This thesis centres the lived experiences of black township women in same-sex relationships in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The main question—‘How do black township women construct their same-sex sexuality?’—called for a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data. Set against
McGuigan, Dorothy, Ed.
This collection of papers deals with various aspects of the black female experience in America. "The Black Woman in Transition" discusses the effects of sexism and racism on black women with particular reference to employment and education; it is noted that black women, in comparison with other groups in society, suffer a proportionately higher…
Awosan, Christiana I; Hardy, Kenneth V
Over the past decades, the decline in Black marriages and the upsurge of never-married Blacks have stimulated much theoretical focus, but researchers conducted few studies on never-married heterosexual Black adults' coupling unions. Guided by an integrated framework of Africana womanism and symbolic interactionism, this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study used comprehensive individual interviews to explore the experiences of 26 never-married heterosexual Black men and women between the ages 25 and 35 about their attempts to cultivate and maintain intimate romantic relationships as well as their desire for marriage. Findings revealed mixed emotions from participants' lived experiences in developing and sustaining romantic relationships. Clinical implications highlighted the need to effectively attend to Black romantic relationships and experiences in their sociohistorical and sociocultural contexts. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Research has shown that women are physiologically more at risk of contracting HIV than men, as indicated by the higher infection rates of the former. Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even greater risk of HIV ...
Brown, Kyrah K; Lewis, Rhonda K; Baumgartner, Elizabeth; Schunn, Christy; Maryman, J'Vonnah; LoCurto, Jamie
Disparate birth outcomes among Black women continue to be a major public health problem. Whereas prior research has investigated the influence of stress on Black women's birth outcomes, few studies have explored how stress is experienced among Black women across the life course. The objectives of this study were to describe the experience of stress across the life course among Black women who reported a history of fetal or infant death and to identify stressful life events (SLE) that may not be represented in the widely used SLE inventory. Using phenomenological, qualitative research design, in-depth interviews were conducted with six Black women in Kansas who experienced a fetal or infant death. Analyses revealed that participants experienced multiple, co-occurring stressors over the course of their lives and experienced a proliferation of stress emerging in early life and persisting into adulthood. Among the types of stressors cited by participants, history of sexual assault (trauma-related stressor) was a key stressful life event that is not currently reflected in the SLE inventory. Our findings highlight the importance of using a life-course perspective to gain a contextual understanding of the experiences of stress among Black women, particularly those with a history of adverse birth outcomes. Further research investigating Black women's experiences of stress and the mechanisms by which stress impacts their health could inform efforts to reduce disparities in birth outcomes. An additional focus on the experience and impact of trauma-related stress on Black women's birth outcomes may also be warranted.
Clark, Liana R; Myers, Evan R; Huh, Warner; Joura, Elmar A; Paavonen, Jorma; Perez, Gonzalo; James, Margaret K; Sings, Heather L; Haupt, Richard M; Saah, Alfred J; Garner, Elizabeth I O
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Black women are disproportionally diagnosed and have higher mortality from cervical cancer in the United States. Here we describe the prophylactic efficacy and safety of a quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in black women. A total of 700 black women from Latin America, Europe, and North America (aged 16-24 years) received the vaccine or placebo in one of two studies. Analyses focused on the efficacy and safety of the vaccine. Baseline rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and history of past pregnancy were more than twice as high in black women compared with the non-black women who were enrolled in these trials. HPV-6/11/16 or 18 DNA was detected in 18% of black women versus 14.6% in non-black women at day 1. For black women, vaccine efficacy against disease caused by HPV-6/11/16/18 was 100% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (0 vs. 15 cases; 95% confidence interval, 64.5%-100%) and 100% for vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and condylomata acuminata (0 vs. 17 cases; 95% confidence interval, 69.3%-100%). There were no serious vaccine-related adverse experiences. A similar proportion of pregnancies resulted in live births (75.8% vaccine; 72.7% placebo) and fetal loss (24.2% vaccine; 27.3% placebo). Prophylactic quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccination of young black women demonstrated high efficacy, safety, and tolerability. HPV vaccination has the potential to reduce cervical cancer-related health disparities both in the United States and around the world. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Seung Hee; Chee, Wonshik
To describe the experience of menopausal symptoms of midlife Black women in the United States. Qualitative online forum using a feminist perspective. Internet communities for midlife women and Blacks. Twenty midlife Black women recruited using a quota sampling method. A 6-month online forum was conducted with seven discussion topics on menopausal symptoms. The discussion topics were posted sequentially on the forum site, and the women posted messages at their convenience over 6 months. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The identified themes were raised to be strong, accepting a natural aging process, silent and without knowledge, and our own experience. The women tried to be strong during their menopausal transitions while dealing with other important family matters. The women did not report their menopausal symptoms and were silent about or downplayed their symptoms, but many emphasized the importance of education about menopausal symptoms and highlighted their own lack of knowledge. These women generally did not talk about their symptoms because they believed that nobody except other Black midlife women could understand their menopausal experience. Health care providers need to develop a mechanism to deliver the necessary knowledge about menopausal symptoms and management strategies to Black midlife women in their health care practices.
Clüver, Frances; Elkonin, Diane; Young, Charles
Negotiations surrounding sexual activity are characterised by multiple power disparities that include race, social status and age, with gender being the most dominant differential in heterosexual interactions. Research has shown that women are physiologically more at risk of contracting HIV than men, as indicated by the higher infection rates of the former. Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even greater risk of HIV infection. In this qualitative phenomenological study, four black school-going adolescent women living in Grahamstown were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to gather data. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on the data to provide subjective insights of the experiences of the participants with regard to their interactions with men. From the findings, it became apparent that the participants felt pressured, coerced or manipulated by male counterparts. This pressure and coercion was not just felt in their interactions with older men, but also in their romantic partnerships. Three of the participants experienced pressure to engage in sexual intercourse with their boyfriends when they were unwilling or unready, and they reported being faced with additional pressure to engage in unprotected sex. Furthermore, it became apparent that each participant had an underlying fear of being raped and considered this as a genuine threat to her safety and sexual health. The atmosphere within which these participants negotiate their sexual agency is thus heavily informed by male control, coercion and the threat of violence or rape.
Mogosetsi, Seipati Elizabeth
The promotion of women's and children's rights excluded men from the process. The implementation of these rights called for a shift in domestic power relations. Men, especially certain black men, were plunged in predicament as some felt that the changes undermined their cultural and traditional masculine identities and that women and children abused their rights. In many cases the relationships between men, women and children came under pressure. This research is conducted a...
Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J
Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.
Agénor, Madina; Bailey, Zinzi; Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S Bryn; Gottlieb, Barbara R
Few studies have focused on the health and health care of U.S. black lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. To understand the facilitators of and barriers to cervical cancer screening in this population, focus group discussions were conducted in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts between November and December 2012. Using purposive sampling methods, the authors enrolled 18 black LBQ women who participated in one of four focus groups. Using thematic analysis, patient-provider communication was identified, which consisted of four sub-themes--health care provider communication style and demeanor; heteronormative provider assumptions; heterosexism, racism, and classism; and provider professional and sociodemographic background--as the most salient theme. Participants reported fears and experiences of multiple forms of discrimination and preferred receiving care from providers who were knowledgeable about same-sex sexual health and shared their life experiences at the intersection of gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. The cervical cancer screening experiences of black LBQ women would be improved by training all health care providers in same-sex sexual health, offering opportunities for clinicians to learn about the effects of various forms of discrimination on women's health care, and increasing the presence of LBQ women of color in health care settings.
Ross, Monique S
Black women have recently been identified as the most educated demographic in the United States, and yet they are grossly underrepresented in engineering. They comprise 6.4 % of the U.S. population and only 0.72 % of engineering industry. Meanwhile, engineers have been identified as the key to the United States’ ability to maintain its prominence and leadership in a competitive global economy due to their contribution to maintaining and improving our infrastructures and standard of living. Th...
Wallace, Maeve E.; Green, Carmen; Richardson, Lisa; Theall, Katherine; Crear-Perry, Joia
In the US, the non-Hispanic Black infant mortality rate exceeds the rate among non-Hispanic Whites by more than two-fold. To explore factors underlying this persistent disparity, we employed a mixed methods approach with concurrent quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. Eighteen women participated in interviews about their experience of infant loss. Several common themes emerged across interviews, grouped by domain: individual experiences (trauma, grieving and counseling; ...
Coogan, Patricia F; Yu, Jeffrey; O'Connor, George T; Brown, Timothy A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Chronic stress resulting from experiences of racism may increase the incidence of adult-onset asthma through effects on the immune system and the airways. We conducted prospective analyses of the relation of experiences of racism with asthma incidence in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort of black women in the United States followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Among 38,142 participants followed from 1997 to 2011, 1,068 reported incident asthma. An everyday racism score was created based on five questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency in daily life of experiences of racism (eg, poor service in stores), and a lifetime racism score was based on questions about racism on the job, in housing, and by police. We used Cox regression models to derive multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for categories of each racism score in relation to incident asthma. The IRRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19-1.78) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of the 1997 everyday racism score (P for trendracism. Among women who reported the same levels of racism in 1997 and 2009, the IRRs for the highest categories of everyday and lifetime racism were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55-2.91) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.20-2.30), respectively. Given the high prevalence of experiences of racism and asthma in black women in the United States, a positive association between racism and asthma is of public health importance.
Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.
Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…
Wilder, JeffriAnne; Cain, Colleen
Family is regarded as a powerful force in the lives of Black Americans. Often-times, families function as an agent of socialization that counters racism. At the same time, however, Black families can perpetuate skin tone consciousness and bias, or "colorism." Although there is an extensive body of revisionist literature on Black families and a…
Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...
Curtis, Marvin V.
Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…
Woods, Krystle C; Buchanan, Nicole T; Settles, Isis H
The current study examined differences in appraisal, harassment, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms among 105 Black women who were sexually harassed by either a White (cross-racial sexual harassment) or a Black man (intraracial sexual harassment). Analyses revealed that women appraised cross-racial more negatively than intraracial harassment, despite there being no significant differences in the likelihood of experiencing gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, or sexual coercion. Further, cross-racial harassment was more likely to include racialized sexual harassment (harassing behaviors combining race and gender simultaneously) and higher status perpetrators. Finally, cross-racial sexual harassment had an indirect (but not direct) mediated effect on posttraumatic stress via participants' appraisals of their harassment. Specifically, the more negative appraisal associated with cross-racial sexual harassment was associated with increased posttraumatic stress symptoms. In light of these findings, consideration of perpetrator race and racially sexualized behaviors could prove significant additions to current models of sexual harassment.
Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S
Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Miller, Beverly A. King
This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.
In the aftermath of slavery and the resulting social, economic, and political effects, Black women have become the victims of negative stereotyping in mainstream American culture. Such stereotypes include the myth of the angry Black woman that characterizes these women as aggressive, ill tempered, illogical, overbearing, hostile, and ignorant without provocation. Symptoms presented by Black women during mental health treatment may reinforce this myth. However, many of the negative characteristics of the angry Black woman developed in response to external stressors and historical factors. Black women also have a unique experience with and expressions of anger that shape the presenting symptoms interpreted by the mental health clinician. This myth and corresponding negative stereotypes significantly affect Black women intrapsychically, interpersonally, and are likely to influence the efficacy of mental health treatment. Understanding and treatment of Black women in a mental health context should be influenced by the cultural norms and sociopolitical dynamics affecting these clients. Successful mental health treatment requires cultural competence and clinicians who are well prepared to navigate the inherent complexities of culture with clients. Awareness of the angry Black woman mythology, including its genesis, manifestations, and the unique experiences of Black women, may raise the standards of cultural competence for clinicians and provide more successful treatment outcomes in working with this population. A case example illustrates the assiduity essential to practicing in a culturally competent manner. A client is presented from a traditional psychotherapeutic perspective and then viewed through a lens that integrates psychotherapeutic practice with conscious awareness of the mythology and stereotypes impacting Black women. Implications for culturally relevant practice are discussed.
Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin
This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...
Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.
Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)
Nyachae, Tiffany M.
Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…
Fontaine, Deborah C.; Greenlee, Shelia P.
Studies 12 black women in solo status positions in academia. Solo status is being the only member, or one of a small number, of a sex or racial group or both, in the workplace. As double solos, these women felt they had to outperform majority group counterparts. Common perceptions of barriers and facilitators are discussed. (SLD)
Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M
Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Infor...
Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F
To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Ireland, Danyelle T.; Freeman, Kimberley Edelin; Winston-Proctor, Cynthia E.; DeLaine, Kendra D.; McDonald Lowe, Stacey; Woodson, Kamilah M.
In this chapter, we argue that intersectionality is a theoretical and methodological framework by which education researchers can critically examine why and how students in STEM fields who are members of intersecting marginalized groups have distinctive experiences related to their social identities, other psychological processes, and educational…
Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag
Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…
An overview was given of how affirmative action for Blacks and women in South Africa in fact marginalizes Black women. The definition of the problem influences the solution; affirmative action obscures the complex nature of discrimination experienced by Black women by class, role, and culture and focuses only on gender and race. Secondly, the power of White women and Black men supercede the power of Black women. Apartheid benefitted White women over Black men. Affirmative action, as shifting power between groups, would solidify White women's power. The debates have taken place within university and academic contexts, a place where Black women have been excluded and the dominant groups are White men, followed by White women, and then Black men. The debate in the private sector also is devoid of Black women's voices; multinationals began to hire and train Black male managers, and there was criticism that standards were falling. Recruitment of Black women is unknown, but only 1.1% of managers are Black. Visibility within the academic and private sector debates has excluded Black women. In the articulation of ideas, most literature has been written by White men. The intersection of power and privilege belongs to males and White women as part of the larger dominant ideology. Black women's marginalization means their issues will not be addressed. The people who stand to benefit the most from affirmative action are those who are in need of improved living conditions, literacy, and employment, or those excluded from jobs and position in spite of being qualified. Black women without a societal power base have no bargaining power. To insure that Black women benefit, there is need to treat Black women as a distinctive group with priority. There is also a need to examine the myths that have been spun around Black women, their needs, abilities, and controlling images. There is a need to integrate Black womens ideas into the mainstream and recognize that maybe Black women need
Myles, Melissa; Gennaro, Susan; Dubois, Nancy; O'Connor, Caitlin; Roberts, Kayla
To examine the consistency and adequacy of nutritional intake in a population of Black women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This was a longitudinal descriptive study. Data were collected from women with low-risk pregnancies at 22- to 24-week prenatal visits and two subsequent visits. Participants were recruited from urban prenatal clinics in one city in the Northeastern United States. Pregnant women who self-identified as Black (N = 195). A 24-hour diet recall was obtained at each of the three study time points. Food models and measuring cups were used to improve the accuracy of portion size reporting. Data from diet recalls were manually entered in Food Processor software to compute nutritional content. A linear mixed-effects model was used to examine dietary intake. Dietary patterns were stable from the second to the third trimesters, and caloric intake was inadequate. Women met minimal daily requirements for carbohydrate and protein intake, but the overall percentages of fat, protein, and carbohydrates indicated that additional calories needed to come from protein. Although more than 80% of women regularly took prenatal vitamins, micronutrient and fiber intake were consistently inadequate. Prenatal care to help women identify foods that are rich in fiber, protein, and micronutrients is important for the health of women and newborns. Knowing that nutritional intake is consistently inadequate, nurses can counsel pregnant women whenever they have contact with them to attempt to improve nutritional intake and make women aware of inexpensive nutrient sources. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...
Wilkins, Amy C.
In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…
Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.
The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944
Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J
Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.
Hite, Linda M.
This study explores the differing views of Black and White female managers regarding access to key career opportunities for White women and women of color. Items addressed include access to hiring, promotions, key assignments, salary increases, acknowledgment for work, and mentors. Access to each is described by comparing White women and women of…
Gregory, Sheila T.
This book presents selected historical data focusing on three aspects in the lives of Black women: resilience of Black women and their families; strengths of the Black church and community; and formidable gains made by Black women in the workforce. The status and achievements of Black women professors and scholars in the academy are reviewed, with…
Linnabery, Eileen; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Towler, Annette
In the workplace, Black women encounter different job demands than their White counterparts and often experience less control. Demand-control theory offers a framework to examine the challenges Black women face as well as how factors such as coping strategies and social support can moderate levels of well-being. In this study we examined the impact of Black women's social support and coping strategies on job-family role strain, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Responses were collected from 188 highly educated Black American women employed in variety of occupations. Results of path modeling found that social support is important to well-being, and that self-help coping can overcome deficient social support's impact on well-being. Exploratory analyses revealed that support from ones' family, church, coworkers, and supervisor each individually related to aspects of well-being, particularly when self-help coping is low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K
Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The long period of colonialism and apartheid, imposed oppression and exploitation on women especially black African women, meant that they could not own property in their own rights or enter into a contract. The dawn of democracy brought about changes in the role played by women. They have emerged significantly ...
The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high ...
Ogden, Jane; Russell, Sheriden
This qualitative think aloud study explored how Black women (n = 32) processed information from a White or Black fashion magazine. Comments to the 'White' magazine were characterised by rejection, being critical of the media and ambivalence, whereas they responded to the 'Black' magazine with celebration, identification and a search for depth. Transcending these themes was their self-identity of being a Black woman that was brought to the fore either by a sense of exclusion (White magazine) or engagement (Black magazine). Such an identity provides resilience against the media's thin ideals by minimising the processes of social comparison and internalisation.
This is an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in critical race theory, the paper examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists and addresses obstacles faced in their career paths and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews and coded for emergent themes. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose physics over other STEM fields. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in STEM, particularly by exclusion of study groups. We suggest physics departments provide a more inclusive environment to support Black women in science. CAPES, the Fulbright Program, Comissão Fulbright Brasil, and the Office of Diversity at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH
Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to
Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S
We evaluated the association between intimate partner violence and the mental and physical health status of US Caribbean Black and African American women. We used 2001 to 2003 cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life-the most detailed study to date of physical and mental health disorders of Americans of African descent. We assessed participants' health conditions by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC; American Psychological Association) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We found differences in health conditions between abused African American and Caribbean Black women. There were increased risks for lifetime dysthymia, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and poor perceived health for African American victims of partner abuse, and binge eating disorder was associated with partner violence among Caribbean Black women. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for US Black women, with different patterns between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Understanding intimate partner violence experiences of US Black women requires recognition of key intragroup differences, including nativity and immigrant status, and their differential relationships to women's health.
Sweet, Stephanie; Legro, Richard S; Coney, PonJola
Establishing a holistic approach for the enrollment of subjects into clinical trials that includes strategies for the recruitment of non-traditional and minority populations has been an elusive task. The existence of such a design, that is understood and embraced by investigators and the target communities, would streamline the current level of commitment of time, energy and resources. This is necessary to successfully encourage individual and community participation in research studies. The Center for Research in Reproduction at Meharry set out to recruit a large number of African American women volunteers of reproductive age into clinical trials. The experience, of recruiting volunteers from the African American community for clinical trials in the Meharry Medical College/Pennsylvania State University (MMC/PSU)'s Cooperative Center for Research in Reproduction at Meharry, is presented. PMID:18082470
Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Robinson, Ruthie
This comparative study explored the rates of depression and psychosocial correlates for 369 collegiate White and Black females. Women between the ages of 18 and 25 were recruited to participate in this anonymous online survey. Black females reported significantly greater amounts of depressive symptomatology (M = 24.61) in comparison to the White…
Wooten, Sara Carrigan
This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…
Jackson, LaTonya R.
Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…
Articulating cultures: socio-cultural experiences of black female immigrant students in South African schools 1. ... Gender and Behaviour ... and worrisome issue is that of the erosion of the social and cultural mores of Black3 immigrant students.
Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie
Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target's race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes.
Generett, Gretchen Givens; Cozart, Sheryl
This article describes our evolution as two Black American women academics who, after years of dealing with our community's marginalization and our own marginalization in the academy, began to employ research as a way of surviving. To share the significance of this experience, we first reflect on our understandings of our positionality within the…
This article examines what it means to be a Black female researcher in contemporary Britain. Drawing on Black feminist theory and critical race theory (CRT), this article seeks to highlight some of the experiences and challenges that Black female researchers face when undertaking research, particularly research that has diversity, equality or…
Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Jamison, Amelia M; Dyer, Typhanye V
Stigma is recognized as a barrier to the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV, including engagement in the HIV care continuum. HIV stigma in older Black women may be compounded by preexisting social inequities based on gender, age, and race. Using semi-structured interviews and survey questionnaires, we explore experiences of HIV stigma, retention in care, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in 35 older Black women with HIV from Prince George's County, Maryland. Study findings indicated that older Black women experienced high levels of HIV stigma, retention in care, and ART adherence. Findings suggest that experiences of HIV stigma were intensified for older Black women due to multiple stigmatized social positions. Participants also reported experiences of marginalization in health care that hindered retention in care and ART adherence. Interventions aimed at improving HIV prevention, care, and treatment outcomes should incorporate HIV stigma reduction strategies as core elements. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nov 19, 2008 ... pre-menopausal black women living in Bloemfontein in South Africa. .... nity health worker explained the purpose of the study to possible participants. .... was almost three times higher than the RDA of 130 g/day. .... The beneficial metabolic effects of a ... disease viewpoint, excessive dietary fat intake may be.
Objective. To examine the association between measures of obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without known diabetes ...
Dixson, Adrienne D.
Examined how contemporary African American women teachers continued the tradition of political involvement, noting the extent to which issues of race, class, and gender identity informed their pedagogy and situating their activities in a black feminist activist tradition. Interviews with two elementary teachers indicated that while they did not…
Rosa, Katemari Diogo da
This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)
Malson, Michelene R.; Woody, Bette
One aspect of the general rise in the number of single parent households is the high proportion of them that are headed by black women. Black families headed by women tend to be larger and are more likely to be impoverished. Contrary to popular belief, many black single mothers considered poor are employed women, not recipients of welfare. An…
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U.S. Specifically, we focus on stereotype-related gendered racism (ongoing discrimination and stereotype threat based on historically-rooted stereotypes about Black and Latina women's sexuality and motherhood) and birth control-related mistrust (ongoing mistrust of the government and medical system related to birth control due to historical and current abuses). We analyzed data from two survey studies with adult women in New York (Study 1: paper-and-pencil community data collection, N = 135, M age = 43.35) and across the U.S. (Study 2: online data collection, N = 343, M age = 29.49) who were currently pregnant or had at least one child and identified as Black, Latina, or White. Black and Latina women reported greater frequency of and concern over stereotype-related gendered racism (F(3,131) = 17.90, p stereotype-related gendered racism was positively associated with pregnancy-specific stress (ß = .40, p gendered racism may play an important role in existing racial/ethnic disparities in women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes, and interventions addressing gendered racism at multiple levels are needed to promote health equity.
Anakaraonye, Amarachi R; Mann, Emily S; Annang Ingram, Lucy; Henderson, Andrea K
While previous scholarship on the sexual practices of college students in the USA has explored how the co-constitution of whiteness, economic privilege and gender inequality are central to 'hooking up', less attention has been paid to how the sexual culture of predominantly white universities shape Black college women's sexual practices. In this article, we use an intersectional theoretical framework informed by Black feminism to analyse interviews with Black, cisgender, heterosexual women, aged 18-22, attending a university in the south-eastern USA. We explore how they interpret the university's sexual culture and in turn how that informs their sexual decision-making. We find that the intersection of racism and sexism limits Black college women's sexual partner options and leads them to pursue sexual relationships outside the university setting. While most do not engage in committed romantic relationships with off-campus partners, they do engage in a range of strategies to protect their social, emotional and sexual well-being. The study findings expand the scholarship on hook-up culture by centring the narratives of a group often excluded from the literature.
Laan, Ellen; Both, Stephanie
What makes women experience sexual desire? According to Kaplan, normal sexual response starts with desire, progresses through excitement or arousal, and ends with orgasm (Kaplan, 1974). This model implies that sexual desire is something you either have or don't have, and, if you don't have it, there
This narrative inquiry study uses personal experiences as a method of ethnographic research among Black women student leaders. The collegiate life stories of six African American women undergraduates experiencing gendernoir racial battle fatigue are described and analyzed. Combined are participant journaling, lived experiential interviews, and…
This talk presents an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in Critical Race Theory, the presentation examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists in the United States, addresses obstacles faced in their career paths, and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews and coded for emergent themes, which are invitation to engage in science, communities of science practices, and isolation in the academy. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose Physics over other STEM fields. The analysis shows Physics can be a hostile environment for these women. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in Physics, particularly by exclusion of study groups. In this talk, suggestions will be presented to make Physics departments a more inclusive space to support Black women in science. This presentation is based on work supported by the Brazilian government through CAPES (BEX1907-07-7), the Fulbright Program, Comissño Fulbright Brasil, and the Office of Diversity at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Cristina M. T. Stevens
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n2p93 Articulating class, gender and race issues, we analyze black motherhood in novels by contemporary black women writers, the harsh reality of this experience under slavery, colonization and its consequences in contemporary society. hey expose the bodily aspects of labor, in deep contrast with the patriarchal, idealized images of western motherhood; in doing so, however, they reject its characterization as a purely immanent process which deines and entraps women’s body in utterly distorted, essentialist terms.
Craighead, J. J.; Varney, J. R.; Sumner, J. S.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.
The objectives of this research were to develop and test telemetry equipment suitable for monitoring physiological parameters and activity of a hibernating bear in its den, to monitor this data and other environmental information with the Nimbus 3 IRLS data collection system, and to refine immobilizing, handling, and other techniques required in future work with wild bears under natural conditions. A temperature-telemetering transmitter was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a captive black bear and body temperature data was recorded continuously during a 3 month hibernation period. Body temperatures ranging between 37.5 and 31.8 C were observed. Body temperature and overall activity were influenced by disturbances and ambient den temperature. Nychthemeral temperature changes were not noticable. A load cell weight recording device was tested for determining weight loss during hibernation. Monitoring of data by satellite was not attempted. The implanted transmitter was removed and the bear was released with a radiolocation collar at the conclusion of the experiment.
Stela Nazareth Meneghel
Full Text Available This paper reports some psychosocial interventions in which were exploited the “storytelling", in workshops aimed at social workers and women in situation of vulnerability. The workshops were organized from the demands of social movements to combat violence and other extreme situations. The group was the field of intervention, from the demands, lived experiences of participants, based on methodological choice of narratives, life histories and stories of oral culture. We believe that groups of storytellers performed with women allow an exercise of critical reflection and change, as well as being an option for methodological research and practice feminist. Storytellers groups performed with women allow an exercise of critical reflection and change, as well as being a methodological option for feminist practice and research.
McDoom, M Maya; Bokhour, Barbara; Sullivan, Meg; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn
As black women over age 50 represent a growing share of women living with HIV, understanding what helps them persist and engage in ongoing HIV care will become increasingly important. Delineating the specific roles of social support and stigma on HIV care experiences among this population remains unclear. We qualitatively examined how experiences with stigma and social support either facilitated or inhibited engagement in HIV care, from the perspective of older black women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older black women currently receiving HIV care at primary care clinics in the Metropolitan Boston area. Women expressed that experiences with stigma and seeking support played an important role in evaluating the risks and benefits of engaging in care. Social support facilitated their ability to engage in care, while stigma interfered with their ability to engage in care throughout the course of their illness. Providers in particular, can facilitate engagement by understanding the changes in these women's lives as they struggle with stigma and disclosure while engaging in HIV care. The patient's experiences with social support and stigma and their perceptions about engagement are important considerations for medical teams to tailor efforts to engage older black women in regular HIV care.
Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Little is known about the prevalence of sexual behaviors among the black and Hispanic populations in the United States outside the context of sexual risk and disease transmission in "high-risk" samples. This study sought to establish current rates of sexual behaviors, sexual health care practices (i.e., experiences with testing and diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), and condom use in a probability sample of black and Hispanic adult men and women in the United States. Sexual behaviors including solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, receiving oral sex and giving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were assessed. Self-reported rates of HIV and other STI testing, and self-reported history of STI diagnosis were examined. Also assessed were rates of condom use during most recent and past 10 vaginal intercourse events. Data from a probability sample of 1246 black and Hispanic adults were analyzed to explore sexual behaviors, condom use, and STI testing and diagnosis trends. Masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among black and Hispanic men and women throughout the life course. Anal intercourse and same-gender sexual activities were less common. Self-reported rates of HIV testing were relatively high but varied by gender across age groups. Similarly, rates of testing for other STI were high and differed by gender across age groups. Overall rates of condom use among black and Hispanic men and women were relatively high and did not appear to be related to a variety of situational factors including location of sexual encounter, relationship status, other contraceptive use, and substance use during sexual activity. These data provide a foundation for understanding diverse sexual behaviors, sexual health-care practices, and condom use among the general population of black and Hispanic men and women in the United States. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.
Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...
Brewton, Butler E.
Richard Wright's literary work emphasizes a contrast between black women and white women. Although both are "givers" to black boys, the nature of what they give is different. The black woman gives physical life, feeds it, and protects it at the expense of spiritual or creative vitality. Her goal is to survive bodily, to breathe, to have…
Kelly, Bridget Turner; Segoshi, Megan; Adams, Lauren; Raines, Alyscia
This study qualitatively examines 16 Black alumnae's college experiences from a Black feminist thought intersectional lens. Findings reveal they graduated but did not thrive in the ways described by the thriving quotient and point to ways institutions can measure success not by graduation alone but by all students leaving college with wholeness,…
The concept Don't Ask, Don't Tell regarding Black LGBT sexuality in Black communities has been an acceptable form of identity management for Black LGBT people. In other words, Black LGBT people are accepted as long as they are not vocal about their sexuality. However, this is changing with the issue of gay marriage, which is creating a space where Black LGBT people are more open about their gender identity and sexuality in heterosexual Black spaces. This new form of openness allows Black LGBT people to "stay in" their communities, as opposed to coming out. In this article I examine how Black LGBT women in North Philadelphia stay in their communities: being politically active regarding LGBT issues, disengaging from LGBT issues, passing, and educating straight Black people about issues affecting the Black LGBT community. I conclude with implications of staying in and intersectionality among Black heterosexual and LGBT women fighting for social change.
This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....
Shippee, Tetyana P; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F
Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. The findings reveal the imprint of women's work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. © The Author(s) 2012
Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul
Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ernst, Maximilian; Jurowetzki, Roman
Koreans crossing the border into China, and eventually more North Koreans reaching South Korea. Findings - The findings of this paper are that there is a statistical significant correlation of the number of women that arrive in South Korea and the night-time lights emitted by a black market in Sinuiju......, at the Chinese border. Since luminosity of markets can be assumed as a proxy for market activity, the conclusion can be made that the reason for the high number of North Korean women arriving in South Korea is related to their higher mobility due to their leading role on the North Korean markets. Practical...... Implications - the evinced correlation of North Korean market activity along the Chinese border and the number of arrivals of North Koreans, and especially North Korean women, in South Korea may serve as a primer for further research that either uses the same methodology, i.e. satellite images, or other...
Bancroft, John; Long, J Scott; McCabe, Janice
In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national probability sample to compare black (n = 251) and white (n = 544) American women, aged 20-65 years, who were in an established heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. We focused on two aspects of their sexual well-being; how a woman evaluated (1) her sexual relationship and (2) her own sexuality. A range of possible determinants of sexual well-being, including demographic factors, physical and mental health, and aspects of the women's recent sexual experiences, were also assessed using Telephone-Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (T-ACASI). We found no significant difference between black and white women in their evaluation of their sexual relationships nor in the independent variables that were correlated with this evaluation. Black women, however, evaluated their own sexuality more positively than white women. In examining the correlates of this evaluation, a woman's rating of her own sexual attractiveness proved to be the strongest predictor, with black women rating themselves significantly more sexually attractive than did the white women. Overall, these findings were consistent with previous findings that, compared to white women, black women in the United States have higher self-esteem and tend towards more independence and individualism.
Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.
We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257
Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R
We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.
Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael
Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y)
Donovan, Roxanne A.
Although intersectional theory and empirical evidence suggest that race impacts how women are perceived, there is a dearth of research on how the dominant culture stereotypes Black women compared to White women. The current study addresses this gap using an intersectional framework to investigate White college students' stereotypes of Black and…
Reid, Allecia E; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321
Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M
Intimate partner violence is a threat to women's health. Relative to other racial/ethnic groups, African American and immigrant women are at an increased risk for violence. However, despite the growing presence of Caribbean Black immigrants in this country, few studies have examined the association between severe physical intimate partner violence (SPIPV) and the health of Caribbean Black women currently residing in the United States. This study examined the mental and physical health of U.S. Caribbean Black women with and without a history of SPIPV. We also explored the role of generational status-first, second, or third-in association with the physical and mental health of abused Caribbean Black women. Data from the National Survey of American Life, the largest and the only known representative study on Caribbeans residing in the United States, were analyzed. The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to determine DSM-IV mental disorders. The presence of physical health conditions was based on respondents' self-reports of physician diagnoses. The findings indicate an association between SPIPV and the mental and physical health status of U.S. Caribbean Black women. Rates of physical conditions and mental health disorders were generally higher among women with a history of SPIPV than those without a history. Generational status also played a role in women's health outcomes. The study has interventions and preventive implications for both detecting and addressing the health needs of U.S. Caribbean Black women who experience severe physical abuse by an intimate partner.
Mlambo, Yeukai Angela
Black African women are grossly underrepresented as academic staff in engineering programs at South African universities. The problem is exacerbated at historically White institutions (HWI) where Black women are simply absent as engineering research and teaching staff. The absence of Black African women in the academy occurs despite Black African…
Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D
Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.
Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M
Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Met...
Existing work suggests that black-white gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women and further that black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply are unimportant. However, panel data on wages and income sources demonstrate that the modal young black woman who does not engage in market work is a single mother…
Objectives: To understand the career progression of BA cricketers in South Africa .... views on the career progression and the representation of .... is one of the things that I think is a weakness. (Participant 17) ... through the different levels of cricket, but all players identified the positive ..... The case of minorities and women.
Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma
Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma
Ertel, Karen A; James-Todd, Tamarra; Kleinman, Kenneth; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew; Wright, Rosalind; Rich-Edwards, Janet
To assess the association between self-reported racial discrimination and prenatal depressive symptoms among black women. Our study population consisted of two cohorts of pregnant women: the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress project (ACCESS) and Project Viva. We measured self-reported racial discrimination among black women using a modified Experiences of Discrimination scale (score 0-8). We assessed elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (≥13 on a 0-30 scale). Fifty-four percent of ACCESS and 78% of Viva participants reported experiencing racial discrimination. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, education, and nativity, a 1-U increment in Experiences of Discrimination score was associated with 48% increased odds of EDS (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.76) for ACCESS participants but was not significantly associated among Viva participants (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.37). In both cohorts, responding to unfair treatment by talking to others was associated with the lowest odds of EDS. Our findings suggest that higher levels of perceived racial discrimination may increase depressive symptoms during pregnancy among U.S. black women. Interventions involving talking to others may aid in reducing the risk of depressive symptoms among black women experiencing higher levels of racial discrimination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.
Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…
Grimm, Lars J; Viradia, Neal K; Johnson, Karen S
This study aimed to determine if there were differences in the imaging features of normal lymph nodes between white and black women using magnetic resonance imaging. Following institutional review board approval, we identified white and black women who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging from November 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013 at our institution. To identify normal lymph nodes for measurement, patients with any benign or malignant causes for lymph node enlargement and patients with any subsequent breast cancer in the following 2 years were excluded. Black and white women were age matched at a 1:2 ratio. The largest lymph node in each axilla was measured for the long-axis length and maximal cortical thickness. Comparisons were made between white and black women using a conditional logistic regression to control for matching. There were 55 black women and 110 white women for analysis. The mean lymph node long-axis length was 14.7 ± 5.3 mm for black women and 14.4 ± 6.4 mm for white women (P = .678). The mean maximum cortical thickness was 3.3 ± 1.6 mm for black women and 2.6 ± 1.4 mm for Caucasian women (P < .001). A significantly higher percentage of black than white women had cortical thicknesses greater than threshold values of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 mm (P < .01 for all). The normal lymph node cortical thickness in black women is significantly greater than in white women, which should be considered when deciding to recommend a lymph node biopsy. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jones, Martinque K.; Sam, Thomandra S.
Counseling interventions that support the exploration of ethnocultural concerns are beneficial to the overall well-being of Black women in college. The authors describe Cultural Connections, a theoretically based and culturally adapted group counseling intervention for Black women in college. Also presented are a case example demonstrating the…
Problem: Compared with other ethnic groups, Black women are the least likely group to engage in the recommended amount of physical activity. However, few studies have specifically identified or addressed barriers to physical activity in Black college-aged women. Method: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the 2013 National Health…
In a survey of Black and White women managers, Linda M. Hite identifies differences in the managers' perceptions of opportunities available to different race and gender groups. Her findings reveal divergent beliefs about the opportunities for people of color; there is more similarity in Black and White women's views when comparing opportunities…
Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.
This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…
Henry, Wilma J.
Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…
Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Makambi, Kepher; Lewis, Shantell; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Few studies have reported on the validity of physical activity measures in African Americans. The present study was designed to determine the validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that was used in a large prospective study of African American women in the United States against an accelerometer (actigraph), an objective assessment of movement, and a seven-day activity diary. The study was conducted among 101 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, representing 11.2% (101/900) of this sample. Physical activity levels were obtained from the parent BWHS PAQ (eg, 1997 and 1999) and repeated in the present study. This information entailed hours per week of participation in walking for exercise, hours per week of moderate activity (eg, housework, gardening, and bowling), and hours per week of strenuous activity (eg, basketball, swimming, running, and aerobics) during the previous year. The participants were required to wear actigraphs for seven days and then record their physical activities in their diaries (seven-day physical activity diary) during this time. The diaries were used to record the amount and pattern of daily energy expenditure. Significant positive correlations were seen between the BWHS PAQ and the actigraph for total activity, r=.28; walking, r=.26; and vigorous activity, r=.40, PPAQ also demonstrated significant correlations for total (r=0.42, PPAQ is a useful measure of physical activity in the BWHS cohort and thus has utility in prospective epidemiologic research.
Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra
A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4 years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (β=0.036, S.E.=.0118, pstress interaction was observed for BMI (β=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Family types continue to expand in the U.S., yet normative patterns of endogamy and the privileging of nuclear families persist. To understand how professional women of color navigate endogamy and family ideals, I draw on 40 in-depth interviews of professional Black women and Latinas to ask how they construct partner preferences. I find that professional Latinas and Black women prefer same-race, similarly educated partners but report significant barriers to satisfying these desires. Respondents’ experiences with racism, the rejection of ethno-racial and cultural assimilation, gendered racism from men of color, and the college gender gap emerge as mechanisms for endogamous preferences. These preferences resist and support hegemonic family formation, an ideological and behavioral process that privileges, white, middle class, endogamous, heteronormative ideals for families comprising courtship, marriage, and biological childbearing. By challenging the racial devaluation of people of color while preferring the normativity that endogamy offers, the women in this study underscore the fluidity embedded in endogamy.
Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye
Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination.
Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams
The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.
Recent educational literature has produced a plethora of gendered experiences encountered by women working towards leadership positions in education. Gender plays a complex role that shapes the relationship between perceived ideals of womanhood and leadership. This paper focuses on the variations in leadership and management distributed in the…
India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family
Sofia VALDIVIESO GÁMEZ
Full Text Available Starting from the assumptions the patriarchal paradigm has used in the construction of male and female identity, the changes experienced by women in the last century and the statements about fear undergone by more than twenty-five women from different ages and nationalities through their own life cycle, the author gives us an account on what women fear and how they live and overcome it. These ideas are based on the hypothesis that if patriarchy as a social organization is a cultural constant, the fears experienced by women in the process of constructing themselves as such are also constant. She concludes that the only course to follow is necessarily a way where feminine consciousness must be integrated, both in men and women, as a previous step in the construction of a reality based on equals, though, at the same time, different. This would allow us to discover the masculine and feminine dimension in all of us.
NiCole R. Keith
Full Text Available Background Obese black women enrolled in weight loss interventions experience 50% less weight reduction than obese white women. This suggests that current weight loss strategies may increase health disparities. Objective We evaluated the feasibility of identifying daily contextual factors that may influence obesity. Methods In-home interviews with 16 obese (body mass index ≥ 30 black and white urban poor women were performed. For 14 days, ecological momentary assessment (EMA was used to capture emotion and social interactions every other day, and day reconstruction method surveys were used the following day to reconstruct the context of the prior day's EMA. Results Factors included percentage of participants without weight scales (43.8% or fitness equipment (68.8% in the home and exposed to food at work (55.6%. The most frequently reported location, activity, and emotion were home (19.4 ± 8.53, working (7.1 ± 8.80, and happy (6.9 ± 10.03, respectively. Conclusion Identifying individual contexts may lead to valuable insights about obesogenic behaviors and new interventions to improve weight management.
Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah
Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Alvidrez, Jennifer; Snowden, Lonnie R; Kaiser, Dawn M
Little is known about how stigma affects Black people receiving mental health treatment. For a project to develop a consumer-based stigma intervention, qualitative interviews were conducted with public-sector Black mental health consumers (N=34). Primary themes from the interviews regarding stigma concerns, experiences, and coping strategies were examined. Concerns about stigma prompted most consumers initially to avoid or delay treatment; once in treatment, consumers commonly faced stigmatizing reactions from others. Consumers identified numerous strategies to deal with stigma, including seeking support from accepting members of their existing social networks, and viewing their own health as more important than the reaction of others. These consumer perspectives may be valuable to Black individuals who are contemplating seeking mental health treatment.
McCarter-Spaulding, Deborah; Lucas, Jennifer; Gore, Rebecca
Black women have lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration than other racial groups have, but the effects of employment on breastfeeding, specifically for Black women, have not been studied extensively. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of work or maternity leave on breastfeeding duration in a sample of Black women. Participants were recruited in the first postpartum week, and then followed monthly for six months or until complete weaning. The timing of returning to work significantly influenced the risk of weaning. Women who returned to work prior to 12 weeks were more likely to wean their babies than both those who returned to work after 12 weeks as well as those who remained at home. Policies that allow for at least 12 weeks' maternity leave would be likely to increase breastfeeding duration for employed Black women. Interdisciplinary research is needed to address health and economic issues of maternity leave and to eliminate racial disparities.
Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Gardner, Michelle
Black women disproportionately share the distribution of risk factors for physical and mental illnesses. The goal of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms among black women. Pooled data from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to assess the sociodemographic and health correlates of MDD symptoms among black women (n = 227). Multivariate logistic regression techniques assessed the association between MDD symptoms and age, socioeconomic status, health status, and health behaviors. Poverty income ratio and smoking status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having MDD symptoms. Black women who were smokers were also more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to non-smokers [OR = 8.05, 95% CI = (4.56, 14.23)]. After controlling for all other socioeconomic and health variables, this association remained statistically significant. In addition, after controlling for all other variables, the multivariate analyses showed that black women below 299% federal poverty level (FPL) were nearly three times more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to women above 300% FPL [OR = 2.82, 95% CI = (1.02, 7.96)]. These analyses suggest that poverty and smoking status are associated with MDD symptoms among black women. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and key factors which influence MDD symptoms are needed in order to develop and create mental health programs targeting women of color.
Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie
Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.
Pankey, Tyson; Ramaswamy, Megha
The purpose of this paper is to explore incarcerated women's awareness, beliefs, and experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination. Researchers conducted focus groups with 45 incarcerated women in an urban Midwestern US jail to assess how women talked about their Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening and abnormal Pap test follow-up experiences. Some focus group questions specifically assessed individual awareness, beliefs, and experiences with HPV infection and vaccination. Based on these data, the authors described participants' awareness of HPV, as well as used open coding to ultimately extract themes related to beliefs and experiences with HPV infection and vaccine. While all 45 participants reported experiencing an abnormal Pap test event within the last five years, only two-thirds of participants (n=30) reported having heard of the HPV infection. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the women's beliefs about cause and severity of HPV; frustration with age requirements of the vaccine; varied experiences with vaccinations for themselves and their children; the impact of media exposure on knowledge; and desire for more HPV infection and vaccine information. Incarcerated women's awareness and limited experiences with HPV infection and vaccination may be a barrier to adequate screening and cervical cancer prevention. This study has implications for the development of cervical health education for this high-risk group of women, who are four to five times as likely to have cervical cancer as non-incarcerated women.
Hrabosky, Joshua I; Grilo, Carlos M
The current study examined body image concerns and eating disordered behaviors in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. In addition, this study explored whether there are ethnic differences in the correlates or in the prediction of body image concerns. Participants were 120 (67 Black and 53 Hispanic) women who responded to advertisements to participate in a study of women and health. Participants completed a battery of established self-report measures to assess body image, eating disordered behaviors, and associated psychological domains. Black and Hispanic women did not differ significantly in their self-reports of body image, eating disordered behaviors, or associated psychological measures. Comparisons performed separately within both ethnic groups revealed significant differences by weight status, with a general graded patterning of greater concerns in obese than overweight than average weight groups. In terms of predicting body image, multiple regression analyses testing a number of variables, including BMI, performed separately for Black and Hispanic women revealed that eating concern and depressive affect were significant predictors of body image concern for both groups. Overall, Black and Hispanic women differed little in their self-reports of body image, eating-disordered features, and depressive affect. Higher weight was associated with a general pattern of increased body image concerns and features of eating disorders in both groups and with binge eating in Black women. Eating concerns and depressive affect emerged as significant independent predictors of body image for both ethnic groups.
An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the. Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (fanns) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...
An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (farms) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...
Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja
To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.
Boyd, Kaitlin Therese
"The Criminalization of Black Angeleno Women" illuminates what happened in early 20th century Los Angeles when African American women, particularly working poor females, came into contact with the Los Angeles Police Department, the court system and the local, mainstream media. Individually, but especially collaboratively, these institutions lead to the overrepresentation of Black, statistically and in the public mind, in the local sex trade. Essentially, this thesis traces the biases of the...
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C.; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Helmkamp, Laura; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Platt, Robert W.; Straughen, Jennifer K.; Dailey-Okezie, Rhonda K.; Abeysekara, Purni; Misra, Dawn P.
Purpose This study sought to examine whether perceived interpersonal racism in the form of racial micro aggressions was associated with preterm birth (PTB) and whether the presence of depressive symptoms and perceived stress modified the association. Methods Data stem from a cohort of 1410 Black women residing in Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan enrolled into the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study. The Daily Life Experiences of Racism and Bother (DLE-B) scale measured the frequency and perceived stressfulness of racial micro aggressions experienced during the past year. Severe past-week depressive symptomatology was measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) dichotomized at ≥23. Restricted cubic splines were used to model non-linearity between perceived racism and PTB. We used the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to assess general stress perceptions. Results Stratified spline regression analysis demonstrated that among those with severe depressive symptoms, perceived racism was not associated with PTB. However, perceived racism was significantly associated with PTB among women with mild to moderate (CES-D score ≤22) depressive symptoms. Perceived racism was not associated with PTB among women with or without high amounts of perceived stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that racism, at least in the form of racial micro aggressions, may not further impact a group already at high risk for PTB (those with severe depressive symptoms), but may increase the risk of PTB for women at lower baseline risk. PMID:26549132
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Helmkamp, Laura; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Osypuk, Theresa L; Platt, Robert W; Straughen, Jennifer K; Dailey-Okezie, Rhonda K; Abeysekara, Purni; Misra, Dawn P
This study sought to examine whether perceived interpersonal racism in the form of racial micro aggressions was associated with preterm birth (PTB) and whether the presence of depressive symptoms and perceived stress modified the association. Data stem from a cohort of 1410 black women residing in Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, enrolled into the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) study. The Daily Life Experiences of Racism and Bother (DLE-B) scale measured the frequency and perceived stressfulness of racial micro aggressions experienced during the past year. Severe past-week depressive symptomatology was measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) dichotomized at ≥ 23. Restricted cubic splines were used to model nonlinearity between perceived racism and PTB. We used the Perceived Stress Scale to assess general stress perceptions. Stratified spline regression analysis demonstrated that among those with severe depressive symptoms, perceived racism was not associated with PTB. However, perceived racism was significantly associated with PTB among women with mild to moderate (CES-D score ≤ 22) depressive symptoms. Perceived racism was not associated with PTB among women with or without high amounts of perceived stress. Our findings suggest that racism, at least in the form of racial micro aggressions, may not further impact a group already at high risk for PTB (those with severe depressive symptoms), but may increase the risk of PTB for women at lower baseline risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lucky L. Motaung
Full Text Available Orientation: The study focused on examining the perceptions of dual-career couples at a stateowned company about the influence of taking maternity and paternity leave on the career progression of black African women in middle management and leadership occupations. Research purpose: The primary purpose of the study was to identify core barriers in relation to maternity and paternity leave that contribute negatively in the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples. Motivation for the study: To obtain insight into the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Research design, approach and method: This study was qualitative, comprising a sample of 10 black African women and 10 black African men, with data collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the interview dialogues. Main findings: The findings established that taking maternity leave has a negative influence on the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples at the state-owned company. The participants further confirmed that involuntary time off work and productiveness were principal influencing barriers of taking maternity leave, leading to other undesirable consequences, such as unproductiveness and reliability. Practical and managerial implications: The state-owned company should review its current talent management and recruitment and selection policies, in order to positively contribute to increasing the representation and facilitating career progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Contributions or value-add: Insights were provided on the influences of taking maternity and paternity leave in the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations.
Guthrie, Robert; Jansz, Janis
Gender differences is a question of major importance within workers' compensation given the increased role of women in the workforce over the past several decades. This article reviews literature relating to women's experiences following work injury. An Australian study is used as background to exploring the broad issue of the question of gender equity in workers' compensation. In doing so it takes account of historical, legal and medical issues. Women's experience in the workers' compensation system is different to that of men due to a range of factors. It is heavily influenced by the industrial environment in which they work. Women are paid less than men in many instances and work in gender-segregated circumstances, which often reduces their industrial bargaining power. Women also suffer different forms of injury and disease to men because of the different nature of their work. The Australian experience suggests that as a consequence of the combination of lesser industrial bargaining power, lower wages and differing forms of injury and disease women often receive less than men in compensation payments, struggle to obtain equity in the dispute resolution process and experience greater difficulties in returning to work following injury or disease.
Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma
Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote
Smith, Tanyka K; Larson, Elaine L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health concern in the United States, particularly among older Black women who comprise approximately 40% of the newly diagnosed cases among women. This systematic review sought to answer the research question: What are the sexual practices in older Black women associated with HIV risk? CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge electronic databases were searched for English-language research studies published between 2003 and 2013 that focused on the HIV sexual risk practices of Black women over the age of 50. Using PRISMA guidelines, two reviewers independently reviewed and appraised the quality of relevant articles; agreement of select studies was achieved by consensus. Among the 3,167 articles surveyed, 9 met inclusion criteria. The majority (88%) were quantitative, observational studies. All nine articles addressed at least one of three factors that contribute to HIV sexual risk: Behavioral (inconsistent condom use and multiple sexual partners), psychological (risk perception, depression/stress, trauma, and self-esteem issues), and social factors (economics, education, and drugs/alcohol use). Outcome measures varied across studies. Although this systematic review appraised few studies, findings suggest that many older Black women are engaged in HIV risk-taking practices. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the HIV risk practices of older Black women to improve health outcomes through education, effective communication and risk appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McNally, Michael J.
Describes the formation of the Oblate Sisters of Providence and the Congregation of the Holy Family, two orders of Black nuns founded in the American South prior to the Civil War for the purposes of educating Black children and caring for orphans and elderly, abandoned slaves. (GC)
Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori
The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…
Brooms, Derrick R.
Background/Context: A good deal of research has been written about the problems and challenges facing Black male youth in their educational endeavors, ranging from academic performances, aspirations, and outcomes to student-teacher relationships, social experiences, and identity development. Statements calling for more Black male teachers abound…
This guide describes how to implement an interdisciplinary black history project designed to explore black experiences through a combination of personal anecdotes and text research. The program was designed by a teacher at Satellite East Junior High School in Brooklyn (New York). An introduction gives an overview of the structure and aims of the…
Reid, Esther W; McNeill, Jenny A; Holmes, Valerie A; Alderdice, Fiona A
to explore women's perceptions and experiences of pregnancy and childbirth following birth of a macrosomic infant (birth weight ≥4000g). a qualitative design utilising interviews conducted 13-19 weeks post partum in women's homes. The study was conducted in one Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland between January and September 2010. Participants were identified from a larger cohort of women recruited to a prospective study exploring the impact of physical activity and nutrition on macrosomia. Eleven women who delivered macrosomic infants participated in this phase of the study. four overarching themes emerged: preparation for delivery; physical and emotional impact of macrosomia; professional relations and perceptions of macrosomia. Findings highlighted the importance of communication with health professionals in relation to both prediction of macrosomia and decision making about childbirth, and offers further understanding into the physical and emotional impact of having a macrosomic infant on women. Furthermore, there was evidence that beliefs and perceptions relating to macrosomia may influence birth experiences and uptake of health promotion messages. this study provides important insight into women's experiences of macrosomia throughout the perinatal period and how they were influenced by previous birth experiences, professional relations and personal perceptions and beliefs about macrosomia. Pregnant women at risk of having a macrosomic infant may require extra support throughout the antenatal period continuing into the postnatal period. Support needs to be tailored to the woman's information needs, with time allocated to explore previous birth experiences, beliefs about macrosomia and options for childbirth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Juuso, Päivi; Skär, Lisa; Sundin, Karin; Söderberg, Siv
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common pain syndrome that mostly affects women. Chronic pain and other symptoms often chalenge work for women with FM. This study aimed to explore how women with FM experience their work situations. A purposive sample of 15 women with FM was interviewed with in-depth qualitative interviews. Data were analysed using a hermeneutic approach. The results revealed that women with FM experienced incapacity to work as they had previously and eventually accepted that their work life had changed or reached its end. Since their work had great significance in their lives, feelings of loss and sorrow were common. Women who were working, unemployed, or on sick leave described feelings of fear for their future work situations. Women with FM greatly value their work. Their wish to perform work as before is however, not consistent with their abilities. As such, women with FM need support in continuing to work for as long as possible, after which they need support in finding new values in life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Leslie van Daalen-Smith, Cheryl
This article presents findings and analysis stemming from a two-year qualitative study that explored, in their own voices, women's lived experience of electroshock. Feminist standpoint theory frames and provides the moorings for both the validity and methodology of this woman-centered inquiry. In addition, nurses' experiences with and views of ECT are explored and compared to the experiences reported by the women recipients themselves. Vulnerability and disconnection as emergent themes are presented for the nursing profession's sober consideration. The nurses interviewed believed electroshock culminated in a net gain for patients, but for the majority of the women interviewed, electroshock resulted in damage and devastating loss. This article closes with pressing questions for nurses to ask ourselves as we enter the second decade of this new and promising millennium.
Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise
Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.
Reynolds-Dobbs, Wendy; Thomas, Kecia M.; Harrison, Matthew S.
Black women, like other women of color, find themselves at the intersection of both racism and sexism in the workplace. Due to their unique dual status as racial and gender minorities, they encounter unique and unexplored barriers that inhibit their career as well as leadership development. The goal of this article is to highlight the emerging…
Coleman, Lerita M.; And Others
Explored participation in and impact of social roles on psychological and physical health of middle-aged and older Black women. Found that few such women participated in the three roles of parent, spouse, and employee simultaneously. Of these three roles, only employment showed a significant relationship to well-being, having a positive impact on…
Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.
Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…
The two important questions that this paper will attempt to answer are: (1) why is it that regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic location, the sex ratio data at birth show more males than females?; and (2) Why is it that regardless of geographic location compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Black women or Women of ...
Coe, Sherri N.; Morgan, Rosalind A.
This workshop manual is intended for use by counselors, psychologists, and community and social workers. It may be used as an adult developmental activity, for black women 18 or older, at the secondary and post-secondary levels, as part of a women's cultural studies program, or as a continuing education offering. Chapter 1 of the manual provides a…
Ayers, LoAnn Debra Gienger
Riverside University (a pseudonym), like many universities, has not significantly increased the number of women who graduate with bachelor's degrees in engineering. The purpose of the study is to understand how the university experiences of women students influence the decision to persist in an undergraduate engineering degree and to understand the role of self-perception in how the students perceive experiences as supporting or hindering their persistence in the major. Archival data, documents and artifacts, observations, individual interviews, and a focus group with women engineering students provide insights into students' perceived barriers and supports of student success. Analysis of the data results in two major themes. First, students' self-confidence and self-efficacy influence how women assimilate university experiences as either supportive or diminishing of academic success. Second, university policies and practices shape the campus environment within which student experiences are formed and influence a student's level of institutional, academic, and social integration. The results of the study indicate opportunities for university leadership to enhance strategies that positively shape students' institutional, academic and social integration as precursors toward increasing the number of women students who successfully complete undergraduate engineering degrees at Riverside University. Future research is indicated to better understand how gender and gender identity intersects with other demographic factors, such as socio-economic status, immigration status, and life stage (e.g., traditional versus non-traditional students), to support or deter the persistence of engineering students to degree completion.
Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious; Angel, Roma B.
Two women faculty members, one White from the southeastern United States and one Black African from Zimbabwe, purposefully explored their informal mentoring relationship with the goal of illuminating the complexities associated with their cross-racial, cross-cultural experience. Concentrating on their four-year mentor-mentee academic relationship…
Tina R. Opie
Full Text Available Purpose: Women are penalized if they do not behave in a stereotype-congruent manner (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Heilman, 1983; 2001. For example, because women are not expected to be agentic they incur an agency penalty for expressing anger, dominance or assertiveness (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008; Eagly & Karau, 2002; Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012; Rudman, 1998; Rudman & Fairchild, 2004; Rudman & Glick, 1999, 2001. Yet, all women are not equally penalized (Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012. We make a novel contribution by examining how both White and Black evaluators respond to Black women’s dominance, in this case, whether Black women choose to wear Afrocentric or Eurocentric hairstyles. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted three experimental studies to examine the influence of target hairstyle and participant race on ratings of the target’s professionalism (Studies 1, 2 and 3 and dominance (Study 2. Study 1 was an online experimental study with 200 participants (112 females, 87 males, 1 missing gender; 160 Whites, 19 Blacks, 11 Latinos, 7 Asian Americans and 3 who identify as other; Mage= 35.5, SD = 11.4. Study 2 was an online experimental study with 510 participants (276 women, 234 males; 256 Blacks, 254 Whites; Mage = 41.25 years, SD = 12.21. Study 3 was an online experimental study with 291 participants (141 Blacks, 150 Whites, Mage= 47.5 years, SD = 11.66. Findings: Black, as compared to White, evaluators gave higher agency penalties to Black employment candidates when they donned Afrocentric versus Eurocentric hair, rating them as more dominant and less professional. Implications: The present research illustrates the significance of considering both target and evaluator race when examining the influence of agency, and specifically dominance, on ratings of professionalism.
Fray, Niasha A; Caldwell, Kia Lilly
This article explores the impact of patient and healthcare provider communication (PPC) on the HIV testing behaviors of middle socioeconomic status (SES) Black women in North Carolina. We explore how PPC about STIs and HIV (or the lack thereof) affects the provision of STI/HIV testing by either confirming the need for middle SES Black women to test routinely or potentially deterring women from feeling they need to be tested. After conducting 15 qualitative interviews with middle SES Black women between 25 and 45 years of age, we uncovered the role of patient self-advocacy in promoting HIV testing among middle SES Black women when they communicate with their healthcare providers. We discuss the importance of healthcare providers engaging their middle SES Black female patients in routine discussions about sexual health and sexual risk reduction, regardless of providers' perceptions of their potential STI/HIV risk. We recommend including SES as a variable in data collection and research in order to better understand how social class, race, and gender affect sexual health behavior and the provision of STI and HIV/AIDS prevention to diverse populations. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seck, S M; Agboton, G; Dieng, M; Ndiaye Sow, M N; Diakhate, M; Gueye, N N; Seck, C M; Lam, A
The purpose of our study was to evaluate in the short and medium term, intraocular pressure results after selective laser trabeculoplasty in black patients with chronic open angle glaucoma or isolated ocular hypertension. We conducted a retrospective study with a mean 12.5-month follow-up in black patients who underwent SLT. Inclusion criteria were: an open iridocorneal angle greater than or equal to Schaeffer grade 3, data recorded and available on trabecular pigmentation, data on SLT parameters available, and intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry recorded.A positive result was defined as a post-laser IntraOcular Pressure (IOP) less than 21 mmHg after 1-month follow-up. The main motivation was the reduction of number of eye drops used. Performed first was a treatment of the inferior 180° (3:00-9:00), possibly supplemented by a second session at 15 days or 1 month if a pressure decrease was noted after the first session. IOP results were evaluated prior to SLT, immediately following SLT and then depending on the drop in pressure. Statistical analysis was performed using the EPI.info 7 software. A total of 69 eyes of 40 patients treated with SLT were identified. The mean IOP prior to SLT was 18.3 mmHg ± 4. Our results showed 90% of patients who positively responded to the treatment (10% failure) with a mean IOP decrease of 2.3 ± 1 mmHg, that is 13%, by the second week. The mean pressure decrease continued to 4.78 ± 1 mmHg for patients (30%) in the group treated for 360°, that is 27% in the same period of time. SLT permitted discontinuation of a prostaglandin in 60% (42 cases). Eyes on triple-drug therapy went from 23 before SLT to 5 following SLT (a 26% decline), eyes on two medications went from 32 to 16 (24% decline). In result association tests, only pigmentation of the angle and visual field stage had a statistically significant probability. In our experience, SLT is indicated in black patients to potentiate less effective treatments, to
Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…
Full Text Available Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI taking antipsychotic medication. Further, this prevalence was compared to the prevalence in a matched control group of black South African men and women without SMI. Setting: A general hospital psychiatric unit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of MetS in a group of multi-ethnic participants with SMI treated with antipsychotic medication and a matched control group without SMI, applying the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Here, we included only the black African participants to compare MetS prevalence between men and women. Results: There were 232 participants in the group with SMI (male 155 and female 77 and without SMI (male 156 and female 76. The prevalence of MetS was more than three times higher in women with SMI compared to men with SMI (37.7% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of MetS in men or women between the groups with and without SMI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR] 7.66, advancing age (OR 1.08 and longer duration of illness (OR = 1.15 were significant risk factors for MetS in SMI. Conclusion: In black South Africans with SMI on antipsychotic medication, there is a higher prevalence and risk for MetS in women compared to men.
Gjerdingen, D K; McGovern, P M; Chaloner, K M; Street, H B
This study was conducted to describe women's perceptions of their maternity leave policy and its implementation, maternity leave benefits, postpartum work experience, and factors that relate to returning to work. Surveys were mailed to 436 married, recently employed, first-time mothers at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postpartum. Most respondents said they had written maternity leave policies they could understand, but they were not completely satisfied with their policies. The average 11.1-week maternity leave was considerably shorter than their 8-month ideal, and only 25.5% had the option of working part-time. A minority (35.8%) were allowed to use personal days to care for a sick infant. Most women were distressed about making child care arrangements. Compared with women who remained at home, those who returned to work complained of more respiratory, gynecologic, and breast symptoms. Relatively little is known about women's postpartum work experience. In this study, return to work after delivery was related to several demographic, occupational, and social factors and was associated with health problems and concerns about child care. With a majority of new mothers now returning to work, attention has recently been directed to factors that facilitate the merger of work and parenting roles. One such important factor is women's parental or maternity leave benefits, the focus of this study.
Carson, Tiffany L; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E; Baskin, Monica L
Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m(2)) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.
Tiffany L. Carson
Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.
Jerald, Morgan C; Cole, Elizabeth R; Ward, L Monique; Avery, Lanice R
This paper presents research exploring how stereotypes that are simultaneously racialized and gendered affect Black women. We investigated the mental and physical health consequences of Black women's awareness that others hold these stereotypes and tested whether this association was moderated by the centrality of racial identity. A structural equation model tested among 609 young Black women revealed that metastereotype awareness (i.e., being aware that others hold negative stereotypes of one's group) predicted negative mental health outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, hostility), which, in turn, predicted diminished self-care behaviors and greater drug and alcohol use for coping. High racial centrality exacerbated the negative association between metastereotype awareness and self-care. We discuss implications of the findings for clinical practice and for approaches to research using intersectionality frameworks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available AIM: Unplanned pregnancy is a major medical, social, and public health problem. For the prevention of unintended pregnancies use of emergency contraception (EC methods is a second chance. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the knowledge and experiences related to emergency contraception of married women older than fifteen years. METHODS: The universe of the study consisted of women older than 15 years. 760 married women were included in the study. Data were collected by questionnaire. Chi-square was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 28.8% of the women had experienced unintended pregnancy, 26.8% of them have heard about EC methods and 9.1% of them had used an EC method. 93.2% of the women had not information about the time of use and 79.1% of them had not information about the efficiency of the methods. EC methods were used more frequently by women who were high school or higher educated, working, living in an urban area, not having a child and women having experienced abortion or an unintended pregnancy (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Rate of using of EC methods were low and level of education, experiencing abortion or unintended pregnancy affected use of the EC methods. It was concluded that level of information about methods of EC was not at the wished level. As a result, giving more intensive and efficient information to women regarding to the risk groups about this subject within family planning programs can be suggested. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 251-258
Davis, Dannielle Joy; Reynolds, Rema; Jones, Tamara Bertrand
This narrative work highlights one Black female faculty participant's experience of the Sisters of the Academy (SOTA) Research Boot Camp. She shares the benefits of the initiative, as well as how the program influenced her research and writing productivity as a faculty member. SOTA leadership supports Black female tenure-track and tenured faculty…
Chapman-Hilliard, Collette; Beasley, Samuel T.
This study examined Black students' experiences in culture-centered courses that focused on the historical and contemporary experiences of Blacks in America and across the African diaspora. Using a qualitative approach, the authors investigated the perceptions of how Black Studies courses shaped the psychosocial experiences and identity…
Jeter, Natasha Harden
Black men who have sex with men (MSM) on Historically Black College/University (HBCU) campuses face a unique set of challenges. In addition to being disproportionately affected by HIV, Black MSM are impacted by risk behavior, stigma, and environmental policies and practices that adversely influence their experiences. The purpose of this study was…
Willie M. Abel
Full Text Available Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens.Methods: Black women (N=80 who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence.Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67% were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend=0.015.Conclusions: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension.
Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in the United States. Incidence rates are 1 in 8 for an American woman being diagnosed. Moreover, statistics indicate that every 13 min an American woman dies from complications related to breast cancer. Despite all the gains made in the area of cancer research, Black American women continue to have a 67% higher mortality rate than their White counterparts. There is no preparation for a diagnosis of breast cancer. Upon hearing the words: you have breast cancer, a woman's life is forever altered. The woman's initial reactions of denial and/or anger yield to strategic responses. These responses may strengthen the woman's resiliency both during and following treatments. Research indicates that Black Americans, specifically Black American women, exhibit greater religiosity/spirituality than do other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the use of religiosity/spirituality by Black Americans increases during a crisis. This qualitative study examines how religiosity/spirituality was utilized as a coping mechanism by a group of Black American women following their diagnoses of breast cancer.
An anonymous questionnaire investigating Black South African first-year college students' experience of first intercourse and contraception was administered during the February 1993 orientation at a Black university. 754 females and 959 males of mean age 20.4 years in an age range of 16-50 years participated. 96.5% of the respondents were single. The study findings relate to the 894 single students who reported having experienced sexual intercourse. Male and female respondents' mean ages at first intercourse were, respectively, 15.5 and 17.8 years. 35.7% of males and 32.8% of females reported not using contraception during first intercourse, 12.3% of males and 7.1% of females were unsure, and 6.2% reported using withdrawal. 36.8% reported not using a condom because first sexual intercourse was unplanned, while 38.1% simply did not think about contraception at the time. Peers were reported as the primary first source of learning about sexual intercourse as well as the preferred source. These findings lend support to the need to target safer sex messages to college freshmen in this setting. In so doing, safer sex behavior can be encouraged and possibly adopted before high-risk sex behavior patterns develop.
Berg, J A; Taylor, D L
The purpose of this study was to describe the perimenopausal symptom experience of Filipino American midlife women with particular emphasis upon estrogen-related menopause symptoms (day sweats, hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness). A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was used to generate symptom experience data for 165 Filipina Americans between the ages of 35 and 56 who self-identified as Filipina American and were English-language proficient. The community-based sample completed questionnaires composed of sample characteristic questions and a 51-item menstrual symptom checklist with menopause-related symptoms embedded in it. Sample characteristics and symptom experience were compared among age groups of 35 to 39 (n = 39), 40 to 44 (n = 40), 45 to 49 (n = 37), and 50 to 56 (n = 49) and by perimenopausal phase, defined as premenopausal (n = 85), transitional (n = 33), and menopausal/postmenopausal (n = 47). The most reported individual symptoms were "felt energetic" (86.1%) and "well-being" (83.6%). Estrogen-related menopause symptoms were reported as "vaginal dryness" (39.4%), "hot flashes" (37.6%), "day sweats" (27.9%), and "night sweats" (24.2%) by the total sample. Distress associated with estrogen-related menopause symptoms was reported by 17% (n = 28) of all women. Subjects' chi 2 tests indicated that 50-to-56-year-old women were more likely to report fatigue/sleep symptoms, physical symptoms, and estrogen-related menopause symptoms than all other age groups. When compared by perimenopausal phase, transitional women were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity for day sweats. Premenopausal women were more likely to report minimal or mild severity and women in the perimenopausal transition were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity on estrogen-related menopause symptoms. Filipino American midlife women appear to consider the perimenopausal transition in a positive light and experience little distress associated with
Henry, Wilma J.
The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…
Martin, Anika; Negron, Rennie; Balbierz, Amy; Bickell, Nina; Howell, Elizabeth A
Minority women are often not adequately represented in randomized controlled trials, limiting the generalizability of research trial results. We implemented a recruitment strategy for a postpartum depression prevention trial that utilized patient feedback to identify and understand the recruitment barriers of black and Latina postpartum women. Feedback on patients' reasons for trial refusal informed adaptations to the recruitment process. We calculated weekly recruitment rates and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from patient refusals. Of the 668 women who were approached and completed the consent process, 540 enrolled in the trial and 128 declined participation. Over 52-weeks of recruitment, refusal rates decreased from 40% to 19%. A taxonomy of eight reasons for refusal derived from patient responses identified barriers to recruitment and generated targeted revisions to the recruitment message. A recruitment strategy designed to incorporate and respond to patient feedback improved recruitment of Black and Latina women to a clinical trial.
Sabri, Bushra; Huerta, Julia; Alexander, Kamila A; St Vil, Noelle M; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Callwood, Gloria B
This study examined knowledge, access, utilization, and barriers to use of resources among Black women exposed to multiple types of intimate partner violence in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We analyzed quantitative survey data collected by 163 women recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the USVI. In addition we analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 11 women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A substantial proportion of Black women with multiple types of violence experiences lacked knowledge of, did not have access to, and did not use resources. Barriers to resource use were identified at the individual, relationship, and community levels. There is need for programs to develop awareness, promote access and utilization of resources, and eliminate barriers to resource use among abused Black women.
Travaglini, Letitia E; Himelhoch, Seth S; Fang, Li Juan
Black women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) are a subgroup with the highest growing rates of HIV infection in the United States. Stigma and co-occurring mental and physical health problems have been reported among Black women LWHA, and research on the benefits of social and religious support, often major protective factors among Black women, has been met with mixed findings. The current study examined the relation between anticipated HIV stigma and mental and physical health symptoms and risk and protective factors (discrimination, coping, social support) among Black women LWHA (N = 220). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma was significantly related to poorer mental health status, greater discrimination, and greater use of negative coping strategies. Stigma was not related to physical health, perceived social support or use of positive coping strategies. This study lends support to the need for psychosocial interventions that reduce anticipated stigma among individuals LWHA, particularly Black women LWHA.
Burns, Bridgit; Grindlay, Kate; Dennis, Amanda
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and sterilization are popular contraceptive methods. However, they have been associated with safety concerns and coercive practices. We aimed to understand women's opinions and experiences related to these methods, including whether the methods' fraught histories influence use or interest. Between May and July 2013, we conducted an online survey with a convenience sample of 520 women aged 14 to 45. We used quota sampling to ensure women of color were at least 60% of our sample. Descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests, and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate participants' awareness of, interest in, and experiences with LARCs and sterilization. Overall, 30% of women reported current LARC use and 67% interest in future LARC use. Four percent reported sterilization use and 48% interest in future sterilization. In multivariate analyses, current LARC use was lower among Asian women versus White women (odds ratio [OR], 0.24), and interest in future use was higher among women aged 14 to 24 versus 35 to 45 (OR, 5.49). Interest in sterilization was higher among women aged 14 to 24 and 25 to 34 versus 35 to 45 (ORs, 3.29-3.66) and women with disabilities (OR, 1.64), and lower among Black compared with White women (OR, 0.41). Method misperceptions were evident, and concerns about contraceptive coercion were reported. Concerns about contraceptive coercion were not predominant reasons for noninterest in LARCs and sterilization, but were reported by some participants. Lower sterilization interest among Black women and higher sterilization interest among women with disabilities warrant further research. Efforts to address misperceptions about LARCs and sterilization, including their safety and efficacy, are needed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article examines two of Toni Morrison’s novels, The Bluest Eye and Beloved in the lights of black feminism, racism, realism and naturalism. It is an attempt to reflect the powerlessness, inhumanity, and pains that women of color went through. By using a feminist racist and naturalist filter, a descriptive-analytical method of study and by analyzing the situations, the characters and themes, the status of women of color in Literature based on Morrison’s selected novels are revealed and represented. Morrison very well describes how different women characters react and respond differently to the injustice and the inhumanity imposed on them through for example the contrasting nature of Sethe in Beloved and Pauline in The Bluest Eye. She depicts the bravery and courage in Sethe , the self-absorbedness in Pauline and the passiveness in Pecola all of which raise powerful questions regarding black-women’s self-identity, self-concept, and struggles to achieve freedom as a living being if not a human being: a path which will deepen our understanding of women issues in general. The researcher believes that a womanish and racist study of the selected novels would contribute to broaden our views of humanity. The researcher selected women of color because she thinks the sorrows of black women, and the pains and toils they went through have always been deeper than those of the white ones.
Holen, Helene H.
Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 This thesis addresses the themes body experiences in obese women and stigmatization of obesity. Both the prevalence of obesity and the prevalence of stigmatization of obesity is increasing. Also the amount of conducted bariatric surgeries is increasing. It has been shown in previous studies that stigmatization may affect obese people in negative manners. The objective of this thesis, is therefore to obtain an increased understandi...
Papaligoura, Zaira; Papadatou, Danai; Bellali, Thalia
Available studies on surrogacy are extremely limited. Findings suggest that surrogacy is experienced as problem free, with a significant number of commissioning mothers maintaining contact with the surrogates over time. To explore the experiences of Greek commissioning women regarding the surrogacy arrangement and birth of a child through surrogacy. The data of this study were collected from 7 intended mothers who had either a long history of infertility or serious health problems. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed employing content analysis. The analysis of the women's accounts revealed three themes: (a) a shared journey, (b) the birth of a long-awaited child, and (c) the surrogacy disclosure. The surrogacy process became the women's affairs, with their partners offering backstage support. A very close bond was developed with the surrogates, characterised by daily contacts and care-giving behaviours. While this bond was abruptly discontinued after the child's birth, it was interiorised with all participants being grateful to their surrogate. The timing and content of the surrogacy disclosure to family and child(ren) were carefully chosen by participants, who avoided providing information when egg donation was involved. Findings are reassuring for women who want to parent a child through a surrogate arrangement, and suggest that the availability of counselling services may help intended mothers to cope with disclosure issues. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sara S Jarvis
Full Text Available Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30±4 vs. 32±6 yrs; means±SD had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL, 30° and 60° head-up tilt (HUT, and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107±6 vs. 101±9 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP: 62±4 vs. 56±7 mmHg were higher in white women (both p< 0.05. ΔDBP (60° HUT-BL was greater in black women compared to white (p< 0.05. Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance was similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16±10 vs. 14±9 bursts/min, p< 0.05 and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39±8 vs. 34±13 bursts/min, p< 0.05 from BL. Noradrenaline was higher in white women (BL: 210±87 vs. 169±50 pg/ml; 60° HUT: 364±102 vs. 267±89 pg/ml, p< 0.05. Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δaldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1±5.0 vs. 14.4±3.7 pg/ml, p< 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4±0.0 vs. 1.6±3.6pg/ml, p=0.065; Δaldosterone: -0.9±5.1 vs. 3.8±7.5 ng/ml; p=0.069. These results suggest that young normotensive white women rely on sympathetic neural more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress.
Jarvis, Sara S.; Shibata, Shigeki; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi
Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 6 years; means ± SD) had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL), 30 and 60° head-up tilt (HUT), and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107 ± 6 vs. 101 ± 9 mmHg) and diastolic BP (DBP: 62 ± 4 vs. 56 ± 7 mmHg) were higher in white women (both p < 0.05). Δ DBP (60° HUT-BL) was greater in black women compared to white (p < 0.05). Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 9 bursts/min, main effect p < 0.05) and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39 ± 8 vs. 34 ± 13 bursts/min, p < 0.05 from BL). Noradrenaline was higher in white women during 60° HUT (60° HUT: 364 ± 102 vs. 267 ± 89 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δ aldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1 ± 5.0 vs. 14.4 ± 3.7 pg/ml, p < 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4 ± 0.0 vs. 1.6 ± 3.6 pg/ml, p = 0.065; Δ aldosterone: −0.9 ± 5.1 vs. 3.8 ± 7.5 ng/ml; p = 0.069). These results suggest that young normotensive white women may rely on sympathetic neural activity more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress. PMID:24624092
Field, AE; Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value
Objective: To assess the relation of self-reported current and recalled preadolescent body size to measured BMI (kilograms per meter squared) and interviewer's assessment of body size. 4Research Methods and Procedures: This was a prospective cohort study of 1890 white and black women who were 9 to
Edwards, Kirsten T.
This study examines the perceptions and ideals of Black women faculty in the US who self-identify as possessing strong faith commitments within a Judeo-Christian denomination. The study considers the influence religio-spirituality has on their perceptions of pedagogy and student engagement. There are four major findings that emerged in this study,…
Horsford, Sonya Douglass
The purpose of this essay is to contextualize the existing research literature on leadership for diversity, equity, and social justice in education with "bridge leadership" as historically practiced by Black women leaders in the USA. Its primary aim is to demonstrate how the intersection of race and gender as experienced by the Black…
Willie, Charles V.; Lane, Jolene A.
Investigated fathers' roles in the lives of successful black women using life history case studies. Fathers were proud of and confident in their daughters, and most performed the role of mentor. Fathers gave daughters a sense of security that helped them succeed because they were not afraid to risk failure. Most fathers were interested in…
Roland, Ericka; Agosto, Vonzell
This article reports on a phenomenographic study of Black women undergraduates who were resident assistants in a predominantly White institution (PWI) of higher education. Critical race feminism, namely intersectionality, was used to explore how they navigated the responsibilities of their position and social identities. Findings are that…
Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH
Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were
Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.
The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…
Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D
During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.
Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira
Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Maternal morbidity refers to pregnancy-related complications, ranging in severity from acute to chronic. In Ireland one in 210 maternities will experience a severe morbidity. Yet, how women internalize their experience of morbidity has gone largely unexplored. This study aimed to explore women\\'s experiences of maternal morbidity.
Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...
Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Graham, Cynthia A; Tirmizi, Amir; Yarber, William L; Beauchamps, Laura; Mena, Leandro
The objective of this study was to investigate women's willingness to experiment with new condoms and lubricants, in order to inform condom promotion in a city with high rates of poverty and HIV. One hundred and seventy-three women (85.9% Black) sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi, United States completed a questionnaire assessing willingness to experiment with condoms and lubricants and sexual pleasure and lubrication in relation to last condom use. Most women were willing to: (1) experiment with new types of condoms and lubricants to increase their sexual pleasure, (2) touch/handle these products in the absence of a partner, and (3) suggest experimenting with new condoms and lubricants to a sex partner. Previous positive sexual experiences with lubricant during condom use predicted willingness. The role women may play in male condom use should not be underestimated. Clinicians may benefit women by encouraging them to try new types of condoms and lubricants to find products consistent with sexual pleasure.
Full Text Available The dynamics of Black women's life, from Slavery Era to Women Rights Movement in 1980-s, highlighted by Morrison in The Bluest Eyes, Sula, Song of Solomon, Tar Baby, Beloved, Jazz, Paradise, and Love is cultural expression which is in a non-exclusive territory. By applying interdisciplinary approach - integrating theories and perspectives of some disciplines, including the intersectional zone of the study of gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity - to research these eight novels, it was discovered that there are four points engendering Black women regarded as 'other'. (1 Mother-centered culture practice. (2 Double lives for racism and sexim. (3 The impact of White culture invasion. (4 The struggle for building self dignity.
Muscat, J E; Stellman, S D; Richie, J P; Wynder, E L
There are little data on workplace exposures and lung cancer risk in blacks. An ongoing case-control study of lung cancer that included 550 black men and women with lung cancer and 386 age-matched controls was examined by reported occupational exposures and job titles. In men, significant associations were observed with reported exposure to asbestos [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.1] and coal dust (OR, 2.8; 95% CI 1.1-7.0). Elevated but nonsignificant risks of 1.4 or more were detected for the following occupations: police/security guards, farmers/farm workers, laborers, and motor-vehicle drivers. In women, nonsignificant increased risks were found with reported exposure to paint (OR, 1.8) and gas fumes (OR, 4.9). Women employed as farmers/farm workers and building maintenance workers had elevated but nonsignificant risks.
During World War II, black women migrated largely out of the South to take advantage of the growing defense industries in California. Black women flocked to the shipbuilding industry in Richmond for the great economic opportunities industrial jobs offered. What they found when they arrived and attempted to secure jobs in the shipyards hardly lived up to their dreams and expectations. Black women found themselves faced with dual discrimination due to their race and gender. The shortage of a...
Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez de; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury
To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3% of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.
Kinzie, Jillian L.; Thomas, Auden D.; Palmer, Megan M.; Umbach, Paul D.; Kuh, George D.
This study compared the experiences of women attending women's colleges with those of women attending coeducational institutions. Analyses of data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) from random samples of female first-year and senior students from 26 women's colleges and 264 other four-year institutions were conducted. Women at…
Sellers, Sherrill; Cherepanav, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari
We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination compared to white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.
Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904
Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.
Full Text Available Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana
Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.
Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Candelaria, Laura M; Spatz, Diane L; Giordano, Noreen
To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). Qualitative, phenomenological design. The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU. Edmund Husserl's design of interpretive phenomenology and Colaizzi's method of data analysis were used for this study. Participants were interviewed using a face-to-face, semistructured interview format. Four themes represented the experience of donating breast milk: Ripple of Hope and Help, Dynamic Interplay of Nurturance, Standing on the Shoulders of Others, and Sharing Their Stories. Donors felt proud and accomplished to provide hope for other infants and families. Nurses were crucial in facilitating and motivating donors and making donation achievable in a supportive environment. Donors felt compelled to share their experiences to teach and motivate others to donate. For our participants, donation of human milk was a positive, valuable, and nurturing experience. Donors reported feelings of increased self-esteem during donation that motivated them to "give back" and continue. The support of a well-trained nursing staff is essential for donors to meet their personal goals. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruening, Jennifer E.
Critical race scholarship focuses on people of color, women, and the intersection of race and gender. Conversely, sport scholarship has reflected the dominant White male culture. Sport culture ignores the experience of women and people of color, and most specifically ignores women who are people of color. This paper provides an overview of the…
Woodson, Ashley N
In this article, I discuss the possibilities and implications of centering Black lesbian identities and relationships in history teacher education through a case study with one straight Black woman preservice history teacher named Danitra. Danitra's understanding and navigation of historical research on Black lesbians are discussed in relation to core themes of lesbian historiography and emancipatory historiography. Though the literature on this group is limited, I argue that critical considerations of Black lesbians' interests and experiences help educators to conceive of and teach about history, citizenship, justice, and sexuality in more liberatory ways. I conclude by offering recommendations to history teachers and teacher educators who hope to draw on lesbian and emancipatory historiographies to challenge discourses of invisibility in history teacher education classrooms.
This paper is drawn from a piece of empirical research which set out to give three women the opportunity to speak on their own behalf about how they experience having cancer in a sexual organ, using a feminist methodology to produce autobiographical stories. The stories describe the process of diagnosis and treatment and also convey the catastrophic nature of a diagnosis of cancer, which leads to a painful, existential crisis and feelings of bewilderment, powerlessness and isolation. The work was prompted by attendance at a workshop about cancer, body image and sexuality for sufferers and carers, which had indicated a depth of pain greater than is usually acknowledged. This pain suggested a fundamental link between body image and the posited concept of woman image; the existence of a common identity through the category woman as it is traditionally structured in society. This link is explored in relation to the evident changes in body image and the compromised sexualities of the women. The disabling consequences of female sexual stereotyping are elaborated and discussed as synergistic with the more fundamental stigma shadow cast by the prospect of dying. The paper discusses possible reasons for this in the context of a transformative rather than restorative model of living with cancer. It suggests that being thrown into self-conscious living could be a source of energy for renegotiation for women especially. The inadequacy of the medical model of disease is exposed and a more holistic approach is shown to be essential to address the needs of cancer patients, as is a critical appraisal and adjustment of existing social attitudes and relations.
Results. Of the 39 respondents, 18 (46%) were women. Men were older than women (30A v. 29.1 years, .... Single women more often had a regular partner compared ... areas of practice, but also by women in business, academic, managerial ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years with a BMI of 25–34.9 kg/m2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership. Participants are followed over 18 months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4 years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2 kg/m2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold
Chirco, Goffredo; Liberati, Stefano; Sotiriou, Thomas P.
A gedanken experiment in which a black hole is pushed to spin at its maximal rate by tossing into it a test body is considered. After demonstrating that this is kinematically possible for a test body made of reasonable matter, we focus on its implications for black hole thermodynamics and the apparent violation of the third law (unattainability of the extremal black hole). We argue that this is not an actual violation, due to subtleties in the absorption process of the test body by the black hole, which are not captured by the purely kinematic considerations.
An, Jincheng; Shan, Jieru; Zhang, Hongbao; Zhao, Suting
We apply the new version of a gedanken experiment designed recently by Sorce and Wald to overspin the five-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes. As a result, the extremal black holes cannot be overspun at the linear order. On the other hand, although the nearly extremal black holes could be overspun at the linear order, this process is shown to be prohibited by the quadratic order correction. Thus, no violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture occurs around the five-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes.
Yu, Jeffrey; O’Connor, George T.; Brown, Timothy A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn
Background: Chronic stress resulting from experiences of racism may increase the incidence of adult-onset asthma through effects on the immune system and the airways. We conducted prospective analyses of the relation of experiences of racism with asthma incidence in the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort of black women in the United States followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Methods: Among 38,142 participants followed from 1997 to 2011, 1,068 reported incident asthma. An everyday racism score was created based on five questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency in daily life of experiences of racism (eg, poor service in stores), and a lifetime racism score was based on questions about racism on the job, in housing, and by police. We used Cox regression models to derive multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for categories of each racism score in relation to incident asthma. Results: The IRRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19-1.78) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of the 1997 everyday racism score (P for trend racism. Among women who reported the same levels of racism in 1997 and 2009, the IRRs for the highest categories of everyday and lifetime racism were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55-2.91) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.20-2.30), respectively. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of experiences of racism and asthma in black women in the United States, a positive association between racism and asthma is of public health importance. PMID:23887828
Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.
Lewis, Jioni A; Williams, Marlene G; Peppers, Erica J; Gadson, Cecile A
The purpose of this study was to apply an intersectionality framework to explore the influence of gendered racism (i.e., intersection of racism and sexism) on health outcomes. Specifically, we applied intersectionality to extend a biopsychosocial model of racism to highlight the psychosocial variables that mediate and moderate the influence of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle gendered racism) on health outcomes. In addition, we tested aspects of this conceptual model by exploring the influence of gendered racial microaggressions on the mental and physical health of Black women. In addition, we explored the mediating role of coping strategies and the moderating role of gendered racial identity centrality. Participants were 231 Black women who completed an online survey. Results from regression analyses indicated that gendered racial microaggressions significantly predicted both self-reported mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, results from mediation analyses indicated that disengagement coping significantly mediated the link between gendered racial microaggressions and negative mental and physical health. In addition, a moderated mediation effect was found, such that individuals who reported a greater frequency of gendered racial microaggressions and reported lower levels of gendered racial identity centrality tended to use greater disengagement coping, which in turn, was negatively associated with mental and physical health outcomes. Findings of this study suggest that gendered racial identity centrality can serve a buffering role against the negative mental and physical health effects of gendered racism for Black women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Aubry, P; Oddes, B; Chazouillères, O; Lebourgeois, M; Delanoue, G; Seurat, P L
The Plummer-Vinson syndrome or "sideropenic dysphagia" is exceptional among Blacks. One case was recently reported in a female patient from Guadeloupe. This study pertains to three cases observed in Senegalese Black women aged 28, 27, and 41 years. These three women were admitted for a dysphagia, in fact in evidence 10, 4, and 7 years respectively before the diagnosis was made. A clinical anemia was noted twice in addition to mucocutaneous disorders (cases 1 and 2). The laboratory tests showed in all three cases a hypochromic microcytic sideropenic anemia (serum iron levels at 32, 14, and 31 mcg 100 ml respectively). Barium swallow films showed esophageal rings in front of C5-C6 (case 1) of T2-T3 (case 2) and a web of fine mucosal folds in front of C5-C6 (case 3). These films were confirmed cineradiographically by esophagoscopy. The treatment consisted of blood transfusions (cases 1 and 2) and administration of iron by injections and or per os. The endoscopic exams were repeated two or three times. Medical treatment rapidly changed the course of disease for the better. No cause for bleeding was found. A chemical achlorhydria (case 1), a provoked hypoachlorhydria (cases 2 and 3) can be retained as associated factors. In light of the frequency of esophageal membranes in the general population and the incidence of sideropenic anemias among African women, the Plummer-Vinson syndrome should be more often detected in Black Africa.
Carter-Francique, Akilah R.
The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…
Dillard, Cynthia B.
This chapter explores how both historically and in contemporary times of escalating violence against our bodies, minds, and spirits worldwide, Black women lead, love, and live within contexts of suffering.
Townsend, Mary K; Curhan, Gary C; Resnick, Neil M; Grodstein, Francine
Evidence suggests that race affects the prevalence and incidence of urinary incontinence (UI) in women. But little is known about racial differences in the rates of remission, improvement, and progression of UI in women. We sought to compare changes in UI frequency over two years among Asian, black, and white women with UI. Participants in the Nurses' Health Study and the Nurses' Health Study II responded to mailed questionnaires (in 2000 and 2002, and 2001 and 2003, respectively), giving information on race and the frequency of UI. Prospective analyses were conducted over two years from data gathered on 57,900 women, ages 37 to 79, who had at least monthly UI at baseline. Over the two two-year study periods, black women were significantly more likely than white women to report remission of UI (14% versus 9%, respectively), and Asian women were significantly more likely than white women to report less frequent UI (40% versus 31%, respectively). Improvement was more common in older black women than in older white women, but rates of improvement were comparable between younger black and younger white women. Black women were less likely than white women to report more frequent UI at follow-up (30% versus 34%, respectively), and, after adjusting for health and lifestyle factors, the difference was borderline statistically significant. Changes in the frequency of UI appear to vary by race, even after adjustment for risk factors. These findings may account for some of the previously observed differences in UI prevalence across racial groups. Although UI is a common condition in women of all races, nurses and other clinicians should be aware that its presentation may vary according to race. Such an understanding could increase clinicians' confidence in discussing UI with patients, reducing the possibility that the condition goes unrecognized. epidemiology, progression, race, remission, urinary incontinence.
Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two gro...
Judith Aparecida Trevisan
Full Text Available Sample survey conducted in the Public Health Unit of the Federal District, with only blackwomen pregnant. Aims to verify the compliance of specific group and degree of receptivityand awareness on health pregnancy. The study area lies in women's health and training ofhealth professionals in nursing.The analyzed result goes against the interests of publicmanagement in health through compliance with international agreements established in theMillennium Development Goals to reduce maternal and infant death and the eradication ofracism-4th 5th and 9th MDG / UN. He attempts to verify the paucity of nursing actions inthe face of known pre-existing impairment of hypertension, abortions, sickle cell anemia, pre-eclampsia in women of black ethnic group, living in communities of less infrastructure andless education. Registers the range, in the Federal District, the public health policies aimed atfulfilling agreements for equality and reducing child mortality and achieving the targets for2015 of reducing the maternal and infant mortality, according tothe United Nations, which isthe 5th goal millennium.Keywords: Women's Health, the black population, the UnitedNations
Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw
Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.
Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K
Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p travel (both p travel is a major contributor to physical activity, future research should attempt to determine whether the intensity of this activity plays a role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…
Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such; Zoucha, Richard; Alexander, Rumay
This study explored the experiences of Black nurse faculty employed in predominantly White schools of nursing. High attrition rates of this group were noted in previous literature. Understanding their experiences is important to increase nurse diversity. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the experiences of 15 Black nurse faculty using interviews. Four themes were extracted as the following: cultural norms of the workplace, coping with improper assets, life as a "Lone Ranger," and surviving the workplace environment. The study provided insight to understand the meaning that Black faculty members give to their experiences working in predominantly White schools of nursing. Findings exemplify the need to improve culturally competent work environments and mentoring programs. Results suggest that better communication and proper respect from students, colleagues, and administrators are necessary. The limited research on this topic illustrates that Black nurse faculty remain under investigated; research is necessary to determine effective change strategies.
Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...
Gist, Conra D.; White, Terrenda; Bianco, Margarita
This research study examines the learning experiences of 11th- and 12th-grade Black girls participating in a precollegiate program committed to increasing the number of Teachers of Color entering the profession by viewing a teaching career as an act of social justice committed to educational equity. The pipeline functions as an education reform…
Ma, Huiyan; Folger, Suzanne G; Simon, Michael S; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Malone, Kathleen E; Marchbanks, Polly A; Deapen, Dennis M; Spirtas, Robert; Burkman, Ronald T; Strom, Brian L; McDonald, Jill A
Black women are more likely than white women to have an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with higher mortality and this may contribute to the observed black-white difference in mortality. However, few studies have investigated the black-white disparity in mortality risk stratified by breast cancer subtype, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, it is not known whether additional consideration of p53 protein status influences black-white differences in mortality risk observed when considering subtypes defined by ER, PR and HER2 status. Four biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue from 1,204 (523 black, 681 white) women with invasive breast cancer, aged 35–64 years at diagnosis, who accrued a median of 10 years’ follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to assess subtype-specific black-white differences in mortality risk. No black-white differences in mortality risk were observed for women with triple negative (ER-negative [ER-], PR-, and HER2-) subtype. However, older (50–64 years) black women had greater overall mortality risk than older white women if they had been diagnosed with luminal A (ER-positive [ER+] or PR+ plus HER2-) breast cancer (all-cause hazard ratio, HR, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.18 to 2.99; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.74). This black-white difference among older women was further confined to those with luminal A/p53- tumors (all-cause HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.79; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.93 to 3.86). Tests for homogeneity of race-specific HRs comparing luminal A to triple negative subtype and luminal A/p53- to luminal A/p53+ subtype did not achieve statistical significance, although statistical power was limited. Our findings suggest that the subtype-specific black-white difference in
Denise G. Yull
Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Allen, Nancy A; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A
To describe relationships among physical activity (PA), physiological factors, and psychological factors in Black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional design was used (N = 109). Data were collected on PA(activity/inactivity, TV hours, bed confinement), physiology (blood pressure, lipids, hemoglobin A1c), psychology (anxiety,emotional distress, physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality), and health care provider (HCP) support. Walking was the preferred PA; TV viewing averaged 3.7 hours/day, and 24% reported confinement to bed >1 week in the last year. Inactive women had greater physiological and psychological problems than active women. Women watching TV >2 hours/day had more physiological problems than women watching TV Women reporting >1 week of confinement to bed in the last year had more physiological and psychological problems than those confined to bed women with T2DM should promote walking, address TV viewing time, incorporate HCP’s role of PA counseling/support,and address several psychological factors.
Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola
Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael
Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.
Bowleg, Lisa; English, Devin; Del Rio-Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Burkholder, Gary J; Teti, Michelle; Tschann, Jeanne M
Although extensive research documents that Black people in the U.S. frequently experience social discrimination, most of this research aggregates these experiences primarily or exclusively by race. Consequently, empirical gaps exist about the psychosocial costs and benefits of Black men's experiences at the intersection of race and gender. Informed by intersectionality, a theoretical framework that highlights how multiple social identities intersect to reflect interlocking social-structural inequality, this study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Black Men's Experiences Scale (BMES). The BMES assesses Black men's negative experiences with overt discrimination and microaggressions, as well their positive evaluations of what it means to be Black men. First, we conducted focus groups and individual interviews with Black men to develop the BMES. Next, we tested the BMES with 578 predominantly low-income urban Black men between the ages of 18 and 44. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a 12-item, 3-factor solution that explained 63.7% of the variance. We labeled the subscales: Overt Discrimination, Microaggressions, and Positives: Black Men . Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor solution. As hypothesized, the BMES's subscales correlated with measures of racial discrimination, depression, resilience, and social class at the neighborhood-level. Preliminary evidence suggests that the BMES is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences at the intersection of race and gender.
Lingen-Stallard, Andrew; Furber, Christine; Lavender, Tina
globally women receive HIV testing in pregnancy; however, limited information is available on their experiences of this potentially life-changing event. This study aims to explore women's experiences of receiving a positive HIV test result following antenatal screening. a qualitative, phenomenological approach. two public National Health Service (NHS) hospitals and HIV support organisations. a purposive sampling strategy was used. Thirteen black African women with a positive HIV result, in England, participated. data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. An interpretive phenomenological approach to data analysis was used. the emergent phenomenon was transition and transformation of 'being,' as women accepted HIV as part of their lives. Paired themes support the phenomenon: shock and disbelief; anger and turmoil; stigma and confidentiality issues; acceptance and resilience. Women had extreme reactions to their positive HIV diagnosis, compounded by the cultural belief that they would die. Initial disbelief of the unexpected result developed into sadness at the loss of their old self. Turmoil was evident, as women considered termination of pregnancy, self-harm and suicide. Women felt isolated from others and relationship breakdowns often occurred. Most reported the pervasiveness of stigma, and how this was managed alongside living with HIV. Coping strategies included keeping HIV 'secret' and making their child(ren) the prime focus of life. Growing resilience was apparent with time. this study gives midwives unique understanding of the complexities and major implications for women who tested positive for HIV. Women's experiences resonated with processes of bereavement, providing useful insight into a transitional and transformational period, during which appropriate support can be targeted. midwives are crucial in improving the experience of women when they test HIV positive and to do this they need to be appropriately trained. Midwives need to
Arroyo, Andrew T.; Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
This qualitative study contributes an original holistic understanding of the perceptions and experiences of non-Black students (e.g., Asian American, Latino, and White) as they matriculate into historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), persist to graduation, and reflect on their experiences as graduates at HBCUs. Findings from this…
In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.
Higgins, M K; Lin, Stacy L; Alvarez, Alexandra; Bardone-Cone, Anna M
Impulsivity has been linked to bulimic symptomatology in a number of studies; however, few have examined this relationship among Black women. We investigated the correlations between impulsivity and bulimic symptoms, and tested impulsivity as a moderator of the body shame/bulimic symptoms relationship among a sample of female undergraduates (N=276; 97 Blacks, 179 Whites). These participants provided data on body shame, impulsivity, and bulimic symptoms (EDE-Q binge eating frequency, BULIT-R, EDI-Bulimia). Among Blacks, impulsivity was significantly positively associated with all bulimic symptoms measures; among Whites, impulsivity was only positively correlated with binge eating frequency. Furthermore, among Blacks, the combination of high body shame and high impulsivity was associated with the highest levels of bulimic symptoms; these findings were not observed among Whites. This study highlights the importance of impulsivity and body shame in identifying bulimic symptomatology among Black women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality ...
Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.
Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…
Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen
Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…
Racial and ethnic groups remain underrepresented in undergraduate health profession education programs and careers, such as nutrition and dietetics (Sullivan, 2004). Overwhelmingly, 82 percent of dietitians are White, three percent are Latino/Latina, and less than three percent are Black (Commission on Dietetic Registration, 2016). While the calls to increase recruitment of underrepresented minorities are plentiful and federal dollars are allotted to the effort, a critical lens is necessary to investigate the complexity of factors that impact the decision to pursue a career within dietetics. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how Latina and Black women enrolled in an undergraduate Health Career Opportunity Program (HCOP) narrated and reflected upon the dietetics profession. Through the lens of Critical Race Theory and situated learning, I sought to understand the sociocultural and historical underpinnings that hinder or promote career selection. Data collection methods included participant observation, interviews, artifacts, and reflexive journaling. Data were analyzed using inductive coding techniques. My findings revealed the ways in which Latina and Black women believed dietitians must match the socially constructed role model for body image, physical fitness, and healthy eating to be effective in practice. Using a critical media analysis to confront the stereotypical images of dietitians, the women used cliche messages as a selected discourse to mask perceptions of barriers to the dietetics field. Finally, the women believed a dietitian's professional role was to give diet advice which presented a barrier to the profession. Based on my findings I support early introduction to nutrition science as a means to empower individuals to support their health and the health of their community. Recruitment efforts must explicitly address the culture of dietetics which has embraced the stereotypical image. Collectively, the dietetics field must
Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in Nigeria. Women previously treated for ipsilateral breast cancer have increased risk of developing contalateral breast cancer (CBC), the chance of which increases with longer period of survival and is associated with worse prognosis. Reports from ...
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Through this phenomenological case study the author investigates the experience of coping by women in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse. An ecological view of women's coping is critically reviewed. Women of abuse cope with many factors simultaneously in their lives as there are numerous, multifaceted, and diverse issues that comprise and contribute to an abusive situation. Eight providers from four different agencies, two providers per agency, describe the coping experiences of women both in and out of the abusive situation. Study results corroborate with research and demonstrate that women's coping, both in and out of the abusive relationship is unique and complex.
Waugh, Irma Morales
This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm. Findings highlight how discrimination shapes women's experiences and demonstrate the need for institutional policies to protect them.
Scherr, Courtney Lynam; Bomboka, Linda; Nelson, Alison; Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas
Black women have a higher rate of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations, compared with other populations, that increases their risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, Black women are less likely to know about HBOC and genetic testing. Based on a request from a community advisory panel of breast cancer survivors, community leaders and healthcare providers in the Black community, our team developed a culturally targeted educational brochure to promote awareness of HBOC among Black women. To reach the target population we utilized a passive dissemination strategy. Using Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) as a framework, we traced dissemination of the brochure over a five year period using self-addressed postcards contained inside the brochure that included several open-ended questions about the utility of the brochure, and a field for written comments. Closed-ended responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was conducted on the open-ended responses. DOI captured the proliferation of the brochure among Black women across the US. The use of passive dissemination strategies among pre-existing social networks proved to be a useful and sustainable method for increasing knowledge of HBOC among Black women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.
Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.
Chor, Julie; Oswald, Lora; Briller, Joan; Cowett, Allison; Peacock, Nadine; Harwood, Bryna
Limited research exists exploring contraceptive and pregnancy experiences of women with cardiovascular diseases. We conducted semistructured interviews with reproductive-age women with chronic hypertension or peripartum cardiomyopathy exploring thoughts and behaviors regarding future fertility. Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed identifying salient themes. We interviewed 20 women with chronic hypertension and 10 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Women described a spectrum of perspectives regarding the relationship between disease and fertility: from complete disconnect to full integration of diagnosis and future fertility plans. Integration of reproductive and cardiovascular health was influenced by and reflected in circumstances of diagnosis, pregnancy-related experiences, contraception-related experiences and conceptualization of disease risk related to reproductive health. Providers must better understand how women perceive and consider their reproductive and cardiovascular health in order to optimize contraceptive care of women with cardiovascular disease and help them make safe, informed decisions about future fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Twamley, Katherine; Puthussery, Shuby; Harding, Seeromanie; Baron, Maurina; Macfarlane, Alison
to explore the factors that impact on UK-born ethnic minority women's experiences of and decisions around feeding their infant. in-depth semi-structured interviews. 34 UK-born women of Black African, Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Irish parentage and 30 health-care professionals. women and health-care professionals were recruited primarily from hospitals serving large numbers of ethnic minority women in London and Birmingham. despite being aware of the benefits of exclusive breast feeding, many women chose to feed their infant with formula. The main barriers to breast feeding were the perceived difficulties of breast feeding, a family preference for formula feed, and embarrassment about breast feeding in front of others. Reports from women of South Asian parentage, particularly those who lived with an extended family, suggested that their intentions to breast feed were compromised by the context of their family life. The lack of privacy in these households and grandparental pressure appeared to be key issues. Unlike other participants, Irish women reported an intention to feed their infant with formula before giving birth. The key facilitators to breast feeding were the self-confidence and determination of women and the supportive role of health-care professionals. these findings point to common but also culturally specific mechanisms that may hinder both the initiation and maintenance of breast feeding in UK-born ethnic minority women. They signal potential benefits from the inclusion of family members in breast-feeding support programmes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C
Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.
Adams, Inez; Christopher, Juleen; Williams, Karen Patricia; Sheppard, Vanessa B
Black women are just as likely to have hereditary breast cancer mutations as White women, yet their participation in genetic counseling and testing is substantially lower. This study sought to describe Black women's awareness and perceptions of BRCA1/2 testing and to identify barriers and motivators to seeking BRCA1/2 services. Fifty intercept interviews were conducted with Black women in public places (a professional women's basketball game, a grocery store, a faith-based community event, and the waiting area at a breast care clinic) in Washington, DC. More than half of the women (54%) were aware that genetic tests to determine risk for certain breast and ovarian cancers exist, but the majority (88%) had never heard of BRCA1/2, specifically. After hearing a description of BRCA1/2 genetic markers, 82% stated that they would agree to BRCA1/2 testing if it was offered to them. Perceived advantages of testing included cancer prevention and the ability to share information with family members. Perceived disadvantages included emotional distress associated with identification of the mutation and the potential misuse of results to deny healthcare or employment. Physician recommendation, self-care, and known family history were among the motivators for testing. Women listed possible media and venues for intervention. In spite of low rates of BRCA1/2 testing in the Black community, women in this sample were open to the idea. Interventions that address barriers and include cultural tailoring are necessary.
Hollander, M. H.; van Hastenberg, E.; van Dillen, J.; van Pampus, M. G.; de Miranda, E.; Stramrood, C. A. I.
The purpose of this study is to explore and quantify perceptions and experiences of women with a traumatic childbirth experience in order to identify areas for prevention and to help midwives and obstetricians improve woman-centered care. A retrospective survey was conducted online among 2192 women with a self-reported traumatic childbirth experience. Women were recruited in March 2016 through social media, including specific parent support groups. They filled out a 35-item questionnaire of w...
Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela
Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: f...
Romina B. da Costa
This phenomenological investigation aims to explore the lived experience of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. As a minority group within a traditionally male-dominated space, women are still underrepresented in the upper echelons of science, even if the number of women in STEM is increasing. The author draws from her experiences as an “undesirable statistic,” a woman who entered college as a STEM student but ended up getting a degree in the social s...
Hollander, M.H.; Hastenberg, E. van; Dillen, J. van; Pampus, M.G. van; Miranda, E. de; Stramrood, C.A.I.
The purpose of this study is to explore and quantify perceptions and experiences of women with a traumatic childbirth experience in order to identify areas for prevention and to help midwives and obstetricians improve woman-centered care. A retrospective survey was conducted online among 2192 women
This article provides a reflection on the experiences of Muslim women with regard to domestic violence. A qualitative approach was utilised following an explorative, descriptive, phenomenological contextual research design, as the researchers sought to understand the lived experiences of Muslim women in abusive ...
Mon, Nyein Su; Saito, Eisuke
This study conducted an appreciative investigation of the experiences of Myanmar women in leadership. Specifically, the focus was on what sustains them, how they negotiate the complexity of their context, and what propels them. Drawn from the experiences of three Myanmar women leaders, the findings indicated that 'their formal and informal…
The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of ...
Aloia, John F; Fazzari, Melissa; Islam, Shahidul; Mikhail, Mageda; Katumuluwa, Subhashini; Dhaliwal, Ruban; Stolberg, Alexandra; Usera, Gianina; Ragolia, Louis
Black Americans have lower levels of serum 25(OH)D but superior bone health compared to white Americans. There is controversy over whether they should be screened for vitamin D deficiency and have higher vitamin D requirements than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The purpose of this trial was to determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in elderly black women prevents bone loss. 260 healthy black American women, 60 years of age and older were recruited to take part in a two arm, double-dummy 3 year RCT of vitamin D 3 vs. placebo. The study was conducted in an ambulatory clinical research center. Vitamin D 3 dose was adjusted to maintain serum 25(OH)D above 75 nmol/L. Bone mineral density (BMD) and serum were measured for [parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-terminal crosslink telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) every 6 months. Baseline serum 25(OH)D 3 was 54.8 ± 16.8 nmol/L. There was no group xtime interaction effect for any BMD measurement. For all BMD measurements, except for total body and spine, there was a statistically significant negative effect of time (P D above 75 nmol/L is comparable to the rate of loss with serum 25(OH)D at the RDA of 50 nmol/L. Black Americans should have the same exposure to vitamin D as white Americans. The trial was registered at clinical trials.gov: NCT01153568. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI. Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV. Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.
This paper discusses the influence of cross-cultural modes of communication on perceptions of sexual health and wellbeing for Shona (Zimbabwean) women living in Australia and their children. Data was collected using focus groups in South Australia with fourteen women, between the ages of 29 and 53. Transcripts were ...
Blake-Beard, Stacy D.
A survey of business graduates (154 white women and 41 black women) investigated the impact of race on mentoring and career success for women. Results indicated no statistical difference in the amount of mentoring reported by black or white respondents. (Author/JOW)
To improve understanding of variables impacting health promotion behaviors among urban Black women. A cross-sectional survey was used. Urban Black women (N = 132) between the ages of 30 to 64 years participated. The study was conducted in a U.S. metropolitan region in 2015. Health literacy (Newest Vital Sign [NVS]), self-efficacy (New General Self-Efficacy Scale [NGSE]), and readiness for change (Health Risk Instrument [HRI]) were correlated with health promotion behaviors (Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II [HPLPII]). Univariate statistics addressed demographic characteristics; bivariate/simultaneous linear regression determined the relationships between the NVS, NGSE, and HRI to health promotion behaviors (HPLPII). Demographics: 72.6% completed high school and 25% completed college, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was >32. Positive correlations existed between each variable to health promotion behaviors: NVS (r = .244, p promotion behaviors. Education and health literacy were also correlated (r s = .414, p = .001). Although health literacy, self-efficacy, and readiness for change are associated with health promotion behaviors, readiness for change was the most highly correlated. The development and incorporation of interventions to promote health promotion behaviors should include readiness for change, health literacy, BMI, and education, especially among urban Black women in order to reduce critical health disparities. Community-based and culturally relevant strategies in promoting health that are integrated into existing lifestyles and designed to impact readiness for change will have the greatest impact on reducing health disparities both in the United States and in countries experiencing rapid urbanization. For example, healthy eating behaviors or increased physical activity may be best adopted when integrated into existing community-based spiritual or cultural events via trusted community leaders. Replication of this study in other populations of Black
Lee, Louise; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie; Horsch, Antje
This study sought to increase understanding of women's thoughts and feelings about decision making and the experience of subsequent pregnancy following stillbirth (intrauterine death after 24 weeks' gestation). Eleven women were interviewed, 8 of whom were pregnant at the time of the interview. Modified grounded theory was used to guide the research methodology and to analyze the data. A model was developed to illustrate women's experiences of decision making in relation to subsequent pregnancy and of subsequent pregnancy itself. The results of the current study have significant implications for women who have experienced stillbirth and the health professionals who work with them. Based on the model, women may find it helpful to discuss their beliefs in relation to healing and health professionals to provide support with this in mind. Women and their partners may also benefit from explanations and support about the potentially conflicting emotions they may experience during this time. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R
In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Benn, E K T; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, E A
Objective To measure stigma associated with four types of postpartum depression therapies and to estimate the association between stigma and the acceptance of these therapies for black and white postpartum mothers. Methods Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, this study included 481 black and white women who gave birth in a large urban hospital and answered a series of questions at 6-months postpartum. Survey items included socio demographic and clinical factors, attitudes about postpartum depression therapies and stigma. The associations between race, stigma, and treatment acceptability were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Black postpartum mothers were less likely than whites to accept prescription medication (64 vs. 81%, p = 0.0001) and mental health counseling (87 vs. 93%, p = 0.001) and more likely to accept spiritual counseling (70 vs. 52%, p = 0.0002). Women who endorsed stigma about receipt of postpartum depression therapies versus those who did not were less likely to accept prescription medication, mental health and spiritual counseling for postpartum depression. Overall black mothers were less likely to report stigma associated with postpartum depression therapies. In adjusted models, black women versus white women remained less likely to accept prescription medication for postpartum depression (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72) and stigma did not explain this difference. Conclusions Although treatment stigma is associated with lower postpartum depression treatment acceptance, stigma does not explain the lower levels of postpartum depression treatment acceptance among black women. More research is needed to understand treatment barriers for postpartum depression, especially among black women.
Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M
Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.
Howells, Kelly; Bower, Peter; Hassell, Karen
ObjectiveIn the UK, a growing number of females entering pharmacy are women from Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME). Research shows that BAME women are more likely to work in the community sector and be self-employed locums than white women, and Asian women overrepresented in part-time, lower status roles. This study aims to explore the employment choices of white and BAME women pharmacists to see whether their diverse work patterns are the product of individual choices or other o...
Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna
Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.
Bowleg, Lisa; English, Devin; del Rio-Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Burkholder, Gary J.; Teti, Michelle; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Although extensive research documents that Black people in the U.S. frequently experience social discrimination, most of this research aggregates these experiences primarily or exclusively by race. Consequently, empirical gaps exist about the psychosocial costs and benefits of Black men?s experiences at the intersection of race and gender. Informed by intersectionality, a theoretical framework that highlights how multiple social identities intersect to reflect interlocking social-structural i...
Joseph, Nicole M.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Bianco, Margarita
This article takes up the questions: (a) How do Black female adolescents define racism?, (b) What kind of experiences with racism to they report having in schools?, and (c) How can these perspectives and experiences inform educational reform efforts? The in-depth analysis of 18 student surveys and interviews revealed that most of the definitions…
Lacey, Krim K; Parnell, Regina; Mouzon, Dawne M; Matusko, Niki; Head, Doreen; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S
Black women continue to have rates of mental health conditions that can be negative for their well-being. This study examined the contribution of social and contextual factors and severe physical intimate partner violence on the mental health of US Black women (African-American and Caribbean Black). Data were largely collected via in-person community interviews at participants' homes. We studied 3277 African-American and Black Caribbean women from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the largest and most complete sample of Blacks residing in the USA. Key outcomes included an array of psychiatric disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Bivariate results revealed noticeably high rates of any anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, any substance disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, suicide ideation and attempts, and any overall mental disorder among African-American women relative to Caribbean Black women. Multiple social and contextual factors were associated with various mental disorders among both sets of Black women in multivariate models, with the most consistent associations found for severe physical intimate partner violence. Everyday discrimination was associated with anxiety disorders (95% AOR=2.08 CI 1.23 to 3.51), eating disorders (95% AOR=2.69 CI 1.38 to 5.22), and any disorder (95% AOR=2.18 CI 1.40 to 3.40), while neighbourhood drug problems contributed to mood (95% AOR=1.19 CI 1.04 to 1.36), substance disorders (95% AOR=1.37 CI 1.11 to 1.69) and any disorder (95% AOR=1.18 CI 1.03 to 1.34). Severe physical intimate partner violence, discrimination, and to a lesser extent, neighbourhood problems are important predictors of Black women's health, findings that inform intervention and clinical services tailored to meet the needs of Black women from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under
Seifer, David B; Zackula, Rosey; Grainger, David A
To determine trends in assisted reproductive technology (ART) in black and white women by comparing Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) database outcomes for 2004-2006 with previously reported outcomes for 1999 and 2000. Retrospective, cohort study. The SART member clinics that performed at least 50 cycles of IVF and reported race in more than 95% of cycles. Women receiving 158,693 IVF cycles. In vitro fertilization using nondonor embryos. Live birth rate per cycle started. Reporting of race increased from 52% to 60%. The proportion of black, non-Hispanic (BNH) women increased from 4.6% to 6.5%. For BNH women using fresh embryos and no prior ART, significant increasing trends were observed for older age, male factor, uterine factor, diminished ovarian reserve, and ovulation disorders. The BNH women were 2.5 times more likely to have tubal factor for those cycles with no prior ART. The proportion of live births per cycle started increased across all groups over time, although greater increases occurred for white women. There seems to be widening disparities in IVF outcomes between BNH and white women, perhaps attributable to poor prognostic factors among black women. Race continues to be a marker for prognosis for ART outcomes and should be reported. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vautrin, E; Marlière, S; Bellemain-Appaix, A; Gilard, M; Manzo-Silberman, S
Exploring the discrepancy in sex-ratio among interventional cardiologists by analysing the population of the female interventionalist. Despite an increase number of women who graduate from medical school in France during the last generation today, women represent only 24% of all cardiologists and 3% are interventional cardiologists. To face this international gender-based issue of interventional cardiology, committees were established in US (WIN) and recently within the EAPCI: the Women EAPCI chaired by Drs Mehilli and Mauri. In France, the Intervention'Elles committee emerged in order to participate in this concern. As a first initiative, the Intervention'Elles group launched an e-survey to obtain information on the population of French female interventional cardiologists, focused on demography, work patterns, maternity and radiation exposure. Mean age is 40 years old (±7,4), 68% are working in large volume center, 28% have also structural interventional activity. Only 40% have left arm coverage. Despite 80% of French female interventional cardiologists wear personal dosimeters only 45% of them have a dosimetry feedback. Interestingly, even if 54% of women have children (mean: 1.9±1) 28% of them report that childbearing had interfered with their career plan. This questionnaire identifies for the first time the women population in interventional cardiology in France and highlights some of the issues encountered in more detail. This first descriptive step would help to develop strategies for attaining gender equality in interventional cardiology. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Karima K. Jeffrey
Full Text Available This essay explores three cinematic representations of Black matriarchs who play prophetic roles in redeeming humanity in the midst of apocalyptic change: Ika (Quest for Fire, Kee (Children of Men, and The Oracle (The Matrix trilogy. Not only do these courageous women resist the politics of domination, rebelling against a dying status quo, but they "give birth" to the leaders needed to rebuild a world in chaos and decay. One film ends with a pregnant woman rubbing her belly as she stands on the precipice of evolutionary change; another positions a mother and newborn adrift, waiting to be found by leaders of a new world order; in the third, a character sacrifices herself to empower resistance fighters with ideas and the means to choose their survival in a postapocalyptic world. Defying the politics of an annihilating patriarchy, these women portend a return to a naturally evolving world. However, despite their powerful influence, they can be understood, problematically, as modern-day reinventions of Black female stereotypes—Ika as Jezebel, Kee as Hagar, the Oracle as Mammy—because they, and the indices for understanding their roles in the community, are wedded to White patriarchs and to their own gendered functions as nurturing or sexual(ized beings.
Plaisime, Marie V; Malebranche, David J; Davis, Andrea L; Taylor, Jennifer A
We explored health providers' formative personal and professional experiences with race and Black men as a way to assess their potential influence on interactions with Black male patients. Utilizing convenience sampling with snowballing techniques, we identified healthcare providers in two urban university hospitals. We compared Black and White providers' experiences based on race and level of training. We used the Gardener's Tale to conceptualize how racism may lead to racial health disparities. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct in-person interviews (n = 16). Using the grounded theory approach, we conducted three types of coding to examine data patterns. We found two themes reflective of personally mediated racism: (1) perception of Black males accompanied by two subthemes (a) biased care and (b) fear and discomfort and (2) cognitive dissonance. While this latter theme is more reflective of Jones's internalized racism level, we present its results because its novelty is compelling. Perception of Black males and cognitive dissonance appear to influence providers' approaches with Black male patients. This study suggests the need to develop initiatives and curricula in health professional schools that address provider racial bias. Understanding the dynamics operating in the patient-provider encounter enhances the ability to address and reduce health disparities.
In North America, rates of depression for women are consistently higher than for men. This phenomenon is poorly understood; nonetheless, the use of grounded theory to investigate women's experiences with depression, treatment, and recovery revealed some unexpected findings. In this article I discuss findings resulting from examination of data from three grounded theory studies of women and depression. In all, data were collected through participant observation and more than 70 interviews and the study sample included participants varying in race, marital status, cultural background, and sexual orientation between 18 to 69 years of age, and included both mothers and nonmothers. Findings included the presence in women of an internal dialogue, reinforcing the philosophical origins of the method in symbolic interactionism; oppression and marginalization of women's experiences; the impact of violence in women's lives; the roles of treatment and learning; and the hope of recovery. I will finish by identifying some questions arising from the findings.
Andrews, Nicole; Greenfield, Sheila; Drever, Will; Redwood, Sabi
The aim of this article is to explore how tendencies to stereotype minority ethnic groups intersect with lay discourses about them in ways that can reproduce cultural prejudices and reinforce inequalities in access to services and health outcomes. Drawing upon Black feminist and cultural studies literature, we present a theoretical examination, the stereotypes of the Black woman as 'mammy' and 'matriarch'. We suggest that the influence of these two images is central to understanding the normalisation of the larger Black female body within African Caribbean communities. This representation of excess weight contradicts mainstream negative discourses of large bodies that view it as a form of moral weakness. Seeking to stimulate reflection on how unacknowledged stereotypes may shape clinical encounters, we propose that for Black women, it is the perception of strength, tied into these racial images of 'mammy' and 'matriarch' which may influence when or how health services or advice are both sought by them and offered to them. This has particular significance in relation to how body weight and weight management are/are not talked about in primary care-based interactions and what support Black women are/are not offered. We argue that unintentional bias can have tangible impacts and health outcomes for Black women and possibly other minority ethnic groups.
Dantzler, Dolores J.
The purposes of the study were to determine the extent to which basal readers contain stories pertaining to blacks; to find out if the racial implications stated in basal texts are those that blacks want; to locate the black heroes in basal readers and evaluate whether or not these are the preferred heroes of the population of blacks sampled in…
Coates, Rose; Ayers, Susan; de Visser, Richard
Women can experience a range of psychological problems after birth, including anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders. However, research has predominantly focused on depression. Qualitative work on women's experiences of postnatal mental health problems has sampled women within particular diagnostic categories so not looked at the range of potential psychological problems. The aims of this study were to explore how women experienced and made sense of the range of emotional distress states in the first postnatal year. A qualitative study of 17 women who experienced psychological problems in the first year after having a baby. Semi-structured interviews took place in person (n =15) or on the telephone (n =2). Topics included women's experiences of becoming distressed and their recovery. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were developed within each interview before identifying similar themes for multiple participants across interviews, in order to retain an idiographic approach. Psychological processes such as guilt, avoidance and adjustment difficulties were experienced across different types of distress. Women placed these in the context of defining moments of becoming a mother; giving birth and breastfeeding. Four superordinate themes were identified. Two concerned women's unwanted negative emotions and difficulties adjusting to their new role. "Living with an unwelcome beginning" describes the way mothers' new lives with their babies started out with unwelcome emotions, often in the context of birth and breastfeeding difficulties. All women spoke about the importance of their postnatal healthcare experiences in "Relationships in the healthcare system". "The shock of the new" describes women's difficulties adjusting to the demands of motherhood and women emphasised the importance of social support in "Meeting new support needs". These findings emphasise the need for exploration of psychological processes such as
Rode, Henning; Friege, Gunnar
In this paper a sequence of nine, easy to manufacture optical black-box experiments with increasing levels of difficulty, and supportive frameworks for physics classes are introduced. They have been evaluated in a lower-secondary school at the end of optics lessons. A black-box is a kind of experimental task where the inner structure is not visible to the experimenter. Using mirrors, beam-splitters, and blockers in a black-box to manipulate the light beam’s direction through this specific experiment, students are instructed to vary input and observe the output of light to get an idea of the possible inner structure. The presented sequence of black-box experiments requires a basic knowledge of the linear propagation of light and is suitable for beginner physics. Furthermore a framework for concrete implementation to physics classes is given, which covers suitable structure of class, examples for helpful worksheets, and authentic students’ solutions. The difficulty of the specific black-box experiments is given by the students’ success within observing input-output correlation and conclusion of an inner structure. The experiments’ implementation to physics classes may cover elaboration, practice, and aspects of the nature of science even in a beginner’s class. Evaluation has been conducted with students of young age (11-12 years old), however they are suitable for older students also. Although dealing with a time extensive sequence of experiments, students showed a high level of motivation throughout. Overall, implementing this sequence of black-box experiments is seen as valuable and helpful for physics classes.
.... These themes covered topics such as reasons for joining, experiences while in the Navy, concerns about recruitment of minorities, perceptions about racism, perceptions of inequitable treatment...
Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing
To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Access to emergency contraception (EC) has little restriction in South Africa. EC is a contraceptive method that can be used by women up to 7 days after unprotected intercourse. It can be used in the following situations: when no contraceptive has been used; for condom accidents; after intrauterine contraceptive device ...
A questionnaire study of 358 randomly selected post menopausal women in the Lagos metropolis was undertaken. Their menopausal symptoms and manner of coping with adverse side effects were enquired about. Questions were also asked about the ages respondents started and stopped menstruation as well as their ...
Abiodun-Oyebanji, Olayemi; Olaleye, F.
This study examined women in university management in Nigeria. It was a descriptive research of the survey type. The population of the study comprised all the public universities in southwest Nigeria, out of which three were selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Three hundred respondents who were in management positions were…
Bacon, Kathryn L; Stuver, Sherri O; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A
Our aim was to assess the association of perceived racism with type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of diet and BMI. The Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up of 59,000 African-American women, began in 1995. Over 16 years 5344 incident cases of diabetes occurred during 576,577 person-years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimated HRs and 95% CIs for categories of 'everyday racism' (interpersonal racism in daily life) and 'lifetime racism' (reporting ever treated unfairly due to race with respect to police, housing or work) and incident type 2 diabetes. Models were adjusted for age, questionnaire cycle, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, family history of diabetes, physical activity, alcohol use and smoking status, with and without inclusion of terms for dietary patterns and adult BMI. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of exposure, women in the highest quartile of exposure to everyday racism had a 31% increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.20, 1.42) and women with the highest exposure to lifetime racism had a 16% increased risk (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05, 1.27). Mediation analysis estimated that BMI accounted for half of the association between either the everyday or lifetime racism measure and incident diabetes. Perceived everyday and lifetime racism were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in this cohort of African-American women and appear to be at least partly mediated by BMI.
Kuo, Su-Chen; Wu, Cheng Jing; Mu, Pei-Fan
to explore women's experiences in interaction with their midwives during their antenatal checks and during labour. a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's method for data analysis. the homes of the study participants in the district of a Taipei (Taiwan) teaching hospital. a purposive sample of 11 Taiwanese women, one primipara, and 10 multiparae, who were one to three months post-childbirth at the time of interview. five major themes revealed the essence of women's experiences of their interaction with a midwife during pregnancy and childbirth: (1) being respected, (2) being accompanied, (3) trust, (4) being satisfied, and (5) professional competence. the women recognised the service model of the midwife; they treasured their mutual relationships and the benefits that women derived from midwifery care during childbirth. In Taiwan, the government is mandated to offer midwifery models of care in hospitals, and to allow women to choose different types of care provider. an awareness of women's experiences will help identify the caring behaviours as recognised by the women and may help health-care professionals provide better support and care for women during the pregnancy and childbirth periods. These findings can serve as references for future midwifery practice models and improvements in quality of care. Crown Copyright 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy are ultimately concerned with the well-being of their unborn children, and this concern motivates their adherence to ART. Women's lived experiences are situated in their unique sociocultural context, and although some known challenges remain, counselling and ...
Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon
Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…
Patterson, Susan J.
An interpretative philosophical framework was applied to a case study to document the particular experiences and perspectives of ten women engineering transfer students who once attended a community college and are currently enrolled in one of two university professional engineering programs. This study is important because women still do not earn…
Interviews and observations focused on experiences of 15 young Asian women at a 5-day summer adventure program in southern England. Participants seemed bored with presentations about future career options, activities lost their challenge through repetition, and debriefing was weak. However, the women connected with the transferable skills of trust…
Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L
The acculturation process is an important factor in the experience of all immigrants. Although previous studies have indicated the challenges faced by Korean immigrants, little attention has been paid to Korean women's immigration experiences. A focused ethnography was used to examine midlife and older Korean immigrant women's experiences following their immigration to Canada. Fifteen women were interviewed in a city in Western Canada. The findings showed that in coming to Canada, women focused on caring for their children and often sacrificed their personal dreams. They had to be employed to support their families, and received support from family and government. Women participated regularly in a Korean Church and drew on their Christian faith to ease their adjustment. They retained hopes for the future including good health and a better life for their children. Most women indicated that it was difficult to integrate into Canadian society but they never gave up on their adjustment to a new culture. In this manuscript, the adjustment experience of the immigrant women is discussed in the context of an acculturation framework. The findings will enhance health professionals' awareness of adjustment patterns and associated challenges to Korean immigrant women's quality of life.
Najarian, Cheryl G.
Using life history interviews with 10 college educated Deaf women this paper investigates connections between early education and college experience and how they identified as Deaf. The women developed strategies as they managed their impressions while employing Goffman's practices of loyalty, discipline and circumspection. Acknowledging deafness…
Frye, Victoria; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl
Background Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. Methods We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. Results We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the “fit” between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. Conclusions These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and
Frye, Victoria; Wilton, Leo; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl
Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing perceptions of
Full Text Available Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC. In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29.We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach.We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc. and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC.These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing
Hillman, Jennifer K; Johnson, Lauren N C; Limaye, Meghana; Feldman, Rebecca A; Sammel, Mary; Dokras, Anuja
To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in white and black adolescents and adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with controls. Retrospective cohort study. Center for PCOS. Subjects with PCOS with data on race and cardiometabolic risk (n = 519). Controls were age and race matched from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population (1999-2006). None. MetSyn, coronary heart disease risk, and general CVD risk. Black adolescents and young adults with PCOS had an increased prevalence of MetSyn compared with their white counterparts (adolescents relative risk 2.65 [95% confidence interval 1.29-5.4], adults relative risk 1.44 [95% confidence interval 1.21-2.6]). In contrast, there was no difference in risk of MetSyn between black and white adolescents and adult women in the NHANES dataset. After controlling for age and body mass index, black women with PCOS had a significantly increased prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein and high glucose. The general CVD risk was significantly increased in black adults with PCOS. This is the first study to comprehensively demonstrate increased risk of MetSyn in both black adolescents and adult women with PCOS compared with white subjects with PCOS. This racial disparity was not present in the NHANES controls. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the independent impact of PCOS and race on CVD risk in women. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gauss, Julie W.; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia
BACKGROUND Understanding women’s psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among Black, Latina and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. METHODS Data on 420 women, a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS At baseline, 30.3% of Black and 35.5% of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2% of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (Odds ratio = 0.58, 95% Confidence interval: 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women’s perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P-valuetest is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of Black, Latina and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606
Jenkins, Mary G; Ford, Jane B; Morris, Jonathan M; Roberts, Christine L
Although surveys have identified that women are generally highly satisfied with maternity care provision, those aspects of care that women highlight as most important for achieving satisfaction and a satisfactory maternity care experience have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate how women understand and experience their maternity care and to report which aspects of care women highlight as most important. This large qualitative study explored women's expectations and experiences of maternity care provision. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 53 women experiencing maternity care in a range of tertiary, regional, rural, remote hospitals and midwife-led practices in the state of New South Wales, Australia during 2011-2012. Included in the interview schedule was the question 'What 3 aspects would you see as most important for delivery of maternity care?' Descriptive analyses of entire transcripts and responses to the question on most important aspects of care were undertaken. Descriptive analyses of women's responses identified 5 important aspects of care: woman-focused care, staff qualities, systems and facilities, family-focused care and continuity of care/information. First-time mothers were more likely to identify woman-focused care, staff qualities and continuity of care/information as important aspects than multiparous mothers. Urban and regional mothers highlighted staff qualities as having greater importance for satisfaction with their care while rural and particularly remote women nominated systems and facilities as important. Our study showed that women from a range of settings are more concerned with staff and relational issues than facilities. Differences in perceptions among primiparous versus multiparous women, at different stages of pregnancy and among women from rural and remote compared to urban settings highlight the need to include women with a diversity of experience when trying to understand the aspects
Makambi, Kepher H; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Bright-Gbebry, Mireille; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L
Colorectal adenomas are benign lesions that may be precursors to colorectal cancer. No studies of African American women have investigated dietary patterns and the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. We examined data from the Black Women's Health Study to determine whether dietary patterns are associated with the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. This is a prospective cohort study of 59,000 participants followed biennially since 1995. During 155,414 person-years of follow-up from 1997 to 2007 among women who had had at least one screening colonoscopy, 620 incident cases of colorectal adenomas were identified. By using Cox regression models, we obtained incidence rate ratios (IRR) for colorectal adenoma in relation to quintiles of each of two dietary patterns, adjusting for other colorectal adenoma risk factors. Two dietary patterns, Western and prudent, were utilized to assess the association between dietary intake and adenoma risk. The highest quintile of prudent diet, relative to the lowest quintile, was significantly associated with 34% lower colorectal adenoma risk overall (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88; P(trend) pattern were associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal adenoma (IRR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.85 for the highest quintile relative to the lowest; P(trend) = 0.01). Our findings suggest that African American women may be able to reduce their risk of developing colorectal adenomas by following a prudent dietary pattern and avoiding a more Western pattern. A dietary modification could have a strong impact in colorectal adenoma prevention in African American women. ©2011 AACR.
Iversen, Mette Langeland; Midtgaard, Julie; Ekelin, Maria
from two different-sized Danish hospitals and identified by applying a purposeful sample strategy. Results: The main theme expressed the women's overall experience with the rebozo: “Joined movements in a harmless effort towards a natural birth”. The women experienced that the technique created bodily......Objective: The study aimed to explore women's experiences of the rebozo technique during labour. Methods: This was a qualitative study based on individual telephone interviews, analysed by means of qualitative content analysis and inspired by interpretive description. 17 participants were recruited...
Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava
We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose-response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care.
Poulos, Ann; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth
Purpose: Mammography discomfort has the potential to deter women from attending for regular breast screening. Previous studies have focussed on the pain/discomfort of the mammography procedure itself. The purpose of this study was to consider discomfort from a holistic perspective of the mammography experience derived from the women themselves. Methods: Qualitative research methods were employed. Using theoretical sampling, 12 women who had recently experienced mammography were interviewed. The interview questions aimed to explore the experience of women attending for a mammogram from arrival to departure and beyond in order to identify aspects which potentially increase discomfort. Data analysis involved coding and categorisation and identification of key concepts and their relationships. Results: A conceptual framework was developed that demonstrates the contributors to mammography discomfort and the relationships between these as identified by the women. Conclusions: The conceptual framework has important implications for clinical practice and future research
Steinberg, Annie G; Wiggins, Erin A; Barmada, Carlin Henry; Sullivan, Vicki Joy
The authors investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and healthcare experiences of Deaf women. Interviews with 45 deaf women who participated in focus groups in American Sign Language were translated, transcribed, and analyzed. Deaf women's understanding of women's health issues, knowledge of health vocabulary in both English and American Sign Language, common health concerns among Deaf women, and issues of access to information, including pathways and barriers, were examined. As a qualitative study, the results of this investigation are limited and should be viewed as exploratory. A lack of health knowledge was evident, including little understanding of the meaning or value of cancer screening, mammography, or Pap smears; purposes of prescribed medications, such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT); or necessity for other medical or surgical interventions. Negative experiences and avoidance or nonuse of health services were reported, largely due to the lack of a common language with healthcare providers. Insensitive behaviors were also described. Positive experiences and increased access to health information were reported with practitioners who used qualified interpreters. Providers who demonstrated minimal signing skills, a willingness to use paper and pen, and sensitivity to improving communication were appreciated. Deaf women have unique cultural and linguistic issues that affect healthcare experiences. Improved access to health information may be achieved with specialized resource materials, improved prevention and targeted intervention strategies, and self-advocacy skills development. Healthcare providers must be trained to become more effective communicators with Deaf patients and to use qualified interpreters to assure access to healthcare for Deaf women.
Davidson, Maria del Guadalupe
This paper explores how opposite sides of the abortion debate employ a discourse of endangerment to mobilise political support for their ideologies about black women's bodies. I examine the role of black women within that rhetorical strategy through various rhetorical artefacts. To analyse these artefacts, I employ the theoretical framework of…
Coogan, Patricia F.; White, Laura F.; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T.; Marshall, Julian D.; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael
While laboratory studies show that air pollutants can potentiate insulin resistance, the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association of air pollution with diabetes incidence is conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of the traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the incidence of diabetes in a longitudinal cohort study of African American women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes associated with exposure to NO2 among 43,003 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). Pollutant levels at participant residential locations were estimated with 1) a land use regression model for participants living in 56 metropolitan areas, and 2) a dispersion model for participants living in 27 of the cities. From 1995-2011, 4387 cases of diabetes occurred. The hazard ratios per interquartile range of NO2 (9.7 ppb), adjusted for age, metropolitan area, education, vigorous exercise, body mass index, smoking, and diet, were 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06) using the land use regression model estimates and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.10) using the dispersion model estimates. The present results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to NO2 contributes to diabetes incidence in African American women. PMID:27124624
Marilene Vicente de Jesus
Full Text Available The research aimed to understand the experiences of women with mastectomies in the treatment Assistance Unit for High Complexity - (UNACON a Hospital Midsize High Complexity in the South of Santa Catarina. This is a qualitative study, descriptive and field. We carried out semi-structured interviews with ten women. Data were analyzed using the technique proposed by Minayo categorization.The survey results denote that interferes with mastectomies in activities of daily living, interpersonal relationships, self-esteem and self-image of women. The feelings of despair, fear and anxiety, but also the strength to fight for life were reported by women, beyondthe need to help and support arising from the family. The difficulties faced after mastectomy surgery are related to pain, loss of strength in the arm, need for rest, interfering with daily activities of women. We stress the need for support of the healthcare team to mastectomy for women coping and adaptation to the disease process.
Marilene Vicente de Jesus
Full Text Available The research aimed to understand the experiences of women with mastectomies in the treatment Assistance Unit for High Complexity - (UNACON a Hospital Midsize High Complexity in the South of Santa Catarina. This is a qualitative study, descriptive and field. We carried out semi-structured interviews with ten women. Data were analyzed using the technique proposed by Minayo categorization. The survey results denote that interferes with mastectomies in activities of daily living, interpersonal relationships, self-esteem and self-image of women. The feelings of despair, fear and anxiety, but also the strength to fight for life were reported by women, beyond the need to help and support arising from the family. The difficulties faced after mastectomy surgery are related to pain, loss of strength in the arm, need for rest, interfering with daily activities of women. We stress the need for support of the healthcare team to mastectomy for women coping and adaptation to the disease process.
McLemore, Monica R; Altman, Molly R; Cooper, Norlissa; Williams, Shanell; Rand, Larry; Franck, Linda
Chronic stress is a known risk factor for preterm birth, yet little is known about how healthcare experiences add to or mitigate perceived stress. In this study, we described the pregnancy-related healthcare experiences of 54 women of color from Fresno, Oakland, and San Francisco, California, with social and/or medical risk factors for preterm birth. This study was a secondary analysis of focus group data generated as part of a larger project focused on patient and community involvement in preterm birth research. English and Spanish speaking women, age 18 or greater with social and/or medical risk factors for preterm birth participated in two focus groups, six weeks apart. Data from the first focus groups are included in this analysis. Five themes emerged from thematic analysis of the transcripts. Participants described disrespect during healthcare encounters, including experiences of racism and discrimination; stressful interactions with all levels of staff; unmet information needs; and inconsistent social support. Despite these adverse experiences, women felt confidence in parenting and newborn care. Participant recommendations for healthcare systems improvement included: greater attention to birth plans, better communication among multiple healthcare providers, more careful listening to patients during clinical encounters, increased support for social programs such as California's Black Infant Health, and less reliance on past carceral history and/or child protective services involvement. The women in this study perceived their prenatal healthcare as a largely disrespectful and stressful experience. Our findings add to the growing literature that women of color experience discrimination, racism and disrespect in healthcare encounters and that they believe this affects their health and that of their infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Chyvette T.; Grier, Sonya A.; Marks, Amy Seidel
This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, whi...
Goedecke, Julia H
The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity. This commentary focuses on the two main findings of Gradidge's thesis, namely, (i) physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and (ii) body composition and adiponectin, as risk factors for obesity and MetS in black South African women. Despite a high prevalence of obesity (48%), Gradidge showed that 75% of the women taking part in the study were meeting WHO guidelines on physical activity. This commentary suggests that the relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk may be confounded by socioeconomic status. Alternatively, the intensity, and not necessarily the volume, of activity, as well as high rates of sedentary behaviour are posited as important determinants of obesity and MetS in black South African women. Accordingly, this commentary questions the veracity of the WHO guidelines on physical activity in developing countries, where most women meet the guidelines but have very poor cardiorespiratory fitness, are obese and are at high risk of MetS. Gradidge also showed that the most consistent and significant correlate of MetS in this cohort of middle-aged women was low serum levels of adiponectin. This commentary highlights various lifestyle interventions that have been shown to increase adiponectin levels. Finally, the importance of immediate action to address the problem of obesity and MetS is emphasised.
This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…
Croom, Natasha N.
This study examined seven Black womyn full professors' experiences of promotion beyond tenure. Using a critical race feminist theoretical framework, findings suggest that a meritocratic ideology undergirds a dominant narrative about the Professor rank. However, racism and sexism mediated the participants' opportunities to access the status and…
Yu, Xiaoqi; Seeberg, Vilma; Malone, Larissa
Minority suburbanization has been a fast growing demographic shift in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century. This article examines the tapestry of the suburbanization experience of a group of high-achieving Black American students and their families as told by them. Departing from the all too common, deficit orientation…
Full Text Available The literature on Black education has often neglected significant analysis of life in schools and the experience of racism among Black middle-class students in general and Black middle-class males specifically. Moreover, the achievement gap between this population and their White counterparts in many cases is greater than the gap that exists among working-class Blacks and Whites. This study begins to document the aforementioned by illuminating the racial microaggressions experienced by Black middle-class males while in school and how their families’ usage of social and cultural capital deflect the potential negative outcomes of school racism.
This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…
Alston, Judy A.
African-American women's leadership experiences and "herstories" are absent from the leadership canon. In the context of preparation, practice, and research, a few cornerstones of leadership (power, control, authority, and influence) have historically been used in a negative fashion to marginalize, silence, and erase the accomplishments of…
Montgomery, Tiffany M; Mays, Vickie M; Heilemann, MarySue V; Nyamathi, Adey; Bauermeister, Jose A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah
To assess the acceptability and feasibility of S2S, a newly adapted behavior intervention to address high-risk sexual behavior. Pilot randomized controlled trial. The Internet and text messages with no in-person interactions. Eighty-eight Black women, ages 18 to 24 years, were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups and self-enrolled in the respective text message program. Participants in the intervention group were sent text messages about sexual health, whereas those in the control group were sent text messages about diet and/or exercise. Participants in each group received 24 text messages, including text-only messages, memes, and infopics. Participants in the intervention group also received videos links. All text messages were sent three times per week for 8 weeks. Quantitative methods were used to analyze data from the message and video platform reports. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze participants' responses to an acceptability and feasibility survey. Overall, the delivery of health promotion text messages was viewed as acceptable and feasible by participants in both groups. Most of the short answer responses from participants were favorable, and responses to the acceptability and feasibility survey yielded a total mean score of 4.01 on a 5-point scale. Results from this study support the idea that evidence-based interventions can be adapted for delivery by text message. This delivery modality is acceptable to young adult Black women and may help decrease barriers that would otherwise prevent them from receiving health promotion messages. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stewart, K; Greer, R; Powell, M
The Mooncup is a menstrual cup that is an alternative to conventional sanitary protection. We aimed to determine whether the Mooncup is tolerated by asking 53 healthy female volunteers to record the frequency of changing sanitary protection and leakage over three menstrual cycles with regular sanitary protection and three cycles with the Mooncup. We measured the frequency of leakage and changing the Mooncup along with acceptability of the Mooncup. A total of 126 baseline cycles and 71 cycles with the Mooncup were recorded. The Mooncup leaked 0.5 times less frequently and required to be changed 2.8 times less frequently, on average, during one menstrual period than regular sanitary protection. Of the participants, 55% will carry on using the Mooncup for sanitary protection. Thus, we have concluded that, the Mooncup is acceptable for most women but could not be used for the objective measurement of menstrual blood loss because of the leakage that did occur.
Lee-Rife, Susan M
This paper examines the complex interplay between reproductive experiences and women's empowerment using rich life history data from a survey in India. Previous research has examined the influence of a rather limited range of reproductive events, focusing on how many children or sons a woman has borne, and has only superficially incorporated the insights of lifecourse theory. Furthermore, it has often conceptualized empowerment as a static characteristic rather than a time-varying one, and has often failed to examine the influence of empowerment resources or previous empowerment levels. I focus on the cumulative influence of less-studied reproductive events-including unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, stillbirths, miscarriages, and abortions-on several dimensions of women's empowerment, including mobility, financial decision-making, experiences of violence, and threats of abandonment or homelessness using data collected from 2435 women in Madhya Pradesh, India during a 2002 household-based probability sample survey. Logistic regression revealed that, notably, few reproductive events have an impact on women's current empowerment, but rather, the extent of empowerment immediately after marriage emerges as a strong determinant of their current empowerment. However, women who have had abortions have higher odds of experiencing domestic violence, and experiencing mistimed pregnancies lowers the odds of violence. Incorporating the potential influence of prior life events and conditions, accounting for the possibility that experiences may accumulate to shape women's current empowerment portrays women's lives more completely and helps to identify key points of intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers.The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, “Tell me your life story”. Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186, along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with theself. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early on set of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different triggerfactors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.
This report of a study based on research and analysis of U.S. Census data examines how the services economy and its component industrial sectors have spurred employment growth and with its gains and losses for black women. The report is divided into three parts. The first part looks at current theories related to work and workforce participation…
Kelly, Nichole R.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Lydecker, Janet A.; Bair, Carrie E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne
Most measures of eating disorder symptoms and risk factors were developed in predominantly White female samples. Yet eating disorders affect individuals of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. Black women appear more vulnerable to certain forms of eating pathology, such as binge eating, and less susceptible to other eating disorder symptoms and risk…
Anderson, Deborah; Shapiro, David
Data from black and white women ages 34-44 (1968-88) showed that differences in characteristics did not explain occupational segregation by race nor the racial wage gap. During the 1980s, the gap was influenced by widening differences in access to occupations and an increase in returns to education. (SK)
Clarke, Rachel; Lewis, Rosie M.
This article explores an innovative model of adult education within museums developed from a Black feminist approach. BAM! Sistahood! is a community-led project with regional heritage organisations, universities and women's centres in the UK, that offers a holistic approach to heritage development. The ethos is to challenge the perpetuation of…
Sheridan, Terry A.
A sample of 45 women managers was surveyed in a qualitative study to explore their experiences of being unemployed. The sample was purposeful, and the data were collected on a website-based survey. The experience of unemployment for female managers was far different from what was previously presumed from research largely drawn from male …
Wardrop, Andrea A.; Popadiuk, Natalee E.
Evidence about anxiety in the postpartum is sparse and contradictory. Our research expands this knowledge by using a qualitative methodology, the Feminist Biographical Method, to explore first time mothers' experiences of postpartum anxiety. Data collection included 1.5 to 2.0 hour interviews with six women about their experiences of anxiety in…
The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the lived experiences of the follow up journey of a pregnant woman by listening to the voices of women as they reflect on their journey. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual design was used to examine into each woman's experience of her world from pregnancy to ...
Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel
This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN
Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Methods: Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. Result: The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1 feeling inferior and worthless (2 feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3 fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4 feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Keywords: alcoholism, alcohol drinking, gender identity, violence
Snyder, Briana L
Women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) are significantly more likely than other women to experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explicate the experiences of women with DID who experience IPV and describe how they cope. Grounded theory was used to conduct this investigation. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants (N = 5) for face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded and categorized, and reflective memos were developed to explicate substantive categories. Women with DID used coping strategies that were consistent with their diagnoses, such as switching and dissociating. These coping mechanisms reflect past self-preservation strategies that were developed in association with severe childhood maltreatment. Women with DID who experienced IPV sought to mitigate and safeguard themselves from danger using strategies they developed as maltreated children. Nurses can use these findings to better recognize and understand the motivations and behaviors of women with DID who experience IPV. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(5), 26-32.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Rolfe, Danielle E; Sutton, Erica J; Landry, Mireille; Sternberg, Len; Price, Jennifer A D
The health benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for women living with heart disease are well documented, yet women remain underrepresented in traditionally structured CR programs. This health service delivery gap has been attributed to a number of sex-related factors experienced by women, including lower rates of physician referral, travel-related barriers, competing work and caregiving responsibilities, greater cardiovascular disease severity, and number of comorbid health conditions. Whether a program specifically designed for women is able to address these barriers and facilitate women's participation is a question that has seldom been explored in the CR literature. As part of a larger study exploring whether 6 predefined principles of women's health (empowerment of women, accessible programs, broad definition of health care, high-quality of care, collaborative planning, and innovative and creative approaches) are reflected in the practices of the Women's Cardiovascular Health Initiative (WCHI) (a comprehensive CR and primary prevention program designed for women), the objective of this analysis was to explore how the principle of "accessible programs" is experienced by women participating in the WCHI. Fourteen women previously enrolled in the WCHI program participated in a single, in-person qualitative interview. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach to identify relevant themes related to program accessibility. Key themes identified included participants' experiences with acquiring physician referral, negotiating transportation issues, and navigating program schedules. Women discussed how peer support and staff members' willingness to address their health-related concerns facilitated their participation. While a women-centered CR/primary prevention program may facilitate and encourage women's participation by providing flexible program schedules as well as peer and professional support, efforts are still required to address
Homer, Caroline Se; Watts, Nicole P; Petrovska, Karolina; Sjostedt, Chauncey M; Bisits, Andrew
In many countries, planned vaginal breech birth (VBB) is a rare event. After the Term Breech Trial in 2000, VBB reduced and caesarean section for breech presentation increased. Despite this, women still request VBB. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and decision-making processes of women who had sought a VBB. A qualitative study using descriptive exploratory design was undertaken. Twenty-two (n = 22) women who planned a VBB, regardless of eventual mode of birth were recruited. The women had given birth at one of two maternity hospitals in Australia that supported VBB. In-depth, semi-structured interviews using an interview guide were conducted. Interviews were analysed thematically. Twenty two women were interviewed; three quarters were primiparous (n = 16; 73%). Nine (41%) were already attending a hospital that supported VBB with the remaining women moving hospitals. All women actively sought a vaginal breech birth because the baby remained breech after an external cephalic version - 12 had a vaginal birth (55%) and 10 (45%) a caesarean section after labour commenced. There were four main themes: Reacting to a loss of choice and control, Wanting information that was trustworthy, Fighting the system and seeking support for VBB and The importance of 'having a go' at VBB. Women seeking a VBB value clear, consistent and relevant information in deciding about mode of birth. Women desire autonomy to choose vaginal breech birth and to be supported in their choice with high quality care.
Thackwell, Nicola; Swartz, Leslie; Dlamini, Sipho; Phahladira, Lebogang; Muloiwa, Rudzani; Chiliza, Bonginkosi
This research aimed to identify and explore the experiences of Black registrars in their training in the Western Cape's academic hospitals in order to identify structures, practices, attitudes and ideologies that may promote or impede the advancement of Black doctors into specialist medicine. This is justified by the requirement for universities to work towards monitoring and evaluating efforts to create non-discriminatory and inclusive training environments. This study employed qualitative research methods. Ten Black African medical specialists were interviewed about their training experiences in two university training hospitals in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Interview data was collected using open-ended questions and coded and analysed using thematic and critical discursive analysis techniques. Four experiential themes emerged from the interview data, they included: 1) experiences of everyday racism during work hours, 2) the physical and psychological effects of tokenism and an increased need to perform, 3) institutional racism as a result of inconsistent and unclear methods of promotion and clinical competence building, and 4) an organisational culture that was experienced as having a race and gender bias. This is a pilot study and there are limits on the generalizability of the data due to the small sample. What is clear from our participants, though, is the strong experiential component of finding it challenging to be a Black trainee in a White-dominated profession. We are undertaking further research to explore the issues raised in more detail.
Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl
The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela
Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074
Romina B. da Costa
Full Text Available This phenomenological investigation aims to explore the lived experience of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM disciplines. As a minority group within a traditionally male-dominated space, women are still underrepresented in the upper echelons of science, even if the number of women in STEM is increasing. The author draws from her experiences as an “undesirable statistic,” a woman who entered college as a STEM student but ended up getting a degree in the social sciences. The author attempts to gain some new insights and understanding of the issue of women in STEM, engaging in two in-depth phenomenological conversations with a female engineering student in a large public university of US Mid-Atlantic region.
Ganatra, B; Kalyanwala, S; Elul, B; Coyaji, K; Tewari, S
We explored women's perspectives on using medical abortion, including their reasons for selecting the method, their experiences with it and their thoughts regarding demedicalisation of part or all of the process. Sixty-three women from two urban clinics in India were interviewed within four weeks of abortion completion using a semi-structured in-depth interview guide. While women appreciated the non-invasiveness of medical abortion, other factors influencing method selection were family support and distance from the facility. The degree of medicalisation that women wanted or felt was necessary also depended on the way expectations were set by their providers. Confirmation of abortion completion was a source of anxiety for many women and led to unnecessary interventions in a few cases. Ultimately, experiences depended more on women's expectations about the method, and on the level of emotional and logistic support they received rather than on inherent characteristics of the method. These findings emphasise the circumstances under which women make reproductive choices and underscore the need to tailor service delivery to meet women's needs. Women-centred counselling and care that takes into consideration individual circumstances are needed.
If This Is a "Real" Housewife, Who Are All These Women Around Me?: An Examination of The Real Housewives of Atlanta and the Persistence of Historically Stereotypical Images of Black Women in Popular Reality Television.
Bunai, Dominique Christabel
Stereotypical images of blacks have persisted throughout multiple forms of media for decades, with one of the most recent arenas being reality television programming. This study examines the Bravo Television network series The Real Housewives of Atlanta to consider the impact of reality television on the image of black women in America today. This increasingly popular show is the most viewed in The Real Housewives franchise, and demonstrates that black women in America do not embody any one h...
Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Bates, Lisa M; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M
This study documents the prevalence of workplace abuse, sexual harassment at work, and lifetime experiences of racial discrimination among the United for Health cohort of 1,202 predominantly black, Latino, and white women and men low-income union workers in the Greater Boston area. Overall, 85 percent of the cohort reported exposure to at least one of these three social hazards; exposure to all three reached 20 to 30 percent among black women and women and men in racial/ethnic groups other than white, black, or Latino. Workplace abuse in the past year, reported by slightly more than half the workers, was most frequently reported by the white men (69%). Sexual harassment at work in the past year was reported by 26 percent of the women and 22 percent of the men, with values of 20 percent or more in all racial/ ethnic-gender groups other than Latinas and white men. High exposure to racial discrimination was reported by 37 percent of the workers of color, compared with 10 percent of the white workers, with black workers reporting the greatest exposure (44%). Together, these findings imply that the lived--and combined-experiences of class, race, and gender inequities and their attendant assaults on human dignity are highly germane to analyses of workers' health.
Allen, Katherine R; Roberto, Karen A
The purpose of this study was to explore how older women in rural Appalachia with gynecological cancer construct and interpret their experience with cancer. Grounded in social constructionist theory, semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 women, aged 51-82, who had been treated for gynecological cancer. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Although women narrated their experience along a common trajectory from symptoms to diagnosis to treatment, four distinct patterns of posttreatment perceptions were described: (a) positive: women believed they were cancer survivors, (b) cautious: women saw themselves as survivors but not risk free, (c) distanced: women viewed themselves as cured and equated survivor with victim, and (d) resigned: women refused more treatment. All of the women acknowledged an inner strength in how they experienced cancer, requiring a more nuanced framework for understanding how negative and positive feelings coexist with faith in a higher power and the capacity to endure a devastating threat to life and health. The findings expand the concept of survivor identity, suggesting that the women's perception that they had met life's challenges with fortitude and inner strength may have more resonance in later life than the concept of survivorship. Family members and medical and public health professionals need to support older women's individual response to cancer recovery and acknowledge their complicated reactions to a cancer diagnosis and prognosis. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
recorded along with other characteristics. Inclusion criteria for the primary studies required that women with breast cancer be at least 21 years of age; cog ...W81XWH-04-1-0469 TITLE: Advance Care Planning: Experience of Women with Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ardith Z. Doorenbos...with Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ardith Z. Doorenbos, Ph.D
Shannon, Lisa; Logan, Tk; Cole, Jennifer; Walker, Robert
This study examined associations of women's alcohol use with self-reported experiences of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence among a sample of women with protective orders. Participants were 676 women with a protective order against a male intimate partner from three rural areas and one urban area. Multivariate analyses indicated that women's substance use was associated with psychological abuse tactics and severity of physical and sexual victimization in the last year of the relationship. Women's alcohol use was associated with the severity of physical violence within the last year of the relationship, whereas illegal drug use had associations with the number of verbal abuse, degradation and jealousy/control tactics. There was a significant interaction of women's alcohol and drug use with the severity of sexual assault.
Hammarberg, K; Sullivan, E; Javid, N; Duncombe, G; Halliday, L; Boyle, F; Saunders, C; Ives, A; Dickinson, J E; Fisher, J
Gestational breast cancer (GBC) presents many challenges for women and the clinicians who care for them. The aim of this study was to explore the health care experiences of women diagnosed with GBC to inform and improve clinical care of women in this predicament. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 women who had been diagnosed with GBC in the previous 5 years. The overarching themes for perceived quality of care were "communication" and "comprehensive care." "Communication" had two sub themes: "interdisciplinary communication" (the way health professionals from different disciplines communicated with each other about the management of the woman's care) and "patient communication" (how they communicated this to the woman). The "comprehensive care" theme incorporated three sub themes: "the spirit" (psychological care); "the mind" (information provision); and "the body" (management of treatment side effects). Women's own accounts of positive and negative experiences of GBC care provide unique and specific insights which improve understanding of their concerns and needs. The findings can inform advances in quality and efficacy of clinical care; offer guidance for obstetricians, oncologists and allied health professionals about the needs of women diagnosed with GBC and how care can be optimised; and inform the development of resources to assist women and their families. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bond, Keosha T.; Gunn, Alana J.
Knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) continues to remain scarce among Black women who are disproportionally affected by HIV in the United States. A thematic analysis of open-ended questions from a sample of Black women (n=119) who completed a mix-methods, online, e-health study was conducted to examine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using PrEP. Being a female controlled method, empowerment, option for women with risky sex partners, and serodiscordant couples were advantages described. Disadvantages of PrEP were identified as the complexity of the choice, encouragement of sex with risky partners, increased burden, promotion of unprotected sex, and newness of the drug. PMID:28725660
Aday, Ronald; Farney, Lori
The problem of providing mandated medical care has become commonplace as correctional systems in the United States struggle to manage unprecedented increases in its aging prison population. This study explores older incarcerated women's perceptions of prison health care policies and their day-to-day survival experiences. Aggregate data obtained from a sample of 327 older women (mean age = 56) residing in prison facilities in five Southern states were used to identify a baseline of health conditions and needs for this vulnerable group. With an average of 4.2 chronic health conditions, frequently histories of victimization, and high rates of mental health issues, the women's experiences of negotiating health care was particularly challenging. By incorporating the voices of older women, we expose the contradictions, dilemmas, and obstacles they experience in their attempts to obtain health care. It is clear from the personal accounts shared that, despite court mandates, penal harm practices such as delaying or denying medical treatment as well as occasional staff indifferences are common in women's prisons. With older women having the greatest need for health care, an age- and gender-sensitive approach is recommended.
Edwards-Bennett, Sophia M.; Jacks, Lindsay M.; McCormick, Beryl; Zhang, Zhigang; Azu, Michelle; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Brown, Carol
Purpose: Population-based studies have reported that as many of 35% of black women do not undergo radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservation surgery (BCS). The objective of the present study was to determine whether this trend persisted at a large multidisciplinary cancer center, and to identify the factors that predict for noncompliance with RT and determine the outcomes for this subset of patients. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2007, 83 black women underwent BCS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and were therefore eligible for the present study. Of the 83 women, 38 (46%) had Stage I, 38 (46%) Stage II, and 7 (8%) Stage III disease. Of the study cohort, 31 (37%) had triple hormone receptor-negative tumors. RT was recommended for 81 (98%) of the 83 patients (median dose, 60 Gy). Results: Of the 81 women, 12 (15%) did not receive the recommended adjuvant breast RT. Nonreceipt of chemotherapy (p = .003) and older age (p = .009) were associated with nonreceipt of RT. With a median follow-up of 70 months, the 3-year local control, locoregional control, recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 99% (actuarial 5-year rate, 97%), 96% (actuarial 5-year rate, 93%), 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 92%), 92% (actuarial 5-year rate, 89%), and 95% (actuarial 5-year rate, 91%), respectively. Conclusion: We found a greater rate of utilization adjuvant breast RT (85%) among black women after BCS than has been reported in recent studies, indicating that excellent outcomes are attainable for black women after BCS when care is administered in a multidisciplinary cancer center.
Hutchinson, Earl Ofari
These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…
Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit
This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.
Vimalananda, Varsha G.; Palmer, Julie R.; Gerlovin, Hanna; Wise, Lauren A.; Rosenzweig, James L.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Narváez, Edward A. Ruiz
Aims To assess shift work in relation to incident type 2 diabetes among African American women. Methods In the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS), an ongoing prospective cohort study, we followed 28,041 participants for incident diabetes during 2005-2013. They answered questions in 2005 about having worked the night shift. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards models. The basic multivariable model included age, time period, family history of diabetes, education, and neighborhood SES. In further models, we controlled for lifestyle factors and body mass index (BMI). Results Over the 8 years of follow-up, there were 1,786 incident diabetes cases. Relative to never having worked the night shift, HRs (95% CI) of diabetes were 1.17 (1.04, 1.31) for 1-2 years of night shift work, 1.23 (1.06, 1.41) for 3-9 years, and 1.42 (1.19, 1.70) for ≥ 10 years (P-trend shift work and type 2 diabetes remained after multivariable adjustment (P-trend = 0.02). The association did not vary by obesity status, but was stronger in women aged shift work were associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The association was only partially explained by lifestyle factors and BMI. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work may affect risk of diabetes is needed in view of the high prevalence of shift work among U.S. workers. PMID:25586362
Racialized and class specific as well as gendered heterosexuality is compulsory for young women. Substantial academic literature addressed the incidence of premarital adolescent heterosexual intercourse paying particular attention to young working-class women and (especially in the US) to young women of color. During the 1980s, journals and academic texts in the US debated the so-called black underclass disregarding the effects of Reaganomics: increasing poverty, homelessness, ill health, and unemployment, which affected young African-American women. From a traditional (hetero)patriarchal standpoint, any teenage pregnancy is a problem. Hence pregnancy avoidance and planned parenthood focus on young working-class women and young women of color presumed to constitute the problem of the (hetero)sexually active teenager. The ideology of fetal rights as used in anti-abortion and pro-life arguments represents the life of a pregnant woman as in direct opposition to that of her fetus. The ideology of adolescence constructs all young people as inherently prone to irresponsibility, especially if they are female, working-class, and black. In the Third World, young women considered as irresponsible mothers more likely face enforced sterilization than access to abortion in the guise of genetic counseling for disabilities or without explicit consent during other gynecological operations. Feminists point out that under current legislation in England and Wales, fetuses defined as seriously handicapped can be aborted up to the moment of birth. The legacy of eugenicist ideas lives on in assumptions about the inherent deficiencies of young working-class women, young women of color, and young women with disabilities as potential mothers. Yet despite the institutional, cultural, and ideological force of appropriate heterosexual and reproductive activity, young women continue to challenge common sense definitions of normality and deviance.
is of a qualitative nature and approaches reproductive issues of women based on an outline of gender and race. Thirty-six women were interviewed, self-classified as white and black (black and mulatto, in conjugal union for, at least, one year. The discourses were analyzed articulating race/ethnicity and different levels of schooling. Overall, one can observe that the life conditions and reproductive health of black and white women differ due to socio-economic and cultural conditions. Comparatively, the discourses of the two groups can be interpreted in two characteristic levels, those of private life and public space: while white women focus on the delay of women in the equitable exercise of freedom compared to men, but highlight achievements in the world of labor, black women view freedom as concerning the possibility of a democratic experience of conjugality. The differences in discourses as to freedom can be related as much to the issue of racism in Brazil suffered daily by black women throughout history, as to the specifically cultural issues of the two groups that were studied.
Sellers, Sherrill L; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari
We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination than white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.
Chambers, Brittany D; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Tanner, Amanda E; Nichols, Tracy R; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly
Despite decreases in infants born premature and at low birth weight in the United States (U.S.), racial disparities between Black and White women continue. In response, the purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between both traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among Black and White women. We merged individual-level data from the California Birth Statistical Master Files 2009-2013 with county-level data from the United States (U.S.) Census American Community Survey. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine Black-White differences among 531,170 primiparous women across 33 California counties. Traditional (e.g., dissimilarity index) and novel indicators (e.g., Black to White ratio in elected office) were associated with earlier gestational age and lower birth weight among Black and White women. A traditional indicator was more strongly associated with earlier gestational age for Black women than for White women. This was the first study to empirically demonstrate that structural racism, measured by both traditional and novel indicators, is associated with poor health and wellbeing of infants born to Black and White women. However, findings indicate traditional indicators of structural racism, rather than novel indicators, better explain racial disparities in birth outcomes. Results also suggest the need to develop more innovative approaches to: (1) measure structural racism at the county-level and (2) reform public policies to increase integration and access to resources.
Full Text Available Through fifteen in-depth case studies of primipara, Natal Indian women’s experiences of childbirth have been described Common problems were identified, including lack of a family support person throughout labour, lithotomy position for delivery, episiotomies and their sequelae, breast-feeding difficulties and lack of professional support in the early puerperium at home. Preparation for common medical interventions in labour, breast-feeding and parenting appeared inadequate. Pertinent sociocultural aspects have been identified. These include continuing family support and culturally prescribed behaviour pertaining most importantly to the early puerperium and affecting the maternal-neonatal dyad. In the early adaptation to motherhood informants continued their role as daughter or daughter-in-law and would only actively continue their role as wife later or at the end of the puerperium. These traditional patterns of behaviour persist despite marked changes in educational level, language spoken and employment status. In the light of this research and founded on scientific evidence, a number of recommendations are made and areas for further research are identified
Brown, Katherine M; Drake, Bettina F; Gehlert, Sarah; Wolf, Leslie E; DuBois, James; Seo, Joann; Woodward, Krista; Perkins, Hannah; Goodman, Melody S; Kaphingst, Kimberly A
Biobanks are essential resources, and participation by individuals from diverse groups is needed. Various models of consent have been proposed for secondary research use of biospecimens, differing in level of donor control and information received. Data are needed regarding participant preferences for models of consent, particularly among minorities. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 60 women to examine their attitudes about different models of consent. Recruitment was stratified by race (Black/White) and prior biobank participation (yes/no). Two coders independently coded interview transcripts. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10. The majority of Black and White participants preferred "broad" consent (i.e., blanket permission for secondary research use of biospecimens), and the second most preferred model for both groups was "study-specific" consent (i.e., consent for each future research study). The qualitative analysis showed that participants selected their most preferred model for 3 major reasons: having enough information, having control over their sample, and being asked for permission. Least preferred was notice model (i.e., participants notified that biospecimens may be used in future research). Attitudes toward models of consent differed somewhat by race and prior biobank participation. Participants preferred models of consent for secondary research use of biospecimens that provided them with both specific and general information, control over their biospecimens, and asked them to give permission for use. Our findings suggest that it will be important for researchers to provide information about future uses of biospecimens to the extent possible and have an explicit permission step for secondary research use.
Love, Katie L
This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity.
Ridinger, Robert B. Marks
Analyzes 93 reference works and 23 microform collections concerning the Black American experience in 13 subject areas of the social sciences (anthropology, biography, race relations and civil rights, the Black church, communication studies, economics, education, dance, genealogy, Black history, sports, women's studies, and literature and language)…
Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie
Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it.
The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.
Shon, Young Min; Joung, Woo Joung
The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the illness experience of married Korean women with epilepsy. Data were collected during 2015~2016 through individual in-depth interviews with 12 married women with epilepsy. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological analysis to uncover the meaning of the illness experience of the participants. The study results showed that the illness experience of married Korean women with epilepsy was clustered into a specific description of situated structure and a general description of situated structure. Six themes from 20 meaning units were identified: 1) Undermined self-esteem with stigma of being epileptic; 2) Limited social interaction; 3) Suffering sorrow as a 'disqualified being'; 4) Shuttling back and forth across the boundary between healthy and epileptic; 5) Desperate struggle to meet the expectation of given role; 6) Self-empowering through self-restriction and realization. The findings from this study show that both the enacted and felt stigma of epilepsy impact on the life of married Korean women with epilepsy. Although the participants face social and interpersonal restriction and prejudices, they try their best to fulfill their role rather than to be cared for as patients. As the stigma and hardships of the participants are related to lack of knowledge, health professionals should focus not just on clinical intervention but also on providing targeted educational programs and counseling for these women to dispel the stigma of the disease and to increase their quality of life. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
To explore the lived experience of single older women (35 years or older at time of birth) who experienced complications in their planned pregnancy. Phenomenology, using semistructured interviews with 11 women between the ages of 35 to 48 years. Six themes emerged: (a) motherhood now or never, (b) the known and unknown, (c) importance of support, (d) the stigma of single motherhood, (e) changing priorities, and (f) long-term concerns for themselves and child/children. Nurses who work with pregnant women should understand as much as possible about the issues affecting older single women who choose pregnancy; this offers the best opportunity to provide comprehensive care. These women can be at increased risk for many pregnancy complications, and should receive counseling about their risks for both fetal and maternal complications. Nurses should also conduct a thorough psychosocial assessment to determine what support systems are in place and what resources are available if complications arise. In the intrapartum and postpartum settings, nurses can offer not only appropriate physical caregiving but also a supportive and caring attitude with women in this circumstance. Helping women maintain a sense of control by helping them to participate in their care planning is essential.
Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline
Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA.
Teets, J M
This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed.
Research on gender-based violence describes domestic violence by male partners as a major public health issue and serious human rights violation. Many studies have been conducted in Kosovo to understand the factors that contribute to violence against women. The present study aims to examine the experiences of battered women and their understanding of the violence from an ecological framework, by asking questions regarding personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors. The study is qualitative, consisting of 50 in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence, and uses a grounded theory approach to identify main themes of the women's experiences. Findings from the study suggest that poverty, a patriarchal culture, strictly defined gender roles, and lack of programs for reintegrating victims subordinate women and leave them susceptible to domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Aquino, Maria Raisa Jessica V; Edge, Dawn; Smith, Debbie M
maternal health inequalities exist across the world. In the United Kingdom, whilst there are variations within and between groups, Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) women tend to have worse maternal health outcomes than White British women. However, there is limited information about BME women's experience of maternity services. Midwives are central to the provision of safe maternity care but little is known about their perceptions of ethnically-based inequalities in maternal healthcare. Therefore, this study explored a cohort of midwives' experiences of providing care for BME women, focussing on their views on the relationship between maternal health inequalities and service delivery. using a specifically-designed topic guide, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with qualified midwives in one National Health Service (NHS) Trust in the North West of England over a two-month period. Data were subsequently transcribed and thematically analysed. three main and seven sub-themes were identified. Firstly, 'language' summarised difficulties midwives experienced in engaging with women whose English was limited. Secondly, 'expectations of maternity care' outlined the mismatch between midwives and women's expectations of maternity care. Finally, 'complex needs extending beyond maternity care' highlighted the necessity of inter-agency working to address women's care holistically when their needs transcend the scope of maternity services. Midwives' accounts indicated that they strive to provide equitable care but encountered numerous barriers in doing so. Paradoxically, this might contribute to inequalities in service delivery. In midwives' view, unrestricted access to interpretation and translation services is essential for provision of effective, holistic maternity care. Participants also advocated education for both women and midwives. For the former, this would improve BME women's understanding of health and care systems, potentially leading to more realistic
Sonecha, Shaneil; Noble, Adam J; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone
The National Institute of Clinical Excellence suggested black ethnic minorities with epilepsy have different cultural, communicative and health-care needs. However, little is known about these despite increasing migration of black African and Caribbean people to Europe. This study aims to explore perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among black African and Caribbean people in South London. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 participants, to examine their beliefs and perceptions of living with epilepsy. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. African participants described supernatural causes for epilepsy and experienced considerable stigma whereas Caribbean participants described epilepsy as a 'normal illness'. However, both African and Caribbean participants experienced social restrictions arising from their epilepsy. The findings of higher levels of perceived stigma and social restriction seen in African participants may be a continuation of beliefs reported in participants' country of origin. There is also evidence that views regarding epilepsy transition through generations vary depending on place of birth. Practical Implications Health-care professionals need to be aware of and engage with the particular beliefs and concerns of black African and Caribbean people to achieve equity in health outcomes.
Inoue, Madoka; Chapman, Rose; Wynaden, Dianne
This paper reports a study of male nurses' experiences of providing intimate care for women clients. The number of men entering the nursing profession has increased worldwide. As a consequence of the move to a more gender-balanced profession, debate has ensued over how intimate care should be performed when this requires male nurses to be physically close to women clients. As there was little previous work on this topic, we wished to provide nurses, clients and other healthcare professionals with a better understanding of male nurses' experiences of working with women clients and within a healthcare system where they often feel excluded. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with male nurses working in various clinical settings in Western Australia. Latent content analysis was used to analyse the interviews, which were carried out between June and July 2004. Three themes were identified: the definition of intimate care, the emotional experience associated with providing intimate care and strategies used to assist in the delivery of intimate care for women clients. Providing intimate care for women clients was a challenging experience for male nurses. Participants described how it required them to invade these clients' personal space. Consequently, they often experienced various negative feelings and used several strategies to assist them during care delivery. Nurse educators should assist male nurses to be better prepared to interact with women clients in various settings. Furthermore, workplace environments need to provide additional support and guidance for male nurses to enable them to develop effective coping strategies to manage challenging situations.
Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise
This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…
This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal…
Postpartum anxiety disorders are common and may have significant consequences for mothers and their children. This review examines the literature on women's experiences with postpartum generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), postpartum panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and reference lists were searched. Qualitative and quantitative studies assessing women's experiences with GAD, postpartum PD, OCD, and PTSD were included. Narrative approach to literature synthesis was used. Fourteen studies (among 44 articles) met the criteria for review to identify descriptions of women's cognitive, affective, and somatic experiences related to postpartum anxiety disorders. Loss, frustration, and guilt, accompanied by physical symptoms of tension, were some of the experiences identified across studies. Most women suffered from more than one anxiety disorder, in addition to postpartum depression. To date, research has focused on prevalence rates of postpartum anxiety disorders, and evidence about clinical and subclinical symptoms of postpartum anxiety disorders and outcomes on mother and child is lacking. Postpartum anxiety disorders may have negative effects on parenting and child development; however, the nature of the underlying mechanisms is unclear. More robust longitudinal studies are needed to examine the impact of postpartum GAD, PD, OCD, and PTSD symptoms on the mother and the mother-child relationship to develop targets for therapeutic preventative interventions.
Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane
A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…
Levine, Victor; Moock, Peter R.
Examines the influence of child-related reductions in past hours worked on current wage rate of married women with children. The study reveals that differences in "intensity" of prior work experience account for half of the sex-related wage gap. (TE)
Kim, Miai; Reifel, Stuart
Child care teachers' experiences and their gendered understandings of their work were explored in this study. Two female child care teachers were interviewed individually and asked to describe their work as women's work. Analysis showed that teachers essentialized child care teaching, recognized the paradoxes of being a child care teacher,…
Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M
Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary
In times of war, women are likely to experience, in addition to the "normal" violence of peacetime, random cruelties perpetrated by the enemy against all members of the community. During research conducted with Palestinian refugees and Shi'i Muslims in Lebanon, women described various forms of violence and, in this article, I examine violence suffered by women in the context of conflict from three perspectives: victimization, trauma, and resistance. I argue that traumatic events have the effect of obliterating identity, but they can also strengthen the resolve to resist.
Coogan, Patricia F; White, Laura F; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael
Clinical studies have shown that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can increase insulin resistance and blood pressure. The epidemiologic evidence for an association of PM2.5 exposure with the incidence of type 2 diabetes or hypertension is inconsistent. Even a modest association would have great public health importance given the ubiquity of exposure and high prevalence of the conditions. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident type 2 diabetes and hypertension associated with exposure to PM2.5 in a large cohort of African American women living in 56 metropolitan areas across the US, using data from the Black Women's Health Study. Pollutant levels were estimated at all residential locations over follow-up with a hybrid model incorporating land use regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy techniques. During 1995 to 2011, 4,387 cases of diabetes and 9,570 cases of hypertension occurred. In models controlling for age, questionnaire cycle, and metro area, there were positive associations with diabetes (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.24) and hypertension (HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.12) per interquartile range of PM2.5 (2.9 μg/m). Multivariable HRs, however, were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.90, 1.09) for diabetes and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.93, 1.06) for hypertension. Our results provide little support for an association of PM2.5 with diabetes or hypertension incidence.
Smith, Cheryl A.
A qualitative study investigated success in entrepreneurship from the standpoint of Black women entrepreneurs, one of the fastest growing groups of new small business owners. It explored the business and learning experiences of successful Black women graduates of an entrepreneurship training program in New York State to identify learning…
Diet and obesity are major risk factors for a large number of non-communicable diseases, for which black women experience disproportionately high morbidity and mortality. Psychosocial stress and the food environment have emerged as two potentially important influences on black women's food choices. The combination ...
Brownley, Kimberly A; Heymen, Steve; Hinderliter, Alan L; Galanko, Joseph; Macintosh, Beth
Alterations in appetite hormones favoring increased postprandial satiety have been implicated in both the glycemic control and potential weight-loss benefits of a low-glycemic diet. Racial differences exist in dietary glycemic load and appetite hormone concentrations. This study examined the impact of glycemic load on appetite hormones in 20 black women [10 normal weight, BMI = 22.8 ± 1.42 (mean ± SD); 10 obese, BMI = 35.1 ± 2.77] and 20 white women (10 normal weight, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.45; 10 obese, BMI = 34.3 ± 2.77). Each woman completed two 4.5-d weight-maintenance, mixed-macronutrient, high-glycemic vs. low-glycemic load diets that concluded with a test meal of identical composition. Blood samples collected before and serially for 3 h after each test meal were assayed for plasma ghrelin and serum insulin and glucose concentrations. Compared with the high-glycemic load meal, the low-glycemic load meal was associated with lower insulin(AUC) (P = 0.02), glucose(AUC) (P = 0.01), and urge to eat ratings (P = 0.05) but with higher ghrelin(AUC) (P = 0.008). These results suggest the satiating effect of a low-glycemic load meal is not directly linked to enhanced postprandial suppression of ghrelin. Notably, these effects were significant among white but not black women, suggesting that black women may be less sensitive than white women to the glucoregulatory effects of a low-glycemic load. These findings add to a growing literature demonstrating racial differences in postprandial appetite hormone responses. If reproducible, these findings have implications for individualized diet prescription for the purposes of glucose or weight control in women.
Suzan L Carmichael
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of social, demographic, environmental and health-related factors to explain geographic variability in preterm delivery among black and white women in the US and whether these factors explain black-white disparities in preterm delivery. METHODS: We examined county-level prevalence of preterm delivery (20-31 or 32-36 weeks gestation among singletons born 1998-2002. We conducted multivariable linear regression analysis to estimate the association of selected variables with preterm delivery separately for each preterm/race-ethnicity group. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery varied two- to three-fold across U.S. counties, and the distributions were strikingly distinct for blacks and whites. Among births to blacks, regression models explained 46% of the variability in county-level risk of delivery at 20-31 weeks and 55% for delivery at 32-36 weeks (based on R-squared values. Respective percentages for whites were 67% and 71%. Models included socio-environmental/demographic and health-related variables and explained similar amounts of variability overall. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the geographic variability in preterm delivery in the US can be explained by socioeconomic, demographic and health-related characteristics of the population, but less so for blacks than whites.
Richey, Jeremiah; Tromp, Nikolas
We investigate changes in black-white wage gaps across wage distributions for young men and women in the U.S. between 1990 and 2011. Gaps are decomposed into composition and structural effects using a semi-parametric framework. Further, we investigate the roles of occupational choice and self-selection. We find a fall in the composition effect shrinks the wage gap at the lower end of the distribution for men and women. Conversely, an increase in the composition effect for men, and...
DeUgarte, Catherine Marin; Woods, K S; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Azziz, Ricardo
Hirsutism (i.e. facial and body terminal hair growth in a male-like pattern in women) is the principal clinical sign of hyperandrogenism, although its definition remains unclear. The purposes of the present study were to define 1) the degree of facial and body terminal hair, as assessed by the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score, in unselected women from the general population; 2) the effect of race (Black and White) on the same; and 3) the normative cutoff values. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary academic medical center. Participants included 633 unselected White (n = 283) and Black (n = 350) women presenting for a preemployment physical exam. Interventions included history and physical examination. Terminal body hair growth was assessed using the mFG scoring system; nine body areas were scored from 0-4 for terminal hair growth distribution. The mFG scores were not normally distributed; although cluster analysis failed to identify a natural cutoff value or clustering of the population, principal component and univariate analyses denoted two nearly distinct clusters that occurred above and below an mFG value of 2, with the bulk of the scores below. Overall, an mFG score of at least 3 was observed in 22.1% of all subjects (i.e. the upper quartile); of these subjects, 69.3% complained of being hirsute, compared with 15.8% of women with an mFG score below this value, and similar to the proportion of women with an mFG score of at least 8 who considered themselves to be hirsute (70.0%). Overall, there were no significant differences between Black and White women. Our data indicate that the prevalence and degree of facial and body terminal hair growth, as assessed by the mFG score, is similar in Black and White women and that an mFG of at least 3 signals the population of women whose hair growth falls out of the norm.
Hoga, Luiza; Rodolpho, Juliana; Gonçalves, Bruna; Quirino, Bruna
Evidence shows than an estimated one billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The experience of menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the sociocultural setting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the women approach changes in this phase of life. Independently of the circumstances involved, women experiencing menopause need to have their care needs and corresponding support identified based on their personal and contextual perspectives. Although it is essential to provide appropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic reviews have so far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women worldwide. The objective of this review is to identify the best available evidence related to how women experience menopause worldwide. This review considered studies that included menopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years, who have lived the transition from reproductive years through menopause and beyond. This review included only studies whose participants have lived the experience of natural menopause. Women who have had induced menopause, or with premature menopause were excluded from this review. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: This review considered studies that investigate women's experiences of natural menopause under the scope of different social and cultural settings. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered studies that have a descriptive and interpretive approach, conducted using qualitative methodology. Qualitative studies that focus on program evaluation were excluded from this review. Qualitative data including, but not limited to, study designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were considered for inclusion in this review. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that include the following outcome measures: all aspects related both directly and indirectly to the experience of menopause, as concretely lived
Mandelblatt, J; Traxler, M; Lakin, P; Kanetsky, P; Kao, R
Factors associated with participation in breast and cervix cancer screening among elderly black women of low socioeconomic status were determined. Data from a baseline cross-sectional random survey were used together with data on whether screening was subsequently completed or refused. The subjects were a random sample of women attending an urban public hospital primary care clinic for routine medical care with a birth year of 1924 or earlier. Among the 271 women in the study group, 70% completed screening. Stated intent was the strongest predictor of participation; women who intended to have both mammography and Pap testing were 2.7 times more likely to participate than those who intended to have neither test (95% confidence interval 1.4, 4.9; P groups.
Flemke, Kimberly; Allen, Katherine R
We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 incarcerated women on their experience of rage towards their intimate partner. Participants used specific criteria to distinguish their experience of rage from anger. Rage is described as an overwhelming experience with particular physiological and cognitive changes that takes control of a woman's emotions and actions. In contrast, anger is described as a controllable emotion with a specific termination point. Motivations for acting violently in rage with an intimate partner are described and discussed. Findings suggest a primary trigger for experiencing rage is feeling threatened and feeling emotionally overwhelmed.
It is very important to understand the woman’s attitude to the experience of the abortion retrospectively: what this experience means to her after many years? The purpose of the article is to reveal the woman’s attitude to the abortion experienced as a fact. The following research methods were used: a systematic analysis of scientific literary sources related to the abortion and woman’s experience; a semi-structured interview (12 women who experienced artificial abortion were surveyed). The m...
From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.
Mays, V M
This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.
East, C.; Conway, K.; Pollock, W.; Frawley, N.; Brennecke, S.
Introduction. The experience of normal pregnancy is often disrupted for women with preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods. Postal survey of the 112 members of the consumer group, Australian Action on Pre-Eclampsia (AAPEC). Results. Surveys were returned by 68 women (61% response rate) and from 64 (57%) partners, close relatives or friends. Respondents reported experiencing pre-eclampsia (n = 53), eclampsia (n = 5), and/or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome) (n = 26). Many women had no knowledge of PE prior to diagnosis (77%) and, once diagnosed, did not appreciate how serious or life threatening it was (50%). Women wanted access to information about PE. Their experience contributed substantial anxiety towards future pregnancies. Partners/friends/relatives expressed fear for the woman and/or her baby and had no prior understanding of PE. Conclusions. The PE experience had a substantial effect on women, their confidants, and their babies and affected their approach to future pregnancies. Access to information about PE was viewed as very important. PMID:21547089
AbstractLes ombres noires de Saint Domingue: The Impact of Black Women on Gender & Racial Boundaries in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century FrancebyRobin MitchellDoctor of Philosophy in HistoryUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Tyler Stovall, ChairThere were few black women on French soil in the nineteenth century, yet images of and discussions about them are found in political, artistic, scientific, and various social milieus. This paradox is explored for its symbolic and nationali...
Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R
Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).
Hansen, Carrinna A; Abrahamsen, Bo; Konradsen, Hanne
qualitative interviews were conducted with fifteen recently diagnosed Danish women. A longitudinal design was chosen since this allows an investigation of the perspective over time. The interviews were conducted in the period of March 2011 to August 2012. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological......BACKGROUND: A vast amount of literature exists concerning pharmaceutical adherence in osteoporosis. However, the process of learning to live with osteoporosis over time remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the continued process of how women learn...... to live with osteoporosis. Our objective was to explore what characterizes women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first year after diagnosis, when patients are prescribed anti-osteoporotic treatment, without having experienced an osteoporotic fracture. METHODS: Forty-two narrative...
Hollander, M H; van Hastenberg, E; van Dillen, J; van Pampus, M G; de Miranda, E; Stramrood, C A I
The purpose of this study is to explore and quantify perceptions and experiences of women with a traumatic childbirth experience in order to identify areas for prevention and to help midwives and obstetricians improve woman-centered care. A retrospective survey was conducted online among 2192 women with a self-reported traumatic childbirth experience. Women were recruited in March 2016 through social media, including specific parent support groups. They filled out a 35-item questionnaire of which the most important items were (1) self-reported attributions of the trauma and how they believe the traumatic experience could have been prevented (2) by the caregivers or (3) by themselves. The responses most frequently given were (1) Lack and/or loss of control (54.6%), Fear for baby's health/life (49.9%), and High intensity of pain/physical discomfort (47.4%); (2) Communicate/explain (39.1%), Listen to me (more) (36.9%), and Support me (more/better) emotionally/practically (29.8%); and (3) Nothing (37.0%), Ask for (26.9%), or Refuse (16.5%) certain interventions. Primiparous participants chose High intensity of pain/physical discomfort, Long duration of delivery, and Discrepancy between expectations and reality more often and Fear for own health/life, A bad outcome, and Delivery went too fast less often than multiparous participants. Women attribute their traumatic childbirth experience primarily to lack and/or loss of control, issues of communication, and practical/emotional support. They believe that in many cases, their trauma could have been reduced or prevented by better communication and support by their caregiver or if they themselves had asked for or refused interventions.
Islam, Rakibul M; Bell, Robin J; Hossain, Mohammad B; Davis, Susan R
To understand the challenges and experiences encountered during data collection for Bangladesh Midlife Women's Health Study (BMWHS) that investigated the low uptake of cervical cancer (CCa) screening barriers, understanding of breast cancer (BCa) knowledge and practices, the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and menopausal symptoms. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit women from the 32 districts of Bangladesh that had offered CCa screening. Female interviewers were trained to undertake structured face-to-face interviews that incorporated both non-validated and several validated questionnaires, such as Question for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life. We completed surveys of 1590 women, estimated age 30-59 years, between September 2013 and March 2014. We implemented several strategies to deal with low literacy and used the temporal relationship between marriage and childbirth, and the average age of onset of menarche, to estimate age. Cultural and religious sensitivities and personal security were managed by engaging community leaders, limiting activities to daylight hours, adopting local codes of dress, such as the wearing of head scarves. Our major challenges and experiences included difficulties in age determination, selection of and access to households, interview privacy, lack of basic and health literacy, transportation, political unrest and security of the interviewers. By anticipating challenges, we have been able to comprehensively survey a representative sample of Bangladeshi women. Disseminating information about the field challenges and experiences from the BMWHS should assist other researchers planning to conduct surveys about women's health issues in similar context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Durel, L A; Carver, C S; Spitzer, S B; Llabre, M M; Weintraub, J K; Saab, P G; Schneiderman, N
This study examined associations between blood pressure (BP) and dispositional variables pertaining to anger and hostility. Black and White 25- to 44-year old male and female normotensives and unmedicated mild to moderate hypertensives completed four reliable self-report scales--the Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) Scale, the Trait Anger subscale of the State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS-T), and the Cognitive Anger and Somatic Anger subscales of the Cognitive-Somatic Anger Scale--plus the Framingham Anger Scale and the Harburg Anger Scale. They also engaged in three laboratory tasks--Type A Structured Interview (SI), a video game, and a cold pressor task--that elicit cardiovascular reactivity. Ambulatory BP readings at home and at work were also obtained from most subjects. Blacks had significantly higher Ho and lower STAS-T scores than did Whites. Women reported higher levels of somatic anger than did men. White women showed significant positive correlations between STAS-T and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) both at rest in the laboratory and during the SI. Black women revealed significant positive relationships between STAS-T and SBP and DBP at rest in the laboratory and at work as well as with DBP during the cold pressor test. For Black men, cognitive anger and DBP at rest were positively related. In contrast, White men revealed significant negative correlations between Ho scores and SBP at rest and during the video game; these men also showed significant negative relationships between somatic anger and SBP and DBP reactivity during the cold pressor test. Women, but not men, showed significant positive relationships between all four anger measures and ambulatory BP at work. Whereas main effects relating anger and cardiovascular measures were not apparent as a function of race, Blacks demonstrated significantly greater SBP and DBP reactivity than Whites during the cold pressor test, with the converse occurring during the SI. Men demonstrated significantly greater
Howells, Kelly; Bower, Peter; Hassell, Karen
In the UK, a growing number of females entering pharmacy are women from Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME). Research shows that BAME women are more likely to work in the community sector and be self-employed locums than white women, and Asian women overrepresented in part-time, lower status roles. This study aims to explore the employment choices of white and BAME women pharmacists to see whether their diverse work patterns are the product of individual choices or other organisational factors. This study analyses 28 qualitative interviews conducted with 18 BAME and 10 white women pharmacists. The interview schedule was designed to explore early career choices, future career aspirations and key stages in making their career decisions. The findings show that white and BAME women are influenced by different factors in their early career choices. Cultural preferences for self-employment and business opportunities discourage BAME women from hospital sector jobs early in their careers. Resonating with other studies, the findings show that white and BAME women face similar barriers to career progression if they work part-time. Women working part-time are more likely to face workforce barriers, irrespective of ethnic origin. Cultural preferences may be preventing BAME women from entering the hospital sector. This research is important in the light of current debates about the future shape of pharmacy practice, as well as wider government policy objectives that seek to improve the working lives of health care professionals and promote racial diversity and equality in the workplace. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan
Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Analysis of the participants' experiences led to five main concepts: "Disturbed in femininity-body image," "discouragement of sexual relations," "sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant," "confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment," and "striving to protect their marriage." Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples.
Howard, Timothy D; Giles, Wayne H; Xu, Jianfeng; Wozniak, Marcella A; Malarcher, Ann M; Lange, Leslie A; Macko, Richard F; Basehore, Monica J; Meyers, Deborah A; Cole, John W; Kittner, Steven J
Endothelial nitric oxide exerts a variety of protective effects on endothelial cells and blood vessels, and therefore the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene (NOS3) is a logical candidate gene for stroke susceptibility. We used the population-based Stroke Prevention in Young Women case-control study to assess the association of five NOS3 polymorphisms in 110 cases (46% black) with ischemic stroke and 206 controls (38% black), 15 to 44 years of age. Polymorphisms included 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region (-1468 T>A, -922 G>A, -786 T>C), 1 SNP in exon 7 (G894T), and 1 insertion/deletion polymorphism within intron 4. Significant associations with both the -922 G>A and -786 T>C SNPs with ischemic stroke were observed in the black, but not the white, population. This association was attributable to an increased prevalence of the -922 A allele (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.3 to 6.8; P=0.005) and the -786 T allele (OR=2.9, 95% CI=1.3 to 6.4; P=0.005) in cases versus controls. These 2 SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D'=1.0), making it impossible to determine, within the confines of this genetic study, whether 1 or both of these polymorphisms are functionally related to NOS3 expression. Two sets of haplotypes were also identified, 1 of which may confer an increased susceptibility to stroke in blacks, whereas the other appears to be protective. Promoter variants in NOS3 may be associated with ischemic stroke susceptibility among young black women.
Bristol, Travis J.
One urban district administered the Black Male Teacher Environment Survey (BMTES) to each of its Black male teachers to measure their school-based experiences. This article highlights descriptive statistics from the 86 Black male teacher respondents. Findings suggest that participants' background characteristics and school-based experiences varied…
McLean, Kendall L; Moore, Carolyn E; Miketinas, Derek C; Champagne, Catherine M
Achieving weight loss after bariatric surgery depends on the individual's ability to sustain lifestyle changes involving dietary modifications. Presurgical dietary assessment is critical to evaluate usual dietary habits and identify the need for intervention before surgery. The objective of this study was to identify usual dietary habits of black and white women seeking bariatric surgery and to examine potential differences between these ethnic groups. An additional aim was to describe participants' plans to change dietary behaviors after surgery. This study examined data from an observational study sponsored by a benefits management group in Louisiana. In this cross-sectional study, a presurgical dietary assessment interview questionnaire collected information on dietary habits. Participants (n = 200) were adult women being screened for bariatric surgery; 54% were white, and 46% were black. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between groups were tested using 2-way analysis of the variance. Participants reported consuming fast food 2.9 ± 2.6 times per week, fried foods 2.1 ± 1.8 times per week, and desserts 3.4 ± 3.2 times per week. Blacks reported more frequent consumption of fast food (P<.01), sugar-sweetened sodas (P<.05), and sugar-sweetened tea (P<.01) compared with whites. Plans for changing dietary behaviors after surgery were similar between ethnic groups. Findings indicated that frequent consumption of fast foods, fried foods, desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages was common among women seeking bariatric surgery. Blacks tended to consume these foods and beverages more often than whites. Current dietary habits and future plans to change dietary behaviors should be addressed before surgery for success. Follow-up studies investigating the assessment instrument's ability to predict dietary adherence and weight loss after surgery are warranted. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Hinton, Rachael L; Earnest, Jaya
The health of young women in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) is often examined using individual-based risk factors which are decontextualized from the social and cultural relationships within which women's lives are embedded. Understanding the health meanings and perceptions of rural PNG women is important for bridging the gap between current health program delivery and the real needs of women. The objective of this study was to explore the health perceptions of rural PNG young women and to identify points in the lifespan where support may be required. Thirty-three young women aged between 15 and 29 years were involved in the research. Multiple data collection methods were used within interpretive qualitative methodology and these included in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, photo narrative and ranking exercises. The study was conducted in a rural community in the Wosera district of the East Sepik Province of PNG from mid-2005 to early 2006. Following a community meeting and targeted awareness about the project to female youth, purposive and snowball sampling was used to recruit young women aged 15-24 years. The mean age of participants was 21 years. Single and married participants, unmarried mothers, school leavers and current school attendees were represented. Informed consent was obtained prior to the sharing of women's narratives. Data were categorized and analysed for emerging themes and cross checked with participants for verification. Young women viewed their health in the context of their social and cultural world and in terms of their wider life experiences. The main theme uncovered young women's strong desires for independence. Young women depended on their parents for emotional support and material possessions, and positive parental support provided young women with the opportunity to move towards independence. Freedom from economic constraints was identified as important for autonomy, and having money was discussed as a requisite for good health
Rose, Theda; Lindsey, Michael A; Xiao, Yunyu; Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Joe, Sean
Disproportionately lower educational achievement, coupled with higher grade retention, suspensions, expulsions, and lower school bonding make educational success among Black adolescents a major public health concern. Mental health is a key developmental factor related to educational outcomes among adolescents; however, traditional models of mental health focus on absence of dysfunction as a way to conceptualize mental health. The dual-factor model of mental health incorporates indicators of both subjective wellbeing and psychopathology, supporting more recent research that both are needed to comprehensively assess mental health. This study applied the dual-factor model to measure mental health using the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a representative cross-sectional survey. The sample included 1170 Black adolescents (52% female; mean age 15). Latent class analysis was conducted with positive indicators of subjective wellbeing (emotional, psychological, and social) as well as measures of psychopathology. Four mental health groups were identified, based on having high or low subjective wellbeing and high or low psychopathology. Accordingly, associations between mental health groups and educational outcomes were investigated. Significant associations were observed in school bonding, suspensions, and grade retention, with the positive mental health group (high subjective wellbeing, low psychopathology) experiencing more beneficial outcomes. The results support a strong association between school bonding and better mental health and have implications for a more comprehensive view of mental health in interventions targeting improved educational experiences and mental health among Black adolescents.
Liebschutz, Jane; Schwartz, Sonia; Hoyte, Joel; Conoscenti, Lauren; Christian, Anthony B; Muhammad, Leroy; Harper, Derrick; James, Thea
Despite higher rates of stabbing and shooting violence among black men, healthcare systems have not demonstrated an efficacious response to these patients. This study describes challenges and promotive factors for engaging black male violence victims of violence with medical and mental healthcare. Black male victims of stabbings and shootings were recruited through fliers and word of mouth, and were interviewed individually (n = 12) or in pairs (n = 4) using a semistructured guide. A racially diverse multidisciplinary team analyzed the data using Grounded Theory methods. Challenges to engagement with healthcare included the following: (1) Disconnect in the aftermath; e.g. participants reported not realizing they were seriously injured ("just a scratch" "poke"), were disoriented ("did not know where I was"), or were consumed with anger. (2) Institutional mistrust: blurred lines between healthcare and police, money-motivated care. (3) Foreshortened future: expectations they would die young. (4) Self-reliance: fix mental and substance abuse issues on their own. (5) Logistical issues: postinjury mental health symptoms, disability, and safety concerns created structural barriers to recovery and engagement with healthcare. Promotive factors included the following: (1) desire professionalism, open personality, and shared experience from clinicians; (2) turning points: injury or birth of a child serve as a "wake up call"; and (3) positive people, future-oriented friends and family. For black male violence victims, medical treatment did not address circumstances of and reactions to injury. Policies delineating boundaries between medical care and law enforcement and addressing postinjury mental health symptoms, disability, and safety concerns may improve the recovery process.
Robinson, Quintin L.; Werblow, Jacob
This study examines the ways single Black mothers contribute to the educational success of their 11th-grade sons, despite the fact that their sons are enrolled in "failing schools." Data from five interviews and one focus group reveal common characteristics of how single-Black mothers help their sons beat the odds.
Presents the stories of three black, female, activist teachers who combined teaching and politics to help fight South Africa's apartheid regime. They promoted alternative curricula and worked against apartheid oppression. Each believed in the struggle and, although they believed in nonracialism, they identified as black, a political construction…
Women who have an abnormal cervical cytology test may be referred for a colposcopy. Accumulating evidence suggests some women may experience distress after colposcopy. This exploratory study examined women\\'s differing experiences of post-colposcopy distress with the aim of identifying factors that are predictive of, or protective against, distress.
Thomas, Michelle A
Objective: This paper reports women seafarers' experiences of sexual harassment. Design: Data reported in this paper were collected as part of a larger study exploring company policies and practices relating to women seafarers and the experiences of women seafarers themselves. Setting: Data reported here was collected with women from seven…
This article explores young women's agency in relation to the body and the possible role of women's studies in interpreting body experiences and constructing agency. The article is based on written accounts of one's body experience written by Finnish students of women's studies. The young women's accounts manifested two types of agency: the…
Atwater, Mary M.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Carlton Parsons, Eileen R.
Diversity, multicultural education, equity, and social justice are dominant themes in cultural studies (Hall in Cultural dialogues in cultural studies. Routledge, New York, pp 261-274, 1996; Wallace 1994). Zeichner (Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 737-759, 2005) called for research studies of teacher educators because little research exists on teacher educators since the late 1980s. Thomson et al. (2001) identified essential elements needed in order for critical multiculturalism to be infused in teacher education programs. However, little is known about the commitment and experiences of science teacher educators infusing multicultural education, equity, and social justice into science teacher education programs. This paper examines twenty (20) Black science teacher educators' teaching experiences as a result of their Blackness and the inclusion of multicultural education, equity, and social justice in their teaching. This qualitative case study of 20 Black science teacher educators found that some of them have attempted and stopped due to student evaluations and the need to gain promotion and tenure. Other participants were able to integrate diversity, multicultural education, equity and social justice in their courses because their colleagues were supportive. Still others continue to struggle with this infusion without the support of their colleagues, and others have stopped The investigators suggest that if science teacher educators are going to prepare science teachers for the twenty first century, then teacher candidates must be challenged to grapple with racial, ethnic, cultural, instructional, and curricular issues and what that must mean to teach science to US students in rural, urban, and suburban school contexts.
Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid
The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen's thematic analysis approach. Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.
Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S
The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Women\\'s experiences of childbirth have far reaching implications for their health and that of their babies. This paper describes an exploration of women\\'s experiences of childbirth in the Republic of Ireland.
Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity is an emerging health problem, particularly amongst urban Black women living in areas of high HIV prevalence. Understanding factors affecting this pandemic is essential to enable effective weight loss programmes to be implemented. Thisstudy explored urban Black women’s perception of their body image against a backdrop of pre-existing non-communicable diseases (NCDs.Method: In this cross-sectional exploratory study 328 urban Black women were sampled systematically. Anthropometric measurements were conducted and women were interviewed using the Stunkard body image silhouettes as a tool to determine perception.Results: Most of the subjects (61% were in the 40–59 years age group. Mean body mass index (BMI was 37 (± 9.41 kg/m2 with over 90% being overweight or obese. Diabetes mellitus was the most common NCD, with a prevalence of 72%. Amongst the diabetic patients 7% were overweight and 64% obese. Perceived body image compared to derived BMI showed that women underestimated their body image across all weight categories. Over 40% indicated a normal to overweight preferred body image, with 99% of respondents associating the underweight silhouettes with disease and HIV infection.Conclusion: Urban Black women with underlying NCDs and living in an area of high HIV prevalence perceive themselves to be thinner than their actual BMI, which may be a barrier to weight loss management. This misperception may be used as a proxy risk marker for weightgain in urban Black women.
McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan
Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research.
In the mid-1970s, Women Against Violence Against Women (WAVAW), the first national feminist organization to protest mediated sexual violence against women, pressured the music industry to cease using images of violence against women in its advertising. This article presents a case study of WAVAW's national boycott of Warner Communications, Inc. and documents the activists' successful consumer campaign. The study reveals that media violence was central to feminist organizing efforts, and that WAVAW and related organizations helped establish a climate of concern about violence that motivated scientific research on the relationship between exposure to media violence and subsequent aggression.
English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J
Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Rojas-Mirquez, Johanna C; Ortega-Loubon, Christian
to validate a tool that allows healthcare providers to obtain accurate information regarding Panamanian women׳s thoughts and feelings about vaginal examination during labour that can be used in other Latin-American countries. validation study based on a database from a cross-sectional study carried out in two tertiary care hospitals in Panama City, Panama. Women in the immediate postpartum period who had spontaneous labour onset and uncomplicated deliveries were included in the study from April to August 2008. Researchers used a survey designed by Lewin et al. that included 20 questions related to a patient׳s experience during a vaginal examination. five constructs (factors) related to a patient׳s experience of vaginal examination during labour were identified: Approval (Alpha Cronbach׳s 0.72), Perception (0.67), Rejection (0.40), Consent (0.51), and Stress (0.20). it was demonstrated the validity of the scale and its constructs used to obtain information related to vaginal examination during labour, including patients' experiences with examination and healthcare staff performance. utilisation of the scale will allow institutions to identify items that need improvement and address these areas in order to promote the best care for patients in labour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H
A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.
Hu, Qingsong; Rahman, Hafiz Abd ur; Jiang, Yazhou; Zhang, Shouyu; Shentu, Jikang
Attracting released hatchery-reared fish to designated areas during the growth process is vital to realize the objectives of sea ranching. Based on the bottom artificial reefs and surface kelp culture facilities in the Xiangshan Bay sea ranch, we proposed systematic techniques related to acoustic conditioning of the black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus). Experiments conducted in 12 m × 10 m × 1.6 m ponds on Xixuan Island showed that black seabream was positively sensitive to 500-600 Hz periodic signals. Conditioned responses were apparent after 8 d. Two to three days were required for recovery of the memory of a conditioned response after a 20-day interval. According to the practical application requirements in the open sea, unattended acoustic conditioning equipment was developed. The ranching equipment was used in 12 m × 12 m × 2.5 m cages, and the behavior of black seabream juveniles was successfully guided after 7 days. Of the 16000 released fish, 82.5% of them were conditioned with a flexible grading net. To avoid inducing a stress response, the juveniles were released into the sea ranch in situ from the net cage. The acoustic conditioning equipments were moved into the open sea and the aggregation phenomenon of the released fish was observed when the sound was played. After 6 months of investigation and based on Sr+ marking, only one acoustically conditioned fish was found outside the 3.5-km2 sea ranch area, thereby reached the goal of guiding activity. The practical effect in the Xiangshan Bay sea ranch showed the validity of the acoustic conditioning system, which may contribute to improve the operation of the sea ranches in the East China Sea.
Nattrass, Nicoli; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Seekings, Jeremy; Whiteside, Alan
This article contributes methodologically and substantively to the debate over the importance of poverty, sexual behaviour and circumcision in relation to HIV infection, using panel data on young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodological challenges included problems of endogeneity and blunt indicator variables, especially for the measurement of sexual behaviour. Noting these difficulties, we found that the importance of socioeconomic and sexual-behavioural factors differed between men and women. While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary education (our key indicator of socioeconomic status) were less likely to be HIV-positive than those who made the transition from school to unemployment. Both poverty and sexual behaviour matter to individuals' HIV risk, but in gendered ways.
Nomura, Sarah J O; Dash, Chiranjeev; Rosenberg, Lynn; Yu, Jeffrey; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L
Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations has been associated with lower incidence of breast cancer in previous studies, but evidence in African American women is limited. This project evaluated the association between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer incidence among African American women. The Black Women's Health Study (analytic cohort = 49,103) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of African American women, ages 21-69 years at baseline (1995). Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1, partial adherence = 0.5, non-adherence = 0) were calculated using questionnaire data and summed for overall (maximum = 7) and diet only (maximum = 5) scores. Associations between baseline and time-varying adherence scores and breast cancer incidence (N = 1,827 incident cases through 2011) were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. In this cohort, 8.5% adhered >4 recommendations. Adherence at baseline was not associated with breast cancer incidence. Higher overall time-varying adherence (per 0.5 point increase) was associated with lower breast cancer incidence (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96). Adherence to physical activity, sugar beverage and red and processed meat recommendations were also associated with reduced risk. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was low and may be associated with lower breast cancer incidence in African American women. © 2016 UICC.
Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie
This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.
Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B
AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... analysed by systematic text condensation influenced by Giorgi's phenomenological method and supplemented by elements from narrative analysis. FINDINGS: The analysis revealed three concepts: solution to an unbearable problem, learning new boundaries and hopes of normalization. These revelatory concepts were...
Creswell, Laryssa M
The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of women diagnosed with co-occurring disorders on the treatments provided by a state psychiatric hospital so that appropriate recommendations for changes in treatment may be made. Critical ethnography was used and the data was viewed through the lens of intersectionality from the black feminist perspective. Seven women hospitalized in one psychiatric hospital in the Mid-Atlantic region participated in the study. Data was collected via semistructured interviews, Consumer Perceptions of Care survey, researcher's observations, and archival data. Three major findings emerged: (1) Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) was identified as a beneficial treatment, (2) a lack of trust in the system and people in the system, and (3) housing or homelessness was perceived as a barrier. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended clinicians, administrators, and policy makers listen closely to individuals receiving treatment to make decisions regarding treatment accordingly.
Background: Maternal nutritional state is important for the health and quality of life of women. Nutritional status of women has been considered an important prognostic indicator of pregnancy outcome. The study aims to show the pattern of weight gain during pregnancy. Methodology: Five hundred (500) women attending ...
Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Sc; Lam, Tai Hing
The numbers of women smoking have risen 72.5% since 1990 with the increasing population - from 56,100 to 96,800 in 2012, reflecting an alarming situation in Hong Kong. The study aimed to describe the smoking behaviour, attitudes and associated factors among women in Hong Kong. A qualitative cross-sectional study involving semi-structured interview was conducted with Chinese women from five community centres in different districts in Hong Kong in 2010. A purposive sample of 73 female participants (24 current smokers, 20 ex-smokers and 29 never-smokers) were recruited. The 73 women were classified by their smoking status and age to form 15 focus groups. Most informants knew about the general health hazards of smoking, such as cancer and heart or respiratory diseases, but not about the female-specific health consequences of smoking. A few smokers considered smoking to be a weight control strategy, fearing a gain in weight if they gave up. Moreover, a few relied on smoking as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and stress. Additionally, a few smokers had misconceptions about giving up: that a loss of concentration would result, that continued smoking would not further affect their health as they had become desensitised to the chemicals in tobacco smoke or that quitting would harm their health. This study generates new knowledge about the behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking of current female smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in Hong Kong, which is unique as a Chinese but highly westernized community but with a very low female smoking prevalence.
Graham, Jessica R; West, Lindsey M; Martinez, Jennifer; Roemer, Lizabeth
The current study explores the potential mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptomology in a Black American sample. One hundred and 73 Black American participants, between 18 and 62 years of age, completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress symptoms, internalized racism, and experiences of racist events. Results indicated that internalized racism mediated the relationship between past-year frequency of racist events and anxious arousal as well as past-year frequency of racist events and stress symptoms. Internalized racism may be 1 mechanism that underlies the relationship between racism and anxious symptomology for Black Americans. These preliminary findings suggest that internalized racism may be an avenue through which clinicians can target the anxiety elicited by racist experiences. The clinical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Hill, Brandon; Mena, Leandro
This study compared sexually transmitted infection (STI)-associated risks between young Black cisgender men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and young Black transwomen who have sex with men (YBTWSM). Comparisons pertained to: (1) prevalence of infections; (2) sexual risk; (3) partner-related risks; and (4) socioeconomic marginalization. YBMSM (n = 577) and YBTWSM (n = 32) were recruited from an STI clinic in the USA. Volunteers completed a computer-assisted self-interview and medical records were abstracted for STI/HIV information. Significantly greater prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia ( P < .001) and pharyngeal gonorrhea ( P = .04) occurred among YBTWSM; however, both associations were moderated and only significant for HIV-uninfected volunteers. YBTWSM had more oral sex partners and more frequent engagement in oral sex. The number of new sex partners for anal receptive sex was greater in YBTWSM. YBTWSM were more likely to exchange sex for money/drugs ( P < .001), have sex with men recently in prison ( P < .001), who were "anonymous" ( P = .004), or who were "one night stands" ( P < .001). YBTWSM were more likely to depend on sex partners for money food, etc. ( P < .001), to miss meals due to lack of money ( P = .01), and to report having ever being incarcerated ( P = .009). Compared to cisgender YBMSM, YBTWSM experience multiple risk factors relative to the acquisition/transmission of STIs and HIV.
Kruger, Herculina S; Botha-Ravyse, Chrisna; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Doubell, Maretha; van Rooyen, Johannes M
To derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. Black women aged 29-65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured. There was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (high blood pressure (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.09-2.81 versus OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.23, respectively). Despite significant agreement between BMI and %BF categories, considerable misclassification occurred in the overweight range. Participants with excessive %BF had a greater odds of high blood pressure than those in the highest BMI category. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Giscombe, Claudette Leanora
This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and
Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel
This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted.
Daoud, Nihaya; Shtarkshall, Ronny; Laufer, Neri; Verbov, Gina; Bar-El, Hagar; Abu-Gosh, Nasreen; Mor-Yosef, Shlomo
Ambiguous feelings regarding women engaging in formal volunteering and concerns about their exploitation might explain the dearth of studies regarding the volunteering benefits specifically experienced by low socioeconomic status women. The current study examined benefits of volunteering among women participating in Women for Women's Health (WWH), a lay health volunteers (LHV) programme implemented in Jewish and Arab communities in Israel, and aiming at empowering such women to become active volunteers and promote health activities in their communities. Two years after the introduction of WWH in each community, all 45 Jewish and 25 Arab volunteers were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the focus group discussions. Five focus group discussions were conducted with 25/42 Jewish volunteers in 2003 and four with 20/25 Arab volunteers in 2005. The other volunteers could not attend the scheduled meetings or became inactive for personal reasons. Four benefit categories were identified in both ethnic groups: 1. Personal benefits of having increased knowledge, feeling self-satisfaction, mastering new skills and performing healthy behaviours; 2. Group-social benefits of social support and sense of cohesion; 3. Purposive benefits of achieving the WWH mission and goals; 4. Sociopolitical benefits of learning to accept the other and experiencing increased solidarity. However, the relatively less privileged Arab volunteers enumerated more benefits within the personal and purposive categories. They also identified the unique sociocultural category of improving women's status in the community by creating a legitimate space for women by public sphere involvement, traditionally solely a male domain. We conclude that volunteering in community-based health promotion programmes can be an empowering experience for lay women without being exploitative. Positive volunteering benefits will be even more discernable among underprivileged women who enjoy fewer opportunities in
Chantler, Sarah; Dickie, Kasha; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Goedecke, Julia H
To identify socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of weight gain in a sample of premenopasual black South African (SA) women. Changes in body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerised tomography), socio-economic status (SES) and behavioural/lifestyle factors were measured in 64 black SA women at baseline (27 ± 8 years) and after 5.5 years. A lower body mass index (BMI) and nulliparity, together with access to sanitation, were significant determinants of weight gain and change in body fat distribution over 5.5 years. In addition, younger women increased their body weight more than their older counterparts, but this association was not independent of other determinants. Further research is required to examine the effect of changing SES, as well as the full impact of childbearing on weight gain over time in younger women with lower BMIs. This information will suggest areas for possible intervention to prevent long-term weight gain in these women.
Research evaluating the relation of workplace psychosocial factors to mental health among U.S. women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds is limited. This study investigated the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and mental health among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Independent variables of interest included job insecurity, workplace harassment, and work-family conflict (WFC). Multiple Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between the outcome and independent variables. The prevalence of unfavorable mental health was highest among non-Hispanic Black women (36%) compared to Hispanic (34%) and non-Hispanic White (30%) women. A higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black women reported WFC compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (χ 2 = 15.50, p mental health were significantly higher for women reporting psychosocial work factors. Unexpectedly, a greater association between psychosocial work factors and unfavorable mental health was observed among non-Hispanic White women compared to non-White women; however, caution should be taken in interpreting these cross-sectional results. Future studies should investigate temporal associations and additional psychosocial variables that were not available for use in the current study.
Howard, Lindsay M; Heron, Kristin E; MacIntyre, Rachel I; Myers, Taryn A; Everhart, Robin S
Maladaptive patterns of social networking site (SNS) use, such as excessive reassurance seeking, are associated with body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, it is unclear how these processes play out among different racial groups. This study examined racial differences in SNS use and body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Black (n=445) and White (n=477) female undergraduates completed online measures of SNS use (frequency and reassurance seeking), body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating. Black women reported less body dissatisfaction, marginally less disordered eating, and less frequent Facebook use than White women; there were no race differences in SNS reassurance seeking. More frequent Facebook use was associated with more body dissatisfaction (but not disordered eating), and more SNS reassurance seeking predicted both more body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Associations were not moderated by race, suggesting maladaptive SNS use may have negative consequences for both Black and White women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davis, Barbara J.; Risinger, John I.; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V. R.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Baird, Donna Day; Peddada, Shyamal D.
The study of uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the physiological and molecular determinants of hormone dependent tumor growth and spontaneous tumor regression. We conducted a longitudinal clinical study of premenopausal women with leiomyoma that showed significantly different growth rates between white and black women depending on their age. Growth rates for leiomyoma were on average much higher from older black women than for older white women, and we now report gene expression pattern differences in tumors from these two groups of study participants. Total RNA from 52 leiomyoma and 8 myometrial samples were analyzed using Affymetrix Gene Chip expression arrays. Gene expression data was first compared between all leiomyoma and normal myometrium and then between leiomyoma from older black women (age 35 or older) and from older white women. Genes that were found significant in pairwise comparisons were further analyzed for canonical pathways, networks and biological functions using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Whereas our comparison of leiomyoma to myometrium produced a very large list of genes highly similar to numerous previous studies, distinct sets of genes and signaling pathways were identified in comparisons of older black and white women whose tumors were likely to be growing and non-growing, respectively. Key among these were genes associated with regulation of apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare two groups of tumors that are likely to have different growth rates in order to reveal molecular signals likely to be influential in tumor growth. PMID:23785396
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth
Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…
Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors influence women’s decisions to participate in guideline recommended screening mammography. We evaluated the influence of women’s socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, and cultural and psychological healthcare preferences on timely mammography screening participation.Materials and methods: A random digit dial survey of United States non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women ages 40-75, from January-August 2009 determined self- reported time of most recent mammogram. Screening rates were assessed based on receipt of a screening mammogram within the prior 12 months, the interval recommended at the time by the American Cancer Society.Results: Thirty-nine percent of women reported not having a mammogram within the last 12 months. The odds of not having had a screening mammography was higher for non-Hispanic White women than for non-Hispanic Black (OR=2.16, 95% CI=0.26, 0.82, p=0.009 or Hispanic (OR=4.17, 95% CI=0.12, 0.48, p=0.01 women. Lack of health insurance (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.54, 6.73, p=0.002 and lack of usual source of medical care (OR=3.37, 95% CI=1.43, 7.94, p=0.01 were associated with not being screened as were lower self-efficacy to obtain screening (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.26, 4.73, p=0.01 and greater levels of religiosity and spirituality (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00, 2.00, p=0.05. Neither perceived risk nor present temporal orientation was significant.Discussion: Odds of not having a mammogram increased if women were uninsured, without medical care, non-Hispanic white, older in age, not confident in their ability to obtain screening, or held passive or external religious/spiritual values. Results are encouraging given racial disparities in healthcare participation and suggest that efforts to increase screening among minority women may be working.
Full Text Available South African government has been promulgating pieces of legislation aimed at ensuring racial integration, especially in higher education, and indirectly enforcing acculturation in historically white universities. Studies have proven that institutional cultures in historically white universities alienate and exclude black students’ identities. These students’ sense of social identity, which includes culture, heritage, language and traditions, and consequently self-esteem and self-concept, is altered in these institutions. Research has been scant regarding the shape and form that black students’ identity assumes when they get to these spaces. Using Tajfel and Turner’s (1979 social identity theory and Berry’s (2005 theory of acculturation, this article explores the experiences of black students in negotiating their social identities in historically white universities. Evoking Steve Biko’s analysis of ‘artificial integration’ (1986, we hope to illustrate how the ‘integration’ narrative sought to discard the identity of black students and psychologically enforce a simulation of black students into white-established identities. The study has implications for policy development as we hope to sensitise theoretically the historically white universities to, apart from mere opening of spaces of learning, understand the social identity challenges of black students in these institutions.
Newman, Denise Dawn
Community colleges continue to employ more women and provide education to more women than men, and although women are becoming more prevalent than they used to be in many executive roles at these institutions, there are still fewer women who are board of trustee members than men. Trustees at community colleges in leadership positions in these…
Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Marlena C.; Kruger, Iolanthé Marike; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss
Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the Nor...
Turk, Rukiye; Celik, Sevilay Senol; Çetin, Merve; Soydan, Gamze
The aim of this study was to determine the experiences and views of married women about the topic of domestic violence. This research was planned as a mixed methods study with an in-depth interview and descriptive approach. The study was conducted between November 2011 and December 2012 with 24 married women living in Ankara, Turkey. Two main data-collection tools were used in the study: the "Personal Information Form" and the "In-depth Interview Questionnaire." Data of this study were evaluated by content analysis. A majority of the participants (83.3%) stated that they had been exposed to domestic violence that had been committed primarily by their husbands. The actual reasons for the violence were reported to be such factors as "financial problems and lack of education and love and respect between the couples." It was determined that as the victims became more desperate, they turned to reading of the Koran, prayer, and smoking. Domestic violence adversely affects the physical and mental health of individuals, families, and the entire community. Therefore, it will take a community effort to address the causes of domestic violence and to create viable solutions that will improve the health of everyone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…
Full Text Available In this article the psychological experience and needs shown in the discourse of women diagnosed with breast cancer in a psychological group intervention was analyzed. The sessions are transcribed and a discourse analysis is performed, selecting the most prevailing topics. The main psychological difficulties perceived by the participants are the following: body identity change, sexuality changes, new quality of interpersonal relationships, implications of positive thinking culture, fear of recurrence, the relationship with the hospital staff and change after diagnosis. The aspects of the group considered to be helpful are also addressed, i.e. feeling understood by the others, seeing the rest of participants as coping models, changing their relationship with the illness. Several clinical implications are highlighted in order to improve a comprehensive care.
Shamos, Sara; Hartwig, Kari A; Zindela, Nomsa
To explore how gender differentially affects the stigma experiences of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Swaziland, the extent and dimensions of HIV-related felt and enacted stigma and social support were analyzed. Thirty-seven semistructured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with PLHIV in Swaziland between 2004 and 2006. Through the process of conceptual analysis, themes, including felt stigma, information management, enacted stigma, and social support, were explored, coded, and analyzed in the contexts of partner and familial relationships, and workplace and neighborhood settings. Findings revealed that there were high levels of felt stigma in all contexts, yet fewer than anticipated accounts of enacted stigma in family, work, and neighborhood contexts compared to their expressions of felt stigma. The amount and characteristics of felt and enacted stigma and social support differed based on gender, as women often experienced more felt and enacted stigma than men, and had less definite financial or emotional support.
Okihiro, May; Duke, Lisa; Goebert, Deborah; Ampolos, Lauren; Camacho, Casandra; Shanahan, Natasha; Hishinuma, Earl; Kaholokula, J. Keawe
A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18?35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key...
Full Text Available The only second lesbian conference in South Africa, and the first that brings together so many people from the LGBTi community. When women make history do not usually consciously reflect on this as what women are doing. Our foremothers did...
Burke, Gregory L.; And Others
Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)
Hauenstein, Louise S.; And Others
This study examined blood pressure levels of married women in relation to such work-related variables as work load, satisfaction with work, reported strain, and evaluated performance. Differences in work load were unrelated to blood pressure levels. However, currently unemployed working women had lower levels. (Author)
Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A
The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.
Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678
McGee, Ebony O.
I introduce the construct of fragile and robust identities for the purpose of exploring the experiences that influenced the mathematical and racial identities of high-achieving Black college students in mathematics and engineering. These students maintained high levels of academic achievement in these fields while enduring marginalization,…
Buchanan, Ian P.
Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Research has shown that the enrollment of Asian American and Latino/a students are increasing at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Nevertheless, research on how these students experience the institutional climate of HBCUs is nonexistent. Hence, this study sought to explore the college choice process and perceptions of campus…
Ros, Albert F. H.; Franco, Aldina M. A.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.
In young black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), exposure to testosterone increases the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to a subsequent exposure to this hormone. The aim of this paper is twofold: to analyze whether social experience, gained during testosterone exposure, mediates this increase in
Deming, Michelle E; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Ingram, LaDrea; Stafford, Crystal; Li, Xiaoming
Women are disproportionately affected by HIV in many regions of the world and they represent the fastest growing demographic in the HIV epidemic. In addition, sexual violence against women is a global public health issue which increases women's vulnerability of HIV/STI acquisition. However, the relationship between sexual violence and HIV/STI risk are complex and contribute to the growing epidemic of women infected with HIV/STIs. Our purpose for this review is to examine existing HIV/STI interventions that target women who experience forced sex. Interventions designed to address women's unique needs in HIV/STI prevention are critical in reducing women's vulnerability to HIV/STIs.
Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.
This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…
Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae
Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.
Lucas do Carmo Dalbeto
Full Text Available This study presents a qualitative analysis on the representation of black women in comic books using a sociocultural approach to their production-release background. We study the X-Men mutant character Storm, whose path reinforces and questions the social roles these women enact. We state that the analysis of cultural assets aimed at entertainment, like comic books, helps us consider the relationship between gender and ethnicity in our society.
Squires, Stephanie Michelle
This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will
Science Education and Research. India ... to look after the welfare of women has been established especially after the World Women ... there was limited number of schools for educating .... knowledge about informal sector associations, rural.
.... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...
.... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...
.... An important and unresolved question of breast cancer etiology is whether there are other genes which have a more moderate effect on breast cancer risk, possibly involving more women than do other inherited mutations...
Zhang, C; Jacobson, H; Ngobese, Z E; Setzen, R
To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. A feasibility study. Gynaecological department in a teaching hospital in South Africa. Premenopausal women with uterus fibroids. Twenty-six patients with 53 fibroids who underwent USgHIFU treatment were enrolled. The USgHIFU treatment information was recorded, including treatment time, sonication time and total energy. Adverse events were also observed and recorded during and after treatment. Safety and efficacy of USgHIFU for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. The median volume of fibroids was 52.7 (interquartile range, 18.6-177.4) cm 3 . According to USgHIFU treatment plan, total energy of 298.6 ± 169.3 kJ (range, 76.0-889.2) within treatment time of 90.3 ± 43.3 minutes (range, 14.0-208.0), in which sonication time of 774.0 ± 432.9 seconds (range, 190.0-2224.0) was used to ablate fibroids. The average ablation rate was 80.6 ± 9.7% (range, 46.5-94.5%). During the procedure, 69.2% of the patients reported lower abdominal pain, 57.7% sciatic/buttock pain, 38.5% burning skin, and 34.6% transient leg pain. No severe complications were observed. USgHIFU is feasible and safe to use to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. Multiple uterine fibroids are more frequently detected in Black women. USgHIFU is feasible and safe for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.
Okorafor, Philomena N.; Obidile, Jacinta I.; Okorafor, Anthony O.; Uduanochie, Christian A.
All over the world, women's education has been neglected for a long time. This neglect has its foundation in the strong and cherished age-old belief in men's superiority and women's subordination. In recent years, it has been acknowledged that women possess hidden potentials that if fully developed, will contribute greatly in transforming their…
Scriven, Olivia A.
Since the close of World War II, higher education has been central to the growth of U.S. science, but the role of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) has been under-explored within this narrative. The nation's 105 HBCUs constitute less than one percent of the U.S. higher education community, but consistently have served as a major conduit for the production of African Americans in the sciences, technology, mathematics and engineering. National Science Foundation data reflect an average 29 percent share for the period 1994-2001. The output is even more striking when examined by degrees awarded in disciplinary clusters---50 percent in the agricultural sciences, 45 percent in the physical sciences and mathematics, and 42 percent in the biological sciences. This research explores the role of HBCUs in educating African Americans in science from the boosterism period shortly following World War II, through affirmative action legislation of the 1960s and 1970s, and concluding with current federal policies. A particular analysis is undertaken of Spelman College, a private liberal arts college founded by New England missionaries in the South during the late 19th century as a seminary for former slave women and girls. Spelman presents a unique case to analyze the particularistic characteristics of race, gender and institutional setting within the context of a so-called normative structure of science. Over a 25-year period, Spelman was able to rise beyond the structural limitations of its position as a Black college, a women's college, and a southern college to become one of the single most productive undergraduate institution for African American women earning the baccalaureate degree in science. What new perspectives might the Spelman story specifically and the history of HBCUs generally offer about the history of U.S. science, the notion that careers be open to talent, and current public policy discourse regarding efforts to increase the participation of
D'Alba, Liliana; Van Hemert, Caroline; Handel, Colleen M; Shawkey, Matthew D
Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.
Full Text Available Honest advertisement models posit that only individuals in good health can produce and/or maintain ornamental traits. Even though disease has profound effects on condition, few studies have experimentally tested its effects on trait expression and even fewer have identified a mechanistic basis for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that black and white, but not grey, plumage colors of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus are sexually selected. We therefore hypothesized that birds afflicted with avian keratin disorder, a condition that affects the beak and other keratinized tissues, would show reduced expression of black and white, but not grey, color. UV-vis spectrometry of black-capped chickadees affected and unaffected by avian keratin disorder revealed spectral differences between them consistent with this hypothesis. To elucidate the mechanistic bases of these differences, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX and a feather cleaning experiment. SEM showed extreme feather soiling in affected birds, and EDX revealed that this was most likely from external sources. Experimentally cleaning the feathers increased color expression of ornamental feathers of affected, but not unaffected, birds. These data provide strong evidence that black and white color is an honest indicator in chickadees, and that variation in feather dirtiness, likely due to differences in preening behavior is a mechanism for this association.
Wade, Jacqueline E.
Gives a theoretical perspective of the multidimensional nature of Black-race/White-race consciousness. American perceptions of race are expressed in White race centeredness. Blacks face the dilemma of adhering to two sets of values: a positive valuation of their race and a necessity of passing in White society. (PS)
Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.
Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women’s perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Methods Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N’Vivo 10 software. Results Three major themes emerged: (1 social connectedness, (2 stress factors, and (3 availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Conclusions Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women’s risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise, in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in
Although many studies have examined lived experiences of racism and resistance in various contexts, relatively little research has examined such experiences among Black youth within the workplace-particularly in the Canadian context. In this study I use qualitative analyses of narrative interviews with 24 Black Canadian youth and young adults (aged 16-35) to examine the impact of dominant cultural narratives on lived experiences of workplace racism and resistance. Findings are presented using theatrical games as a central conceptual metaphor, suggesting that: (a) dominant cultural narratives have a major impact on relational dynamics of oppression in the workplace; (b) identity performance is a critical strategy for negotiating dominant cultural narratives in the workplace; and (c) panopticism (the internalized gaze) is a significant aspect of internalized oppression. Implications for future research and action are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
George, Cindy; Evans, Juliet; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Olsson, Tommy; Goedecke, Julia H
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with metabolic risk, however it is unclear whether the relationship is confounded by racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status (SES), lifestyle factors or central adiposity. The aims of the study was, (1) to investigate whether hsCRP levels differ by race/ethnicity; (2) to examine the race/ethnic-specific associations between hsCRP, HOMA-IR and serum lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C)]; and (3) to determine whether race/ethnic-specific associations are explained by SES, lifestyle factors or waist circumference (WC). The convenience sample comprised 195 black and 153 white apparently health women, aged 18-45 years. SES (education, assets and housing density) and lifestyle factors (alcohol use, physical activity and contraceptive use) were collected by questionnaire. Weight, height and WC were measured, and fasting blood samples collected for hsCRP, glucose, insulin, and lipids. Black women had higher age- and BMI-adjusted hsCRP levels than white women ( p = 0.047). hsCRP was associated with HOMA-IR ( p C (p C ( p C in white women, and inversely associated with HDL-C in black women. Higher hsCRP was also associated with higher TC in white women and lower TC in black women. Furthermore, when adjusting for SES and lifestyle factors, the associations between hsCRP, and TC and TG, remained, however the associations between hsCRP, and HDL-C and LDL-C, were no longer significant. Although circulating hsCRP may identify individuals at increased metabolic risk, the heterogeneity in these associations between racial/ethnic groups highlights the need for prospective studies investigating the role of hsCRP for risk prediction in different populations.
Shollenn, S. Lynn
Qualitative, case study methods were used to examine students' expectations of and experiences with studying women and leadership. Participants were 48 undergraduate students enrolled in an elective course titled Women and Leadership offered in the Leadership Studies minor curriculum at a liberal arts institution. Students perceived women and…
Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.
Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…
Brue, Krystal L.; Brue, Shawn A.
Women's leadership training programs provide organizations opportunities to value women leaders as organizational resources. This qualitative research utilized phenomenological methodology to examine lived experiences of seven alumni of a women's-only leadership program. We conducted semi-structured interviews to clarify what learning elements…
Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy
Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…
Long-Bellil, Linda; Mitra, Monika; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Smith, Lauren D
Childbirth is widely acknowledged as one of the most painful experiences most women will undergo in their lifetimes. Alleviating labor and delivery pain for women with physical disabilities can involve an additional level of complexity beyond that experienced by most women, but little research has explored their experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of women with physical disabilities with respect to pain relief during labor and delivery with the goal of informing their care. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with twenty-five women with physical disabilities from across the United States. Women expressed specific preferences for the method of pain relief. Some confronted systemic barriers in exploring their options for pain relief, while others were given a choice. At times, anesthesiologists lacked knowledge and experience in caring for women with disabilities. Conversely, some women described how the administration of anesthesia was meticulously planned and attributed their positive labor and delivery experiences to this careful planning. Advanced, individualized planning and evaluation of their options for pain relief was most satisfying to women and enabled them to make an informed choice. This approach is consistent with the recommendations of clinicians who have successfully provided pain relief during labor to women with complex physical disabilities. Clinicians who have successfully delivered babies of women with these and similar disabilities emphasize the importance of a team approach where the anesthesiologist and other specialists are involved early on in a woman's care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Syed Alwi, S A R; Lee, P Y; Awi, I; Mallik, P S; Md Haizal, M N
To document the common menopausal symptoms and quality of life in indigenous women of Sarawak in Malaysia. A face-to-face interview using the Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire was conducted with 276 indigenous Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years to determine the mean age of menopause and common symptoms (divided into vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual domains) associated with menopause. The mean age at menopause of postmenopausal women was 50.78 +/- 2.47 years (range 47.3-58.2 years). The most common symptoms reported were aching in muscles and joints (82.6%), lack of energy (77.5%) and low backache (77.2%). The typical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, night sweats, sweating and vaginal dryness were experienced by 42.4%, 34.8%, 29.7% and 49.3%, respectively of the women studied. Perimenopausal women (n = 114) experienced the most physical and psychosocial symptoms, while postmenopausal women (n = 102) experienced most sexual symptoms. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were reported to suffer more than premenopausal women (p < 0.001) within the four domains of symptoms (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual). The menopausal symptoms in this study correspond to those in other studies on Asian women but the prevalence of typical and classical menopausal symptoms was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women. The perimenopausal women had the most significant decrease in quality of life, followed by postmenopausal women and premenopausal women. Vasomotor symptoms had a predominant influence on the quality of life.
Cláudia Maria de Farias
Full Text Available O trabalho reafirma a importância dos estudos de gênero para a compreensão dos processos históricos contemporâneos através dos quais se deram a inserção, a permanência e a ampliação da participação das mulheres no campo esportivo brasileiro, entre os anos 1960 e 1970. Através das narrativas orais de duas atletas negras - Eliane Pereira de Souza e Aída dos Santos -, são examinadas as múltiplas intersecções do gênero com outros componentes de diferenciação social, como classe, raça/etnia e geração, fundamentais para a reconstrução das experiências que marcaram os projetos, as carreiras, as trajetórias e as memórias dessas mulheres durante a vigência da Ditadura Militar brasileira.This investigation reaffirms the relevance of the gender studies to the understanding of the contemporary historical processes in which women appeared, remained and grew participation in Brazilian sports field between 1960 and 1970. Through the narratives of two black women athletes - Eliane Pereira de Souza e Aída dos Santos -, the multiple intersections of gender with the other components of social differentiation as class, race/ethnics and generation, fundamental for the reconstruction of the experiences that marked their projects, careers, trajectories and memories during the military dictatorship in Brazil are observed.
During the 1980s and 1990s, industrial restructuring led to a marked increase in wage inequality. Women, however, were not as negatively affected by declining manufacturing employment because their pay was relatively low within the industry, and their already high representation in the service sector provided access to newly created opportunities.…
Jones, Hollie L.; Cross, William E., Jr.; DeFour, Darlene C.
This study examined whether racial identity attitudes moderate the relationship between racist stress events, racist stress appraisal, and mental health. One hundred eighteen African American and 144 self-identified Caribbean women completed the Cross Racial Identity Scale, the Schedule of Racist Events, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the…
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Violence in family constitutes serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in emotional functioning of victim and, secondarily, also perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine emotional intelligence of women experiencing domestic violence. INTE, i.e. Polish version of "Assessing Emotional Scale" by Schutte, was used to study two groups of women. Study (criterion) group included 40 women aged 23-47 years (mean age 35.28) using assistance of Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. Reference (control) group was well-matched in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and consisted of 140 women not experiencing domestic violence. Study women experiencing domestic violence have significantly lower scores on all INTE indicators (general score, Factor I and Factor II). Women not experiencing domestic violence achieved significantly higher scores on Factor I than on Factor II. In this group all INTE components (general score, Factor I, Factor II) are positively correlated, whereas in group of women experiencing domestic violence there is no significant correlation between Factor I and Factor II and coefficients are lower. Emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence is lower than emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. Their abilities and skills making up emotional intelligence are also less developed. The internal structure of emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence differs from emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. It seems advisable to consider emotional intelligence in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.
Method: In this cross-sectional exploratory study 328 urban Black women were sampled systematically. Anthropometric measurements were conducted and women were interviewed using the Stunkard body image silhouettes as a tool to determine perception. Results: Most of the subjects (61% were in the 40–59 years age group. Mean body mass index (BMI was 37 (± 9.41 kg/m2 with over 90% being overweight or obese. Diabetes mellitus was the most common NCD, with a prevalence of 72%. Amongst the diabetic patients 7% were overweight and 64% obese. Perceived body image compared to derived BMI showed that women underestimated their body image across all weight categories. Over 40% indicated a normal to overweight preferred body image, with 99% of respondents associating the underweight silhouettes with disease and HIV infection. Conclusion: Urban Black women with underlying NCDs and living in an area of high HIV prevalence perceive themselves to be thinner than their actual BMI, which may be a barrier to weight loss management. This misperception may be used as a proxy risk marker for weight gain in urban Black women.
Bond, Keosha T; Gunn, Alana J
Knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) continues to remain scarce among Black women who are disproportionally affected by HIV in the United States. A thematic analysis of open-ended questions from a sample of Black women (n=119) who completed a mix-methods, online, e-health study was conducted to examine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using PrEP. Being a female controlled method, empowerment, option for women with risky sex partners, and serodiscordant couples were advantages described. Disadvantages of PrEP were identified as the complexity of the choice, encouragement of sex with risky partners, increased burden, promotion of unprotected sex, and newness of the drug.
Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn
Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
LeMasters, Katherine; Baber Wallis, Anne; Chereches, Razvan; Gichane, Margaret; Tehei, Ciprian; Varga, Andreea; Tumlinson, Katherine
Women in rural Romania face significant health disadvantages. This qualitative pilot study describes the structural disadvantage experienced during pregnancy by women in rural Romania, focusing on the lived experiences of Roma women. We explore how women in rural communities experience pregnancy, their interactions with the healthcare system, and the role that ethnic and social factors play in pregnancy and childbearing. We conducted 42 semi-structured interviews with health and other professionals, seven narrative interviews with Roma and non-Roma women and a focus group with Roma women. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. We identified intersectional factors associated with women's pregnancy experiences: women perceiving pregnancy as both unplanned and wanted, joyful, and normal; women's and professionals' differing prenatal care perceptions; transport and cost related barriers to care; socioeconomic and ethnic discrimination; and facilitators to care such as social support, having a health mediator and having a doctor. Talking directly with professionals and Roma and non-Roma women helped us understand these many factors, how they are interconnected, and how we can work towards improving the pregnancy experiences of Roma women in rural Romania.
Dreher, George F.; Chargois, Josephine A.
Survey responses from 170 of 685 African-American graduates of historically Black colleges revealed no gender-based pay differences. Those who had White male mentors had some pay advantages over those without mentors. (SK)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....
This article examines Asian women's experiences of belonging to communities of practice within higher education in Britain. The research explores the ways in which women engage in friendship and support networks, how they negotiate their identities and their experiences of being marginalised and "different". The research argues that…
Middle managers in higher education hold diverse titles and perform a variety of roles. Women represent a large portion of this midlevel management, but there is limited research exploring their experiences. As a result, little is known about women middle managers' career trajectories and what effect their experiences have on their future career…
Strachan, Jane; Akao, Shalom; Kilavanwa, Bessie; Warsal, Daisy
This article presents findings from research on women's educational leadership experiences in Melanesia, a least developed part of the world. Specific context research is needed so that theories and strategies developed that help women access educational leadership in developing countries are grounded in grassroots experience. (Contains 4 notes.)
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Wang, Frank T. Y.; Lan, Chang-Fu; Lin, Li-Chan
Background: No studies have ever been conducted concerning menstrual experiences among women with an intellectual disability in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: An in-depth interview was conducted at three public institutions and perceptions and experiences regarding menstruation were elicited from 55 women aged 21-65 years. Results: The…
Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo
This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed...
Watts, N P; Petrovska, K; Bisits, A; Catling, C; Homer, C S E
Existing studies regarding women's experiences surrounding an External Cephalic Version (ECV) report on women who have a persistent breech post ECV and give birth by caesarean section, or on women who had successful ECVs and plan for a vaginal birth. There is a paucity of understanding about the experience of women who attempt an ECV then plan a vaginal breech birth when their baby remains breech. The aim of this study was to examine women's experience of an ECV which resulted in a persistent breech presentation. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was undertaken. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed thematically. Twenty two (n = 22) women who attempted an ECV and subsequently planned a vaginal breech birth participated. Twelve women had a vaginal breech birth (55 %) and 10 (45 %) gave birth by caesarean section. In relation to the ECV, there were five main themes identified: 'seeking an alternative', 'needing information', 'recounting the ECV experience', 'reacting to the unsuccessful ECV' and, 'reflecting on the value of an ECV'. ECV should form part of a range of options provided to women, rather than a default procedure for management of the term breech. For motivated women who fit the safe criteria for vaginal breech birth, not being subjected to a painful experience (ECV) may be optimal. Women should be supported to access services that support vaginal breech birth if this is their choice, and continuity of care should be standard practice.
New mining codes, taxation and investment regulations, and state ministries are ... While women's economic roles are essential to ASM, reforms targeting ASM are ... With a focus on low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC is ...
Illustrates how poor women were able to move out of poverty and dehumanization through a process of mobilization and organization. The process was catalyzed by the intervention of a non-governmental organization, the Working Women's Forum. Outlines the Forum's program of economic, social, and technological empowerment. (MJP)
Due to the impact of Confucianism on Taiwanese society, Taiwanese married women play multiple family roles including being a daughter-in-law, wife, mother, and working woman. Having to play multiple roles usually brings Taiwanese married women burdens and stress. It is reported that Zen meditation improves people's physical and mental wellbeing.…
Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.
Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D
Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico.
Brown, Katherine M.; Drake, Bettina F.; Gehlert, Sarah; Wolf, Leslie E.; DuBois, James; Seo, Joann; Woodward, Krista; Perkins, Hannah; Goodman, Melody S.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.
Biobanks are essential resources, and participation by individuals from diverse groups is needed. Various models of consent have been proposed for secondary research use of biospecimens, differing in level of donor control and information received. Data are needed regarding participant preferences for models of consent, particularly among minorities. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 60 women to examine their attitudes about different models of consent. Recruitment was ...