events with higher absorption and scattering values during almost every flight. Often these episodes were related to ship tracks and/or anthropogenic pollution from land. Our simultaneous measurements of absorption and scattering yielded a single scattering albedo (SSA) of about 0.75 to 1, which is consistent with previous studies. SSA values can give information

  13. Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering: Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.

    2011-01-01

    Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…

  14. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  15. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  16. Mulheres negras e não-negras e vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Black and non-Black women and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lopes

    2007-12-01

    or above. Sociodemographic data and characteristics relating to infection and healthcare were obtained by means of individual interviews based on standardized questionnaire. The variable race/color was self-reported and women who referred to themselves as black or mixed-race were grouped together as black. The definition of variables by race/color was done using central tendency and proportions, and an association analysis using the chi2 Pearson test. RESULTS: The differences between black and non-black women were statistically significant with regards to: schooling; monthly, individual and family income per capita; number of direct dependents; opportunities to see a nutritionist, gynecologist or other medical professional; understanding what the infectologist said; speaking with the infectologist or gynecologist about her sex life; having correct knowledge about CD4 exams and viral load; the sexual means of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The use of race/color as an analytical category provides opportunities to understand better how social interactions, in the context of gender and socioeconomic conditions, create and recreate disadvantages for black women and their exposure to health risks, and also impose limits on the way they use of resources for their healthcare.

  17. Abuse victimization and risk of breast cancer in the Black Women’s Health Study: Abuse and breast cancer risk in black women

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R.; Boggs, Deborah A; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between abuse victimization and breast cancer, and results have been inconclusive. Using data from 35,728 participants in the Black Women’s Health Study, we conducted multivariable Cox regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of abuse across the life span (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood) with breast cancer. Incident breast cancer diagnoses were reported during 1995–2009, and abuse hi...

  18. Race Specialists: What a Black Administrator Ought to Be and Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. Chanele

    2013-01-01

    Based on qualitative analysis from 22 semistructured interviews, this article explores how Black women principals and assistant principals experience educational administration, with attention to issues of race at work in suburban school settings. Findings suggest that because they may be perceived as race tokens by White educators, Black women…

  19. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L.; Thrasher, James F.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico’s early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women’s perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women’s understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Results Women’s confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men’s sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes’ desire for sex as natural but understood men’s negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women’s HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. Conclusions These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women’s negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could

  20. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic...

  1. Experience of sexuality after breast cancer: a qualitative study with women in rehabilitation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Santos, Daniela Barsotti; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Giami, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Objective to comprehend the psychosocial and cultural repercussions of breast cancer and its treatment on the sexuality of women. Method this is a qualitative study grounded in the Sexual Scripts Theory with the participation of 23 women who were interviewed and participated in focus groups discussion. Results each category was related to a level of the sexual scripts. At the cultural scenario level a discourse on sexuality that includes definitions of sexual attractiveness and sexuality was highlighted. The interpersonal scripts level focused on the communication regarding sexuality established with the partner and with healthcare professionals category; and at the subjectivity scripts level the reports of improvement, deterioration and no change in the sexual life after cancer were analyzed. Conclusion the experience of cancer involves cultural, relational, and subjective aspects that affect the sexual life, therefore, healthcare professionals should be aware of them to improve integral healthcare. PMID:25029051

  2. Mothering in transition: the experiences of Sudanese refugee women raising teenagers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Of the approximately 13,750 humanitarian refugees who have fled from war and other human rights abuses to resettle in Australia every year, the majority are families arriving with adolescent children. This study used a qualitative methodology to explore Sudanese refugee women's narratives around parenting teenagers in the resettlement environment. The data from 17 in-depth interviews was analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes captured the women's main concerns: the transition from parenting in an interdependent society as part of a network of family and community relations to parenting alone in the resettlement context; mothers' fears and experiences of losing their children, both literally and symbolically; loss of parental authority; and finally, the ways in which mothers adapted to the post-migration setting and found new ways of parenting. PMID:24803540

  3. The health experience of single women who have children through artificial donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D I; Brackley, M H

    1989-01-01

    Little is known about the health care needs of single women who decide to have children through artificial insemination. An exploratory qualitative research study was conducted to investigate this health experience. A case study design was used, consisting of two single women who had children through artificial donor insemination. Results suggested that the decision to have donor insemination was made after a lengthy process of considering multiple factors. The subjects' relationships and roles were affected, as were future goals and aspirations. Personal perspectives of self-enhancement were evident and feelings of aloneness and vulnerability. Health care needs that can be met by the clinical specialist were identified with emphasis on the decision counseling, direct care, educative, and leadership aspects of this nursing role. Directions for future research were proposed. PMID:2790668

  4. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants’ experiences with non-western immigrant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Francke, A.L.; Reep, M. van de; Manniën, J.; Wiegers, T.A.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the

  5. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants' experiences with non-western immigrant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Boerleider; A.L. Francke; M. van de Reep; J. Manniën; T.A. Wiegers; W.L.J.M. Devillé

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the

  6. Perceptions and experiences of women in karachi, pakistan regarding secondary infertility: results from a community-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Neelofar; Saeed Ali, Tazeen

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans. PMID:22474450

  7. Perceptions and Experiences of Women in Karachi, Pakistan Regarding Secondary Infertility: Results from a Community-Based Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofar Sami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 22% with primary infertility at 4% and secondary infertility at 18%. This study explored perceptions and experiences of women in Karachi, Pakistan regarding the causes, treatment-seeking behavior for and consequences of secondary infertility. Methods. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with married women explored their perceptions and experiences for issues related to secondary infertility. Results. The knowledge of women about the causes and scientific treatment options for infertility was limited resulting in inclination for traditional unsafe health care. Infertility was stated to result in marital instability, stigmatization and abuse specially for women with no live child. Conclusions. Since infertility can have a serious effect on both the psychological well-being and the social status of women in Pakistan, effective interventions are the need of the day. There is a dire need for health education and counseling to be integrated into infertility management plans.

  8. Need for Consultation and Training during Bed Rest in Women with High Risk Pregnancy Experience: a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojghan Janighorban; Maryam Allahdadian; Fateme Mohamadi; Azam Dadkhah; Ahmad-ali Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Background:  Pregnancy in a woman's life is a unique experience. But due to high risk pregnancy and the need to rest in bed, the women and her family are faced with different challenges and needs. The inability to manage these needs will result in crisis and understanding the needs of pregnant women during bed rest is essential to provide comprehensive health care for them. So this qualitative study was designed and conducted to examine the needs of women with high-risk pregnancy experience d...

  9. Conditions and life experiences of indigent pregnant women living in the northwest metropolitan of San José

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Granados Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into the conditions and life experiences ofindigent women. Involved four indigent pregnant women. The investigation was prompted by aphenomenological, qualitative design. The data collection was carried out by applying depth interviews, usingrecording for repeated observations, then the data were analyzed and contrasted with the framework. Among themost important characteristics that form a profile of a indigent pregnant woman found common factors:alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, physical violence, sexual and psychological and crime. We conclude thatthe conditions of life are intertwined with the life experiences of homeless pregnant women, from the conditionwhich determines their profile.

  10. Women Exiting Street-Based Sex Work: Correlations between Ethno-Racial Identity, Number of Children, and Violent Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankel, Jennifer; Dewey, Susan; Martinez, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Through this article the authors examine data collected from 126 women seeking services at a transitional housing facility, primarily for women leaving street-based prostitution. Descriptive statistics on the women's ethno-racial identity, numbers of children, and experiences with violence are presented and analyzed to determine correlations and implications for social service providers working with this unique population of women. Nearly half of respondents are women of color, a majority have given birth to at least one child, and more than half are in a non-commercial intimate partnership, with a significant number reporting extensive experiences with violent trauma and abuse. Results indicate statistically significant differences in women's ethno-racial self-identification and their experiences of sex work and violence, as well as their marital status. Most notably, African-American and Hispanic women face the greatest and most diverse forms of intimate partner violence and negative sex industry experiences, with African-Americans more likely to engage in sex work as minors, be sexually abused as children, work for a pimp, and face physical assault and instances of sex trafficking. Results also support existing research showing correlations between traumatic childhood events and adult substance abuse, sexual assault, and other negative outcomes. PMID:27045750

  11. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery. PMID:27578334

  12. The Bosom Buddy Project: A Breastfeeding Support Group Sponsored by the Indiana Black Breastfeeding Coalition for Black and Minority Women in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Curtis, Terry J

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the Indiana Black Breastfeeding Coalition (IBBC) used grant funds to increase participation in the Bosom Buddy Project, an original breastfeeding support group that pairs breastfeeding mothers with trained mentors. Resources for local organizations that support breastfeeding are extremely limited, making it difficult to expand programs and services. This article describes a variety of strategies used by the IBBC to expand programs and services. These activities provide a template for other community-based organizations that wish to provide culturally sensitive breastfeeding support in their community. PMID:25896467

  13. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points. PMID:26489355

  14. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants. PMID:25632724

  15. Patient participation: A qualitative study of immigrant women and their experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Dahlberg

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient participation in healthcare is a neglected area of interest in the rather extensive amount of research on immigrant so-called Selma patients in Swedish health care as well as worldwide. The aim is to explore the phenomenon “patient participation” in the context of the Swedish health care from the perspective of immigrants non-fluent in Swedish. A phenomenological lifeworld approach was chosen. Data were collected from patients within a municipal home care setting in Sweden. Eight women agreed to participate. In seven interviews, an interpreter was necessary for the translation of the interview. Five authorized interpreters were used. Data were analysed in accordance to a descriptive phenomenological method for caring research. The analysis led to an essence of the phenomenon with three constituents, “to experience participation,” “to refrain from participation,” and “to be deprived of participation.” Patient participation from the perspective of immigrant women means that patients are involved and active in their own health and caring processes. For these women, it is particularly important to have the opportunity to express themselves. Patient participation presupposes professional caregivers who act in a way that increases the patients’ opportunities to take part. A skilled interpreter is often necessary in order to enable the patient participation.

  16. Becoming a person with HIV: experiences of Cambodian women infected by their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youngran; Wojnar, Danuta; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an interpretive phenomenological investigation in order to understand, within a Cambodian sociocultural context, the lived experiences of women infected with HIV by their husbands as they navigated the tasks of discovering, disclosing and dealing with the diagnosis. Using an open-ended interview protocol and an interpretive phenomenological approach, data were analysed from 15 women (aged 28-42 years) who self-identified the HIV transmission as coming from their spouses. Using qualitative inductive analysis, we were able to identify three main themes: (1) finding oneself to be HIV-positive, (2) encountering HIV--accepting an unwelcomed guest and (3) going public--dealing with the fear of discrimination. Participants consistently delayed testing for HIV and, after receiving an HIV-positive diagnosis, had to deal with painful emotions and discrimination within their social network. The complexity of gender roles and the sociocultural status of the women acted as behavioural determinants of their responses to HIV transmission from their spouses. PMID:26281855

  17. Korean American Women's Experiences with Smoking and Factors Associated with Their Quit Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S.; Kim, Seongho; Seward, Gregory; Fortuna, Lisa; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Korean American women's experiences with smoking and tested the theory of planned behavior to identify factors associated with their intentions to quit smoking. It employed a mixed-methods research design, using qualitative and quantitative data. Participants were recruited via a combination of random (N = 49) and convenience (N = 45) sampling techniques. Women in this study initiated smoking at age of 23 on average, and nearly half smoked at indoor houses. They initiated smoking out of curiosity about the effect and belief that smoking would relieve their stress. Reasons for continued smoking were (a) to avoid nicotine withdrawal symptoms, (b) to cope with life stressors, including acculturative stress, and (c) to fulfill one's destiny as a lifetime smoker. Many attempted to quit due to health issues and pregnancy. Fear of disclosure and limited English proficiency were found to be major barriers to seeking help for quitting. Past-year quit attempt(s), attitudes toward quitting, and perceived family norm favoring quitting explained 25% of the variance in intentions to quit smoking (F[3,90] = 11.58, P < 0.001). Findings suggest that gender- and culture-specific intervention strategies are needed to assist Korean American women in smoking cessation. PMID:25938119

  18. The experience of women with abortion during adolescence as demanded by their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca Domingos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the experience of women who induced an abortion during adolescence as demanded by their mothers. METHOD: qualitative study with a social phenomenology approach conducted in 2010 with three women through interviews with open questions. RESULTS: the participants tried to hide their pregnancies from their mothers and when the mothers found out about the pregnancies they decide to interrupt it, demanding that their daughters have an abortion, which was performed in an unsafe manner, regardless of the adolescents' desire. After the abortion, the adolescents experienced suffering, guilt, and regret for not having fought against their mothers' decisions. These women expect to be autonomous to make their own decisions, take care of their own health and become pregnant again. CONCLUSION: the study evidenced the decision for an abortion was centered on the adolescents' mothers, a result that deserves to be further explored in future research deepening the relationship established between daughter and mother in the situation of an induced abortion. We suggest the creation of opportunities for the triad of health professional/adolescent/family to dialogue, especially the mother, who in the context of family relations, can help the daughter to safely deal with an early pregnancy and prevent it instead of influencing the adolescent to induce an abortion.

  19. Beyond marginality: exploring black women’s labour market participation in the Greater Vancouver Regional District

    OpenAIRE

    Rudder, Alieka

    2008-01-01

    What have Black women’s labour market experiences been in the Greater Vancouver Regional District? How have education, family, and systemic barriers been perceived by and impacted Black women in the labour market? Utilizing qualitative methodological techniques, primarily open-ended interviewing, and centred in critical Black feminist and endarkened feminist epistemological approaches, as well as anti-racist or critical race theory, I explore these important questions. Historically and curren...

  20. Obesity and hypertension in an Iranian cohort study; Iranian women experience higher rates of obesity and hypertension than American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouraei Mehdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Once considered as the main public health problem in developed countries, obesity has become a major problem throughout the world and developing countries, like Iran, are joining the global obesity pandemic. We determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension in a large cohort of Iranians and compared age-adjusted rates with the rates in the US. Methods Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based study of 8,998 men and women, aged 35-81 years, from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric parameters were measured by interviewers. Prevalence rates were directly adjusted to the 2000 United States standard population. Results The age-adjusted prevalence rates of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in this Iranian population were 62.2% and 28.0%, respectively. Both overweight and obesity were more common in women than men. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was significantly higher in Iranian women compared to the American women (68.6% vs. 61.6%, while the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity is closer in these two populations (34.9% vs. 33.2%. Iranian men—compared to American men—had significantly lower age-adjusted prevalence of overweight (53.7% vs. 68.8% and obesity (16.2% vs. 27.5%. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher in Iranian women than American women (35.7% vs. 30.5%. Diabetes mellitus was reported in 6.2% of participants. Mean waist-to-hip ratio (WHR among women was 0.96. Smoking rates in men and women were 33.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity, overweight, and hypertension in Iran is as high as the US. However, Iranian women are more obese than American women and Iranian men are less obese than their American counterparts. This discrepancy might be due to the low rate of smoking among Iranian women. Iranian women have higher mean WHR than what WHO has defined in 19 other populations.

  1. Navigating a strange and complex environment: experiences of Sudanese refugee women using a new nutrition resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannion CA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia A Mannion, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal, Christena Jane HenshawFaculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Refugees experience dietary changes as part of the daily challenges they face resettling in a new country. Sudanese women seek to care and feed their families, but face language barriers in the marketplace, limited access to familiar foods, and forced new food choices. This study aimed to understand the acceptability of a purse-sized nutrition resource, “The Market Guide”, which was developed to help recently immigrated Sudanese refugee women identify and purchase healthy foods and navigate grocery stores.Methods: Eight women participated in a focus group, four of whom were also observed during accompanied grocery store visits. Individual interviews were conducted with four health care workers at the resettlement center to gather perceptions about the suitability of The Market Guide. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data from field notes and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory for preliminary open codes, followed by selective and theoretical coding.Results: The Market Guide was of limited use to Sudanese women. Their response to this resource revealed the struggles of women acculturating during their first year in Calgary, Canada. We discovered the basic social process, “Navigating through a strange and complex environment: learning ways to feed your family.” Language, transportation, and an unfamiliar marketplace challenged women and prevented them from exercising their customary role of “knowing” which foods were “safe and good” for their families. The nutrition resource fell short of informing food choices and purchases, and we discovered that “learning to feed your family” is a relational process where trusted persons, family, and friends help navigate dietary acculturation.Conclusion: Emergent theory based on the basic social process may

  2. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Kendall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods: Drawing on community-based research with 285 WLHIV from four Latin American countries (El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua, we conduct thematic qualitative analysis of reports of how and when healthcare providers pressured women to sterilize and multivariate logistic regression to assess whether social and economic characteristics and fertility history were associated with pressure to sterilize. Results: A quarter (23% of the participant WLHIV experienced pressure to sterilize post-diagnosis. WLHIV who had a pregnancy during which they (and their healthcare providers knew their HIV diagnosis were almost six times more likely to experience coercive or forced sterilization than WLHIV who did not have a pregnancy with a known diagnosis (OR 5.66 CI 95% 2.35–13.58 p≤0.001. WLHIV reported that healthcare providers told them that living with HIV annulled their right to choose the number and spacing of their children and their contraceptive method, employed misinformation about the consequences of a subsequent pregnancy for women's and children's health, and denied medical services needed to prevent vertical (mother-to-child HIV transmission to coerce women into accepting sterilization. Forced sterilization was practiced during caesarean delivery. Conclusions: The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services

  3. How do women prepare for pregnancy? Preconception experiences of women attending antenatal services and views of health professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stephenson

    Full Text Available To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy.Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals.We recruited 1173/1288 (90% women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54-3.54 for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42-3.36 for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care.Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.

  4. More in hope than expectation: a systematic review of women's expectations and experience of pain relief in labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macphail Sheila

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childbirth is one of the most painful events that a woman is likely to experience, the multi-dimensional aspect and intensity of which far exceeds disease conditions. A woman's lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits of the various methods of pain relief can heighten anxiety. Women are increasingly expected, and are expecting, to participate in decisions about their healthcare. Involvement should allow women to make better-informed decisions; the National Institute for Clinical Excellence has stated that we need effective ways of supporting pregnant women in making informed decisions during labour. Our aim was to systematically review the empirical literature on women's expectations and experiences of pain and pain relief during labour, as well as their involvement in the decision-making process. Methods A systematic review was conducted using the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Bath Information and Database Service (BIDS, Excerpta Medica Database Guide (EMBASE, Midwives Information and Resource (MIDIRS, Sociological Abstracts and PsychINFO. Studies that examined experience and expectations of pain, and its relief in labour, were appraised and the findings were integrated into a systematic review. Results Appraisal revealed four key themes: the level and type of pain, pain relief, involvement in decision-making and control. Studies predominantly showed that women underestimated the pain they would experience. Women may hope for a labour free of pain relief, but many found that they needed or benefited from it. There is a distinction between women's desire for a drug-free labour and the expectation that they may need some sort of pain relief. Inaccurate or unrealistic expectations about pain may mean that women are not prepared appropriately for labour. Many women acknowledged that they wanted to

  5. Black Mountain. Ein interdisziplinäres Experiment 1933-1957

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    La Hamburger Bahnhof présente la première exposition entièrement consacrée au Black Mountain College (BMC). Les commissaires en sont Eugen Blume et Gabriele Knapstein. Fondé en 1933 en Caroline du Nord, le Black Mountain College va rapidement devenir influent grâce à ses méthodes d’enseignement progressistes, issues des idées pédagogiques du philosophe John Dewey, dont des ouvrages originaux sont présents dans l’exposition. Les fondateurs voulaient une école à la fois démocratique, expériment...

  6. Depression and termination of pregnancy (induced abortion in a national cohort of young Australian women: the confounding effect of women's experience of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Lyndsey F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termination of pregnancy is a common and safe medical procedure in countries where it is legal. One in four Australian women terminates a pregnancy, most often when young. There is inconclusive evidence about whether pregnancy termination affects women's rates of depression. There is evidence of a strong association between partner violence and depression. Our objective was to examine the associations with depression of women's experience of violence, pregnancy termination, births and socio-demographic characteristics, among a population-based sample of young Australian women. Methods The data from the Younger cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health comprised 14,776 women aged 18–23 in Survey I (1996 of whom 9683 aged 22–27 also responded to Survey 2 (2000. With linked data, we distinguished terminations, violence and depression reported before and after 1996. We used logistic regression to examine the association of depression (CES-D 10 as both a dichotomous and linear measure in 2000 with pregnancy termination, numbers of births and with violence separately and then in mutually adjusted models with sociodemographic variables. Results 30% of young women were depressed. Eleven percent (n = 1076 reported a termination by 2000. A first termination before 1996 and between 1996 and 2000 were both associated with depression in a univariate model (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.12 to 1.66; OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.87. However, after adjustment for violence, numbers of births and sociodemographic variables (OR 1.22, 95%CI 0.99 to 1.51 this became only marginally significant, a similar association with having two or more births (1.26, 95%CI. 1.00 to 1.58. In contrast, any form of violence but especially that of partner violence in 1996 or 2000, was significantly associated with depression: in univariate (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.97 to 2.70 or 2.45, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.04 and multivariate models (AOR 2.06, 95%CI 1.74 to 2.43 or 2

  7. ["Raw and charred flesh": the experience of burned women in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Cristiani Nobre de; Braide, Andrea Stopglia Guedes; Nations, Marilyn

    2014-10-01

    In Northeast Brazil, death from burns is a widespread, pervasive threat to poor women. This anthropological study describes the experience of personal suffering among female burn patients. In 2009, six "information-rich" cases were investigated at the Burn Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Open ethnographic interviews with key informants, narratives of lived experiences, and participant observation at the clinic and patients' home were conducted. The methods included content analysis, systems of signs, meanings, and actions, and contextualized semantic interpretation. The emerging metaphors are embued with the cultural meaning of "monstrosity" and gender violence by fire - inscribed mercilessly in the woman's body. "Accidents" caused by flammable liquids (alcohol) hide the cruel reality of "raw and charred flesh". The scars can disfigure the victims as "non-persons", destroying their moral reputation and leading to social rejection. In the Brazilian Northeast, the social vulnerability caused by sequelae from burns demands a policy for humanized care. PMID:25388309

  8. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer - complications, women´s experiences, quality of life and a health economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth

    2016-07-01

    This thesis contains four studies all focusing on women with endometrial cancer undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH). Women with endometrial cancer are typically elderly with co-morbidities. RALH is a relatively new treatment option which has been introduced and adopted over the last decade without randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to prove superiority over other surgical alternatives. The purpose of the thesis was to explore and describe patient and health economic outcomes of RALH for women with endometrial cancer using different research approaches. The first study was a retrospective descriptive cohort study with 235 women. The aim was to explore types and incidence of post-operative complications within 12 months after RALH reported with the Clavien-Dindo scale. We found that 6% had severe complications and that women with lymphadenectomy did not have an increased rate of complications. Urinary tract and port site infections were the most frequent complications. The second study was a qualitative interview study where we explored the experience of undergoing RALH. Using content analysis, we analysed semi-structured interviews with 12 women who had undergone RALH on average 12 weeks earlier. The women were positive towards the robotic approach and felt recovered shortly after. They expressed uncertainty with the normal course of bleeding and bowel movement post-operatively as well as with the new anatomy. The third study was an economic evaluation; an activity-based costing study including 360 women comparing total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) to RALH. This study showed that for women with endometrial cancer, RALH was cheaper compared to TAH, mainly due to fewer complications and shorter length of stay (LOS) that counterbalanced the higher robotic expenses. When including all cost drivers the analysis showed that the RALH procedure was more than 9.000 Danish kroner (DKK) cheaper than the TAH. Increased age and Type 2 diabetes appeared

  9. Black Achievers' Experiences with Racial Spotlighting and Ignoring in a Predominantly White High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter Andrews, Dorinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite a history of racial oppression and degradation in U.S. schools, African Americans have responded to racism and discrimination in ways that promote educational attainment and school success. Many Black adolescents have been empowered to succeed academically partly because of their awareness of racist practices in…

  10. "What Works": Recommendations on Improving Academic Experiences and Outcomes for Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Douglas, Ty-Ron, M. O.; Warren, Chezare A.

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents the most significant recommendations based on a review of key findings from research presented in this special issue. The authors offer what they believe to be the most important considerations of what works for improving Black male school achievement in the domains of research, practice, and policy.

  11. The Color of the Undergraduate Experience and the Black Self-Concept: Evidence from Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Gary L. St. C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study assesses the impact of attending colleges with higher black enrollment on African Americans' self-esteem and self-efficacy. It tests Rosenberg's proposition that racially "consonant" environments enhance self-appraisals. The LISREL models control for various pre-college attributes and for institutional selectivity. Higher black…

  12. Dementia in Urban Black Outpatients: Initial Experience at the Emory Satellite Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchus, Alexander P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the demographic features and clinical diagnoses in a sample of 58 demented urban black outpatients. Results indicate that probable Alzheimer's disease was the most common cause of dementia whereas probable vascular dementia was uncommon. A multiple etiology dementia was identified in more than one-third of the patients. (RJM)

  13. Is the firewall consistent? Gedanken experiments on black hole complementarity and firewall proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss the black hole complementarity and the firewall proposal at length. Black hole complementarity is inevitable if we assume the following five things: unitarity, entropy-area formula, existence of an information observer, semi-classical quantum field theory for an asymptotic observer, and the general relativity for an in-falling observer. However, large N rescaling and the AMPS argument show that black hole complementarity is inconsistent. To salvage the basic philosophy of the black hole complementarity, AMPS introduced a firewall around the horizon. According to large N rescaling, the firewall should be located close to the apparent horizon. We investigate the consistency of the firewall with the two critical conditions: the firewall should be near the time-like apparent horizon and it should not affect the future infinity. Concerning this, we have introduced a gravitational collapse with a false vacuum lump which can generate a spacetime structure with disconnected apparent horizons. This reveals a situation that there is a firewall outside of the event horizon, while the apparent horizon is absent. Therefore, the firewall, if it exists, not only does modify the general relativity for an in-falling observer, but also modify the semi-classical quantum field theory for an asymptotic observer

  14. The experience of First Sexual Intercourse: an Exploratory Study in Greek Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Moraitou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A young person's first sexual intercourse is often a remarkable and memorable experience.However, little information exists regarding contextual factors of this first experience and the possible effects ontheir subsequent sexual lifeObjective: This study explored the conditions of and women’s emotional reactions to first sexual intercourse(FSI, as well as FSI’s impact on their future sexual experiences.Methodology: Participants were 899 women aged 19 to 40 yrs, registered in 23 arbitrarily selected GPs privatepractices. They completed a 30-item questionnaire regarding their first sexual intercourse experience.Results: It was found that information sources for sexual issues (family vs media significantly influence both theadoption of responsible sexual behaviours and the formation of feelings preceding sexual initiation (p<0.05. Thestudy also demonstrated that even when FSI is perceived as voluntary other correlates (e.g. woman’s and /orpartner’s age, contraceptive use etc. affect women’s emotional reaction to first coital experience and theirresponse to future sexual encounters.Conclusions: The findings of this study provide initial data to suggest that the first sexual intercourse experiencesignificantly impacts women’s sexual life. Health professionals should be aware of this information in thedevelopment of programs focusing on the promotion of sexual health for adolescents or parents; education.

  15. A comparative study between white and black women entrepreneurs in selected areas in South Africa / Rasego C.

    OpenAIRE

    Rasego, Carol Mantwa

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, entrepreneurship is seen as one of the most important solutions to unemployment, poverty and low economic growth. The creation of new ventures and the growth of existing businesses are vital contributing factors to any economy. Women outnumber male entrepreneurs, which have led to a renewed focus on gender entrepreneurship and the development of appropriate interventions for gender–specific groups across the globe. In South Africa, women make up just less than 50% of the entreprene...

  16. Making Meaning of Adversity: Experiences of Women Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that women now earn more bachelor's, master's and doctorates than men, a gender gap for women leaders persists in the field of higher education. Women hold only 26 percent of all college and university presidencies with a large variance by type of institution. Women lead 33 percent of associate's level institutions but only 22…

  17. State Initiatives for the Empowerment of Women of Rural Communities: Experiences from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Samanta, Gopa

    2002-01-01

    Discussions with women in rural areas of India analyzed government-initiated development programs regarding availability of information, suitability to women's needs, and perception of problems. Most programs were top down with little input form women; self-help approaches problematized the "self" and did not consider the realities of women's…

  18. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  19. Younger women's experiences of deciding against delayed breast reconstruction post-mastectomy following breast cancer: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Fiona; Archer, Stephanie; Montague, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Most women do not reconstruct their breast(s) post-mastectomy. The experiences of younger women who maintain this decision, although important to understand, are largely absent in the research literature. This interview-based study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the experiences of six women, diagnosed with primary breast cancer in their 30s/40s, who decided against delayed reconstruction. Findings reported here focus on one superordinate theme (decision-making) from a larger analysis, illustrating that the women's drive to survive clearly influenced their initial decision-making process. Their tenacity in maintaining their decision is highlighted, despite non-reconstruction sometimes being presented negatively by medical teams. Patient-centred support recommendations are made. PMID:25516557

  20. The experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.

    Women engineers remain underrepresented in employment in engineering fields in the United States. Feminist theory views this gender disparity beyond equity in numbers for women engineers and looks at structural issues of women's access, opportunities, and quality of experience in the workplace. Research on women's success and persistence in engineering education is diverse; however, there are few studies that focus on the early years of women's careers in engineering and less using a phenomenological research design. Experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment are presented using a phenomenological research design. Research questions explored the individual and composite experiences for the co-researchers of the study as well as challenges and advantages of the phenomenon of having completed one to five years of professional engineering employment. Themes that emanated from the data were a feeling that engineering is a positive profession, liking math and science from an early age, having experiences of attending math and science camps or learning and practicing engineering interests with their fathers for some co-researchers. Other themes included a feeling of being different as a woman in the engineering workplace, taking advantage of opportunities for training, education, and advancement to further their careers, and the role of informal and formal mentoring in developing workplace networks and engineering expertise. Co-researchers negotiated issues of management quality and support, experiences of gender discrimination in the workplace, and having to make decisions balancing their careers and family responsibilities. Finally, the women engineers for this research study expressed intentions to persist in their careers while pursuing expertise and experience in their individual engineering fields.