WorldWideScience

Sample records for black tea polyphenols

  1. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  2. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon, E.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19μg GAE/g, TFC (367.84 and 325.18μg QE/g, FRAP (887.38 and 209.38μg TE/g, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity (1233.03 and 866.39μg AAE/g. Caffeine content per cup (200mL in black, green, and white tea was 63, 51, and 49mg respectively. Changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of teas were modelled using zero, first, and fractional-conversion-first-order (FCFO kinetic models. Results fitted a FCFO kinetic model, providing useful data for maximum phytochemical preservation in the optimisation of industrial and domestic processing. As a dietary comparison, green, black, and white tea were found to have a greater phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than fresh orange and apple juice. It can be concluded that green and black teas are significant sources of dietary phenolic antioxidants.

  3. The inhibition of the mammalian DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a by dietary black tea and coffee polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeltsch Albert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea is, second only to water, the most consumed beverage globally. Previously, the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 was shown by dietary polyphenols and epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, and 5-caffeoyl quinic acid, the main phenolic constituent of the green coffee bean. Results We studied the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3a by a series of dietary polyphenols from black tea such as theaflavins and thearubigins and chlorogenic acid derivatives from coffee. For theaflavin 3,3 digallate and thearubigins IC50 values in the lower micro molar range were observed, which when compared to pharmacokinetic data available, suggest an effect of physiological relevance. Conclusions Since Dnnmt3a has been associated with development, cancer and brain function, these data suggest a biochemical mechanism for the beneficial health effect of black tea and coffee and a possible molecular mechanism for the improvement of brain performance and mental health by dietary polyphenols.

  4. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  5. Alkaloid and polyphenol analysis by HPLC in green and black tea powders and their potential use as additives in ruminant diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul S.; Seal, Chris J.

    2018-02-01

    We used HPLC to examine the bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and polyphenols in green and black tea powders and their use as potential additives in ruminant diets. Caffeine was the highest alkaloid in both green and black teas. Green tea had significantly higher concentrations of alkaloids and catechins but lower theaflavins than black tea. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major catechins in green tea while theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate and theaflavin-3-gallate were the major theaflavins in black tea. Tea powders in ruminant diets decreased in vitro rumen ammonia and methane production without affecting volatile fatty acid profiles and the degradability of the diets. The tea powders containing variable amounts of alkaloids, catechins and theaflavins can potentially be used to decrease rumen ammonia and methane productions without any detrimental effect on rumen functions in vitro and perhaps ruminant productive efficiency.

  6. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de Ric; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and

  7. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  8. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Aoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria activation factor (MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample “E80” from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  9. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuki; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Takemasa, Tohru; Numata, Osamu

    2017-03-29

    Mitochondria activation factor (MAF) is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample "E80" from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  10. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  11. Polymeric black tea polyphenols inhibit 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish B.

    2008-01-01

    Tea polyphenols like epigallocatechin gallate and theaflavins are established chemopreventive agents for colorectal carcinogenesis. However, studies on evaluating similar chemopreventive properties of thearubigins or polymeric black tea polyphenols (PBPs), the most abundant polyphenols in black tea, are limited. Hence, in the present study we aim to investigate chemopreventive effects along with probable mechanisms of action of PBP extract employing 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats as experimental model. The present study suggests that PBPs, like other tea polyphenols, also inhibit DMH-induced colorectal tumorigenesis by decreasing tumor volume and multiplicity. This study also shows that although the pretreatment with PBP extract could induce detoxifying enzymes in hepatic and colorectal tissue, it did not show any additional chemopreventive effects when compared to treatments with PBP extract after initiation with DMH. Mechanistically, PBP extract may inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis by decreasing DMH-induced cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Treatments with PBP extract showed decreased levels of COX-2, c-MYC and cyclin D1 proteins which aid cell proliferation probably by regulating β-catenin by maintaining expression of APC and decreasing inactivation of GSK3β. DMH-induced activation of MAP kinases such as ERK and JNK was also found to be inhibited by treatments with PBP extract. In conclusion, the protective effects of PBP extract could be attributed to inhibition of DMH-induced cellular proliferation probably through β-catenin regulation

  12. Theaflavin, a black tea polyphenol, protects nigral dopaminergic neurons against chronic MPTP/probenecid induced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Tamilselvam, Kuppusamy; Radhiga, Thangaiyan; Rao, Shalinee; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan

    2012-01-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of dopominergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta, and can be experimentally induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Chronic administration of MPTP/probenecid (MPTP/p) leads to oxidative stress, induction of apoptosis, and loss of dopominergic neurons which results in motor impairments. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between tea consumption and susceptibility to PD. Theaflavin is a black tea polyphenol, which possess a wide variety of pharmacological properties including potent anti oxidative, anti apoptotic and anti inflammatory effects. The current study is aimed to assess the effect of theaflavin against MPTP/p induced neurodegenaration in C57BL/6 mice. We found that the theaflavin attenuates MPTP/p induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration as evidenced by increased expression of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and reduced apoptotic markers such as caspase-3, 8, 9 accompanied by normalized behavioral characterization. This may be due to anti oxidative and anti apoptotic activity and these data indicate that theaflavin may provide a valuable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine George

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary agents has received considerable importance because of their cost-effectiveness and wide safety margin. However, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP in suppressing two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. Resveratrol/BTP alone treatment decreased tumor incidence by ∼67% and ∼75%, while combination of both at low doses synergistically decreased tumor incidence even more significantly by ∼89% (p<0.01. This combination also significantly regressed tumor volume and number (p<0.01. Mechanistic studies revealed that this combinatorial inhibition was associated with decreased expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and increased in total p53 and phospho p53 (Ser 15 in skin tissue/tumor. Treatment with combinations of resveratrol and BTP also decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse skin tissues/tumors than their solitary treatments as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, histological and cell death analysis also confirmed that resveratrol and BTP treatment together inhibits cellular proliferation and markedly induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results for the first time lucidly illustrate that resveratrol and BTP in combination impart better suppressive activity than either of these agents alone and accentuate that development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention using dietary agents will be more beneficial against cancer. This promising combination should be examined in therapeutic trials of skin and possibly other cancers.

  14. Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Bags: Comparison of Black, Green, Red Rooibos, Chamomile and Peppermint over Different Steep Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Cleverdon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether this production step alters the content of the final product. The study purpose was to investigate the effect of steep time and tea type on the polyphenol content and predicted antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea bag products, including Green, Orange Pekoe, Red Roiboos, Peppermint, and Chamomile. Total polyphenol content (TPC, antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, and total predicted antioxidant capacity were measured in aliquots sampled every minute for 10 min. Polyphenols were extracted into solution in a nonlinear fashion, with ~80–90% of the TPC appearing within 5 min of tea bag immersion. Moreover, a significant range in TPC values was observed between products, with true teas containing at least two-fold greater polyphenol content than the herbal varieties. Our results are consistent with previous work using loose-leaf tea products and demonstrates that tea bag products are an effective source of polyphenols that may offer health benefits relating to their constituent antioxidant activity.

  15. Gut microbial metabolism of polyphenols from black tea and red wine/grape juice is source-specific and colon-region dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorsten, F A; Peters, S; Gross, G; Gomez-Roldan, V; Klinkenberg, M; de Vos, R C; Vaughan, E E; van Duynhoven, J P; Possemiers, S; van de Wiele, T; Jacobs, D M

    2012-11-14

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and continuous-dose experiments. A combination of liquid or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS or GC-MS) and NMR-based metabolic profiling was used to measure selected parent polyphenols, their microbial degradation into phenolic acids, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in different colon compartments. Acetate production was increased by continuous feeding of BTE but not RWGE. During RWGE feeding, gallic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid remained elevated throughout the colon, while during BTE feeding, they were consumed in the distal colon, while 3-phenylpropionic acid was strongly produced. Gut microbial production of phenolics and SCFAs is dependent on colon location and polyphenol source, which may influence potential health benefits.

  16. Evaluation of the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of green tea polyphenols and different tea types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Kong, Fanbin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase which may be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Green tea polyphenols (TPs) strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity by non-competitive inhibition with an IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL(-1) and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea and oolong tea also had dose-dependent inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25 and 1.38 µg mL(-1) (µg polyphenol mL(-1)), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TPs changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TPs during enzymatic hydrolysis. Green TPs, green tea, black tea and oolong tea are excellent α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TPs. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea and oolong tea can potentially be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The use of polyphenolic compounds from Black tea for the solid phase extraction and determination of trace iron in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Ramin [Departmant of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran); Research Department of Chromatography, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Urmia Branch, Urmia (Iran); Nikkhahi, Yousef [Research Department of Chromatography, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Urmia Branch, Urmia (Iran); Farhadi, Khalil

    2009-11-15

    A simple and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the trace analysis of iron(III) in water samples has been developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated alumina, modified with polyphenolic compounds (extracted from black tea) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of iron(III) from water samples before determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Due to the complexation reaction between iron(III) and polyphenol compounds, iron(III) was quantitatively extracted on the proposed sorbent and then eluted by 2.0 mL of HCl (1.0 mol/L). The effects of extraction parameters, such as pH and volume of sample solution, amount of polyphenolic compounds, type of eluting agent and the effect of interfering ions on the extraction of iron(III), were investigated. It was found that the proposed method had a good linear range (15.0-100.0 {mu}g/L) and a low detection limit (10.0 {mu}g/L). The procedure was successfully applied for iron determination in drinking water samples. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Characterization of tea polyphenols as potential environment-friendly fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengqi; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Haihui; Tao, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigated the oxidation properties of tea polyphenols and their potential as the fire retardants. Two types of tea polyphenols were adopted, which were extracted from red tea and green tea leaves, respectively. Their macroscopic performance during pyrolysis and oxidation at elevated temperatures were examined by using a heating furnace. Mass change, heat evolution and gas products of tea polyphenols during heating in air were also monitored by using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) integrated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in conjunction with online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). A tea polyphenol sample first becomes a brown semi-fluid after heating, and gradually turns into highly-porous black chars with significantly expanded volume. By raising the temperature to ∼550 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, the mass of a sample reduces by nearly 70% to form a large quantity of inert gases that are mainly composed of H2O and CO2. It was found that the aerial oxidation products of tea polyphenols in the solid phase possess good heat insulation property; meanwhile, the substantial release of a lot of water and its evaporation during oxidation of tea polyphenols removes a large amount of heat from a sample located in a heating environment. The heat insulation of tea polyphenols may withstand up to 550 °C. The present work confirms tea polyphenols as potential superior and environment-friendly fire retardants.

  19. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  20. Tea derived galloylated polyphenols cross-link purified gastrointestinal mucins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Georgiades

    Full Text Available Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria.

  1. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  2. Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Yang, Jieping; Hsu, Mark; Lee, Ru-Po; Grojean, Emma M; Ly, Austin; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-09-30

    Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0.25% GTP or BTP or a low-fat/high-sucrose (LF/HS, 10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose) diet for 4 weeks. Bacterial composition was assessed by MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. GTP and BTP diets resulted in a decrease of cecum Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. The relative proportions of Blautia, Bryantella, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Marvinbryantia, Turicibacter, Barnesiella, and Parabacteroides were significantly correlated with weight loss induced by tea extracts. BTP increased the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio and intestinal formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analyzed by gas chromatography. Cecum propionic acid content was significantly correlated with the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio. GTP and BTP induced a significant increase in hepatic 5'adenosylmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation by 70 and 289%, respectively (P < 0.05) determined by Western blot. In summary, both BTP and GTP induced weight loss in association with alteration of the microbiota and increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. We hypothesize that BTP increased pAMPK through increased intestinal SCFA production, while GTPs increased hepatic AMPK through GTP present in the liver.

  3. Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2014-06-01

    The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p catappa (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC: 7.8-1000 microg/mL) and lowest for C. carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation.

  4. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The Pu...

  5. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnat, A; Carnat, A P; Fraisse, D; Ricoux, L; Lamaison, J L

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the main aromatic and polyphenolic constituents of infusion from Chamaemelum nobile flowers was examined. The camomile tea contained a large amount of polyphenolic compounds (340 mg/l), the most important being chamaemeloside (155 mg/l). Only traces of essential oil were recovered in tea (7 mg/l).

  6. Simplified recovery of enzymes and nutrients in sweet potato wastewater and preparing health black tea and theaflavins with scrap tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Rong; Luo, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Guang-Ying; Chen, Rui; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Min; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2018-04-15

    The industry discards generous organic wastewater in sweet potato starch factory and scrap tea in tea production. A simplified procedure to recover all biochemicals from the wastewater of sweet potato starch factory and use them to make health black tea and theaflavins from scrap green tea was developed. The sweet potato wastewater was sequentially treated by isoelectric precipitation, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to recover polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-amylase, and small molecular fractions, respectively. The PPO fraction can effectively transform green tea extracts into black tea with high content of theaflavins through the optimized fed-batch feeding fermentation. The PPO transformed black tea with sporamins can be used to make health black tea, or make theaflavins by fractionation with ethyl acetate. This work provides a resource- and environment-friendly approach for economically utilizing the sweet potato wastewater and the scrap tea, and making biochemical, nutrient and health products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyphenol content of plasma and litter after the oral administration of green tea and tea polyphenols in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Bin; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Shang, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jing-Wei; Shao, Lei; Chen, Wei; Li, Da-Xiang

    2012-02-22

    Metabolic profiles of broiler chickens were examined after the ingestion of green tea, tea polyphenols, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Solid-phase extraction of serum and litters yielded free catechins and their metabolites, which were then identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In plasma samples, (-)-gallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and EGCG were detected in the green tea group; pyrogallol acid, (epi)catechin-O-sulfate, 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronide, and (epi)catechin-3'-O-glucuronide were detected in the tea polyphenols group; and EGCG, (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronides were detected in the EGCG group. In litters, gallic acid, EGCG, GCG, and ECG were detected in the green tea and tea polyphenols groups; EGCG and ECG were detected in the EGCG group. The conjugated metabolites, 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronide, (epi)catechin-3'-glucuronide, and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate, were identified in the green tea group; 4'-O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-sulfate were identified in the tea polyphenols group; only 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-sulfate was detected in the EGCG group. The excretion of tea catechins was 95.8, 87.7, and 97.7% for the green tea, tea polyphenols, and EGCG groups, respectively.

  8. Effect on Green Tea Polyphenols on Breast Cancer Signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobrinik, David

    1999-01-01

    .... Using the EGF dependent growth of MCF1OA epithelial cells as a model, we found that the major polyphenol in green tea, EGCG, inhibited progression through the late Gi cell cycle restriction point...

  9. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing global problem and there is a need to find out novel potent antimicrobial agents with alternative modes of action as accessories to antibiotic therapy. This study investigated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic properties of tea polyphenols. The tea ...

  10. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green and toasted mate tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Patricia de Abreu Marques; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2011-05-01

    The production and distribution of toasted mate tea in Brazil has increased, which has resulted in its greater consumption. Mate tea is obtained by roasting non-fermented erva-mate in order to produce toasted erva-mate or toasted mate tea. However, although the product is much appreciated, studies of its chemical composition and the concentration of polyphenols, particularly flavonols present in toasted mate tea, are few and often controversial. This paper elucidates some misunderstandings involving the nomenclature of erva-mate and toasted mate, and mainly provides an overview of the composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of toasted mate tea and its raw material, erva-mate, in comparison with other teas, the compositions of which were found in the literature.

  11. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Poppel, G. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    Background: Tea is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Antioxidant polyphenol compounds (such as catechins and flavonols) are abundantly present in both green and black teas and have been observed to have anticarcinogenic properties in cell and animal model studies. In black

  12. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  13. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Ptea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  14. Reactions of green and black teas with Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B A; Ferreira Severino, J; Pirker, K F

    2012-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the products of reactions between Cu(II) and samples of green and black teas showed spectral components from at least six different Cu(II) complexes with both tea types. Several of these complexes were common to both teas in spite of major differences in their polyphenol compositions. The pH range observed for complex formation, and the total signal intensity in the pH range 4-8, were greatly different from those for the reactions of Cu(II) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid, the main polyphenols responsible for the free radical signals observed during oxidation of these beverages. Components with spectral parameters similar to those of Cu(II) complexes with theanine, the major amino acid in tea, may contribute to two of the spectra recorded under acidic conditions. However, the initial complexes formed at the lowest pH values investigated are still unidentified. EPR spectra with parameters consistent with Cu(II) polyphenol complexes were only observed under alkaline conditions, thus suggesting that components of tea other than polyphenols might be more important in reactions with copper, and possibly other transition metals, in solutions under physiological conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  15. Tea Polyphenols and Their Roles in Cancer Prevention and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Ping Dou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-derived, dietary polyphenols have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against human cancers, including green tea polyphenols, genistein (found in soy, apigenin (celery, parsley, luteolin (broccoli, quercetin (onions, kaempferol (broccoli, grapefruits, curcumin (turmeric, etc. The more we understand their involved molecular mechanisms and cellular targets, the better we could utilize these “natural gifts” for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. Furthermore, better understanding of their structure-activity relationships will guide synthesis of analog compounds with improved bio-availability, stability, potency and specificity. This review focuses on green tea polyphenols and seeks to summarize several reported biological effects of tea polyphenols in human cancer systems, highlight the molecular targets and pathways identified, and discuss the role of tea polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of human cancer. The review also briefly describes several other dietary polyphenols and their biological effects on cancer prevention and chemotherapy.

  16. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.

  17. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  18. The scavenging effects of tea polyphenol and quercetin on active oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ruoying; Cheng Jiwu; Hu Tianxi; Tu Tiechen; Dong Jirong; Wang Wenfeng; Lin Nianyun

    1993-01-01

    The abilities of scavenging active oxygen species, O 2 free radical and OH., by tea polyphenols and quercetin have been studied by chemiluminescence, ESR and pulse radiolysis. Tea polyphenols and quercetin are all phenolic antioxidants. The synergetic studies show that both tea polyphenols and quercetin are strong free radical scavengers. Tea polyphenols are better than quercetin. the results from CL studies are in good accord with those from ESR and PR studies

  19. Tea Polyphenols and Their Roles in Cancer Prevention and Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Di; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-01-01

    Many plant-derived, dietary polyphenols have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against human cancers, including green tea polyphenols, genistein (found in soy), apigenin (celery, parsley), luteolin (broccoli), quercetin (onions), kaempferol (broccoli, grapefruits), curcumin (turmeric), etc. The more we understand their involved molecular mechanisms and cellular targets, the better we could utilize these “natural gifts†for the prevention and treat...

  20. Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.

  1. Chemical synthesis of tea polyphenols and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tomohiro; Hamashima, Yoshitaka; Kan, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Tea polyphenol "catechin", which is a major constituent of green tea extract, has received special attention for its important bioactivities. In this article, we review the recent various syntheses of catechins by classifying the mode of of flavan ring-construction. Additionally, we also take notice of the application of the modified catechins that were created to uncover the mechanism of bioactivities and discover new activities.

  2. Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Sabah G El-Banna. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 24(1) 2006: 1-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Chemistry of Secondary Polyphenols Produced during Processing of Tea and Selected Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review will discuss recent progress in the chemistry of secondary polyphenols produced during food processing. The production mechanism of the secondary polyphenols in black tea, whisky, cinnamon, and persimmon fruits will be introduced. In the process of black tea production, tea leaf catechins are enzymatically oxidized to yield a complex mixture of oxidation products, including theaflavins and thearubigins. Despite the importance of the beverage, most of the chemical constituents have not yet been confirmed due to the complexity of the mixture. However, the reaction mechanisms at the initial stages of catechin oxidation are explained by simple quinone–phenol coupling reactions. In vitro model experiments indicated the presence of interesting regio- and stereoselective reactions. Recent results on the reaction mechanisms will be introduced. During the aging of whisky in oak wood barrels, ellagitannins originating from oak wood are oxidized and react with ethanol to give characteristic secondary ellagitannins. The major part of the cinnamon procyanidins is polymerized by copolymerization with cinnamaldehyde. In addition, anthocyanidin structural units are generated in the polymer molecules by oxidation which accounts for the reddish coloration of the cinnamon extract. This reaction is related to the insolubilization of proanthocyanidins in persimmon fruits by condensation with acetaldehyde. In addition to oxidation, the reaction of polyphenols with aldehydes may be important in food processing.

  4. Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq

    2015-06-01

    In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishmanial studies were conducted on L. aethiopica. Wushwush green tea had the highest content of polyphenol (19.98 ± 1.15 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry leaf weight), catechin (37.06 mg/g) and L-theanine (48.54 mg/g but the lowest caffeine content). It exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant effect of Wushwush green tea may be attributed to the highest polyphenol content. East African black tea had the lowest L-theanine (20.72 mg/g) and antioxidant activity but the highest caffeine (16.60 mg/g) content. Wushwush green tea showed slight inhibitory effect on L. aethiopica while the lack tea extracts (Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush) exhibited no antileishmanial activity. Wushwush green tea did not show any synergistic or antagonistic effect on the antileishmanial drugs used in this study while Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush black tea extracts exhibited dose dependant inhibitory activity to the commonly used antileishmanial drugs included in this study.

  5. Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A.; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishman...

  6. Inhibition of gastrointestinal lipolysis by green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea polyphenols during simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kwang Hyun; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Sang Min; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2012-07-25

    Green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea, which are rich in polyphenols, may exhibit antiobesity effects by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. However, the bioavailability of some polyphenols is poor due to either degradation or absorption difficulties in the gastrointestinal tract, thus making their beneficial effects doubtful. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of three beverages on lipolysis and the contribution of their major polyphenols during simulated digestion. During simulated digestion, gomchui tea was the most potent at inhibiting gastrointestinal lipolysis, whereas green tea was the least potent. The strongest lipase inhibitor among purified major polyphenols was a green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, IC(50) = 1.8 ± 0.57 μM), followed by di-O-caffeoylquinic acid isomers (DCQA, IC(50) from 12.7 ± 4.5 to 40.4 ± 2.3 μM), which are gomchui tea polyphenols. However, the stability of DCQA was greater than that of EGCG when subjected to simulated digestion. Taken together, gomchui tea, which has DCQA as the major polyphenol, showed stronger lipolysis inhibitory activity during simulated digestion compared to both green tea and coffee.

  7. Pulse radiolysis studies of the interaction of tea polyphenol derivatives with oxidizing OH adduct of thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yue; Li Hucheng; Yao Side; Zuo Zhihua; Wang Zailan; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1996-01-01

    The electron transfer reactions between oxidizing OH adduct of thymine with tea polyphenol derivatives has been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The tea polyphenol derivatives are identified as good antioxidants for reduction of oxidizing OH adducts of thymine. From buildup kinetic analysis of radical phenoxyl product, the rate constants for reactions of the N 3 radical with tea polyphenol derivatives have been determined to be (8-9) x 10 9 dm 3 /mol s, while the rate constants of electron transfer from tea polyphenol derivatives to oxidizing OH adducts of thymine was obtained to be around 10 9 dm 3 /mol s. Copyright direct C 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  8. Interactions of blacktea polyphenols with human gut microbiota: implications for gut and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Dorsten, van F.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Vos, de R.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Roger, L.; Draijer, R.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have convincingly associated consumption of black tea with reduced cardiovascular risk. Research on the bioactive molecules has traditionally been focused on polyphenols, such as catechins. Black tea polyphenols (BTPs), however, mainly consist of high-molecular-weight species

  9. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32 P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen

  10. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P sleeping rate induced by sodium pentobarbital at a sub-threshold dose (P sleeping latency period induced by sodium barbital was not significant (P > 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice.

  11. Interaction of green tea polyphenols with dairy matrices in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Azimy, Naheed; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion.

  12. Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuated Glutamate Excitotoxicity via Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathway in the Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin; Cao, Chang; Cheng, Yong; Qin, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols are a natural product which has antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. It has been shown that glutamate excitotoxicity induced oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study we explored the neuroprotective effect of green teen polyphenols against glutamate excitotoxicity in the primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate induced neurotoxicity in the cortical neurons as measured by MTT and TUNEL assays. Green tea polyphenols were then showed to inhibit the glutamate induced ROS release and SOD activity reduction in the neurons. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols restored the dysfunction of mitochondrial pro- or antiapoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 caused by glutamate. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols was abrogated when the neurons were incubated with siBcl-2. Taken together, these results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate excitotoxicity through antioxidative and antiapoptotic pathways.

  13. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble) Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Xueling Gao; Bin Zhang; Zenglang Shao; Yong Yang; Pengxiang Yue

    2014-01-01

    Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf) and Tea Poly-phenols (TP) from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions w...

  14. Antifungal activity and mechanism of tea polyphenols against Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Jiang, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the antifungal activity and possible mechanism of tea polyphenols (TPs) against Rhizopus stolonifer, the agent of rotting in nectarines and peaches. TP inhibited both mycelial growth and spore germination in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and the morphological changes of the treated hyphae with TP, such as irregularly swollen, increased branching, wrinkled, entwining, collapse and breakage, and of the treated spores, such as swelling of germ tube tips, exfoliation of the surface layer and disorganization of cell organelles, were observed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. TP also significantly decreased rhizopus rot on inoculated nectarines and induced the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase. The mechanism of action might be attributed to direct damage of the mycelium and spore and indirect induction of defensive enzyme activities. TP has the potential to be developed as an alternative to control post-harvest disease of fruit caused by R. stolonifer.

  15. The enhanced inhibition of water extract of black tea under baking treatment on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Da-Peng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studied the inhibition of water extract of natural or baked black tea on the activity of α-amylase and α- glucosidase. Baking treatment was found to be one effective way to enhance the inhibition of black tea on both α-amylase and α- glucosidase, and IC 50 of water extract of baked black tea (BBTWE) were 1.213mg/mL and 4.190mg/mL, respectively, while IC 50 of water extract of black tea (BTWE) were 1.723mg/mL and 6.056mg/mL, respectively. This study further studied the mechanism of the effect of water extract on α-amylase and α- glucosidase using HPLC, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence. HPLC analysis of tea polyphenols showed that the content of tea polyphenols with low polarity increased after baking. In addition, BBTWE had higer abilty on decreasing the hydrophobicity of tryptophan residues than BTWE for both α-amylase and α- glucosidase.The increase of α-helix proportion of α-amylase when treated with BBTWE was more obvious than that when treated with BTWE. In a word, thermal process of baked foods may be beneficial for tea polyphenols to reduce the rate of starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemo prevention of Tea Polyphenols against Tumor Growth of Hepato-Colon Cancer Induced by Azoxy methane in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the chemo prevention of tea polyphenols as anticancer agent in rats which were injected with azoxy methane (AOM) which is a potent hepato-colon carcinogen agents in rodents. The obtained data revealed a significant elevation in serum tumor markers, carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and cancer antigen (CA 1 9.9) in carcinogenic rats in comparison to their corresponding normal control ones. Also, there was a significant increase in the content of cytochrome P 4 50 and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in both liver and colon as well as a significant elevation in the activities of methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MRD), ethoxyresorutin-O-dealkylase (ERD) and pentoxyresorufin-O- dealkylase (PRD) in liver microsomes. While, glutathione content (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gp x ) activity were decreased significantly in liver and colon as a result of cancer induction. On the other hand, the supplementation of black or green tea before induction of cancer in rats led to a considerable correction in all previous parameters studied. These amelioration effects dependent on magic biochemical properties of flavanols (catechins) and type of tea. In conclusion, tea polyphenols have appreciable anti-cancer efficacy on hepato colon cancer in rats. The underlying mechanisms of through which tea counteracted hepato-colon cancer were discussed

  17. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  18. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  19. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Moore, Carolyn E; De Spirt, Silke; Tronnier, Hagen; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Dietary constituents including polyphenols and carotenoids contribute to endogenous photoprotection and modulate skin characteristics related to structure and function of the tissue. Animal and in-vitro studies indicate that green tea polyphenols affect skin properties. In a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 female volunteers were randomized to an intervention or control group. Participants consumed either a beverage with green tea polyphenols providing 1402 mg total catechins/d or a control beverage. Skin photoprotection, structure, and function were measured at baseline (wk 0), wk 6, and wk 12. Following exposure of the skin areas to 1.25 minimal erythemal dose of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema decreased significantly in the intervention group by 16 and 25% after 6 and 12 wk, respectively. Skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water homeostasis. Intake of the green tea polyphenol beverage for 12 wk increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the skin. Likewise, in a separate, randomized, double-blind, single-dose (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) study of green tea polyphenols, blood flow was maximized at 30 min after ingestion. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women.

  20. Green Tea Polyphenols for the Protection against Renal Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Yokozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is a beverage that is popular worldwide. Polyphenols in green tea have been receiving much attention as potential compounds for the maintenance of human health due to their varied biological activity and low toxicity. In particular, the contribution of antioxidant activity to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress has been focused upon. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate and (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, which account for a large fraction of the components of green tea polyphenol, on oxidative stress-related renal disease. Our observations suggest that green tea polyphenols have a beneficial effect on pathological states related to oxidative stress of the kidney.

  1. Controlled-release of tea polyphenol from gelatin films incorporated with different ratios of free/nanoencapsulated tea polyphenols into fatty food simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatin films having controlled-release properties were developed by incorporation of different free/encapsulated tea polyphenol (TP) ratios through modifying the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of TP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Different EEs were obtained by adjusting the chitosan hydrochloride (C...

  2. Taurine and tea polyphenols combination ameliorate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhua; Chen, Siwen; Chen, Ronggui; Peng, Zhiqing; Wan, Jun; Wu, Benyan

    2017-09-08

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, for which there is currently no safe and effective drug for therapy. In this study, we explored the effects of taurine, tea polyphenols (TPs), or a combination thereof, on NASH rats. Rats were divided into a normal group, a high-fat diet induced model group and a treatment group (including taurine, TPs, or taurine + TPs treatment for 8 weeks). Twelve weeks later, all rats were sacrificed, and serum transaminase, lipid and lipopolysaccharide levels and hepatic oxidative stress levels were determined. Histological changes were evaluated. In NASH rats, hepatocyte damage, lipid disturbance, oxidative stress and elevated lipopolysaccharide levels were confirmed. Taurine treatment alleviated hepatocyte damage and oxidative stress. TPs treatment improved lipid metabolism and increased hepatic antioxidant activity. The therapeutic effects of taurine + TPs treatment on hepatocyte damage, lipid disturbance, and oxidative stress were superior to those of taurine and TPs treatment, respectively. Taurine, TPs and their combination all decreased serum lipopolysaccharide levels in NASH rats, but the combination of the compounds caused these levels to decrease more significantly than taurine or TPs treatment alone. Taurine combined with TPs treatment could relieve NASH by alleviating hepatocyte damage, decreasing oxidative stress and improving lipid metabolism and gut flora disturbance partly. Taurine and TPs combination may act as a new effective medicine for treating NASH patients.

  3. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Jin; Li, Feng; Fang, Yong; Yang, Wenjian; An, Xinxin; Zhao, Liyan; Xin, Zhihong; Cao, Lin; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Tea polyphenols have strong antioxidant and antitumor activities. However, these health benefits are limited due to their poor in vivo stability and low bioavailability. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems may provide an alternative approach for enhancing bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. In this study, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using two different chitosan biomaterials, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in HepG2 cells, including cell cytotoxicity comparison, cell morphology analysis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle detection. The results indicated that the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a branch shape and heterogeneous distribution in prepared suspension. MTT assay suggested that tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the cytotoxicity rates were increased gradually and appeared an obvious dose-dependent relationship. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the HepG2 cells treated with tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited some typical apoptotic features, such as microvilli disappearance, margination of nuclear chromatin, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and the mitochondrial swelling. In addition, the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles had relatively weak inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells compared with tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenols not only induced cancer cell apoptosis, but also promoted their necrosis. However, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited their antitumor effects mainly through inducing cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that the inhibition effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on tumor cells probably depended on their controlled drug release and effective cell delivery. The chitosan nanoparticles themselves as the delivery carrier showed limited antitumor effects compared with their encapsulated drugs. - Highlights: • Tea polyphenol

  4. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jin [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Feng [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fang, Yong; Yang, Wenjian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China); An, Xinxin; Zhao, Liyan; Xin, Zhihong; Cao, Lin [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu, Qiuhui, E-mail: qiuhuihu@njau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Tea polyphenols have strong antioxidant and antitumor activities. However, these health benefits are limited due to their poor in vivo stability and low bioavailability. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems may provide an alternative approach for enhancing bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. In this study, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using two different chitosan biomaterials, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in HepG2 cells, including cell cytotoxicity comparison, cell morphology analysis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle detection. The results indicated that the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a branch shape and heterogeneous distribution in prepared suspension. MTT assay suggested that tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the cytotoxicity rates were increased gradually and appeared an obvious dose-dependent relationship. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the HepG2 cells treated with tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited some typical apoptotic features, such as microvilli disappearance, margination of nuclear chromatin, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and the mitochondrial swelling. In addition, the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles had relatively weak inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells compared with tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenols not only induced cancer cell apoptosis, but also promoted their necrosis. However, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited their antitumor effects mainly through inducing cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that the inhibition effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on tumor cells probably depended on their controlled drug release and effective cell delivery. The chitosan nanoparticles themselves as the delivery carrier showed limited antitumor effects compared with their encapsulated drugs. - Highlights: • Tea polyphenol

  5. Retrieval of tea polyphenol at leaf level using spectral transformation and multi-variate statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dibyendu; Das, Prabir Kumar; Bhunia, Uttam Kumar; Singh, Upasana; Singh, Shalini; Sharma, Jaswant Raj; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, field based hyperspectral data was used to estimate the tea (Camellia sinensis L.) polyphenol at Deha Tea garden of Assam state, India. Leaf reflectance spectra were first filtered for noise and then transformed into normalized and first derivative reflectance for further analysis. Stepwise discriminant analysis was carried out to select sensitive bands for a range of polyphenol concentration by minimizing the effects of other factors such as age of the bushes and management practices. The wavelengths at 358, 369, 484, 845, 916, 1387, 1420, 1435, 1621 and 2294 nm were identified as sensitive to tea polyphenol, among which 2294 nm was found to be the most recurring band. The noise removed selected bands, their transformed derivatives and principal components were regressed with the tea polyphenol using univariate and multi-variate analysis. In univariate analysis the correlation was very poor with RMSE more than 3.0. A significant improvement in R2 values were observed when multivariate analyses like stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) was carried out. The PLSR of first derivative reflectance was most accurate (R2 = 0.81 and RMSE = 1.39 mg g-1) among all the uni- and multivariate analysis for predicting the polyphenol of fresh tea leaves.

  6. Rapid and sustained systemic circulation of conjugated gut microbiol catabolites after single-dose black tea extract consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Foltz, M.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbial catabolites of black tea polyphenols (BTPs) have been proposed to exert beneficial cardiovascular bioactivity. This hypothesis is difficult to verify because the conjugation patterns and pharmacokinetics of these catabolites are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to

  7. Green tea polyphenols extend the lifespan of male drosophila melanogaster while impairing reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T; Huey, Jocelyn; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-12-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans.

  8. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  9. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Puerh tea is a unique Chinese fermented tea. Unlike other teas it is stored for a long period of time. Aspergillus niger is claimed to be the dominant microorganism in the Puerh tea manufacturing process and also to be common on tea in general. A. niger sensu stricto is known to produce...... the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A...

  10. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  11. Optimization and validation of Folin-Ciocalteu method for the determination of total polyphenol content of Pu-erh tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Marilena; Yao, Shicong

    2017-12-01

    Pu-erh tea is a post-fermented tea that has recently gained popularity worldwide, due to potential health benefits related to the antioxidant activity resulting from its high polyphenolic content. The Folin-Ciocalteu method is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive assay widely applied for the determination of total polyphenol content. Over the past years, it has been subjected to many modifications, often without any systematic optimization or validation. In our study, we sought to optimize the Folin-Ciocalteu method, evaluate quality parameters including linearity, precision and stability, and then apply the optimized model to determine the total polyphenol content of 57 Chinese teas, including green tea, aged and ripened Pu-erh tea. Our optimized Folin-Ciocalteu method reduced analysis time, allowed for the analysis of a large number of samples, to discriminate among the different teas, and to assess the effect of the post-fermentation process on polyphenol content.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  13. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin; Li, Feng; Fang, Yong; Yang, Wenjian; An, Xinxin; Zhao, Liyan; Xin, Zhihong; Cao, Lin; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-01

    Tea polyphenols have strong antioxidant and antitumor activities. However, these health benefits are limited due to their poor in vivo stability and low bioavailability. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems may provide an alternative approach for enhancing bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. In this study, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using two different chitosan biomaterials, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in HepG2 cells, including cell cytotoxicity comparison, cell morphology analysis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle detection. The results indicated that the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a branch shape and heterogeneous distribution in prepared suspension. MTT assay suggested that tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the cytotoxicity rates were increased gradually and appeared an obvious dose-dependent relationship. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the HepG2 cells treated with tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited some typical apoptotic features, such as microvilli disappearance, margination of nuclear chromatin, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and the mitochondrial swelling. In addition, the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles had relatively weak inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells compared with tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenols not only induced cancer cell apoptosis, but also promoted their necrosis. However, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited their antitumor effects mainly through inducing cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that the inhibition effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on tumor cells probably depended on their controlled drug release and effective cell delivery. The chitosan nanoparticles themselves as the delivery carrier showed limited antitumor effects compared with their encapsulated drugs. Copyright © 2013. Published by

  14. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  15. Interaction of tea polyphenols with serum albumins: A fluorescence spectroscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Adity

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of some tea polyphenols, namely (−) Catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (–) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) are outlined with the serum albumin proteins. These interactions had all resulted in binding with the proteins with a concomitant static quenching of the protein fluorescence. A fluorescence technique has been considered as the tool to comprehend the polyphenol–protein interactions mainly and simultaneously other spectroscopic techniques used to verify the results have been discussed. In this mini review the different types of equations usually employed to calculate the binding constant values have been outlined, namely, modified Stern Volmer plot, Scatchard plot and Lineweaver Burk equation, with their corresponding results. The n values (number of binding sites) had always been close to unity suggesting a 1:1 complexation with the polyphenols and the protein. A structural change in the polyphenols has been found to alter the binding constant value and the galloyl moiety attached to the C ring of the polyphenols have been found to play a crucial role in this regard. It has been found that an increase in galloyl moiety increases binding of the catechins with proteins. - Highlights: • Review on interactions of some tea polyphenols with the serum albumin proteins. • Tea polyphenols include Catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate and epicatechin. • Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is mainly outlined. • Binding constant studies have been given importance. • Galloyl moiety in the C ring is crucial in increasing binding constant.

  16. Antiradiation effect of tea polyphenol and effective components from ginkgo leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingji; Wang Youshao; He Lei; Song Qinhua

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore the antiradiation effect of tea polyphenol (TP) and ginkgo biloba leaves extracts, authors have made an animal experiment, 6 groups of Kunming rats, 12 rats in each group, were investigated. Except contrast group, other 5 groups were fed with different medicament for 20 d, then all 6 groups were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 9 Gy/min for one minute. After the irradiation the rats were continually fed with the same medicament for 13d. Meanwhile we observed and recorded the death number of each group day by day. Compared with contrast, the results showed that increased living ratios of tea polyphenol, flavonoids, ginkgolide, 'TP plus ginkgolide' and 'TP plus flavonoids' groups were 66.6%, 41.6%, 75%, 66.6% and 75%, and their increased average living time were 2.9 d (P<0.01), 1.8 d (P<0.05), 3.2 d(P<0.01), 3.1 d(P<0.01) and 3.1 d (P<0.01), respectively. The experimental results indicate that tea polyphenol and ginkgo biloba extracts have an antiradiation ability, for the poly-hydroxyl of tea polyphenol, the hydroxyl and ester bond of ginkgolide are suspected to be the foundation of the ability. It is found that the coordination effect of two materials is stronger than any one alone as they have the same chemical structures or similar functional groups. (authors)

  17. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate differentially modulates oxidative stress in PC12 cell compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2005-01-01

    Tea polyphenols have been reported to be potent antioxidants and beneficial in oxidative stress related diseases. Prooxidant effects of tea polyphenols have also been reported in cell culture systems. In the present study, we have studied oxidative stress in the subcellular compartments of PC12 cells after treatment with different concentrations of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We have demonstrated that EGCG has differentially affected the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) metabolism and cytochrome P450 2E1 activity in the different subcellular compartments in PC12 cells. Our results have shown that although the cell survival was not inhibited by EGCG, there was, however, an increased DNA breakdown and activation of apoptotic markers, caspase 3 and poly- (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) at higher concentrations of EGCG treatment. Our results suggest that the differential effects of EGCG might be related to the alterations in oxidative stress, GSH pools and CYP2E1 activity in different cellular compartments. These results may have implications in determining the chemopreventive therapeutic use of tea polyphenols in vivo

  18. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles (NZVI) Synthesized using tea-polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A “green” protocol was used for the rapid generation of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles using tea polyphenols. The NZVI particles were subsequently examined for in vitro biocompatibility using the human keratinocyte cell (HaCaT) line as a skin exposure model. The cell...

  19. Green tea polyphenols attenuate deterioration of bone microarchitecture in female rats with systemic chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Our previous study demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) benefit bone health in female rats with chronic inflammation, because of GTP’s antioxidant capacity. The current study further evaluates whether GTP can restore bone microstructure along with related mechanism in rats wit...

  20. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  1. Supplementation with green tea polyphenols improves bone microstructure and quality in aged, orchidectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies show that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate bone loss and microstructure deterioration in ovariectomized aged female rats, a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, it is not known if such an osteo-protective role of GTP is demonstrable in androgen-deficient aged rats, a mo...

  2. Green Tea Polyphenols and Vitamin D3 Protect Bone Microarchitecture in Female Rats with Chronic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study showed that green tea polyphenols (GTP) in conjunction with 1-a-OH¬vit-D3 (vitD3) treatment mitigates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone mineral density loss in female rats. This study was undertaken to further explore the mechanism and bone microarchitecture of GTP plus vitD3 in...

  3. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea polyphenols (TP) were incorporated into edible gelatin films either alone or incorporated into nanoparticles in order to determine the physico-chemical properties of the film and the antioxidant properties of TP in a solid gelatin matrix. The TP containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-li...

  4. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  5. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Malbaša Radomir V.; Lončar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2006-01-01

    Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v) of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobi...

  6. Fluoride in black and green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) infusions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride contents in the infusions of 21 commercially available Ethiopian and imported black and green tea brands; in leaf and bag forms was determined by a fluoride ion-selective electrode method. Of the samples analyzed twelve were products from Ethiopia and the remaining nine were imported tea brands.

  7. The impact of green tea polyphenols on development and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry E; Pham, Hoang M; Barbour, Julia; Tran, Phillip; Van Nguyen, Benjamin; Hogan, Sean P; Homo, Richelle L; Coskun, Volkan; Schriner, Samuel E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Although, green tea has numerous health benefits, adverse effects with excessive consumption have been reported. Using Drosophila melanogaster , a decrease in male fertility with green tea was evidenced. Here, the extent of green tea toxicity on development and reproduction was investigated. Drosophila melanogaster embryos and larvae were exposed to various doses of green tea polyphenols (GTP). Larvae exposed to 10 mg/mL GTP were slower to develop, emerged smaller, and exhibited a dramatic decline in the number of emerged offspring. GTP protected flies against desiccation but sensitized them to starvation and heat stress. Female offspring exhibited a decline in reproductive output and decreased survival while males were unaffected. GTP had a negative impact on reproductive organs in both males and females (e.g., atrophic testes in males, absence of mature eggs in females). Collectively, the data show that high doses of GTP adversely affect development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster .

  8. Polyphenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activities of Oolong Tea Infusion under Various Steeping Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of oolong tea extract wereinvestigated after tea was steeped in 90 or 100 oC water for 3 or 10 min. The extractionyield increased with increasing temperature and extended steeping time. However, highertemperature and longer time (100 oC water for 10 min led to loss of phenolics. Theaqueous extract of oolong tea (AEOT at 100 oC for 3 min exhibited the strongestantioxidant activity. The major polyphenolic components of the AEOT were identified as(--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG. The two major catechins (EGC and EGCG in the tea infusion contributedsignificantly to the investigated antioxidant activities [i.e., the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavengingactivities] with high correlation values in r = 0.9486 and 0.9327 for the EGC and r =0.9592 and 0.8718 for the EGCG, respectively.

  9. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  10. Artificial neural network modeling and optimization of ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; Xue, Yujing; Xu, Yinxiang; Shen, Yuhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols was modeled and optimized by a three-layer artificial neural network. A feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was used to evaluate the effects of pressure, liquid/solid ratio and ethanol concentration on the total phenolic content of green tea extracts. The neural network coupled with genetic algorithms was also used to optimize the conditions needed to obtain the highest yield of tea polyphenols. The obtained optimal architecture of artificial neural network model involved a feed-forward neural network with three input neurons, one hidden layer with eight neurons and one output layer including single neuron. The trained network gave the minimum value in the MSE of 0.03 and the maximum value in the R(2) of 0.9571, which implied a good agreement between the predicted value and the actual value, and confirmed a good generalization of the network. Based on the combination of neural network and genetic algorithms, the optimum extraction conditions for the highest yield of green tea polyphenols were determined as follows: 498.8 MPa for pressure, 20.8 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio and 53.6% for ethanol concentration. The total phenolic content of the actual measurement under the optimum predicated extraction conditions was 582.4 ± 0.63 mg/g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value (597.2mg/g DW). This suggests that the artificial neural network model described in this work is an efficient quantitative tool to predict the extraction efficiency of green tea polyphenols. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The polyphenolic content of common lamiaceae species available as herbal tea products in Romanian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Răileanu, Elena; Trifan, Adriana; Cioanca, Oana

    2013-01-01

    The plants belonging to Lamiaceae family are widely used in medicine, cosmetic and food industry. Besides volatile oils, the main constituents of these plants are polyphenols. These compounds are secondary metabolites with multiple biological activities useful in the prevention and treatment of many disorders. To determine the flavonoids. hydroxycinnamic acids and total polyphenols content in several aromatic Lamiaceae plants available in Romanian pharmacies as herbal tea products: Melissa officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia pratensis. The quantitative determination of different types of polyphenols was performed in ethanolic extracts 70% and 50%, respectively, of each sample, using spectrophotometric methods. The total polyphenols levels in the investigated products ranged between 3.10% and 6.51% (expressed as g GAE/100 g dry weight), the largest amount being identified in Melissa officinalis (6.51%). The samples of Salvia pratensis and Mentha piperita were the richest in flavonoid derivatives expressed as g rutin/100 g dry weight (1.83% and 1.53%, respectively), the optimal extraction being with 70% ethanol. The highest content in hydroxycinnamic acids expressed as g rosmarinic acid/100 g dry weight was found in Melissa officinalis sample (4.15%). There is a wide variability of polyphenolic content not only by species, but also depending on the polyphenols type or solvent used for extraction. The best extraction rate of total polyphenols in the investigated Lamiaceae species was obtained with 50% ethanol.

  12. New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Suk; Quon, Michael J; Kim, Jeong-A

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenol flavonoids including catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and potent green tea catechin. EGCG has been extensively studied for its beneficial health effects as a nutriceutical agent. Based upon its chemical structure, EGCG is often classified as an antioxidant. However, treatment of cells with EGCG results in production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the presence of Fe (III). Thus, EGCG functions as a pro-oxidant in some cellular contexts. Recent investigations have revealed many other direct actions of EGCG that are independent from anti-oxidative mechanisms. In this review, we discuss these novel molecular mechanisms of action for EGCG. In particular, EGCG directly interacts with proteins and phospholipids in the plasma membrane and regulates signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, DNA methylation, mitochondrial function, and autophagy to exert many of its beneficial biological actions.

  13. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of EGCG on lung cancer cells, including H1155 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and apoptosis were evident following EGCG treatment. Keywords: Green tea, Lung cancer, Catechins, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Oxidative stress, Oxidative DNA damage ...

  14. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  15. Effects of tea polyphenol components on reversion of tumor multidrug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Tiecheng; Wang Yi; Liu Xinqi; Chu Taiwei; Wei Xionghui; Wang Xiangyun; Guo Zhenquan; Wei Bing

    2003-01-01

    The effects of tea polyphenol (TP) and its main components, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with caffeine on reversion of tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) are investigated by using MCF-7/Adr cell line and 99 Tc m -MIBI as a substrate of P-glucoprotein (P-gp). MCF-7/Adr cells are incubated with 99 Tc m -MIBI in the presence or absence of TP or its main components (separate or mixed). The cell uptake of 99 Tc m -MIBI is measured and compared with a contrast to estimate the MDR reversion effect. The experimental results indicate that the native tea polyphenol exhibits a moderate MDR reversion effect. The MDR reversion efficacies of the four main components of TP are found in the sequence ECG>EGC>EC>EGCG. Caffeine as well as the mixture of EGCG-ECG-EGC-EC in the mass ratio 10:3:2:1 shows practically no MDR reversion effect

  16. Degradation of bromothymol blue by 'greener' nano-scale zero-valent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A green single-step synthesis of iron nanoparticles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described that uses no added surfactants/polymers as a capping or reducing agents. The expeditious reaction between polyphenols and ferric nitrate occurs within few minutes at room te...

  17. Application of microencapsulation for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food systems: Review and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massounga Bora, Awa Fanny; Ma, Shaojie; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Green tea has been associated with the prevention and reduction of a wide range of severe health conditions such as cancer, immune, and cardiovascular diseases. The health benefits associated with green tea consumption have been predominantly attributed to green tea polyphenols. The functional properties of green tea polyphenols are mainly anti-oxidative, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-microbial, etc. These excellent properties have recently gained considerable attention in the food industry. However, their application is limited by their sensitivity to factors like temperature, light, pH, oxygen, etc. More, studies have reported the occurrence of unpleasant taste and color transfer during food processing. Lastly, the production of functional food requires to maintain the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active compounds. To tackle these obstacles, technological approaches like microencapsulation have been developed and applied for the formulation of green tea-enriched food products. The present review discusses the novelty in microencapsulation techniques for the safe delivery of green tea polyphenols in food matrices. After a literature on the green tea polyphenols composition, and their health attributes, the encapsulation methods and the coating materials are presented. The application of green tea encapsulates in food matrices as well as their effect on food functional and sensory properties are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  19. Determination of one-electron reduction potentials of tea polyphenol components using pulse radiolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yue; Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun

    1998-01-01

    One-electron reduction potential (E1/7) is one of the important parameters of electrophilic radioprotectors. In this work, one-electron reduction potential of tea polyphenol components including EGCG, ECG, EGC and EC in aqueous solution at pH7 were determined to be -321 mV, -326 mV, -331 mV and -330 mV, respectively, using pulse radiolysis techniques. 2,6-dimethyl benzoquinone (DQ) was used as a reference compound

  20. ESR detection of free radicals in polyphenolic extracts from wine grapes, olives and green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F.; Hunter, C.R.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Polyphenols are widespread in vegetables and fruits and they play an important role in human diet and health: these compounds act mainly as antioxidants and radical scavengers. In this work we have detected free radicals in the following natural polyphenols: Endotelon, an anthocyanic grapeskin extract; malvidin 3,5-O-diglucosides (malvin); oleuropein, an olive polyphenol; a commercial green tea extract, and pure epigallocatechingallate EGCG. The investigation was performed using a Varian E-12 ESR Spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All except the green tea extract gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10 gauss linewidth. The tea extract signal showed 3 lines, one ∼ 20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼ 2-3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N 2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals About 50% of the extract is represented by epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). Using the pure sample EGCG it was possible to assign the appropriate radical, which corresponded with the broadest and strongest 'single' signal (∼20g wide). The presence of the free radicals in the solid extracts shows that the appropriate molecules can act as radical scavengers by forming stable radicals

  1. Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG Is the Most Effective Cancer Chemopreventive Polyphenol in Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a popular drink consumed daily by millions of people around the world. Previous studies have shown that some polyphenol compounds from green tea possess anticancer activities. However, systemic evaluation was limited. In this study, we determined the cancer chemopreventive potentials of 10 representative polyphenols (caffeic acid, CA; gallic acid, GA; catechin, C; epicatechin, EC; gallocatechin, GC; catechin gallate, CG; gallocatechin gallate, GCG; epicatechin gallate, ECG; epigallocatechin, EGC; and epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG, and explored their structure-activity relationship. The effect of the 10 polyphenol compounds on the proliferation of HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells was evaluated using an MTS assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide (PI/RNase or annexin V/PI. Among the 10 polyphenols, EGCG showed the most potent antiproliferative effects, and significantly induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and cell apoptosis. When the relationship between chemical structure and anticancer activity was examined, C and EC did not show antiproliferative effects, and GA showed some antiproliferative effects. When C and EC esterified with GA to produce CG and ECG, the antiproliferative effects were increased significantly. A similar relationship was found between EGC and EGCG. The gallic acid group significantly enhanced catechin’s anticancer potential. This property could be utilized in future semi-synthesis of flavonoid derivatives to develop novel anticancer agents.

  2. Study the influence factors to the adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Lan Huong; Tran, Trung Kien; Van Quyet, Chu; Phi, Nguyen Thien

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work is applying adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from extract solution of green tea by-product. The older leaves and stem of green tea tree are collected from Hiep Khanh Tea Company (Hoabinh province, Vietnam). In this study, two kinds of adsorbent (silicagel, active carbon) were applied for the adsorption process in batch stirring vessel. The factors that affected to the process productivity were investigated: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, duration time, stirring speed. The process has been empirically described with statistical models obtained by Design of Experiments. The results indicated that active carbon was verified to offer good adsorption productivity (more than 95%), much more effective than silicagel (with only about 20%). From the model, the most affected factor to the process could be seen as solid/liquid ratio.

  3. Fermentation characteristics of some assamica clones and process optimization of black tea manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Ananta Madhab; Mahanta, Pradip Kumar

    2003-10-22

    Changes in the specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and protease and in the relative amounts of flavan-3-ols for eight genetically derived cultivated teas at various stages of leaf maturity and in four succescive seasons were examined. A series of investigations were carried out to study the cross-reactivity of complex polyphenols and PPO-generated orange-yellow theaflavins, as well as of POD oxidized substrates, producing brown so-called thearubigins during fermented tea processing. From the estimation of five major catechins, PPO activities in young shoots, and theaflavin and thearubigin contents of crushed, torn, and curled (CTC) black teas, the superior variety and flavorful flush characteristics were refined. Notable protein hydrolysis by endogenous protease as measured from free amino acids and formation of tannin-protein complex (browning products) was obtained for cultivar character and product quality. Results showed that process optimization with respect to time, temperature, moisture, and pH maximizes PPO-catalyzed desirable theaflavin pigments, whereas POD-mediated chemical reaction produces dull color.

  4. Simultaneous determination of caffeine and some selected polyphenols in Wuyi Rock tea by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Lin, He-Tong; Zhang, Shen; Lin, Yi-Fen; Yang, Jiang-Fan; Ye, Nai-Xing

    2014-04-02

    The primary taste and healthy benefits of tea are mainly attributed to tea polyphenols and caffeine. Due to very many kinds of flavonoid glycosides in tea and the lack of commercial standards of flavonoid glycosides, it is critical to develop a rapid and cheap method for determining flavonoid glycosides of tea. Contents of myricetin glycosides and quercetin glycosides in Wuyi Rock tea were determined by detecting contents of corresponding myricetin and quercetin. Optimizing hydrolysis conditions for hydrolyzing flavonoid glycosides to their corresponding flavonols including quercetin and myricetin in Wuyi Rock tea was a key technology for detecting contents of corresponding myricetin and quercetin. The results showed that hydrolysis at 2 mol/L HCl solution and at 90 °C for 1 h was an optimizing condition for hydrolyzing flavonoid glycosides to myricetin and quercetin in Wuyi Rock tea. Caffeine and seven kinds of polyphenols (GA, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and CGA) in 20 samples of Wuyi Rock tea were simultaneously determined using a simple and fast reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography procedure coupled with photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-PDAD). The results indicated that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences of ECG, CGA, ECG, and myricetin glycosides in 'Wuyi Rougui' and 'Wuyi Shuixian', which were credited with causing the difference in taste between these two cultivar of Wuyi Rock tea. The study may be useful for clarifying the cause of "cultivated varieties flavor" of Wuyi Rock tea.

  5. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Li, Hui; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Yuan; Wu, Tao; Ma, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have assessed the association between green and black tea consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and have yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically analyze the effect of green tea and black tea on EC risk. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Biological Medicine Database were searched through February 2, 2015 to identify studies that met pre-stated inclusion criteria. Overall relative risk (RR) was estimated based on the highest and lowest levels of green/black tea consumption. Dose-response relationships were evaluated with the data from categories of green/black tea intake in each study. For green tea, the summary RR indicated that the highest green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of EC (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.92). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of one cup per day was associated with an 11 % decreased risk of developing EC. (RR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.84-0.94). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed in the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.79-1.23; increment of one cup/day, RR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.94-1.03). The power of the estimate of green tea and black tea with risk of EC was 84.33 and 5.07 %, respectively. The quality of evidence for the association between green and black tea with EC risk was moderate and very low, respectively. The results from this meta-analysis indicate that green tea, but not black tea, may be related to a reduction of EC risk. Large population-based randomized controlled trials and large prospective cohort studies are required to obtain a definitive conclusion and determine the mechanisms underlying this association.

  6. Soybean and green tea polyphenols improve immune function and redox status in very old ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Isabel; De Castro, Nuria M; Arranz, Lorena; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2010-12-01

    In previous work we have observed that ovariectomy in rodents, a good model of mimicking human ovarian hormone loss, causes premature aging of the immune system. The prooxidative and inflammatory state that underlies the aging process is the base of that premature immunosenescence. It has been found that nutritional interventions with polyphenolic antioxidants constitute a good alternative to rejuvenate age-affected immune functions. In this study, we administered a diet supplemented with polyphenols (coming from soybean isoflavones and green tea) to sham-operated and ovariectomized mature mice for 15 weeks, until they reached a very old age. We have studied the effect of this supplementation on a broad range of parameters of immune function (in macrophages and lymphocytes) and oxidative stress (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defences, oxidant compounds, and lipid peroxidation damage) in peritoneal leukocytes. The results showed that ovariectomy accelerates the age-related impairment of immune functions in very old mice as well as the oxidative and proinflammatory imbalance, and that the administration of soybean isoflavones and green tea improve the immune and redox state in these animals. Because the immune system is a good marker of health and a predictor of longevity, we suggest that an adequate nutritional treatment with polyphenols could be a highly recommended tool to fight against the detrimental effects of the lack of female sex hormones, through an improvement of the immune cell functions and redox state.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a 60 Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ana.paula.silveira@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  9. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N

    2017-12-06

    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  10. Colonic metabolism of polyphenols from coffee, green tea, and hazelnut skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calani, Luca; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Derlindati, Eleonora; Scazzina, Francesca; Bruni, Renato; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    Dietary polyphenolic compounds are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. The absorbed fraction follows the common metabolic pathway of drugs, undergoing phase II enzymatic detoxification with the conjugation of glucuronic acid, sulfate, and methyl groups. However, the unabsorbed fraction can reach the colon, becoming available for the wide array of enzymes produced by the local commensal microbiota. Gut bacteria can hydrolyze glycosides, glucuronides, sulfates, amides, esters, and lactones and are able to break down the polyphenolic skeleton and perform reactions of reduction, decarboxylation, demethylation, and dehydroxylation. These complex modifications generate several low-molecular-weight metabolites that can be efficiently absorbed in situ, subsequently undergoing further phase II metabolism, locally and/or at the liver level, before entering the systemic blood circulation and finally being excreted in urine in substantial quantities that exceed the excretion of phenolic metabolites formed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This brief work focuses on the phenolic composition and colonic microbial transformation of 2 of the most polyphenol-rich dietary sources, namely, green tea and coffee, and a new interesting and innovative ingredient, hazelnut skin, recently evaluated as one of the richest edible sources of polyphenolic compounds.

  11. Study of nutritional value of dried tea leaves and infusions of black, green and white teas from Chinese plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Maria; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Bajcar, Marcin; Saletnik, Bogdan; Puchalski, Czesław

    The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea. The purpose of the study was assessment of the nutritional value of black, green and white high-quality tea leaf from Chinese plantations based on the chemical composition of the dried leaves as well as minerals and caffeine content in tea infusions. The research material included 18 high-quality loose-leaf teas produced at Chinese plantations, imported to Poland, and purchased in an online store. The analyses included examination of the dried tea leaves for their chemical composition (contents of water, protein, volatile substances and ash) and assessment of selected minerals and caffeine contents in the tea infusions. High-quality Chinese green teas were found with the most valuable composition of minerals, i.e. the highest contents of Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Ca and Al and the highest contents of protein in comparison to the other products. Chinese black teas had the highest contents of total ash and caffeine and white teas were characterized with high content of volatile substances, similar to the black teas, and the highest content of water and the lowest content of total ash. The three types of tea brews examined in the present study, in particular green tea beverages, significantly enhance the organism’s mineral balance by providing valuable elements

  12. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  13. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  14. In vitro Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Tea Polyphenols and Tea Saponin against Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Feng, Kejue; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities and mechanism of action of tea polyphenols (TP), tea saponin (TS) and their combination were evaluated against Rhizopus stolonifer. The results showed that both TP and TS inhibited the mycelial growth in a dose-dependent manner, and their combination at the ratio of 7:3 exhibited synergistic antifungal interaction. We also observed that the treatment of TP or TS significantly induced the production of H2O2 and resulted in membrane lipid peroxidation, thus leading to an increase in cell membrane permeability and the leakage of K(+), soluble protein and soluble sugar. Moreover, combining them for treatment increased the induction of H2O2 production and oxidative damage. Scanning electron microscopic observations also showed the damage to the hyphal cell structure. It was concluded that TP, TS and their combination inhibit the growth of R. stolonifer through the induction of H2O2 production, leading to cell membrane oxidative damage and intracellular constituent leakage. These findings suggest that TP and TS can potentially be used as an alternative to control postharvest fruit diseases caused by R. stolonifer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of fruit and flavoured black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękal, Anna; Dróżdż, Paulina; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2011-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of the water extracts of the commercial bagged fruit and flavoured black teas were evaluated and compared with typical black teas of C. sinensis. Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and DPPH radical method were used for these purposes. The content of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids was also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Flavoured black teas contain significantly higher level of catechins, quercetin, and rutin, while the content of chlorogenic and caffeic acids as well as naringin and hesperidin was higher in fruit teas. Supplementation with these flavonoids could reduce blood glucose. In FC and DPPH assays, the antioxidant properties of studied tea infusion increases in the order: fruit tea premium black tea, while in CUPRAC method, some aromatized teas exhibit the highest antioxidant properties. Tea infusions with nice smell of fruits would also support the human diet with some source of antioxidants.

  16. Effects of caffeine, tea polyphenol and daidzein on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tao; Wu, Ji; Gao, Ping; Xiang, Daochun; Liu, Dong; Song, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine, tea polyphenol and daidzein on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites. Rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30 mg·kg-1, once per day), tea polyphenol (400 mg·kg-1, once per day) or daidzein (13.5 mg·kg-1, once per day) for 14 days, followed by an intragastric administration of lansoprazole (8 mg·kg-1) on the 15th day. The plasma concentrations of lansoprazole and its two primary metabolites,...

  17. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianhua; Han, Jie; Xiao, Hao; Qiao, Jinping; Han, Mei

    2016-12-14

    Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  18. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  19. Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared according to the Turkish tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Kilic, Mehmet Akif; Roubal, Tomas; Grosse, Yann; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g -1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g -1 up to 56.7 ng g -1 . An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g -1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%. These data are important for the realisation of a 'Total Diet study' (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared 'as consumed' (tea infusions) and not 'as purchased' (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antimicrobial Traits of Tea- and Cranberry-Derived Polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S.; Murata, R.M.; Duarte, S.

    2011-01-01

    There are over 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the human oral cavity, but only a small fraction of those are attributed to causing plaque-related diseases such as caries. Streptococcus mutans is accepted as the main cariogenic agent and there is substantial knowledge regarding the specific virulence factors that render the organism a pathogen. There has been rising interest in alternative, target-specific treatment options as opposed to nonspecific mechanical plaque removal or application of broad-spectrum antibacterials that are currently in use. The impact of diet on oral health is undeniable, and this is directly observable in populations that consume high quantities of polyphenol-rich foods or beverages. Such populations have low caries incidence and better overall oral health. Camellia sinensis, the plant from which various forms of tea are derived, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry fruit) have received notable attention both for their prevalence in the human diet as well as for their unique composition of polyphenols. The biologically active constituents of these plants have demonstrated potent enzyme-inhibitory properties without being bactericidal, a key quality that is important in developing therapies that will not cause microorganisms to develop resistance. The aim of this review is to consider studies that have investigated the feasibility of tea, cranberry, and other select plant derivatives as a potential basis for alternative therapeutic agents against Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate their current and future clinical relevance. PMID:21720161

  1. ``Green'' functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles via tea polyphenol for magnetic resonance/fluorescent dual-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lai, Kuilin; Liu, Kexia; Xia, Rui; Gao, Fabao; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    Tea polyphenol serves as an environmentally friendly ligand-exchange molecule to synthesize multifunctional metal-doped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via a catechol-metal coordination interaction. The resultant particles not only exhibit excellent hydrophilicity and protein adsorption resistance, but also are applicable as magnetic resonance/fluorescent dual-imaging probes due to their high T2 relaxivity, autofluorescence and large cellular uptake.Tea polyphenol serves as an environmentally friendly ligand-exchange molecule to synthesize multifunctional metal-doped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via a catechol-metal coordination interaction. The resultant particles not only exhibit excellent hydrophilicity and protein adsorption resistance, but also are applicable as magnetic resonance/fluorescent dual-imaging probes due to their high T2 relaxivity, autofluorescence and large cellular uptake. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information and figures (Fig. S1-S7), including experimental sections, characterization of the products, protein corona analysis, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake quantification. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05003c

  2. Prolonged feeding with green tea polyphenols exacerbates cholesterol-induced fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Nina; Konstantinov, Anya; Anavi, Sarit; Aronis, Anna; Hagay, Zion; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the potential deleterious impact of dietary supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) on the progression of fatty liver disease, in a mouse model of cholesterol-induced steatohepatitis that represents chronic liver injury. Male C57BL mice (n = 32, 8-wk-old) were fed for 6 wk with one of the following diets: normal control diet (ND, Con), Con + 1% w/w polyphenols from GTE (Con + GTE); high cholesterol diet, Con + 1% cholesterol + 0.5% cholate w/w (HCD); HCD + 1% green tea polyphenols w/w (HCD + GTE). Hepatic steatosis, oxidative, and inflammatory markers and bile acid synthesis pathways were measured. HCD supplementation resulted in hepatic steatosis and liver damage. In animals supplemented with the HCD + GTE an exacerbated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response were observed compared to HCD supplemented animals. HCD + GTE supplementation elevated blood levels of liver enzymes and serum bile acids compared HCD-treated animals. HCD + GTE supplementation altered bile acid synthesis in the cholesterol clearance pathway, inducing a shift from the classically regulated CYP7A1 pathway to the alternative acidic pathway. Prolonged GTE supplementation dramatically increased hepatic oxidative stress, inflammation and liver injury, and altered the bile acid synthesis pathway in mice fed a HCD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  4. Protective actions of green tea polyphenols and alfacalcidol on bone microstructure in female rats with chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) and alfacalcidol on bone microstructure and strength along with possible mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. A 12-week study using a 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5%, w/v GTP in drinking water) × 2 (no alfacalcidol vs. 0.05 ug/kg alfacal...

  5. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  6. Synergistic effects of green tea polyphenols and alphacalcidol on chronic inflammation-induced bone loss in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary: Studies suggest that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol is promising agent for preventing bone loss. Findings that GTP supplementation in the drinking water plus alphacalcidol administration resulted in increased bone mass via a decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation sugges...

  7. Assessing self-reported green tea and coffee consumption by food frequency questionnaire and food record and their association with polyphenol biomarkers in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Harrison, Amy; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2018-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated protective effects of green tea and coffee intake against several chronic diseases, finding between studies have not been consistent. One potential reason of this discrepancy is the imprecision in the measurement of tea or coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food record (FR) in epidemiological studies. In a sample of 57 healthy Japanese women, intake of green tea and coffee was estimated by a validated FFQ and a 3-day FR, while their plasma and urine concentrations of polyphenol biomarkers were measured by HPLC. The polyphenols assessed included (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)- epicatechin (EC), caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA). Green tea consumption estimated by FFQ and FR showed moderate association, while strong association was detected for coffee consumption. Urinary green tea polyphenol concentrations were moderately-strongly associated with FR-estimated intake, while the associations were weak with FFQ. Similarly, coffee polyphenols in urine were moderately associated with FR-estimated coffee intake, whereas FFQ showed poor correlation. The associations between urinary and plasma polyphenols ranged from moderate to high. The results indicated that firstly, the FFQ tends to overestimate green tea intake. Secondly, the urinary polyphenols are preferred over plasma polyphenols as a potential surrogate marker of the short-term green tea and coffee intake, while their use as an indicator of long-term consumption is not reliable.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G Walch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea. The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analysed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardisation, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterise the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone with potentially adverse effects.

  10. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  11. Effects of caffeine, tea polyphenol and daidzein on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine, tea polyphenol and daidzein on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites. Rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30 mg·kg-1, once per day, tea polyphenol (400 mg·kg-1, once per day or daidzein (13.5 mg·kg-1, once per day for 14 days, followed by an intragastric administration of lansoprazole (8 mg·kg-1 on the 15th day. The plasma concentrations of lansoprazole and its two primary metabolites, 5-hydroxylansoprazole and lansoprazole sulfone, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. Tea polyphenol significantly elevated the Area Under the Curve (AUC of lansoprazole from 680.29 ± 285.99 to 949.76 ± 155.18 μg/L.h and reduced that of lansoprazole sulfone from 268.82 ± 82.37 to 177.72 ± 29.73 μg/L.h. Daidzein increased the AUC of lansoprazole from 680.29 ± 285.99 to 1130.44 ± 97.6 μg/L.h and decreased that of lansoprazole sulfone from 268.82 ± 82.37 to 116.23 ± 40.14 μg/L.h. The pharmacokinetics of 5-hydroxylansoprazole remained intact in the presence of tea polyphenol or daidzein. Caffeine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites. The results imply that tea polyphenol and daidzein may inhibit the in vivo metabolism of lansoprazole by suppressing CYP3A.

  12. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  13. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1{beta} secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Lixia Z.; Liu, Weimin; Luo, Yuchun; Okamoto, Miyako; Qu, Dovina; Dunn, Jeffrey H. [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Fujita, Mayumi, E-mail: mayumi.fujita@ucdenver.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth via inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} suppression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-melanoma effect of EGCG has been previously suggested, but no clear mechanism of action has been established. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). In the search for mechanisms of EGCG-mediated melanoma cell suppression, we found that NF-{kappa}B was inhibited, and that reduced NF-{kappa}B activity was associated with decreased IL-1{beta} secretion from melanoma cells. Since inflammasomes are involved in IL-1{beta} secretion, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} suppression was mediated by inflammasomes, and found that EGCG treatment led to downregulation of the inflammasome component, NLRP1, and reduced caspase-1 activation. Furthermore, silencing the expression of NLRP1 abolished EGCG-induced inhibition of tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role of inflammasomes in EGCG efficacy. This paper provides a novel mechanism for EGCG-induced melanoma inhibition: inflammasome downregulation {yields} decreased IL-1{beta} secretion {yields} decreased NF-{kappa}B activities {yields} decreased cell growth. In addition, it suggests inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics.

  14. Green tea polyphenols stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and improve renal function after chronic cyclosporin a treatment in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibur Rehman

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that an extract from Camellia sinenesis (green tea, which contains several polyphenols, attenuates nephrotoxicity caused by cyclosporine A (CsA. Since polyphenols are stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB, this study investigated whether stimulation of MB plays a role in green tea polyphenol protection against CsA renal toxicity. Rats were fed a powdered diet containing green tea polyphenolic extract (0.1% starting 3 days prior to CsA treatment (25 mg/kg, i.g. daily for 3 weeks. CsA alone decreased renal nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS protein ATP synthase-β (AS-β by 42%, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS protein NADH dehydrogenase-3 (ND3 by 87% and their associated mRNAs. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was also decreased by 78% by CsA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV, an OXPHOS protein, in tubular cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC-1α, the master regulator of MB, and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (Tfam, the transcription factor that regulates mtDNA replication and transcription, were 42% and 90% lower, respectively, in the kidneys of CsA-treated than in untreated rats. These results indicate suppression of MB by chronic CsA treatment. Green tea polyphenols alone and following CsA increased AS-β, ND3, COX-IV, mtDNA copy number, PGC-1α mRNA and protein, decreased acetylated PGC-1α, and increased Tfam mRNA and protein. In association with suppressed MB, CsA increased serum creatinine, caused loss of brush border and dilatation of proximal tubules, tubular atrophy, vacuolization, apoptosis, calcification, and increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, leukocyte infiltration, and renal fibrosis. Green tea polyphenols markedly attenuated CsA-induced renal injury and improved renal function. Together, these results demonstrate that green tea polyphenols attenuate Cs

  15. Tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate inhibits Escherichia coli by increasing endogenous oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Gui; Chen, Yi-Jun; Tong, Jie-Wen; Huang, Jian-An; Li, Juan; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-15

    The antibacterial effects of tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a common phytochemical with a number of potential health benefits, are well known. However, the mechanism of its bactericidal action remains unclear. Using E. coli as a model organism, it is argued here that H2O2 synthesis by EGCG is not attributed to its inhibitory effects. In contrast, the bactericidal action of EGCG was a result of increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and blunted adaptive oxidative stress response in E. coli due to the co-administration of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, and not on account of exogenous catalase. Furthermore, we noted a synergistic bactericidal effect for EGCG when combined with paraquat. However, under anaerobic conditions, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was prevented. In conclusion, EGCG caused an increase in endogenous oxidative stress in E. coli, thereby inhibiting its growth, and hence the use of EGCG as a prooxidant is supported by this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Porous Core-Shell Fibers for Slow Release of Tea Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaru Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the fabrication, characterization, and release properties of electrospun tea polyphenol (TPP loaded porous core-shell structured fibers. The morphology, structure and properties of the electrospun TPP loaded porous core-shell fibers were investigated by a combination of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle (CA measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, etc. In addition, the cumulative drug release rate of TPP loaded porous core-shell fibers was determined by ultraviolet (UV spectrophotometer, and the release mechanism was investigated using Fickian diffusion equation, which would provide the theoretical basis for future study. The results showed TPP loaded porous core-shell structured fibers were successfully prepared by coaxial electrospinning, and the porous structure of the core-shell fibers could further enlarge the specific surface area, enhance the hydrophobic properties, and improve the drug release properties.

  17. Synthesis of PLGA nanoparticles of tea polyphenols and their strong in vivo protective effect against chemically induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava AK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amit Kumar Srivastava,1 Priyanka Bhatnagar,2 Madhulika Singh,1 Sanjay Mishra,1 Pradeep Kumar,2 Yogeshwer Shukla,1 Kailash Chand Gupta1,2 1Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR, Lucknow, India; 2Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR, Delhi University Campus, India Abstract: In spite of proficient results of several phytochemicals in preclinical settings, the conversion rate from bench to bedside is not very encouraging. Many reasons are attributed to this limited success, including inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. To achieve improved efficacy, polyphenolic constituents of black (theaflavin [TF] and green (epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] tea in poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs were entrapped with entrapment efficacy of ~18% and 26%, respectively. Further, their preventive potential against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse skin using DNA alkaline unwinding assay was evaluated. Pretreatment (topically of mouse skin with either TF or EGCG (100 µg/mouse doses exhibits protection of 45.34% and 28.32%, respectively, against DMBA-induced DNA damage. However, pretreatment with TF-loaded PLGA-NPs protects against DNA damage 64.41% by 1/20th dose of bulk, 71.79% by 1/10th dose of bulk, and 72.46% by 1/5th dose of bulk. Similarly, 51.28% (1/20th of bulk, 57.63% (1/10th of bulk, and 63.14% (1/5th of bulk prevention was noted using EGCG-loaded PLGA-NP doses. These results showed that tea polyphenol-loaded PLGA-NPs have ~30-fold dose-advantage than bulk TF or EGCG doses. Additionally, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed significant potential for induction of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, and ERCC3 and suppression of DNA damage responsive genes (p53, p21, MDM2, GADD45α, and COX-2 as compared with respective bulk TF or EGCG doses. Taken together, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed a superior

  18. Improvement of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images after black tea consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanaati, Hossein; Rokni-Yazdi, Hadi; Firouznia, Kavous; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Abahashemi, Firouze; Shakiba, Madjid

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of black tea as the negative oral contrast agent in MRCP. MRCP was performed before and 5 and 15 min after tea consumption for 35 patients. Depiction of the gall bladder (GB), cystic duct (CD), proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD), intrahepatic ducts (IHD), ampulla of vater (AV), main pancreatic duct (MPD) and signal loss of stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Likert scores. Twenty-one of the patients (60%) were female (mean age, 50.3 ± 19.2 years). Regarding visibility of different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree, the post procedure images were better visualized in the distal part of CBD, AV and MPD in Likert and VAS scoring (all P≤0.001). Regarding obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post procedure images showed significant disappearance of high signal in Likert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps≤0.001). Black tea is a simple and safe negative oral contrast agent which reduces the signal intensity of gastrointestinal tract fluid and provides improved depiction of the MPD, the distal CBD and the ampulla during MRCP. (orig.)

  19. Green tea polyphenol tailors cell adhesivity of RGD displaying surfaces: multicomponent models monitored optically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Farkas, Eniko; Forgacs, Eniko; Saftics, Andras; Kovacs, Boglarka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Szekacs, Inna; Csampai, Antal; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of the anti-adhesive coating, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) and its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) functionalized form, PLL-g-PEG-RGD, with the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) was in situ monitored. After, the kinetics of cellular adhesion on the EGCg exposed coatings were recorded in real-time. The employed plate-based waveguide biosensor is applicable to monitor small molecule binding and sensitive to sub-nanometer scale changes in cell membrane position and cell mass distribution; while detecting the signals of thousands of adhering cells. The combination of this remarkable sensitivity and throughput opens up new avenues in testing complicated models of cell-surface interactions. The systematic studies revealed that, despite the reported excellent antifouling properties of the coatings, EGCg strongly interacted with them, and affected their cell adhesivity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the differences between the effects of the fresh and oxidized EGCg solutions were first demonstrated. Using a semiempirical quantumchemical method we showed that EGCg binds to the PEG chains of PLL-g-PEG-RGD and effectively blocks the RGD sites by hydrogen bonds. The calculations supported the experimental finding that the binding is stronger for the oxidative products. Our work lead to a new model of polyphenol action on cell adhesion ligand accessibility and matrix rigidity.

  20. Green tea polyphenols rescue of brain defects induced by overexpression of DYRK1A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Guedj

    Full Text Available Individuals with partial HSA21 trisomies and mice with partial MMU16 trisomies containing an extra copy of the DYRK1A gene present various alterations in brain morphogenesis. They present also learning impairments modeling those encountered in Down syndrome. Previous MRI and histological analyses of a transgenic mice generated using a human YAC construct that contains five genes including DYRK1A reveal that DYRK1A is involved, during development, in the control of brain volume and cell density of specific brain regions. Gene dosage correction induces a rescue of the brain volume alterations. DYRK1A is also involved in the control of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Increased gene dosage results in brain morphogenesis defects, low BDNF levels and mnemonic deficits in these mice. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG - a member of a natural polyphenols family, found in great amount in green tea leaves - is a specific and safe DYRK1A inhibitor. We maintained control and transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A on two different polyphenol-based diets, from gestation to adulthood. The major features of the transgenic phenotype were rescued in these mice.

  1. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  3. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  4. Work-related symptoms among workers exposed to black tea dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea may be classified as unfermented green, semi-fermented oolong and fermented black. All of these types are derived from Camellia sinensis, the Tea Plant, which contains the low molecular weight (LMW agent Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg, probably responsible for allergic reactions. The aim of our study was to asses the work-related allergic symptoms and IgE-mediated sensitivity among black tea packers. Material and Methods: Study groups comprised 26 black tea packers (group 1 and 20 office workers (group 2. A questionnaire, skin prick tests (SPTs to common allergens and black tea, evaluation of specific IgE (asIgE to Camellia sinensis and moulds, pre- and post-work-shift spirometry were performed. Results: At least 1 symptom suggesting allergic disease was reported by 85% of the tea packers and 60% of the office workers. The most frequent positive results of SPTs were obtained with moulds (8%. A small decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s after the work shift was observed among tea packers sensitized to moulds. Conclusions: Although specific sensitization to black tea was not observed in our study groups, cough and skin symptoms were significantly more frequently among the tea packers than in office workers. The irritant impact on the airways and the skin of tea dust and/or sensitization to moulds contaminating tea leaves are being suspected. Med Pr 2015;66(1:11–15

  5. Study of tea polyphenol as a reversal agent for carcinoma cell lines' multidrug resistance (study of TP as a MDR reversal agent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aizhi; Wang Xiangyun; Guo Zhenquan

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine MDR1 expression product P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and study the effect and mechanism of tea polyphenol (TP) in reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR) in carcinoma cell lines. Immunocytochemical method was used for qualitative detection of Pgp. A comparative study of cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversion effect was made by MTT assay for tea polyphenol and quinidine in MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr cell lines. The multidrug resistance reversion effect and mechanism were studied by measuring the uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in the carcinoma cell lines. (1) The Pgp overexpression in MCF-7/Adr cells was found to be strong positive, while the Pgp expression of MCF-7 was negative. (2) Although both tea polyphenol and quinidine could not remarkably change the toxicity of adriamycin to MCF-7, they could improve the sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr to adriamycin. The reversion index of tea polyphenol and quinidine was 3 and 10 respectively. (3) The cellular uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin was remarkably lower in MCF-7/Adr than in MCF-7. The uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited a 4, 13, 16 fold increase in the presence of 200, 400 and 500 μg/ml of tea polyphenol respectively. The uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited only a 4-fold increase in the presence of 200 μM of quinidine. Immunocytochemistry can detect P-glycoprotein expression level qualitatively. Tea polyphenol is not only an anti-tumor agent, but also a multidrug resistant modulator similar to quinidine. The multidrug resistance reversion mechanism of tea polyphenol seems to be its inhibition of the activity of P-glycoprotein. Tea polyphenol has the advantage of very low toxicity in tumor treatment

  6. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: Designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyu Ming-Chien

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. Evidence suggests the importance of oxidative stress in bone metabolism and bone loss. Tea consumption may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its antioxidant capability. However, lack of objective data characterizing tea consumption has hindered the precise evaluation of the association between tea ingestion and bone mineral density in previous questionnaire-based epidemiological studies. On the other hand, although published studies suggest that Tai Chi (TC exercise can benefit bone health and may reduce oxidative stress, all studies were conducted using a relatively healthy older population, instead of a high-risk one such as osteopenic postmenopausal women. Therefore, this study was designed to test an intervention including green tea polyphenol (GTP and TC exercise for feasibility, and to quantitatively assess their individual and interactive effects on postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Methods/Design One hundred and forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia (defined as bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip between 1 to 2.5 SD below the reference database were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms: (1 placebo group receiving 500 mg medicinal starch daily, (2 GTP group receiving 500 mg of GTP per day, (3 placebo+TC group receiving both placebo treatment and TC training (60-minute group exercise, 3 times per week, and (4 GTP+TC group receiving both GTP and TC training for 24 weeks. The outcome measures were bone formation biomarker (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, bone resorption biomarker (serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, and oxidative DNA damage biomarker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. All outcome measures were determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Urinary and serum GTP concentrations were also determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks for bioavailability. Liver function was monitored monthly for safety. A

  7. Effect of delta-tocotrienols and green tea polyphenols on high-fat-diet-induced bone deterioration in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous studies demonstrated an osteo-protective roles for tocotrienols (TT, extracted from annatto consisting of 90% delta-TT and 10% gamma TT) and green tea polyphenols (GTP, extracted from green tea) in obese animals. This study further examined the combined effects of TT with GTP on high-fa...

  8. Microfiltration of high concentration black tea streams for haze removal using polymeric membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Argyle, Iain .S.; Bird, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Black tea used for ready-to-drink beverages suffers from an inherent haze problem affecting the appeal of products in terms of colour and appearance; the effect also diminishes health-giving properties. Microfiltration of black tea streams up to 10.0 wt.% has been carried out in an attempt to remove this haze as a replacement to current alkali solubilisation methods which can damage the product. The three commercial polysulphone membranes tested show superior haze removal in tea when filtered...

  9. Therapeutic attenuation of neuroinflammation and apoptosis by black tea theaflavin in chronic MPTP/probenecid model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan

    2013-02-01

    Neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental and clinical Parkinson's disease (PD). This study focused on the possible anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of theaflavin (TF), a black tea polyphenol against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with 10 doses of MPTP (25 mg/kg, s.c.) and probenecid (250 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3.5 days interval. TF (10 mg/kg) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of MPTP for 35 days of experimental period. MPTP/p treatment upregulates the release of interleukin-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-10, glial fibrillary acidic protein and Bax, and downregulates anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2. Oral treatment of black tea polyphenol TF significantly attenuates MPTP-induced neuroinflammation as well as apoptosis. Behavioral studies (catalepsy and akinesia) were carried out to confirm these molecular studies. The results demonstrate that TF mediated its neuroprotection against chronic MPTP-induced toxicity through the involvement of multiple molecular events. It was concluded that TF may provide a precious therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as PD in future.

  10. Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study used black tea and its impregnates were used as an adsorbents for the removal of textile dyes such as methylene blue and malachite green. The impregnation technique was adopted for the preparation of metal impregnates. The present study shows that used black tea and its impregnate exhibit ...

  11. Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... In the present study used black tea and its impregnates were used as an adsorbents for the removal of textile dyes such as methylene blue and malachite green. The impregnation technique was adopted for the preparation of metal impregnates. The present study shows that used black tea and its ...

  12. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB was used as the sample in this study. Antiglycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 and dose dependant inhibition of BSA-MGO glycation [IC50: (164.30 ± 4.85 µg/mL], potentiating of its reversing activity [EC50: (235.39 ± 5.37 µg/mL] and marked antioxidant properties [total polyphenolic content: (119.55 ± 9.97 mg gallic acid equivalents/g BTB; total flavonoid content: (6.04 ± 1.26 mg quercetin equivalents/g BTB; 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power: (3.29 ± 0.06, (1.95 ± 0.15 and (1.31 ± 0.19 mmol Trolox equivalents/g BTB, respectively]. No correlations were observed between antioxidant activity and BSA-MGO glycation. Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  13. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  14. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Xin; Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao; Tu Youying

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  15. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  16. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  17. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  18. Hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of patulin in mice, and its modulation by green tea polyphenols administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Erqun; Xia, Xiaomin; Su, Chuanyang; Dong, Wenjing; Xian, Yaping; Wang, Wei; Song, Yang

    2014-09-01

    Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Previous studies demonstrated its cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects in different cell lines. However, there is little information available concerning its toxic behavior in vivo. In the present study, we investigated PAT-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in mice. We also investigated the antioxidant and anti-genotoxicity efficiency of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against PAT-induced toxicity. We found that PAT-treatment induced serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities significantly. PAT-induced lipid peroxidation was confirmed with the elevation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Moreover, the increasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing of GSH level implied its oxidative damage mechanism. In bone marrow cell, PAT was found to induce micronucleus and chromosomal aberration formation. In addition, our result suggested that GTP administration has dose-dependent antioxidative and antigenotoxic effect in against PAT-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Enhance Glycogen Synthesis and Inhibit Lipogenesis in Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Y. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by suppressing appetite and nutrient absorption have been well reported. However the direct effects and mechanisms of GTP on glucose and lipid metabolism remain to be elucidated. Since the liver is an important organ involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, we examined the effects and mechanisms of GTP on glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. Concentrations of GTP containing 68% naturally occurring (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG were incubated in HepG2 cells with high glucose (30 mM under 100 nM of insulin stimulation for 24 h. GTP enhanced glycogen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. 10 μM of EGCG significantly increased glycogen synthesis by 2fold (P<0.05 compared with insulin alone. Western blotting revealed that phosphorylation of Ser9 glycogen synthase kinase 3β and Ser641 glycogen synthase was significantly increased in GTP-treated HepG2 cells compared with nontreated cells. 10 μM of EGCG also significantly inhibited lipogenesis (P<0.01. We further demonstrated that this mechanism involves enhanced expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that GTP is capable of enhancing insulin-mediated glucose and lipid metabolism by regulating enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis.

  20. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J. (CH-PA); (UPENN); (Danforth)

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  1. Tea polyphenols induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC is the most common malignancy in the biliary tract. Without effective treatment, its prognosis is notoriously poor. Tea polyphenols (TPs have many pharmacological and health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-thrombotic, antibacterial, and vasodilatory properties. However, the anti-cancer effect of TPs in human gallbladder cancer has not yet been determined. Cell viability and colony formation assay were used to investigate the cell growth. Cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Human tumor xenografts were used to examine the effect of TPs on gallbladder cancer cells in vivo. TPs significantly inhibited cell growth of gallbladder cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle progression in GBC cells was blocked at the S phase by TPs. TPs also induced mitochondrial-related apoptosis in GBC cells by upregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP expressions and downregulating Bcl-2, cyclin A, and Cdk2 expressions. The effects of TPs on GBC were further proven in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Our study is the first to report that TPs inhibit GBC cell growth and these compounds may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for treating gallbladder cancer.

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, stimulates hepatic autophagy and lipid clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major polyphenol in green tea that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-steatotic effects on the liver. Autophagy also mediates similar effects; however, it is not currently known whether EGCG can regulate hepatic autophagy. Here, we show that EGCG increases hepatic autophagy by promoting the formation of autophagosomes, increasing lysosomal acidification, and stimulating autophagic flux in hepatic cells and in vivo. EGCG also increases phosphorylation of AMPK, one of the major regulators of autophagy. Importantly, siRNA knockdown of AMPK abrogated autophagy induced by EGCG. Interestingly, we observed lipid droplet within autophagosomes and autolysosomes and increased lipid clearance by EGCG, suggesting it promotes lipid metabolism by increasing autophagy. In mice fed with high-fat/western style diet (HFW; 60% energy as fat, reduced levels of calcium, vitamin D3, choline, folate, and fiber, EGCG treatment reduces hepatosteatosis and concomitantly increases autophagy. In summary, we have used genetic and pharmacological approaches to demonstrate EGCG induction of hepatic autophagy, and this may contribute to its beneficial effects in reducing hepatosteatosis and potentially some other pathological liver conditions.

  3. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Antoniou, John; Li, Yue; Yi, Jiang; Yokoyama, Wallace; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2015-04-22

    Gelatin films incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles in various free/encapsulated tea polyphenol (TP) ratios were prepared in order to investigate the influence of different ratios on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of films. The TP-containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking chitosan hydrochloride (CSH) with sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBE-β-CD) at three different encapsulation efficiencies (EE; ∼50%, ∼80%, and ∼100%) of TP. The stability of TP-loaded nanoparticles was maintained during the film drying process from the analysis of free TP content in the redissolved film solutions. Composite films showed no significant difference in visual aspects, while the light transmittance (250-550 nm) was decreased with incorporation of TP. Nanoparticles appeared to be homogeneously dispersed within the film matrix by microstructure analysis (SEM and AFM). TP-loaded films had ferric reducing and DPPH radical scavenging power that corresponded to the EEs. Sunflower oil packaged in bags made of gelatin films embedded with nanoparticles of 80% EE showed the best oxidation inhibitory effect, followed by 100% EE, 50% EE, and free TP, over 6 weeks of storage. However, when the gelatin film was placed over the headspace and was not in contact with the oil, the free TP showed the best effect. The results indicate that sustained release of TP in the contacting surface can ensure the protective effects, which vary with free/encapsulated mass ratios, thus improving antioxidant activities instead of increasing the dosage.

  4. Complexation/encapsulation of green tea polyphenols in mixed calcium carbonate and phosphate micro-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbadi, Amal; Jeckelmann, Nicolas; Haefliger, Olivier P; Ouali, Lahoussine

    2011-01-01

    We used a double-jet mixer to encapsulate water-soluble polyphenols, green tea extract (GTE), with calcium-based inorganic materials. The device mixed calcium chloride solutions with a solution of carbonate and phosphate in the presence of a GTE solution, and formed micro-particles which capture the GTE molecules. The micro-particles were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the encapsulation yield and loading of the different GTE components. We established correlations between (1) the efficiency of the GTE encapsulation and the composition of the mixed anion solutions and (2) the protonation degree of the ions and the molar ratio of calcium cations and carbonate/phosphate anions. An optimal and reproducible GTE loading of about 40% with an encapsulation yield of 65% was observed for a carbonate/phosphate molar composition of 4 : 1. In addition, our experimental results showed that the process is selective and favours the encapsulation of gallated species which form stronger complexes with calcium cations.

  5. Mothers' Consumption of Soy Drink But Not Black Tea Increases the Flavonoid Content of Term Breast Milk: A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Frank; Alteheld, Birgit; Meinardus, Pamela; Dahlinger, Norbert; Nomayo, Antonia; Stehle, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We performed a pilot RCT to prove the hypothesis that a controlled ingestion of polyphenol-rich beverages (soy drink, decaffeinated black tea) in nutritive dosages by nursing women has an effect on the composition (flavonoid concentration, total antioxidant capacity) of breast milk. Healthy nursing women were supplemented with either 250 mL of a soy drink (12 mg isoflavones; n = 18), 300 mL decaffeinated black tea (67 mg catechins; n = 18), or 300 mL water (n = 8, control) for 6 days. Milk samples were collected before, during, and after intervention. Flavonoid content (isoflavones/catechins, HPLC) and total antioxidant capacity of milk and test drinks in milk specimens were assessed. Isoflavone content (genistein and daidzein) in breast milk increased up to 12 nmol/L after soy drink consumption; the major flavonoids constituents of black tea (catechin, epicatechin, and respective conjugates) could not be detected in milk samples. With both interventions, the total antioxidant capacity of breast milk was not affected. Mothers' daily consumption of a soy drink considerably increases isoflavone content of breast milk resulting in an estimated daily exposure of 9.6 nmol isoflavones in a 4-month-old suckling infant. Luminal flavanol uptake from black tea consumed by the nursing mother may be too low to affect flavanol concentrations in breast milk. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... to remove pollutants such as colors, dyes and metal impurities (Khan, 2002). Some of the adsorbent ... and color characteristics of tea include polyphenolic bo- dies, caffeine, non-caffeine nitrogenous ..... for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions on the activated carbons prepared from ...

  7. Layer-by-Layer Thin Film of Iron Phthalocyanine as a Simple and Fast Sensor for Polyphenol Determination in Tea Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximino, Mateus Dassie; Martin, Cibely Silva; Paulovich, Fernando Vieira; Alessio, Priscila

    2016-10-01

    Polyphenols have attracted attention due to their antioxidant capacity and beneficial effects to health. Therefore, fast, inexpensive, and efficient methods to discriminate and to quantify polyphenols are of interest for food industry. In this paper, Layer-by-Layer films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and iron tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine were employed as sensor for determination of polyphenols in green tea (camellia sinensis), and green and roasted mate teas (ilex paraguariensis). The polyphenol sensor was tested in catechol standard solution by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), reaching a limit of detection of 1.76 × 10 -7 mol/L. The determination of polyphenols in the tea samples was obtained by analytical curve and catechol standard addition using electrochemical techniques. Projection techniques (information visualization) were applied to the DPV results of the tea samples and a pattern of separation following the phenolic content was obtained. The results support the application of the sensor in fast classification of beverages according to their polyphenol content. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  9. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids in Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency that are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenol (TP and low levels of amino acids (AA in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration of EBR (0.5 ppm caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate (GOGAT enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential implication

  10. Black tea aroma inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin-A after arithmetic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto, Ai; Fukui, Natsuki; Kaneda, Chisa; Torita, Shoko; Goto, Keiichi; Nanjo, Fumio; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2018-01-24

    Growing attention has been paid to the effects of food flavor components on alleviating negative brain functions caused by stressful lifestyles. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effect of two kinds of black tea aromas on physical and psychological stress induced by the Uchida-Kraepelin test, based on salivary chromogranin-A (CgA) levels as a stress marker and subjective evaluations (Profile of Mood States). Compared with the water exposure control, inhaling black tea aroma (Darjeeling and Assam in this study) induced lower salivary CgA concentration levels after 30 min of mental stress load tasks. This anti-stress effect of black tea aroma did not differ between the two tea types even though the concentration of the anti-stress components in the Darjeeling tea aroma was higher than that in the Assam aroma. However, Darjeeling tea aroma tended to decrease the tension and/or anxiety score immediately after the first exposure. Inhaling black tea aroma may diminish stress levels caused by arithmetic mental stress tasks, and Darjeeling tea aroma tended to improve mood before mental stress load.

  11. Lysosomal trafficking of β-catenin induced by the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza; Carter, Orianna; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed; Li, Qingjie; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2005-01-01

    β-Catenin is a cadherin-binding protein involved in cell-cell adhesion, which also functions as a transcriptional activator when complexed in the nucleus with members of the T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) family of proteins. There is considerable interest in mechanisms that down-regulate β-catenin, since this provides an avenue for the prevention of colorectal and other cancers in which β-catenin is frequently over-expressed. We show here that physiologically relevant concentrations of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited β-catenin/TCF-dependent reporter activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with wild type or mutant β-catenins, and there was a corresponding decrease in β-catenin protein levels in the nuclear, cytosolic and membrane-associated fractions. However, β-catenin accumulated as punctate aggregates in response to EGCG treatment, including in human colon cancer cells over-expressing β-catenin endogenously. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that the aggregated β-catenin in HEK293 cells was extra-nuclear and co-localized with lysosomes, suggesting that EGCG activated a pathway involving lysosomal trafficking of β-catenin. Lysosomal inhibitors leupeptin and transepoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanido)butane produced an increase in β-catenin protein in total cell lysates, without a concomitant increase in β-catenin transcriptional activity. These data provide the first evidence that EGCG facilitates the trafficking of β-catenin into lysosomes, presumably as a mechanism for sequestering β-catenin and circumventing further nuclear transport and activation of β-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling

  12. Green tea polyphenol (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate restores Nrf2 activity and ameliorates crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ye

    Full Text Available Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN is the most severe form of GN and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite aggressive immunotherapy with steroids, cytotoxic drugs, and plasmapheresis. We examined the therapeutic efficacy of the green tea polyphenol (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 50 mg/kg BW/day x3 weeks, a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent, on experimental crescentic GN induced in 129/svJ mice by administration of rabbit anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane sera. Routine histology and key molecules involved in inflammatory and redox signaling were studied. EGCG treatment significantly reduced mortality, decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine, and markedly improved renal histology when compared with vehicle-treated mice. The improvements in renal function and histology were accompanied by the restoration of Nrf2 signaling (which was impaired in vehicle-treated mice as shown by increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and cytoplasmic glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit, and glutathione peroxidase. EGCG-treated mice also showed reduction in p-Akt, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and p-P38 as well as restoration of PPARγ and SIRT1 levels. Lower dose of EGCG (25 mg/kg BW/day x2 weeks treatment also significantly decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine, and markedly improved renal histology when compared with vehicle-treated mice. Thus, our data illustrate the efficacy of EGCG in reversing the progression of crescentic GN in mice by targeting multiple signaling and inflammatory pathways as well as countering oxidative stress.

  13. Lysosomal trafficking of {beta}-catenin induced by the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Carter, Orianna [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Al-Fageeh, Mohamed [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Li, Qingjie [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H. [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States)]. E-mail: Rod.Dashwood@oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-11

    {beta}-Catenin is a cadherin-binding protein involved in cell-cell adhesion, which also functions as a transcriptional activator when complexed in the nucleus with members of the T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) family of proteins. There is considerable interest in mechanisms that down-regulate {beta}-catenin, since this provides an avenue for the prevention of colorectal and other cancers in which {beta}-catenin is frequently over-expressed. We show here that physiologically relevant concentrations of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited {beta}-catenin/TCF-dependent reporter activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with wild type or mutant {beta}-catenins, and there was a corresponding decrease in {beta}-catenin protein levels in the nuclear, cytosolic and membrane-associated fractions. However, {beta}-catenin accumulated as punctate aggregates in response to EGCG treatment, including in human colon cancer cells over-expressing {beta}-catenin endogenously. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that the aggregated {beta}-catenin in HEK293 cells was extra-nuclear and co-localized with lysosomes, suggesting that EGCG activated a pathway involving lysosomal trafficking of {beta}-catenin. Lysosomal inhibitors leupeptin and transepoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanido)butane produced an increase in {beta}-catenin protein in total cell lysates, without a concomitant increase in {beta}-catenin transcriptional activity. These data provide the first evidence that EGCG facilitates the trafficking of {beta}-catenin into lysosomes, presumably as a mechanism for sequestering {beta}-catenin and circumventing further nuclear transport and activation of {beta}-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling.

  14. Green tea polyphenols and sulfasalazine have parallel anti-inflammatory properties in colitis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S Oz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no cure for autoimmune chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD patients commonly use complementary and alternative medications of which the safety, efficacy and interaction with standard-of-care therapies are not fully known. Thus the consequences can become life-threatening. Sulfasalazine commonly used in IBD, potentially has severe adverse effects, including infertility, pulmonary fibrosis, lack of response and ultimately patients may require intestinal resection. We hypothesized that green tea polyphenols (GrTP, EGCG and sulfasalazine have similar anti-inflammatory properties. Methods: BALB/c mice received Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS to induce colitis (ulcerative colitis model. Exposure of IL-10 deficient mice (BALB/c-background to normal microbiota provoked enterocolitis (mimics Crohn’s disease. Animals were treated with agents incorporated into daily diets. Control animals received sham treatment. Results: DSS-treated animals developed severe bloody diarrhea and colitis (score 0-4, 3.2+0.27. IL-10 deficient mice developed severe enterocolitis as manifested by diarrhea, rectal prolapse and colonic lesions. Animals tolerated regimens (GrTP, EGCG, sulfasalazine with no major side effects, and further developed less severe colitis/enterocolitis. GrTP, EGCG and sulfasalazine significantly ameliorated colonic damage and histological scores in treated animals in a similar manner (GrTP vs DSS p<0.05; EGCG, sulfasalazine vs DSS p<0.01. The inflammatory markers TNFα (3-fold, IL-6 (14-fold and serum amyloid A (40-fold increased in colitic animals and significantly decreased with treatment regiments. In contrast, circulatory leptin levels decreased in colitic animals (2-fold. EGCG additionally reduced leptin levels (p<0.01 while GrTP and sulfasalazine had no effect on leptin levels (p<0.05. Hepatic and colonic antioxidants were significantly depleted in colitic animals and treatment regiments significantly restored

  15. Preparation and Oxidation Stability Evaluation of Tea Polyphenols-Loaded Inverse Micro-Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaohong; Sun, Jingjing; Yang, Ying; Chen, Mengjie; Liu, Jianhua; Wu, Jinhong; Wang, Zhengwu

    2017-05-01

    Compared to synthetic antioxidants, tea polyphenols (TPs) has its own advantages in edible oil industry, however, the hydrophilic properties have restricted its applications. In this study, the ternary phase diagram of TPs-loaded micro-emulsion (ME) system was constructed, in which glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween80, linoleic acid as the surfactants, ethanol as the co-surfactant and soybean, corn, sunflower oil as the oil phase, have been used for the preparation of ME. The results indicated that a composition of ME (57.5% oil, 18% Tween80, 18% GMO, 4% Linolic acid, and 2.5% water+ethanol) could dissolve maximum water and could stable for 2 mo at room temperature with an average diameter of 6 to 7 nm, as detected by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The loaded of TPs into ME led to an increase of particle size to 15 to 16 nm, due to increased polarity of the water phase. The antioxidant capacity of TPs in ME was characterized by the peroxide value (POV) method. The addition of 1% water phase with 0.1 g/mL TPs could retain the POV at low value for 30 d at accelerating temperature 50 °C. Meanwhile, comparing the three edible oil, ME with corn oil has lower conductivity and higher value of POV during the storage. This work provides an efficient and environmentally friendly approach for the preparation of TPs-loaded ME, which is beneficial to the application of TPs in edible oil. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Interfering Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer by CA 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Ali Abdul Hussein S; Tawfeeq, Ekhlas F

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to determine the possible effects of black tea consumption on the level of CA 19-9 antigen in the human body. The level of CA 19-9 was measured in 270 healthy individuals who consumed heavy amounts of black tea. About 43.3 % of involved individuals were revealed to have elevated levels of CA 19-9. Males with high values of CA 19-9 represented the greatest number of involved individuals. The cutoff value of high levels of CA 19-9 in all individuals was ranged 69-105 U/ml. Consuming heavy amounts of black tea could be considered an important interfering factor that affects the levels of CA 19-9. The cutoff or predictive value of CA 19-9 in heavy-consuming people of black tea was determined.

  17. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon flavoured black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, ...

  18. Comparative assessment of antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extract of commercially available black, green, and lemon tea: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, S. Dodamani; Minal, M. Kshirsagar; Karibasappa, G. N.; Prashanth, V. K.; Girija, A. Dodamani; Harish, C. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine and compare antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of black, green, and lemon tea of a commercially available brand. Materials and Methods: The well-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of commercially available black tea, green tea, and lemon tea at three different concentrations (1.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in appropriate culture med...

  19. Influences of exogenous probiotics and tea polyphenols on the production of three acids during the simulated colonic fermentation of maize resistant starch

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Qian; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, influences of nine probiotics and tea polyphenols on the production of acetic, butyric, and lactic acid from simulated colonic fermentation of maize resistant starch (RS) were investigated. RS was fermented by fecal extracts of healthy adults at 12 g L−1 and 37 °C for 18–48 h in the presence and absence of exogenous probiotics and tea polyphenols. The added probiotics increased acetic and butyric acid production by 25–216 %. Eubacterium faecalis, Lactobacillus acidophilu...

  20. Protection of dystrophic muscle cells with polyphenols from green tea correlates with improved glutathione balance and increased expression of 67LR, a receptor for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate

    OpenAIRE

    Dorchies OM Wagner S Buetler TM Ruegg UT

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease caused by the absence of the protein dystrophin. Because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of DMD we investigated if a green tea polyphenol blend (GTP) and its major polyphenol ( ) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) could protect muscle cell primary cultures from oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the widely used mdx mouse model. On line fluorimetric measurements using an H(2)O(2) sensitiv...

  1. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  2. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  3. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Michael; Limeback, Hardy

    2017-01-01

    In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand. PMID:28713433

  4. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  5. Acid production and conversion of konjac glucomannan during in vitro colonic fermentation affected by exogenous microorganisms and tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Huai; Geng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of exogenous microorganisms and tea polyphenols on acid production and conversion during in vitro colonic fermentation of konjac glucomannan (KGM) were assessed in this study. Colonic fermentation of KGM by the fecal extract of healthy adults resulted in a propionate-rich profile, as acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids production were 16.1, 13.0, 3.3 and 20.2 mmol/L, respectively. Inoculation of one of ten exogenous microorganisms in the fermentative systems increased acetic, propionic and butyric acids production by 50-230%, 9-190% and 110-350%, respectively, and also accelerated lactic acid conversion by 14-40%. Tea polyphenols in the fermentative systems showed clear inhibition on both acid production and conversion; however, this inhibition could be partially or mostly antagonised by the inoculated exogenous microorganisms, resulting in improved acid production and conversion. In total, Lactobacillus brevis and Sterptococcus thermophilus were more able to increase acid production, and the propionate-rich profile was not changed in all cases.

  6. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  7. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwen Lu

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.

  8. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Eui-Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Han-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: ehbyun80@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  9. A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, Jaouad; El Hassouni, Mohammed; Ouardaoui, Abdelkrim; Sendide, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxic effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chuankui; Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Zhengcao; Xiao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxicity, Japanese Medaka was injected intraperitoneally with BaP alone and co-injected with both BaP and GTP of different concentrations, respectively.

  11. Characterization of film-forming solutions and films incorporating free and nanoencapsulated tea polyphenol prepared by gelatins with different Bloom values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatin film-forming solutions and their films incorporating tea polyphenol (TP) and chitosan nanoparticles (CSNs) were prepared from gelatins with different Bloom values (100, 150 and 225). Blank gelatin film-forming solutions and films were prepared as controls. Gelatins with higher Bloom values h...

  12. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  13. Green tea polyphenols improve cardiac muscle mRNA, and protein levels of signal pathways related to insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammation in insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that the consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. To explore the underlying mechanisms of action at the molecular level, we examined the effects of GTP on cardiac mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in insulin an...

  14. A Literature Review of Some Deseases Can Cured With Tea Component

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Anggraini

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) very rich in flavonoids and one of the important plant in the world. The six major flavan-3-ols occurring in tea are catechin (C), gallocatechin (GC), epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (EGG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Theaflavins and thearubigins are a group of polyphenol pigments formed during the fermentation of black tea This paper identified the deaseas can cured with the tea properties by literature reviewed. Besides the ...

  15. Levels of metals in commercially available Ethiopian black teas and their infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd and Pb contents of commercially available Ethiopian black tea (Wushwush, Gumero, and Black Lion and their infusions were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. In black tea leaves the order of metal content was found to be: K (11503–13780 mg/kg > Ca (3821–4419 mg/kg > Mg (3219–3538 mg/kg > Mn (1242–1421 mg/kg > Fe (319–467 mg/kg > Zn (20.2–21.6 mg/kg > Cu (9.1–11.5 mg/kg. Co, Cd and Pb were too low to be detected by the method (FAAS. In tea infusion, prepared in a laboratory condition following Ethiopian tea making procedures, the range of metal contents was found as follows: K (110–124 mg/L > Mg (14.5–16.3 mg/L > Ca (10.0–10.7 mg/L > Mn (8.5–13.4 mg/L > Fe (0.98–1.56 mg/L > Zn (0.098–0.100 mg/L > Cu (0.038–0.063 mg/L. The metal contents of the black tea leaves were higher than those of tea infusions. The extraction was highest for K (47.1% and lowest for Ca (12.5%.

  16. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  17. Green tea, cocoa, and red wine polyphenols moderately modulate intestinal inflammation and do not increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicod, Nathalie; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Giordano, Elena; Dávalos, Alberto; Parker, Robert S; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-03-12

    Although polyphenols are often merely perceived as antioxidants, their biological activities are manifold and include anti-inflammatory actions. A new area of research on polyphenols and health concerns their putative role in cholesterol metabolism, in particular, their high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c)-raising potential. Indeed, some human studies showed that administration of polyphenol-rich foods such as cocoa, green tea, and extra virgin olive oil modulate and increase HDL-c concentrations. This study assessed the effects of polyphenols on intestinal inflammation, using the physiologically relevant Caco-2 Transwell model and using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to trigger inflammation. This study also investigated the mechanisms of actions behind the proposed HDL-c-increasing effects of polyphenols. The data suggest that polyphenols (at least those from red wine, cocoa, and green tea) administered at a dietary dose moderately modulate intestinal inflammation but do not increase cholesterol secretion by intestinal cells or enhance HDL functionality. Nutraceuticals and supplements provide pharmanutritional doses that might, conversely, produce beneficial effects.

  18. Characterization of corrinoid compounds from a Japanese black tea (Batabata-cha) fermented by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Syuhei; Watanabe, Fumio; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2004-02-25

    A Japanese fermented black tea (Batabata-cha) contained a considerable amount of vitamin B(12) (456 +/- 39 ng per 100 g dry tea leaves and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ng per 100 mL of tea drink). A corrinoid compound was partially purified and characterized from the tea leaves. The patterns of the purified compound by the silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatography and C18 reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography were identical to those of authentic vitamin B(12). When 20 week old vitamin B(12) deficient rats, which excreted substantial amounts (about 250 mg/day) of methylmalonic acid in urine as an index of vitamin B(12) deficiency, were fed the tea drink (50 mL/day, 1 ng of vitamin B(12)) for 6 weeks, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion (169 +/- 29 mg/day) of the tea drink-supplemented 26 week old rats decreased significantly relative to that (250 +/- 32 mg/day) of the deficient rats. The results indicate that the vitamin B(12) found in the fermented black tea is bioavailable in mammals.

  19. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-02-03

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared with traditional sodium acetate media due in part to its acidophilic pH and its higher organics content. Although high internal resistance remains a big concern, this simple, curiosity-driven experiment gave us the preliminary results to say that energy could be extracted from the reuse of waste resources such the collection of our afternoon-tea\\'s leftovers.

  20. Production of nanoparticles under benign conditions using vitamins, sugars, glutathione and polyphenols from tea and winery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In continuation of our developmental program for sustainable pathways to nanomaterials, an account of greener preparation of nanoparticles utilizing naturally occurring reagents such as vitamins, sugars, tea extracts, and biodegradable polymers will be presented which reduces or ...

  1. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea polyphenols on digestion and meat quality in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, R Z; Li, H Y; Fang, Y; Sun, H X; Zhou, D W

    2015-07-01

    Ujumqin sheep are susceptible to infection by the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus, which reduces productivity and total meat yield in sheep. Thus, the effects of green tea polyphenol (GTP) supplements (0, 2, 4, or 6g of GTP/kg feed) on dietary nutrient digestibility and meat quality in lambs infected with H. contortus were examined; control lambs were not infected. H. contortus infections did not affect digestion but the apparent digestibilities of nutrients were decreased by dietary 2g of GTP/kg feed supplementation. There was an interaction between treatment and sampling time on plasma total protein, urea nitrogen, and amino acid concentrations. The antioxidant activity and meat color of INFGTP0 lambs decreased. In conclusion, H. contortus infections in lambs decreased meat quality, but appropriate levels of dietary GTP supplementation diminished these negative effects though lower dose of GTP supplement showed negative effects on digestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  4. The microbiota is essential for the generation of black tea theaflavins-derived metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G, theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF3'G, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG, are the most important bioactive polyphenols in black tea. Because of their poor systemic bioavailability, it is still unclear how these compounds can exert their biological functions. The objective of this study is to identify the microbial metabolites of theaflavins in mice and in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study, we gavaged specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ free (GF mice with 200 mg/kg TFDG and identified TF, TF3G, TF3'G, and gallic acid as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in SPF mice. These metabolites were absent in TFDG- gavaged GF mice. The microbial bioconversion of TFDG, TF3G, and TF3'G was also investigated in vitro using fecal slurries collected from three healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that TFDG is metabolized to TF, TF3G, TF3'G, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Moreover, both TF3G and TF3'G are metabolized to TF, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Importantly, we observed interindividual differences on the metabolism rate of gallic acid to pyrogallol among the three human subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis have the capacity to metabolize TFDG. CONCLUSIONS: The microbiota is important for the metabolism of theaflavins in both mice and humans. The in vivo functional impact of microbiota-generated theaflavins-derived metabolites is worthwhile of further study.

  5. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  6. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  7. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  8. Development of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of polyphenolic compounds in liquid samples of grape juice, green tea and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena

    2014-05-01

    A simple and fast method for the analysis of a wide range of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea, and coffee samples was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was based on a simple sample preparation "dilute and shoot" approach, and LC-MS/MS quantification using genistein-d4 as an internal standard. The performance of six different syringeless filter devices was tested for sample preparation. The method was evaluated for recoveries of polyphenols at three spiking levels in juice, tea, and coffee samples. The recoveries of the majority of polyphenols were satisfactory (70-120%), but some varied significantly (20-138%) depending on the matrix. NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 3257 Catechin Calibration Solutions and 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract with certified concentrations of catechin and epicatechin were used for method validation. The measurement accuracy in two SRMs was 71-113%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of liquid samples of grape juice, green tea, and coffee. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of casein, ovalbumin, and dextran on the astringency of tea polyphenols determined by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunfeng; Hu, Jinhua; Yao, Ping

    2009-01-06

    Tea polyphenols (TPPs) can bind with proteins and peptides through hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding. Casein, ovalbumin, and dextran were used to investigate their influence on the interactions between TPP and gelatin and, therefore, to investigate their influence on TPP taste. Casein-g-dextran (CgD) and ovalbumin-g-dextran (OgD) grafting conjugates were prepared through the Maillard reaction. Dispersible CgD/OgD-TPP complexes formed in acidic pH solution even after a heating process. At the same weight ratio of protein to TPP, about 20-30% of TPP was bound to the proteins. TPP affinity for dextran is much lower. Gelatin, a model of the salivary proteins in buccal cavity, was immobilized on quartz crystal sensor surface through covalent bond. By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, we found that the complexation of TPP with gelatin causes a dehydration and collapse of the gelatin layer on the sensor surface that is similar to the sensation of dryness and constriction on oral membranes caused by polyphenols. The complexation between TPP and casein/ovalbumin/dextran can decrease the interaction between TPP and gelatin by decreasing the free TPP molecules and shielding gelatin surface from TPP. Casein has stronger binding ability on the gelatin surface compared to ovalbumin and dextran, and therefore casein is more effective to decrease the sensation of astringency caused by TPP.

  10. Green tea polyphenols decreases uric acid level through xanthine oxidase and renal urate transporters in hyperuricemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Tan, Ming-Liang; Li, Kai-Kai; Leung, Ping-Chung; Ko, Chun-Hay

    2015-12-04

    Green tea is a Chinese materia medica with the main functions of "inducing urination and quenching thirst". Green tea polyphenols (GTP) are generally acknowledged as the main active fraction with multiple pharmacological functions in green tea. However, the effect of GTP on hyperuricemia is not clear till now. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of GTP on serum level of uric acid in potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice, and explore the underlying mechanisms from two aspects of production and excretion of uric acid. PO and GTP were intragastricly administered to mice for consecutive 7 days. Serum level of uric acid, and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in serum and liver were examined. Simultaneously, expression of XOD protein in liver was analyzed by Western blot assay. Expressions of urate transporters including urate-anion transporter (URAT) 1, organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and 3 in kidney were analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining method. 300 and 600 mg/kg GTP significantly decreased serum level of uric acid of hyperuricemic mice in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Besides, 300 and 600 mg/kg GTP markedly reduced XOD activity in serum and liver of hyperuricemic mice (both p<0.01). Furthermore, 300 and 600 mg/kg GTP clearly reduced XOD expression in liver, as well as reduced URAT1 expression and increased OAT1 and OAT3 expressions in kidney of hyperuricemic mice (p<0.05 or p<0.01). These results demonstrated that GTP had the effect of lowering uric acid through decreasing the uric acid production and increasing uric acid excretion. Our study suggested that GTP would be a promising candidate as a novel hypouricaemic agent for further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of trace element and heavy metal in black tea and tea leaves using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mohamed Abualgasim Abdalhakam

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information about the trace element and heavy metals concentrations in black tea and tea leaves. 23 different samples were collected from the Sudanese local market. The collected samples were characterized as the most common used items in Sudan. The concentration of trace and heavy elements were determined using x-ray fluorescence (X RF) technique. The standard reference materials (IAEA-V-10) and hay (powder) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical result. The measured values were found in agreement with the certified values. The elements determined were K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb, and Sr. The average concentration of the elements is black tea were 2277.43, 7245.71, 1.11, 1025.29, 334.29, 6.88, 11.24, 9.47, 1.02, 7.08, 97.4 and 63.21 respectively while the average concentration of the elements in leaves tea were 2644.44, 8805.56, 1.02, 571.81, 295.44, 6.19, 10.69, 9.26, 0.91, 13.42, 63.03 and 67.14 respectively. The results showed an increase in the concentration of some elements such as calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine, rubidium and strontium (22500, 6.75, 48.9, 194, 4.37, 9,77, 24.9, 8.23, 7.79, 40,9) ppm respectively compared to certified values. Correlation between concentration of certain element and cluster analysis were preformed and the results compared with values of literature and the concentrations of some elements found to be similar.(Author)

  12. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combinatorial effect of nicotine and black tea on heart rate variability: Useful or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, S; Sheibani, M

    2017-06-01

    The effect of nicotine on heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial. Autonomic nervous system is the main regulator of heart rhythm, and heart rate variability is an appropriate index to assessment of the effects of the autonomic system on heart. In this study, the combination effect of nicotine and black tea consumption on sympatho-vagal balance and heart rate variability was investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups as control, tea (2.5 g/100 cc, daily), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d) and tea plus nicotine groups which treated for 28 days, and in the 29th day, their electrocardiograms (lead II) were recorded. The mean of high-frequency power (HF) in tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups was significantly more than control group (P nicotine and tea + nicotine groups was significantly less than control group (P nicotine and tea + nicotine groups in comparison with control group (P nicotine or their combination with dosages used in this study can increase the heart rate variability and improve the sympatho-vagal balance in rat. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Biomimetic 'Green' Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Antioxidants-Vitamins, Glutathione and Polyphenols from Tea and Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our recent activity in chemical synthesis of nanomaterials via benign biomimetic ‘greener’ alternatives,1 such as the use antioxidants present in a variety of natural products, and ubiquitous glutathione in aqueous media.2 Vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea ...

  15. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i injected with vehicle; (ii treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg via gavage; (iii injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally; (iv treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI. Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI.

  16. Regular consumption of black tea increases circulating kynurenine concentrations: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Gostner

    2015-06-01

    General significance: The influence of black tea consumption on biomarkers of immune system activation could relate to its general health benefits. Data suggests that the net effect strongly depends on the individual immune state, being stimulatory in healthy individuals, while acting more immune dampening in situations with an inflammatory background.

  17. some factors influencing the free fluoride content in black tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    that is more resistant to erosion by plaque acid and demonstrates a lower surface energy which makes plaque adhesion more difficult. However, excessive intake ... fluoride-halide complexes present in the soil decompose into aluminium and fluoride ions, enhancing their availability to tea plants. The free fluoride ion is then ...

  18. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  19. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets.

  20. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  1. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP.We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, Chemical Abstracts and EMBASE databases through July 2013. For inclusion, studies had to meet the following pre-defined criteria: 1 placebo controlled design in human adults, 2 minimum of 1 week black tea consumption as the sole intervention, 3 reported effects on systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP or both. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled overall effect of black tea on BP.Eleven studies (12 intervention arms, 378 subjects, dose of 4-5 cups of tea met our inclusion criteria. The pooled mean effect of regular tea ingestion was -1.8 mmHg (95% CI: -2.8, -0.7; P = 0.0013 for SBP and -1.3 mmHg (95% CI: -1.8, -0.8; P<0.0001 for DBP. In covariate analyses, we found that the method of tea preparation (tea extract powders versus leaf tea, baseline SBP and DBP, and the quality score of the study affected the effect size of the tea intervention (all P<0.05. No evidence of publication bias could be detected.Our meta-analysis indicates that regular consumption of black tea can reduce BP. Although the effect is small, such effects could be important for cardiovascular health at population level.

  2. Effect of black tea on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Rahmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin is the most basic denture material used. One of the mechanical properties of an acrylic resin is its transverse strength. The transverse strength test provides an overview of the material's durability in accepting the load at mastication. Consumption of tea, especially black tea in the world placed the second most consumed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of black tea on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Methods: This research was an experimental laboratory with 24 samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin plate with the size of 65 x 10 x 2.5 mm. The sample was divided into 6 groups, each consisted of 4 samples. The first, second, and the third groups were immersed in aquadest for consecutively 1, 4, and 20 days. The fourth, fifth, and sixth groups were immersed in the black tea for consecutively 1, 4, and 20 days. The transverse strength was tested using the three-point bending method with the Universal Testing Machine. The results of the transverse strength measurement were then analyzed statistically by the One-way ANOVA test and Holm's sequential Bonferroni posthoc test as an advanced test. Results: The results of the statistical test showed that p < 0,05 (p = 0,000 which means that the six groups have a significant difference in the average value of the transverse strength. Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was the black tea immersion duration was affecting the transverse strength difference of the heat-polymerized acrylic resin.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Michael C.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; NadagoudaPresent Address: Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E. Hollister Street, Cincinnati, 45219, Ohio, Usa., Mallikarjuna N.; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems.

  4. [The effects of tea polyphenols and Laminaria japonica polysaccharides on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell HONE1 and CNE2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Manli; Zheng, Shixing; Xu, Zhiwen

    2013-04-01

    To explore the effects of laminaria japonica polysaccharides(LJP) and tea polyphenols (TP) on nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) cells HONE1 and CNE2, and further to explore the underlying mechanism of antitumor activity of LJP on NPC cell in vivo. To identify the logarithmic growth phase of NPC cells HONE1 and CNE2 through cell growth curve and doubling time by means of MTT, then inhibition of the cells proliferation were detected with LJP and TP separately and combined. With LJP treatment, cell apoptosis of HONE1 was examined by double staining assay. A tumor model,established by subcutaneously inoculation of NPC cell HONE1 into nude mice,was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of LJP in vivo. Both LJP and TP had inhibition effect on two groups of cell proliferation, and LJP and TP combined effect of inhibition were higher than the two separate on two sets of experimental cell proliferation, whose effect was concentration-dependent. LJP could induce apoptosis of HONE1. With the increasing concentration of LJP, apoptosis rate increased. The apoptosis rate was(49.51 +/- 1. 89) % (P0. 05). LJP and TP can inhibit the proliferation of NPC cells HONE1 and CNE2 respectively,and combined use has a significant effect. LJP can inhibit the growth of NPC probably by inducing apoptosis of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Protective Effect of Tea Polyphenol Ophthalmic Gel on Lens Epithelial Cells in Rabbits with Silicone Oil Tamponade after Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols (TP ophthalmic gel on lens epithelial cells (LECs in rabbits with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy. Methods. In this study, unilateral vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade was performed using 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbits (n = 72; meanwhile, age-matched nonoperated rabbits (n = 18 were used as controls. The TP ophthalmic gel was administered topically in the surgical eyes till they were sacrificed. On days 45 and 90 after operation, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, and apoptosis of LECs were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were also determined. Results. The results indicate that the levels of ROS and apoptosis were elevated for LECs in rabbits after operation, whereas ΔΨm was decreased. Caspase-3 was apparently increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of TP ophthalmic gel could reduce the generation of ROS, maintain ΔΨm, inhibit the overexpression of caspase-3, and thus decrease the apoptosis of LECs of rabbits after operation. Conclusions. TP ophthalmic gel can efficiently inhibit caspase-3 overexpression, reduce the apoptosis of LECs, and prevent LECs from damage. Our result provides a new approach to prevent the development of complicated cataract after vitrectomy.

  6. Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineharu, Yohei; Koizumi, Akio; Wada, Yasuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Date, Chigusa; Yamamoto, Akio; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2011-03-01

    The effects of coffee and green, black and oolong teas and caffeine intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality have not been well defined in Asian countries. To examine the relationship between the consumption of these beverages and risk of mortality from CVD, 76,979 individuals aged 40-79 years free of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer at entry were prospectively followed. The daily consumption of beverages was assessed by questionnaires. 1362 deaths were documented from strokes and 650 deaths from CHD after 1,010,787 person-years of follow-up. Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, the multivariable HR and 95% CI for those drinking 1-6 cups/week, 1-2 cups/day and ≥ 3 cups/day were 0.78 (0.50 to 1.20), 0.67 (0.47 to 0.96) and 0.45 (0.17 to 0.87) for strokes among men (p = 0.009 for trend). Compared with non-drinkers of green tea, the multivariable HR for those drinking 1-6 cups/week, 1-2 cups/day, 3-5 cups/day and ≥ 6 cups/day were 0.34 (0.06-1.75), 0.28 (0.07-1.11), 0.39 (0.18-0.85) and 0.42 (0.17-0.88) for CHD among women (p = 0.038 for trend). As for oolong tea, the multivariable HR of those drinking 1-6 cups/week and ≥ 1 cups/day were 1.00 (0.65-1.55) and 0.39 (0.17-0.88) for total CVD among men (p = 0.049 for trend). Risk reduction for total CVD across categories of caffeine intake was most prominently observed in the second highest quintile, with a 38% lower risk among men and 22% among women. Consumption of coffee, green tea and oolong tea and total caffeine intake was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from CVD.

  7. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Thea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  8. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-06-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  9. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Although the inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of diabetes has been reported numerous times, the role of caffeine intake in this association has remained unclear. We evaluated the consumption of coffee and other beverages and food containing caffeine in relation to the incidence of diabetes. The study participants were 5897 men and 7643 women in a community-based cohort in Takayama, Japan. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea and chocolate snacks were measured with a semi-quantitative FFQ in 1992. At the follow-up survey in 2002, the development of diabetes and the time of diagnosis were reported. To assess the association, age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, education in years, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, fat intake and women's menopausal status were adjusted. Among men who consumed one cup per month to six cups per week and among those who consumed one cup per d or more, the associated hazard ratios were 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.97) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.98) compared with those who drank little to no coffee, with a P value for trend of 0.32. The hazard ratios for women with the same coffee consumption patterns were 1.08 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.60) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.44, 1.12), with a P value for trend of 0.03. The association between estimated total caffeine intake and risk of diabetes was insignificant both among men and among women. The results imply that coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake.

  10. CATECHIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME BREWED TEMPERATURE OF BLACK TEA SYRUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuty Anggraini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The catechin contents and the antioxidant activity of black tea syrup that brewed at some temperature still poorly understood. It has been investigated whether catechin contents and antioxidant activity of black tea syrup may be affected by hot or cold water.  The temperature of 30°C, 60°C, and 90°C were used to brew the syrup, and then the catechin and the antioxidant were determined at each temperature by using DPPH radical scavenging activity method. Measurement of DPPH was conducted for 2 minutes reaction time. Catechin contents were determined by using HPLC method. The result of research showed that the catechin and the antioxidant activity affected by temperature tested. Five kinds of catechin derivatives detected in black tea syrup, EGC (epigallocatechin, C (catechin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate, EC (epicatechin and ECG (epicatechin gallate. The highest DPPH scavenging activity of black tea syrup was showed by 30°C.ABSTRAKKandungan katechin dan aktivitas antioksidan dari sirup teh hitam yang diseduh pada beberapa temperatur masih belum begitu dipahami. Pada penelitian ini telah diselidiki apakan kandungan katechin dan aktioksidan dipengaruhi oleh air dingin atau air panas. Temperatur 30oC, 60oC, dan 90oC digunakan untuk menyeduh sirup teh hitam lalu ditentukan kandungan katechin dan aktifitas antioksidannya pada masing-masing temperatur menggunakan metode aktifitas perangkap radikal bebas DPPH (dyphenyl pycrylhydrazyl. Pengukuran DPPH dilakukan selama waktu reaksi dua menit. Kandungan katechin ditentukan menggunakan metode HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan katechin dan aktifitas antioksidan sirup teh hitam dipengaruhi oleh temperatur yang diuji. Lima jenis turunan katechin terdeteksi dalam sirup teh hitam yaitu EGC (epigallocatechin, C (catechin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate, EC (epicatechin and ECG (epicatechin gallate. Aktifitas perangkap DPPH tertinggi dari sirup teh

  11. Mobilization of Nuclear Copper by Green Tea Polyphenol Epicatechin-3-Gallate and Subsequent Prooxidant Breakage of Cellular DNA: Implications for Cancer Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological as well as experimental evidence exists in support of chemopreventive and anticancer properties of green tea and its constituents. The gallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate is a major polyphenol present in green tea, shown responsible for these effects. Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds are established natural antioxidants which are capable of catalyzing oxidative DNA degradation of cellular DNA, alone as well as in the presence of transition metal ions, such as copper. Here we present evidence to support that, similar to various other polyphenoic compounds, epicatechin-3-gallate also causes oxidative degradation of cellular DNA. Single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (Comet assay was used to assess DNA breakage in lymphocytes that were exposed to various concentrations of epicatechin-3-gallate. Inhibition of DNA breakage in the presence of scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS suggested involvement of ROS generation. Addition of neocuproine (a cell membrane permeable Cu(I chelator inhibited DNA degradation, dose-dependently, in intact lymphocytes. In contrast, bathocuproine, which does not permeate cell membrane, was observed to be ineffective. We further show that epicatechin-3-gallate degrades DNA in cell nuclei, which can also be inhibited by neocuproine, suggesting mobilization of nuclear copper in this reaction as well. Our results are indicative of ROS generation, possibly through mobilization of endogenous copper ions, and support our long-standing hypothesis of a prooxidant activity of plant-derived polyphenols as a mechanism for their documented anticancer properties.

  12. Development of Candidate Reference Materials of Endosulfan Sulfate and Bifenthrin in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhani Aryana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The candidate reference materials of endosulfan sulfate and bifenthrin in black tea have been developed according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Preparation of candidate material includes grinding and sieving of the black tea leaves, spiking the black tea powder by both analytes, homogenization, and bottling. Homogeneity and short-term stability test were performed using a GC-µECD instrument. Meanwhile, the characterization was carried out by a collaborative study using both of GC-µECD and GC-MS instruments. The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample inhomogeneity, short-term instability and variability in the characterization procedure. In a dry mass fraction, endosulfan sulfate was assigned to be 491 µg kg-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of ± 33.2%, and bifenthrin was assigned to be 937 µg kg-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of ± 18.5%. The candidate reference materials are aimed to support the need of matrix CRM especially for the measurement of pesticide residue for quality assurance work done by laboratories in Indonesia.

  13. Black and green tea--how to make a perfect crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancirova, Martina

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant properties of the black and green tea are well known. The latent bloodstains are detectable by luminol. The bloodstains also can be cover up by drinks and foods containing the antioxidants; thus their presence can cause a decrease of the luminol light emission (false-negative results). The aim of this study was to quantify the light emission decrease of the chemiluminescent mixture prepared according to Weber (containing NaOH) and the chemiluminescent mixture of pH 7.4 (for the determination of the total antioxidant capacity) for the open air-dried sample. The black and green teas and white wine were used as the antioxidant's samples (high and low total antioxidant capacity). The significant decrease of the luminol chemiluminescent emission caused by the presence of the black and green teas (and comparable for both of them) was observed in comparison with the presence of white wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Black tea and maintenance of normal endotheliumdependent vasodilation: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2018-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to black tea and maintenance of normal endotheliumdependent vasodilation. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed by the applicant as the subject of the health...... claim is black tea beverages, either freshly prepared or reconstituted from water extract powders of black tea, characterised by the content of flavanols (expressed as catechins plus theaflavins) of at least 30 mg per 200 mL serving. The Panel considers that black tea characterised by the content....... Of the five human intervention studies provided on the chronic effect of black tea consumption on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, two investigated the effect after regular consumption of black tea for a sufficiently long time period (i.e. at least 4 weeks). These two studies did not allow an effect...

  15. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong WANG

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic. Black garlic polyphenol (BGP was extracted from black garlic. The in vitro antioxidant activities of BGP were determined using DPPH·, OH and O2– radical scavenging assays. The in vivo antioxidant activities were determined by detecting the malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in mice. Results showed that, the DPPH· radical inhibition rate of 200 and 250 μg/mL BGP was equivalent with Vc (P > 0.05. With concentration of 400 and 500 μg/mL, the OH radical inhibition rate of BGP was slightly lower than Vc (P > 0.05. The O2– radical inhibition rates of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/mL BGP were significantly lower than Vc (P < 0.05. In the groups treated with BGP with suitable dose, the serum MDA content was significantly decreased compared with model group (P < 0.05, and the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased (P < 0.05. BGP has obvious DPPH· and ·OH radical scavenging activities, and can significantly decrease the serum MDA content in mice with oxidative damage, and increase the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities.

  16. Increased chemopreventive effect by combining arctigenin, green tea polyphenol and curcumin in prostate and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Wang, Bin; Chung, Seyung; Wu, Yanyuan; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2–4 mg/L (about 5–10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins, decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer. PMID:25243063

  17. Effects of green tea polyphenols, insulin-like growth factor I and glucose on developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguang Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and glucose on oocyte in vitro maturation, subsequent embryo development and blastocyst quality in bovine. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC were aspirated from the ovaries and cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid supplemented with MEM amino acids (SOFaa media supplemented with one of the following supplements: GTP (0, 10, 15 and 20 µM, IGF-I (0, 50, 100 and 150 ng/mL or glucose (0, 1.5, 5.6 and 20 mM for 24 h. The results showed that oocytes cultured in media supplemented with 15 µM GTP, 100 ng/mL IGF-I and 5.6 mM glucose, in separate experiments, have higher cleavage and blastocyst rates compared with oocytes cultured in media without or with other concentration of GTP, IGF-I and glucose. Then these three substances with the concentration above were added together into SOFaa media and constituted a modified medium (Modified SOFaa. The COC were cultured in control SOFaa media and modified SOFaa media, respectively. The results showed that modified SOFaa media increased the intracellular glutathione concentration of matured oocytes, blastocyst rates and total cell numbers and cell numbers of inner cell mass per blastocyst compared with the control. Supplementing of GTP, IGF-I and glucose synchronously to maturation media can increase the intracellular GSH concentration of oocytes after in vitro maturation, and improve the embryo development and blastocyst quality in bovine.

  18. Limitations of MTT and MTS-based assays for measurement of antiproliferative activity of green tea polyphenols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwen Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive effect of green tea polyphenols, such as (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, has been well demonstrated in cell culture studies. However, a wide range of IC(50 concentrations has been observed in published studies of the anti-proliferative activity of EGCG from different laboratories. Although the susceptibility to EGCG treatment is largely dependent on cancer cell type, the particular cell viability and proliferation assays utilized may significantly influence quantitative results reported in the literature.We compared five widely used methods to measure cell proliferation and viability after EGCG treatment using LNCaP prostate cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both methods using dyes to quantify adenosine triphosphate (ATP and deoxynucleic acid (DNA showed accuracy in the measurement of viable cells when compared to trypan blue assay and results showed good linear correlation (r = 0.95. However, the use of MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium as indicators of metabolically active mitochondria overestimated the number of viable cells by comparison with the ATP, DNA, or trypan blue determinations. As a result, the observed IC(50 concentration of EGCG was 2-fold higher using MTT and MTS compared to dyes quantifying ATP and DNA. In contrast, when cells were treated with apigenin MTT and MTS assays showed consistent results with ATP, DNA, or trypan blue assays.These results demonstrate that MTT and MTS -based assays will provide an underestimation of the anti-proliferative effect of EGCG, and suggest the importance of careful evaluation of the method for in vitro assessment of cell viability and proliferation depending on the chemical nature of botanical supplements.

  19. Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliakal, P P; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2001-04-01

    The antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea and its polyphenols have been reported. As bioactivation of the precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens are mainly carried out by hepatic metabolizing enzymes, we have investigated the modulation of these enzyme activities subsequent to tea consumption in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 5). Six groups were given aqueous solutions (2%, w/v) of six different teas (New Zealand green tea, Australian green tea, Java green tea, Dragon green tea, Gunpowder green tea or English Breakfast black tea) as the sole source of fluid. One group was given a standard green tea extract (0.5%, w/v) while the control group had free access to water. At the end of four-weeks treatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of the liver microsomes or cytosols with appropriate substrates. CYP 1A2 activity was markedly increased in all the tea treatment groups (P Java green tea-treatment groups. Cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activity was significantly increased (PJava green tea-treatment groups. The microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity remained unchanged or was moderately increased in most of the groups. The balance between the phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and the phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer.

  20. Polyphenols and Sunburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Suzana; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods such as green tea, chocolate, grape seeds, and wine. Polyphenols have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Growing evidence suggests that polyphenols may be used for the prevention of sunburns as polyphenols decrease the damaging effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the skin. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested polyphenols in prevention of sunburns. The PubMed database was searched for studies that examined polyphenols and its effects on sunburns. Of the 27 studies found, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted on human subjects and eight on animals (mice and rats). Eleven studies evaluated the effects of topical polyphenols, two studies examined ingested polyphenols, and two studies examined both topical and ingested polyphenols. Polyphenol sources included the following plant origins: green tea, white tea, cocoa, Romanian propolis (RP), Calluna vulgaris (Cv), grape seeds, honeybush, and Lepidium meyenii (maca). Eight studies examined green tea. Overall, based on the studies, there is evidence that polyphenols in both oral and topical form may provide protection from UV damage and sunburn, and thus are beneficial to skin health. However, current studies are limited and further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential side effects of various forms and concentrations of polyphenols. PMID:27618035

  1. Polyphenols and Sunburn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods such as green tea, chocolate, grape seeds, and wine. Polyphenols have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Growing evidence suggests that polyphenols may be used for the prevention of sunburns as polyphenols decrease the damaging effects of ultraviolet A (UVA and ultraviolet B (UVB radiation on the skin. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested polyphenols in prevention of sunburns. The PubMed database was searched for studies that examined polyphenols and its effects on sunburns. Of the 27 studies found, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted on human subjects and eight on animals (mice and rats. Eleven studies evaluated the effects of topical polyphenols, two studies examined ingested polyphenols, and two studies examined both topical and ingested polyphenols. Polyphenol sources included the following plant origins: green tea, white tea, cocoa, Romanian propolis (RP, Calluna vulgaris (Cv, grape seeds, honeybush, and Lepidium meyenii (maca. Eight studies examined green tea. Overall, based on the studies, there is evidence that polyphenols in both oral and topical form may provide protection from UV damage and sunburn, and thus are beneficial to skin health. However, current studies are limited and further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential side effects of various forms and concentrations of polyphenols.

  2. Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yu-Jing; Li, Duo

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies regarding the associations of tea and coffee consumption with esophageal cancer (EC) risk are still inconsistent and this meta-analysis was conducted to examine these associations. PubMed, ISI -Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese VIP database up to October 2011 were searched and manual search for reference lists of relevant studies were conducted. Random effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (OR). Twenty-four case-control and cohort studies with 7376 EC cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR of EC was 0.77 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.57, 1.04] for highest vs. non/lowest green tea consumption; but it was statistically significant for case-control studies (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96) and for studies conducted in China (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.95). No significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption against EC risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.86, 2.11). A borderline significantly inverse association of highest vs. non/lowest coffee consumption against EC risk was found (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.01). In conclusion, our data showed that both green tea and coffee consumption, but not black tea consumption, have protective effects on EC.

  3. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  4. Kinetic evaluation of black tea color index and determination of factors, which influence its by UV/Vis spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikpour, A. R.; Bahmaei, H.; Samimei, H.; Sohrabi, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The tea is the most important product that is widely consumed in the world. Its color is one of the basic parameter. It is known that the best color of an infusion of black tea is a bright orange-red color. [1] Rates of color extraction and amount of its extract are also important in tea quality. Various methods have been reported for this purpose which are mainly time consumable. In this research, absorbance at 480 nm is used (instate of total spectrum) as a fast and convent color index. The experiments have shown that this proposed method have good results. Effects of various factors on the color of an infusion of black tea was investigated; including: leaf size, temperature, ph, total dissolved solid and water hardness. Finally, its kinetic diagrams were determined which give

  5. DNA degradation by water extract of green tea in the presence of copper ions: implications for anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arshi; Azam, Sonish; Hadi, Naghma; Hadi, S M

    2003-04-01

    In recent years a number of reports have documented the chemopreventive effect of green tea consumption on various types of cancers such as those of bladder, prostate, esophagus and stomach. This property is attributed to the presence in green tea of polyphenols known as catechins. These include epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin. In addition to their antioxidant properties plant derived polyphenolics are also capable of oxidative DNA damage particularly in the presence of transition metal ions. We have recently proposed a mechanism for cytotoxic action of plant-derived polyphenols against cancer cells that involves mobilization of endogenous copper and consequent prooxidant action. In partial support of the idea, in the present paper we show that water extract of green tea is considerably more efficient than black tea extract in DNA cleavage in the presence of copper ions. Green tea extract also shows a higher rate of Cu(II) reduction and consequent hydroxyl radical formation. Cu(II) reduction is presumably accompanied by the formation of 'oxidized species' of tea polyphenols, which in turn also appear to catalyze the reduction of Cu(II) leading to redox cycling of copper ions. The results are discussed in relation to the structural differences between polyphenols of green and black tea. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A new cineol derivative, polyphenols and norterpenoids from Saharan myrtle tea (Myrtus nivellei): Isolation, structure determination, quantitative determination and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Amira; Celano, Rita; Mencherini, Teresa; Picerno, Patrizia; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Foudil-Cherif, Yazid; Csupor, Dezső; Rahili, Ghania; Yahi, Nassima; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca

    2017-06-01

    The phytochemical profile of decoction and infusion, obtained from the dried leaves of M. nivellei, consumed as tea in Saharan region, was characterized by UHPLC-PDA-HRMS. Fourteen compounds were characterized and, to confirm the proposed structures a preparative procedure followed by NMR spectroscopy was applied. Compound 3 (2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole disaccharide) was a never reported whereas a bicyclic monoterpenoid glucoside (2), two ionol glucosides (1 and 12), a tri-galloylquinic acid (4), two flavonol glycosides (5 and 9), and a tetra-galloylglucose (7), were reported in Myrtus spp. for the first time. Five flavonol O-glycosides (6, 8, 10-11, and 14) togheter a flavonol (13) were also identified. Quantitative determination of phenolic constituents from decoction and infusion has been performed by HPLC-UV-PDA. The phenolic content was found to be 150.5 and 102.6mg/g in decoction and infusion corresponding to 73.8 and 23.6mg/100mL of a single tea cup, respectively. Myricetin 3-O-β-d-(6″-galloyl)glucopyranoside (5), isomyricitrin (6) and myricitrin (8) were the compounds present in the highest concentration. The free-radical scavenging activities of teas and isolated compounds was measured by the DPPH assay and compared with the values of other commonly used herbal teas (green and black teas). Decoction displayed higher potency in scavenging free-radicals than the infusion and green and black teas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21673927

  8. Synergistic Application of Black Tea Extracts and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Protecting Human Colonocytes against Oxidative Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-03-23

    In view of the potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to enhance the antioxidant activity of food products, this work explored the effectiveness of LAB fermented black tea samples in alleviating H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human colonocytes. The antioxidant capacity of tea samples was evaluated in terms of cyto-protectiveness, mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm)-stabilizing activity, ROS-inhibitory effect, and antioxidant enzyme-modulating activity. The effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair was studied in CCD 841 by comet assay. Results showed that the protective effect of tea pretreatment was more pronounced in normal cells (CCD 841) than in carcinomas (Caco-2), and fermented samples were invariably more effective. Higher cell viability and Δψm were maintained and ROS production was markedly inhibited with tea pretreatment. The fermented tea samples also remarkably stimulated DNA repair, resulting in fewer strand breaks and oxidative lesions. Our study implied that LAB fermentation may be an efficient way to enhance the antioxidative effectiveness of black tea flavonoid-enriched foods.

  9. Comparative potential of black tea leaves waste to granular activated carbon in adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ifelebuegu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption properties and mechanics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds; 17 β-estradiol, 17 α – ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A on locally available black tea leaves waste and granular activated carbon were investigated. The results obtained indicated that the kinetics of adsorption were pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature dependent with equilibrium being reached at 20 to 40 minutes for tea leaves waste and 40 to 60 minutes for granular activated compound. Maximum adsorption capacities of 3.46, 2.44 and 18.35 mg/g were achieved for tea leaves waste compared to granular activated compound capacities of 4.01, 2.97 and 16.26 mg/g for 17 β- estradiol, 17 α-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A respectively. Tea leaves waste adsorption followed pseudo-first order kinetics while granular activated compound fitted better to the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The experimental isotherm data for both tea leaves waste and granular activated compound showed a good fit to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models with the Langmuir model showing the best fit. The thermodynamic and kinetic data for the adsorption indicated that the adsorption process for tea leaves waste was predominantly by physical adsorption while the granular activated compound adsorption was more chemical in nature. The results have demonstrated the potential of waste tea leaves for the adsorptive removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from water.

  10. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and In vitro Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-Omi

    2014-07-01

    Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin's activity in the rumen.

  11. Comparative healing property of kombucha tea and black tea against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice: possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debashish; Hassarajani, Sham A; Maity, Biswanath; Narayan, Geetha; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2010-12-01

    The healing activity of black tea (BT) and BT fermented with Candida parapsilosis and kombucha culture, designated as CT and KT respectively against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied in a mouse model. The KT sample (KT4) produced by fermenting BT for four days, showed the best DPPH radical scavenging capacity and phenolics contents. Hence the ulcer-healing activity of KT4 was compared with those of CT4 and BT. All the tea extracts (15 mg kg(-1)) could effectively heal the gastric ulceration as revealed from the histopathological and biochemical studies, with relative efficacy as KT4 > CT4 ∼ BT. The healing capacities of the tea extracts could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to protect the mucin content of the gastric tissues. In addition, the ability of KT4 to reduce gastric acid secretion might also contribute to its ulcer-healing activity. The tea preparation KT4 (15 mg kg(-1)) was as effective as the positive control, omeprazole (3 mg kg(-1)) in ulcer healing.

  12. The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the ethanol extract pf black tea and its tannin free fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banoee, M.; Mokhtari, N.; Akhavan Sepahi, A.; Jafari Fesharaki, P.; Monsef-Esfahani, H. R.; Ehsanfar, Z.; Khoshayand, M. R.; Shahverdi, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this research the ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction used for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. All the extracts were used separately for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the reduction of aqueous AuCl 4 - . Transmission electron microscopy and visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of gold ions to gold nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free ethanol extract produced gold nanoparticles in the size ranges of 2.5-27.5 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm with an average size of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The prepared colloid gold nanoparticles, using the ethanol extract of black tea, did not show the appropriate stability during storage time (24 hours) at 4 d eg C . In contrast, gold colloids, which were synthesized by a tannin free fraction showed no particle aggregation during short and long storage times at the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction.

  13. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  14. Green tea polyphenols alter lipid metabolism in the livers of broiler chickens through increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Huang

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that green tea polyphenols (GTPs significantly altered the expression of lipid-metabolizing genes in the liver of chickens. However, the underlying mechanism was not elucidated. In this study, we further characterized how GTPs influence AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the regulation of hepatic fat metabolism. Thirty-six male chickens were fed GTPs at a daily dose of 0, 80 or 160 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that oral administration of GTPs significantly reduced hepatic lipid content and abdominal fat mass, enhanced the phosphorylation levels of AMPKα and ACACA, and altered the mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. These results suggested that the activation of AMPK is a potential mechanism by which GTPs regulate hepatic lipid metabolism in such a way that lipid synthesis is reduced and fat oxidation is stimulated.

  15. Green tea polyphenols alter lipid metabolism in the livers of broiler chickens through increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinbao; Zhou, Yibin; Wan, Bei; Wang, Qiushi; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    Our previous results showed that green tea polyphenols (GTPs) significantly altered the expression of lipid-metabolizing genes in the liver of chickens. However, the underlying mechanism was not elucidated. In this study, we further characterized how GTPs influence AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of hepatic fat metabolism. Thirty-six male chickens were fed GTPs at a daily dose of 0, 80 or 160 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that oral administration of GTPs significantly reduced hepatic lipid content and abdominal fat mass, enhanced the phosphorylation levels of AMPKα and ACACA, and altered the mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. These results suggested that the activation of AMPK is a potential mechanism by which GTPs regulate hepatic lipid metabolism in such a way that lipid synthesis is reduced and fat oxidation is stimulated.

  16. Green tea polyphenol treatment attenuates atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E-knockout mice via alleviating dyslipidemia and up-regulating autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibin Ding

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenol (GTP is a polyphenol source from green tea that has drawn wide attention owing to epidemiological evidence of its beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GTP treatment on autophagy regulation in the vessel wall and lipid metabolism of HFD-fed male ApoE-knockout mice.Adult male ApoE-knockout mice (n = 30 fed with a high-fat diet (HFD were treated with either vehicle or GTP (3.2 or 6.4 g/L administered via drinking water for 15 weeks, and C57BL/6J mice fed with standard chow diet (STD were used as the control group. Metabolic parameters, expression of key mRNAs and proteins of hepatic lipid metabolism and autophagy in the vessel wall of mice were determined after the 15-week treatment.A HFD induced atherosclerosis formation and lipid metabolism disorders as well as reduced autophagy expression in the vessel wall of ApoE-knockout mice, but GTP treatment alleviated the lipid metabolism disorders, decreased the oxLDL levels in serum, and increased the mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic PPARα and autophagy markers (LC3, Beclin1 and p62 in the vessel wall of ApoE-knockout mice.Our findings suggest that GTP supplementation showed marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved lipid metabolism as well as through a direct impact on oxLDL and autophagy flux in the vessel wall.

  17. Blackberry, raspberry and black raspberry polyphenol extracts attenuate angiotensin II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feresin, Rafaela G; Huang, Jingwen; Klarich, DawnKylee S; Zhao, Yitong; Pourafshar, Shirin; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Salazar, Gloria

    2016-10-12

    Activation of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling during aging increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to vascular senescence, a process linked to the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly berries, is associated with decreased incidence of CVD, which has mainly been attributed to the polyphenol content of these foods. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of blackberry (BL), raspberry (RB), and black raspberry (BRB) polyphenol extracts in attenuating Ang II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. BL, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts (200 μg ml -1 ) attenuated Ang II-induced senescence, denoted by decreased number of cells positive for senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and down-regulation of p21 and p53 expression, which were associated with decreased ROS levels and Ang II signaling. BL polyphenol extract increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 expression, attenuated the up-regulation of Nox1 expression and the phosphorylation of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 induced by Ang II, and reduced senescence in response to Nox1 overexpression. In contrast, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts up-regulated the expression of SOD1, SOD2, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), but exerted no effect on Nox1 expression nor on senescence induced by Nox1 overexpression. BRB reduced signaling similar to BL, while RB was unable to reduce Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 as well as down-regulation of Nox1 by siRNA prevented senescence induced by Ang II. Our findings indicate that Ang II-induced senescence is attenuated by BL polyphenols through a Nox1-dependent mechanism and by RB and BRB polyphenols in a Nox1-independent manner, likely by increasing the cellular antioxidant capacity.

  18. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  19. Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, A; Denaro, M; Barreca, D; D'Angelo, V; Germanò, M P; Trombetta, D

    2018-01-01

    Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Twenty five polyphenols were quantified by LC-DAD-FLD-MS/MS analysis (anthocyanins 78.06%, phenolic acids 17.89% and other flavonoids 4.06%) with polyglycosylated cyanidins as major components. In addition, BCCE showed a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity particularly in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability. Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg). In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties of BCCE, which highlight that the higher biological activity of BCCE is probably due to the synergic effects exerted by various polyphenolic classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyphenol- and Caffeine-Rich Postfermented Pu-erh Tea Improves Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome by Remodeling Intestinal Homeostasis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Qiuhong; Kong, Ping; Liu, Ling; Sun, Sheng; Xiong, Boyu; Huang, Baojia; Yan, Liang; Sheng, Jun; Xiang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Postfermented Pu-erh tea (PE) protects against metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known regarding its underlying mechanisms. Animal experiments were performed to determine whether the gut microbiota mediated the improvement in diet-induced MS by PE and its main active components (PEAC). We confirmed that PE altered the body composition and energy efficiency, attenuated metabolic endotoxemia and systemic and multiple-tissue inflammation, and improved the glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice via multiple pathways. Notably, PE promoted the lipid oxidation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in HFD-fed mice. Polyphenols and caffeine (CAF) played critical roles in improving these parameters. Meanwhile, PE remodeled the disrupted intestinal homeostasis that was induced by the HFD. Many metabolic changes observed in the mice were significantly correlated with alterations in specific gut bacteria. Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were speculated to be the key gut bacterial links between the PEAC treatment and MS at the genus and species levels. Interestingly, A. muciniphila administration altered body composition and energy efficiency, promoted the browning of WAT, and improved the lipid and glucose metabolism disorder in the HFD-fed mice, whereas F. prausnitzii administration reduced the HFD-induced liver and intestinal inflammatory responses. In summary, polyphenol- and CAF-rich PE improved diet-induced MS, and this effect was associated with a remodeling of the gut microbiota. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  2. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jen Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  3. Black tea (camellia sinensis ) role in modulating antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in γ -irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N.N.; Hussien, E.M.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the efficacy of camellia sinensis beverage in reducing gamma-irradiation - induced oxidative damage to the liver, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats. Animals were received the black tea beverage (BTB) as a sole source of potable liquid for seven consecutive days before exposing them to single dose of 6 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation . The irradiated rats continued to receive BTB for 21 days before sacrifice. The effect of BTB was assessed by monitoring the plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (AcP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C,LDL-C and VLDL-C) as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC). In addition, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) in blood and liver of experimental rats. It was observed that tea administration lowers significantly (p< 0.05), the plasma AST, ALT, AcP activities and TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and PCC concentration as well as blood and liver TBARS. The level of GSH and activity of CAT in the blood and liver tissue were however shown to be significantly elevated (p< 0.05).The results provide useful information for future investigations and strongly implicate the beneficial application of BTB

  4. Black tea assisted exfoliation using a kitchen mixer allowing one-step production of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi; Farhana Abu Kassim, Nurul; Hannifa Abdullah, Abu; Sakinah Zainal Abidin, Anis; Sameha Ismail, Fadwa; Yusoh, Kamal

    2017-07-01

    A kitchen mixer is one of the possible tools for the exfoliation of graphene. While organic solvents such as NMP or DMF are suitable for the exfoliation of graphite, the majority are toxic and dangerously harmful when exposed to humans and the environment. Therefore, an alternative solvent must be proposed for green and sustainable production of graphene. In this initial work, we have developed a new synthesis method for graphene through the direct exfoliation of graphite in commercial black tea. We found that our maximum yield concentration of graphene is Y  =  0.032 mg ml-l after 15 min of mixing. From the data of Raman, the level of defects in our produced graphene is suggested as being very minor (I D/I G  =  0.17), despite possible graphene functionalization by oxygen groups in tea. Incorporation of our graphene into PMMA results in shifting the onset temperature from 300 °C to 326 °C, which impressively validates the potential of the produced graphene as a thermal reinforcement material for polymer composites.

  5. Batch fermentation of black tea by kombucha: A contribution to scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local domestic Kombucha was used in fermentation of 1.5 g L-1 of black tea (Indian tea, " Vitamin ", Horgoš, Serbia and Montenegro, sweetened with approximately 70 g L'1 of sucrose. Inoculation was performed either with 10% or 15% (v/v of fermentation broth from previous process. The fermentation was conducted in geometrically similar vessels with 0.4 L, 0.8 L, 4 L and 8 L of substrate, at 22±1 °C for 28 days. The samples were analyzed after 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days, so that their pH values, content of total acids sucrose, glucose and fructose contents, as well as contents of ethanol and vitamin C were determined. Based on the experiment design, the response surface for the product pH, as a function of time, beverage volume and inoculum concentration, was defined in the form of a second-order polynomial. From the obtained response surface, a formula for scaling-up of the process was derived.

  6. Tea and coffee intake in relation to risk of breast cancer in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R; Stampfer, Meir J; Spiegelman, Donna; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2010-11-01

    Prospective studies of tea and coffee intake and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. None of these studies has reported separately on African-American women. We prospectively examined the relation of tea and coffee consumption to risk of breast cancer among 52,062 women aged 21-69 at enrollment in 1995 in the Black Women's Health Study. Dietary intake was assessed in 1995 and 2001 using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. During 12 years of follow-up through 2007, there were 1,268 incident cases of breast cancer. Intakes of tea, coffee, and caffeine were not significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer overall. The IRRs for consumption of ≥4 cups/day compared with none were 1.13 (95% CI 0.78-1.63) for tea and 1.03 (95% CI 0.77-1.39) for caffeinated coffee, and the IRR for the top quintile relative to the bottom quintile of caffeine intake was 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.24). Consumption of tea, coffee, and caffeine was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk according to menopausal status or hormone receptor status. Our findings suggest that intakes of tea, coffee, and caffeine are not associated with the risk of breast cancer among African-American women.

  7. Potentiality of Uranium Adsorption and Its Associated Elements From Waste Laboratory Liquids Using Black Tea Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    The black tea waste, representing an efficient natural, bio-adsorbent has been applied for adsorption of some hazardous elements. Several batch wise experiments are conducted to determine the relevant factors affecting its adsorption characteristics especially for uranium. The studied factors are the effects of stirring, agitation time, ph, solid/ liquid ratio and initial metal concentration. The equilibrium data are found to be satisfactorily fitting to Langmuir isotherms. A maximum-metal uptake of 60.56 mg/g was observed for uranium at a solution ph range of 4.5-5.5. The studied elements include U, Th and REEs in the presences of some possible interfering elements. Elution of the studied interesting elements has been achieved and from their eluates proper concentrates have been prepared

  8. Formation of enriched black tea extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles via electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Samuel James

    Creating nanoparticles of beneficial nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals has had a large surge of research due to the enhancement of absorption and bioavailability by decreasing their size. One of these ways is by electrohydrodynamic atomization, also known as electrospraying. In general, this novel process is done by forcing a liquid through a capillary nozzle and which is subjected to an electrical field. While there are different ways to create nanoparticles, the novel method of electrospraying can be beneficial over other types of nanoparticle formation. Reasons include high control over particle size and distribution by altering electrospray parameters (voltage, flow rate, distance, and time), higher encapsulation efficiency than other methods, and also it is a one step process without exposure to extreme conditions (Gomez-Estaca et. al. 2012, Jaworek and Sobcyzk 2008). The current study aimed to create a chitosan encapsulated theaflavin-2 enriched black tea extract (BTE) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The first step of this process was to create the smallest chitosan nanoparticles possible by altering the electrospray parameters and the chitosan-acetic acid solution parameters. The solution properties altered include chitosan molecular weight, acetic acid concentration, and chitosan concentration. Specifically, the electrospray parameters such as voltage, flow rate and distance from syringe to collector are the most important in determining particle size. After creating the smallest chitosan particles, the TF-2 enriched black tea extract was added to the chitosan-acetic acid solution to be electrosprayed. The particles were assessed with the following procedures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology and size, and loading efficiency with ultraviolet--visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). Chitosan-BTE nanoparticles were successfully created in a one step process. Diameter of the particles on average

  9. Optimization of Surfactant-Mediated, Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Antioxidant Polyphenols from Rattan Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Raza, Aun; Wang, Yan-Wei; Xu, Xiu-Quan; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Rattan tea is a medicinal plant that has been used for many years for the treatment of inflammation, fatty liver, tumor, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. A green and novel approach based on surfactant-mediated, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (SM-UAE) was developed for the extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan tea. A nonionic surfactant Tween-80 was selected as extraction solvent. The antioxidant activity was measured by total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing/antioxidant capacity (FRAC) assay. Optimization of extraction parameters including concentration of solvent, ultrasonic time, and temperature were investigated by response surface methodology. The antioxidant activity was measured by TPC and FRAC assay. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.8 min. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 360.4 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight material (GAE/g DW) was recorded. Moreover, 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54.5°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.4 min were determined for the highest FRAC value of 478.2 μmol of Fe 2+ /g of weight material (μmol Fe 2+ /g DW). Compared with other methods, the TPC and FRAC values of 313.5 mg GAE/g DW and 389.6 μmol Fe 2+ /g DW were obtained by heat reflux extraction using ethanol as solvent, respectively, and 343.2 mg GAE/g DW and 450.1 μmol Fe 2+ /g DW were obtained by UAE using ethanol as solvent, respectively. The application of SM-UAE markedly decreased extraction time or extraction cost and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the other methods. Surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan Tea Response surface methodology used to optimize parameters and study combined effectsOptimized surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction process enhances the antioxidant phenolics extraction in less time

  10. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the effect of green, white and black tea on Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during refrigerated

    OpenAIRE

    Premalatha Muniandy; Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of green, white and black tea (Camellia sinensis) on lactic acid production and the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during 3 weeks of refrigerated storage. Three types of tea water extracts were added into a milk-starter culture mixture and incubated at 42 °C until the pH was reduced to 4.5. All yogurts were then refrigerated (4 °C) for up to 21 days and samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acid and viable counts...

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  13. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  14. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R2=0.67–0.87. The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, epicatechin gallate (ECG, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG.

  15. Metabolic variation and antioxidant potential of Malus prunifolia (wild apple) compared with high flavon-3-ol containing fruits (apple, grapes) and beverage (black tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-11-15

    Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances neuroregeneration after spinal cord injury by altering levels of inflammatory cytokines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová-Urdzíková, Lucia; Růžička, Jiří; Kárová, Kristýna; Kloudová, Anna; Svobodová, Barbora; Anubhav, A.; Dubišová, Jana; Schmidt, M.; Kubinová, Šárka; Jhanwar Uniyal, M.; Jendelová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, nov. (2017), s. 213-223 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000419; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MŠk LTAUSA17120 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cytokines * EGCG * green tea Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  17. Storage and allogeneic transplantation of peripheral nerve using a green tea polyphenol solution in a canine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our previous study, allogeneic-transplanted peripheral nerve segments preserved for one month in a polyphenol solution at 4°C could regenerate nerves in rodents demonstrated the same extent of nerve regeneration as isogeneic fresh nerve grafts. The present study investigated whether the same results could be obtained in a canine model. Methods A sciatic nerve was harvested from a male beagle dog, divided into fascicules of Sry and β-actin to investigate whether cells of donor origin remained in the allogeneic nerve segments. FK506 concentration was measured in blood samples taken before the animals were killed. Results The total myelinated axon numbers and amplitudes of the muscle action potentials correlated significantly with the blood FK506 concentration. Few axons were observed in the allogeneic-transplanted nerve segments in the PA0.025 group. PCR showed clear Sry-specific bands in specimens from the PA0.1 and PA0.05 groups but not from the PA0.025 group. Conclusions Successful nerve regeneration was observed in the polyphenol-treated nerve allografts when transplanted in association with a therapeutic dose of FK506. The data indicate that polyphenols can protect nerve tissue from ischemic damage for one month; however, the effects of immune suppression seem insufficient to permit allogeneic transplantation of peripheral nerves in a canine model.

  18. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  19. Unique bioactive polyphenolic profile of guava (Psidium guajava) budding leaf tea is related to plant biochemistry of budding leaves in early dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Huang; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2013-03-15

    Guava leaf tea (GLT), exhibiting a diversity of medicinal bioactivities, has become a popularly consumed daily beverage. To improve the product quality, a new process was recommended to the Ser-Tou Farmers' Association (SFA), who began field production in 2005. The new process comprised simplified steps: one bud-two leaves were plucked at 3:00-6:00 am, in the early dawn period, followed by withering at ambient temperature (25-28 °C), rolling at 50 °C for 50-70 min, with or without fermentation, then drying at 45-50 °C for 70-90 min, and finally sorted. The product manufactured by this new process (named herein GLTSF) exhibited higher contents (in mg g(-1), based on dry ethyl acetate fraction/methanolic extract) of polyphenolics (417.9 ± 12.3) and flavonoids (452.5 ± 32.3) containing a compositional profile much simpler than previously found: total quercetins (190.3 ± 9.1), total myricetin (3.3 ± 0.9), total catechins (36.4 ± 5.3), gallic acid (8.8 ± 0.6), ellagic acid (39.1 ± 6.4) and tannins (2.5 ± 9.1). We have successfully developed a new process for manufacturing GLTSF with a unique polyphenolic profile. Such characteristic compositional distribution can be ascribed to the right harvesting hour in the early dawn and appropriate treatment process at low temperature, avoiding direct sunlight. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  2. Variable selection based on clustering analysis for improvement of polyphenols prediction in green tea using synchronous fluorescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jiajia; Wang, Xue; Zhou, Hao; Han, Shuqing; Riza, Dimas Firmanda Al; Kondo, Naoshi

    2018-04-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectra, combined with multivariate analysis were used to predict flavonoids content in green tea rapidly and nondestructively. This paper presented a new and efficient spectral intervals selection method called clustering based partial least square (CL-PLS), which selected informative wavelengths by combining clustering concept and partial least square (PLS) methods to improve models’ performance by synchronous fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence spectra of tea samples were obtained and k-means and kohonen-self organizing map clustering algorithms were carried out to cluster full spectra into several clusters, and sub-PLS regression model was developed on each cluster. Finally, CL-PLS models consisting of gradually selected clusters were built. Correlation coefficient (R) was used to evaluate the effect on prediction performance of PLS models. In addition, variable influence on projection partial least square (VIP-PLS), selectivity ratio partial least square (SR-PLS), interval partial least square (iPLS) models and full spectra PLS model were investigated and the results were compared. The results showed that CL-PLS presented the best result for flavonoids prediction using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

  3. Equilibrium adsorption of rhodamine B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carcinogenic dye like rhodamine B (Rh-B in textile wastewater affects the quality of water to consumers. The adsorption of Rh-B on used black tea leaves (UBTL was studied in batch process to investigate its removal efficiency. The effects of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH etc. on adsorption have been investigated. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of Rh-B at constant pH. The adsorption isotherms were constructed for different temperatures using acidic solution of pH 2.0. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Raduskevich (D-R equations were used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data. The experimental data follows Freundlich equation more precisely compare with the Langmuir one. The maximum amount adsorbed calculated from Langmuir equation is 72.5 mg/g at 30 oC which is increased with increasing temperature. Separation factor and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the process is favorable, spontaneous and endothermic nature. Possible mechanism of the process was elucidated from the effect of solution pH on amount adsorbed. The endothermic nature of the adsorption might be due to the fragmentation of Rh-B molecules during the adsorption process.

  4. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  5. Green Tea Polyphenols Ameliorate the Early Renal Damage Induced by a High-Fat Diet via Ketogenesis/SIRT3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weijie; Xie, Xiao; Du, Miying; Bu, Yongjun; Wu, Nannan; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xu, Fangyi; Xiang, Siyun; Zhang, Piwei; Chen, Zhuo; Zuo, Xuezhi; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-01-01

    Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD. Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks. The renal oxidative stress level, kidney function, renal expression, and activity levels of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and sirtuin 3(SIRT3) were detected. The increased renal oxidative stress and the loss of renal function induced by the HFD were ameliorated by GTPs. Renal ketogenesis and SIRT3 expression and activity levels, which were reduced by the HFD, were restored by GTPs. In vitro, HEK293 cells were transfected with the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA HMGCS2. GTP treatment could upregulate HMGCS2 and SIRT3 expression. Although SIRT3 expression was not affected by HMGCS2 transfection, the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) level and the acetyl-MnSOD (K122)/MnSOD ratio were reduced in HMGCS2-transfected cells in the context of H 2 O 2 . The ketogenesis/SIRT3 pathway mediates the renoprotection of GTPs against the oxidative stress induced by an HFD.

  6. Effect of Fermentation pH on Protein Bioaccessibility of Soymilk Curd with Added Tea Polyphenols As Assessed by in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guangliang; Rui, Xin; Wang, Dan; Liu, Mei; Chen, Xiaohong; Dong, Mingsheng

    2017-12-20

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of fermentation pH on protein bioaccessibility of four soymilk curds enriched with tea polyphenols (TP). The curds were generated by fermentation with Weissella hellenica D1501 and the fermentation terminated at different pH values, namely at pH 5.7, 5.4, 5.1, and 4.8 (SMTP-5.7, SMTP-5.4, SMTP-5.1, SMTP-4.8). Particle-size distribution, soluble protein content, gel electrophoresis, and peptides content were monitored at oral, gastric, and intestinal levels. Results showed that SMTP-4.8 was the matrix most resistant to protein digestion in the gastric phase according to the soluble protein content. Similar particle size distribution and protein degradation patterns were observed for these curds in gastric and intestinal phase. However, there was a significant difference (P pH 5.4-5.7 of soymilk curds enriched with TP is recommended.

  7. Inhibitory effects of polyphenol-enriched extract from Ziyang tea against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondria molecular mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A polyphenol-enriched extract from selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea (ZTP was selected to evaluate its antitumor effects against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In ZTP, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (28.2% was identified as the major catechin, followed by (−-epigallocatechin (5.7% and (−-epicatechin gallate (12.6%. ZTP was shown to inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 172.2 μg/mL by blocking cell-cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptotic death. Western blotting assay indicated that ZTP induced cell-cycle arrest by upregulation of p53 and reduced the expression of CDK2 in MCF-7 cells. ZTP-caused cell apoptosis was associated with an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. MCF-7 cells treated with ZTP also showed an overproduction of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that reactive oxygen species played an important role in the induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This is the first report showing that ZTP is a potential novel dietary agent for cancer chemoprevention or chemotherapy.

  8. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi; Kim, Jane; Cheng, Jing; Ong, Madeleine; Lao, Wei-Guo; Jin, Xing-Liang; Lin, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Linda; Zhu, Xue-Qiong; Qu, Xian-Qin

    2017-06-07

    To investigate protective effects and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Male ZF rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 wk then treated with GTP (200 mg/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) for 8 wk, with Zucker lean rat as their control. At the end of experiment, serum and liver tissue were collected for measurement of metabolic parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory cytokines and hepatic triglyceride and liver histology. Immunoblotting was used to detect phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Genetically obese ZF rats on a HFD presented with metabolic features of hepatic pathological changes comparable to human with NAFLD. GTP intervention decreased weight gain (10.1%, P = 0.052) and significantly lowered visceral fat (31.0%, P liver in GTP treated rats. The protective effects of GTP against HFD-induced NAFLD in genetically obese ZF rats are positively correlated to reduction in hepatic lipogenesis through upregulating the AMPK pathway.

  9. Green tea polyphenols induce cell death in breast cancer MCF-7 cells through induction of cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Ou, Shi-Yi; Huang, Hui-Hua

    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in treatment or prevention of breast cancer, the cytotoxic effects of GTPs on five human cell lines (MCF-7, A549, Hela, PC3, and HepG2 cells) were determined and the antitumor mechanisms of GTPs in MCF-7 cells were analyzed. The results showed that GTPs exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against the detected cancer cell lines, particularly the MCF-7 cells. Studies on the mechanisms revealed that the main modes of cell death induced by GTPs were cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that GTPs mediated cell cycle arrest at both G1/M and G2/M transitions. GTP dose dependently led to apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathways, as evidenced by induction of chromatin condensation, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), improvement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of DNA fragmentation, and activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the present paper.

  10. [Protective activity of different concentration of tea polyphenols and its major compound EGCG against whole body irradiation-induced injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaolai; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Wang, Yuyu; Guo, Daihong; Wang, Dongxiao; Liao, Hongho

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the different concentrate of tea polyphenols (TP) and its compound for irradiation-protection and investigate its mechanism. To evaluate the radioprotective activity, mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation. TP 80 and TP 50 (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) and its major constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) were administered after irradiation to examine its inhibition against irradiation-induced injury. This study indicate that in comparison with non-irradiated controls, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction the spleen index (spleen weight/body weight 100), haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase of malondialdehde (MDA) level in 28 days. Oral administration of TP (50 mg x kg(-1)) shown the best effect on reducing the irradiation-induced injury on mice studied, and showed a protective effect against irradiation-induced haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), the spleen index and MDA level significant reduction, and antioxidase activity (SOD) decrease. The results suggest that TP 50 mg x kg(-1) and EGCG have in vivo antioxidant potential and radioprotective activity against whole body gamma irradiation in mice. It may be concluded that TP (50% EGCG) possess good irradiation-protective and antioxidant effect.

  11. Green Tea Polyphenols Ameliorate the Early Renal Damage Induced by a High-Fat Diet via Ketogenesis/SIRT3 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs. Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD. Methods and Results. Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks. The renal oxidative stress level, kidney function, renal expression, and activity levels of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2 and sirtuin 3(SIRT3 were detected. The increased renal oxidative stress and the loss of renal function induced by the HFD were ameliorated by GTPs. Renal ketogenesis and SIRT3 expression and activity levels, which were reduced by the HFD, were restored by GTPs. In vitro, HEK293 cells were transfected with the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA HMGCS2. GTP treatment could upregulate HMGCS2 and SIRT3 expression. Although SIRT3 expression was not affected by HMGCS2 transfection, the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE level and the acetyl-MnSOD (K122/MnSOD ratio were reduced in HMGCS2-transfected cells in the context of H2O2. Conclusion. The ketogenesis/SIRT3 pathway mediates the renoprotection of GTPs against the oxidative stress induced by an HFD.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Polyphenolic Fraction of Kombucha Against Enteric Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Patra, Madhu Manti; Chakravorty, Somnath; Sarkar, Soumyadev; Chakraborty, Writachit; Koley, Hemanta; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of multi-drug-resistant enteric pathogens has prompted the scientist community to explore the therapeutic potentials of traditional foods and beverages. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of Kombucha, a fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhimurium followed by the identification of the antibacterial components present in Kombucha. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the inhibition zone diameter, minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Kombucha fermented for 14 days showed maximum activity against the bacterial strains. Its ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective upon sequential solvent extraction of the 14-day Kombucha. This potent ethyl acetate extract was then subjected to thin layer chromatography for further purification of antibacterial ingredients which led to the isolation of an active polyphenolic fraction. Catechin and isorhamnetin were detected as the major antibacterial compounds present in this polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Catechin, one of the primary antibacterial polyphenols in tea was also found to be present in Kombucha. But isorhamnetin is not reported to be present in tea, which may thereby suggest the role of fermentation process of black tea for its production in Kombucha. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of isorhamnetin in Kombucha. The overall study suggests that Kombucha can be used as a potent antibacterial agent against entero-pathogenic bacterial infections, which mainly is attributed to its polyphenolic content.

  13. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides- Contaminated Tea Infusion Blocks Lipids Reduction and Induces Kidney Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When the homogenate of fresh tea tree leaves was fermented to produce black tea beverage, the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (main pathogen or endophyte of Camellia sinensis may be mixed into the fermentation liquor. However, it was unclear whether C. gloeosporioides-contaminated tea beverage would damage human health. Therefore, we investigated the changes of functional components and the influences on mice. C. gloeosporioides was added to the green tea infusion. After cultivation of 48 h, tea polyphenols, caffeine, and L-theanine decreased by 31.0, 26.2, and 8.3%, respectively. The contaminated tea infusion showed brown stain, and produced a group of toxic materials named phthalic acid esters. The animal study showed that green tea without contamination significantly decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein, and increased insulin level compared with obese mice. On the contrary, contaminated tea lost the effects on these indicators. Furthermore, the urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels significantly increased in the contaminated tea-drinking mice. Altogether, our results indicate that C. gloeosporioides contamination can reduce the amount of functional components of green tea. Therefore, it inhibits some health-care function of lipid-lowering. In addition, the toxic components in contaminated tea infusion might induce renal damage.

  14. The Involvement of a Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Black Chokeberry in Oxidative Stress on Experimental Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ciocoiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the content of Aronia melanocarpa Elliott (black chokeberry extract and also to estimate the influence of polyphenolic compounds contained in chokeberries on oxidative stress, on an L-NAME-induced experimental model of arterial hypertension. The rat blood pressure values were recorded using a CODA Noninvasive Blood Pressure System. HPLC/DAD coupled with ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry allowed identification of five phenolic compounds in berries ethanolic extract as follows: chlorogenic acid, kuromanin, rutin, hyperoside, and quercetin. The serous activity of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px has significantly lower values in the hypertensive (AHT group as compared to the group protected by polyphenols (AHT + P. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC values are lower in the AHT group and they are significantly higher in the AHT + P group. All the measured blood pressure components revealed a biostatistically significant blood pressure drop between the AHT group and the AHT + P group. The results reveal the normalization of the reduced glutathion (GSH concentration as well as a considerable reduction in the malondialdehyde (MDA serum concentration in the AHT + P group. Ethanolic extract of black chokeberry fruits not only has a potential value as a prophylactic agent but also may function as a nutritional supplement in the management of arterial hypertension.

  15. LOGIKA FUZZY DAN JARINGAN SYARAT TIRUAN UNTUK PENINGKATAN MUTU TEH HITAM [Fuzzy Logic an Artificial Neural Network for Quality Improvement of Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatulloh 1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed quality improvement of black tea using fuzzy approach on quality functions deployment and the development of backpropagation neural the software NWP II plus. The research was conducted at PTPN VIII tea industry, Goalpara plantation. Result of the study showed that, parameter first priority based on customer evaluation was tea flavour. The Important process parameter of black tea based on result of fuzzy relationship matrix was the withering process. Based on the test of “trial and error” of network training process, the best network architecture for withering process monitoring [3-15-1] was obtained, that is 3 neurons in input layer, 15 neurons in hidden layer and 1 neuron in output layer. Three inputs and output consist of time, flow, temperature and moisture content. The result sugges that development of backpropagation neural network can be used for process evaluation of withering processes.

  16. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Beverages Prepared using Banana Peel, Common Nettles and Black Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being

  18. Consumption of Black Tea Infusion to Maintain the Functions of the Liver in Rats Exposed to γ-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Black tea, a phyto-compound of the fully oxidized form of Camellia sinensis has been attributed with a plethora of health-promoting actions. The role of aqueous black tea infusion (BTI) in the liver cytoprotective properties was studied using liver biochemical lesions produced by γ-rays in rat model prior oral administration of black tea infusion at 3 % (w/v) as the sole source of drinking for 10 days. Liver antioxidant properties were evaluated as, total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, Thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), triacylglycerols (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were estimated. The marker enzymes of liver damage (aspartate and alanine transaminases; ALT and AST) in serum were also evaluated. Moreover, the level of plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs); bioactive products of lipid peroxidation was determined. Exposure of rats to γ-rays was found to cause a decrease in the liver's antioxidant abilities and provoke an increase in the level of TBARS, TG and TC. It also significantly exasperated enzymes of liver damage (ALT and AST) and the plasma F2-isoprostanes level. Supplementation of BTI prevents the changes in the liver's antioxidant abilities and in TBARS and GSH. In addition, prevents increase of oxidative stress visible as plasma F2-IsoP and decreased leak of ALT and AST into the blood. Conclusion: These results indicate that regular intake of BTI may protect γ-rays-induced oxidative damage and the consequent degenerative liver changes. The BTI consumed throughout the world is believed to be not only a popular beverage but also an anti oxidative agent available in everyday life

  19. Combining Bone Marrow Stromal Cells with Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuates the Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Permeability in Rats with Compression Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, De-shui; Liu, Li-bo; Cao, Yang; Wang, Yan-song; Bi, Yun-long; Wei, Zi-Jian; Tong, Song-ming; Lv, Gang; Mei, Xi-fan

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) combined with green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat model. In the model of SCI rats, we found that the water content and the BSCB permeability were decreased by BMSCs and GTPs treatment, and their combination had a synergistic effect. Further, the motor function of rats was also greatly improved by BMSCs and GTPs administration. After treated by the combination of BMSCs and GTPs, SCI rats showed the up-regulated expression of tight junction (TJ) associated proteins claudin-5, occludin and ZO-1 by Western blot, which was more remarkable than that in the single treatment. The increased expression levels of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 were the most obvious in the spinal cord microvessels using immunohistochemistry assay. This led to the conclusion that the combination of BMSCs and GTPs could decrease the BSCB permeability by up-regulating protein expression levels of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1. In addition, after BMSCs and GTPs administration, the results of Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed a significant decrease in protein expression level and the activation of nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB) p65. Our results indicated that combination of BMSCs and GTPs could improve motor function after SCI, which might be correlated with improvements in BSCB integrity, and that NF-кB might be involved in the modulating process.

  20. [The mechanism underlying the effects of tea polyphenol on epirubicin-induced autophagy and apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Yin, Hubin; Liu, Yan; Gou, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism by which epirubicin (EPI) induces autophagy and the mechanism by which tea polyphenol (TP) regulates EPI-induced autophagy and apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 cells weredivided into control group, EPI group, TP group and TP plus EPI group. Eight hours after corresponding treatments in different groups, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the image of autophagosomes. The expressions of autophagy-related protein LC3II and p62 in the cells were detected by Western blotting. Apoptotic cells were evaluated after EPI-treatment for 24 hours by flow cytometry combined with annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blotting was performed to determine the levels of cleaved-caspase-3 (c-caspase-3) and cleaved-PARP (c-PARP). LC3II was again tested by Western blotting 8 hours after T24 cells were treated with EPI added with autophagy pathway inhibitor chloroquine and 3-methyladenine, and moreover, the levels of LC3II and p-JNK were detected by Western blotting after T24 cells were treated with EPI combined with TP or the JNK inhibitor SP for 8 hours. Results The amount of autophagosomes and the level of LC3IIin TP plus EPI group were much lower than those in EPI group. SP reduced the level of LC3II induced by EPI. EPI increased p-JNK in a time-dependent manner. TP combined with EPI reduced the activity of JNK pathway. The apoptosis rate and the levels of c-caspase-3 and c-PARP in TP plus EPI group were much higher than those in EPI group. Conclusion TP inhibits autophagy through JNK pathway to enhance EPI-induced apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  1. Green tea polyphenols change the profile of inflammatory cytokine release from lymphocytes of obese and lean rats and protect against oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, N; Bolin, A P; Otton, R

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether green tea polyphenols (GT) modulate some functional parameters of lymphocytes from obese rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with GT by gavage (12 weeks/5 days/week; 500 mg/kg of body weight) and obesity was induced by cafeteria diet (8 weeks). Lymphocytes were obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes for analyses. In response to the cafeteria diet we observed an increase in activity of the metabolic enzyme hexokinase, ROS production, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and GR enzyme activities and proliferation capacity of the cells (baseline), whereas IL-10 production was decreased. Obese rats treated with GT decreased cell proliferation (under ConA stimulation). Hexokinase and G6PDH activity, ROS production and MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx and GR enzymes remained increased, accompanied by an increase in Nrf2 mRNA level. There was a decrease in pro-inflammatory IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α cytokines that were accompanied by a decrease in the mRNA level of TRL4 while IL-10 production was increased in obese rats treated with GT. GT treatment of lean rats showed similar results to that of obese rats treated with GT, indicating that the effects of GT are independent of diet. Foxp3 and IRF4 mRNA levels were increased by GT. In conclusion, cafeteria diet modulated the function of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, increasing ROS production and decreasing anti-inflammatory IL-10, which could contribute to the inflammatory state in obesity. GT reduced ROS production, improving the redox status and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lymphocytes, suggesting that GT treatment may be driving lymphocytes to a more anti-inflammatory than pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. ► EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. ► EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-κB p65 translocation via 67LR. ► EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  3. Chafuroside B, an Oolong tea polyphenol, ameliorates UVB-induced DNA damage and generation of photo-immunosuppression related mediators in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Chafuroside B was recently isolated as a new polyphenolic constituent of oolong tea leaves. However, the effects of chafuroside B on skin function have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of chafuroside B against UVB-induced DNA damage, apoptosis and generation of photo-immunosuppression related mediators in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK. Chafuroside B at 1 µM attenuated both UVB-induced apoptosis, evaluated in terms of caspase-3/7 activity, and UVB-induced DNA damage, evaluated in terms of formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD, in NHEK exposed to UVB (20 mJ/cm2. In addition, chafuroside B at 0.3 or 1 µM suppressed the UVB-induced production of interleukin (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as determined by ELISA, and conversely enhanced IL-12 mRNA expression and production, as measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Further, chafuroside B at 1 µM also suppressed UVB-induced expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL mRNA. These results indicate that chafuroside B promotes repair of UVB-induced DNA damage and ameliorates the generation of IL-10, TNF-α, PGE2, and RANKL, all of which are UVB-induced immunosuppression related mediators. These effects of chafuroside B may be mediated at least in part through induction of IL-12 synthesis in human keratinocytes. Because chafuroside B might have practical value as a photoprotective agent, a further study of the in vivo effects of chafuroside B seems warranted.

  4. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS with the aid of size exclusion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Katsuki, Fumie; Itoh, Akihide; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves and their tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Tea infusions were prepared as usual tea beverage by brewing black tea leaves in boiling water for 5 min. About 40 elements in tea leaves and tea infusions could be determined over the wide concentration range in 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusions to that in tea leaves. From the experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in black tea leaves were classified into three characteristic groups: (i) highly-extractable elements (>55%): Na, K, Co, Ni, Rb, Cs and Tl, (ii) moderately-extractable elements (20-55%): Mg, Al, P, Mn and Zn, and (iii) poorly-extractable elements (<20%): Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sn, Ba and lanthanoid elements. Furthermore, speciation of major-to-trace elements in tea infusions was performed by using a combined system of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ICP-MS (or ICP-AES). As a result, many diverse elements were found to be present as complexes associated with large organic molecules in tea infusions. (author)

  5. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  6. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  7. Protective Effects of Green Tea Polyphenol Against Renal Injury Through ROS-Mediated JNK-MAPK Pathway in Lead Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Li, Deyuan; Hu, Zhongze; Zhao, Siming; Zheng, Zhejun; Li, Wei

    2016-06-30

    To investigate the potential therapeutic effects of polyphenols in treating Pb induced renal dysfunction and intoxication and to explore the detailed underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control groups (CT), Pb exposure groups (Pb), Pb plus Polyphenols groups (Pb+PP) and Polyphenols groups (PP). Animals were kept for 60 days and sacrificed for tests of urea, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Histological evaluations were then performed. In vitro studies were performed using primary kidney mesangial cells to reveal detailed mechanisms. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate cell viability. Pb induced cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and scavenging were tested by DCFH-DA. Expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1-β (IL-1-β) and IL-6 were assayed by ELISA. Western blot and qPCR were used to measure the expression of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38. Polyphenols have obvious protective effects on Pb induced renal dysfunction and intoxication both in vivo and in vitro. Polyphenols reduced Pb concentration and accumulation in kidney. Polyphenols also protected kidney mesangial cells from Pb induced apoptosis. Polyphenols scavenged Pb induced ROS generation and suppressed ROS-mediated ERK/JNK/p38 pathway. Downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines were inhibited in consistency. Polyphenol is protective in Pb induced renal intoxication and inflammatory responses. The underlying mechanisms lie on the antioxidant activity and ROS scavenging activity of polyphenols.

  8. Green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces toxicity in human skin cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tripti [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects in several skin tumor models, and efforts are continued to investigate the molecular targets responsible for its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. Our recent observation that β-catenin is upregulated in skin tumors suggested the possibility that the anti-skin carcinogenic effects of EGCG are mediated, at least in part, through its effects on β-catenin signaling. We have found that treatment of the A431 and SCC13 human skin cancer cell lines with EGCG resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death and that these cytotoxic effects were associated with inactivation of β-catenin signaling. Evidence of EGCG-induced inactivation of β-catenin included: (i) reduced accumulation of nuclear β-catenin; (ii) enhanced levels of casein kinase1α, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and increased phosphorylation of β-catenin on critical serine{sup 45,33/37} residues; and (iii) reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which are down-stream targets of β-catenin. Treatment of cells with prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin signaling. Treatment with either EGCG or an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced the PGE{sub 2}-enhanced levels of cAMP, an upstream regulator of β-catenin. Inactivation of β-catenin by EGCG resulted in suppression of cell survival signaling proteins. siRNA knockdown of β-catenin in A431 and SCC13 cells reduced cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that induction of cytotoxicity in skin cancer cells by EGCG is mediated by targeting of β-catenin signaling and that the β-catenin signaling is upregulated by inflammatory mediators. - Highlights: • EGCG inhibits cancer cell viability through inactivation of β-catenin signaling. • Inactivation of β-catenin involves the downregulation of inflammatory mediators. • EGCG

  9. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea phenols are extensively metabolized in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Buijsman, M.N.C.P.; Amelsvoort, van J.M.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary phenols are antioxidants, and their consumption might contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Coffee and tea are major dietary sources of phenols. Dietary phenols are metabolized extensively in the body. Lack of quantitative data on their metabolites hinders a proper

  10. Structural annotation and elucidation of conjugated phenolic compounds in black, green, and white tea extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Akermi, M.; Yelda Ünlü, F.; Mihaleva, V.; Gomez Roldan, V.; Bino, R.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced analytical approaches consisting of both LC-LTQ-Orbitrap Fourier transformed (FT)-MS and LC-time-of-flight-(TOF)-MS coupled to solid-phase extraction (SPE) NMR were used to obtain more insight into the complex phenolic composition of tea. On the basis of the combined structural information

  11. Functional Characterization of Epitheaflagallin 3-O-Gallate Generated in Laccase-Treated Green Tea Extracts in the Presence of Gallic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuya; Kurokawa, Junji; Isogai, Yasuhiro; Ogasawara, Masaru; Matsunaga, Takayuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Katsube, Yuji

    2017-12-06

    Epitheaflagallin (ETFG) and epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate (ETFGg) are minor polyphenols in black tea extract that are enzymatically synthesized from epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), respectively, in green tea extract via laccase oxidation in the presence of gallic acid. The constituents of laccase-treated green tea extract in the presence of gallic acid are thus quite different from those of nonlaccase-treated green tea extract: EGC and EGCg are present in lower concentrations, and ETFG and ETFGg are present in higher concentrations. Additionally, laccase-treated green tea extract contains further polymerized catechin derivatives, comparable with naturally fermented teas such as oolong tea and black tea. We found that ETFGg and laccase-treated green tea extracts exhibit versatile physiological functions in vivo and in vitro, including antioxidative activity, pancreatic lipase inhibition, Streptococcus sorbinus glycosyltransferase inhibition, and an inhibiting effect on the activity of matrix metalloprotease-1 and -3 and their synthesis by human gingival fibroblasts. We confirmed that these inhibitory effects of ETFGg in vitro match well with the results obtained by docking simulations of the compounds with their target enzymes or noncatalytic protein. Thus, ETFGg and laccase-treated green tea extracts containing ETFGg are promising functional food materials with potential antiobesity and antiperiodontal disease activities.

  12. Identification of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) polyphenols that inhibit and promote iron uptake by caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In nutritional studies, polyphenolic compounds are considered to be inhibitors of Fe bioavailability. Because they are presumed to act in a similar manner, total polyphenols are commonly measured via the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. In this study, we measured the content of polyphenolic compo...

  13. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs. The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample, and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  14. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz; Zagal, José Heraclito

    2010-01-01

    A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III) followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III) reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample), and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. PMID:21461407

  15. Polyphenols and Glycemic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer B.; Clifton, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence from animal studies supports the anti-diabetic properties of some dietary polyphenols, suggesting that dietary polyphenols could be one dietary therapy for the prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes. This review aims to address the potential mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity based on in vitro and in vivo studies, and to provide a comprehensive overview of the anti-diabetic effects of commonly consumed dietary polyphenols including polyphenol-rich mixed diets, tea and coffee, chocolate and cocoa, cinnamon, grape, pomegranate, red wine, berries and olive oil, with a focus on human clinical trials. Dietary polyphenols may inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, inhibit glucose absorption in the intestine by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), stimulate insulin secretion and reduce hepatic glucose output. Polyphenols may also enhance insulin-dependent glucose uptake, activate 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), modify the microbiome and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, human epidemiological and intervention studies have shown inconsistent results. Further intervention studies are essential to clarify the conflicting findings and confirm or refute the anti-diabetic effects of dietary polyphenols. PMID:26742071

  16. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  17. A randomized double blind study of a green and black tea agent, AssuriTEA®, in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Capodice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green and black teas have known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 3 doses of a water-extracted green and black tea agent (AssuriTEA® [AT]. Methods: Subjects who met inclusion criteria were randomized to one of four groups: 1000, 500, or 250 mg AT or placebo for 28 days. At baseline (BL and day 28, serum antioxidant capacity, quality of life and safety were assessed. Results: Of the 55 subjects screened, 43 were considered evaluable. Age was 56.77 ± 2.83 years (mean ± SEM. Evaluable subjects demonstrated improved antioxidant status, as measured by ferric iron reducing antioxidant power at all doses over the placebo (p < 0.05. There was significant improvement in cellular antioxidant protection in the 1000 mg AT group versus the placebo (p=0.032. Glucose levels were higher in the placebo group versus the 250 mg AT group (p=0.023 and there was a significant improvement in systolic blood pressure in the 250 mg AT group at day 28 versus BL (p=0.048. In the 1000 mg AT group, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure at day 28 versus BL (p=0.017. There was a significant improvement in the vitality category in the 1000 mg AT group (p=0.029. Overall, AT was safe and well tolerated with no differences in adverse events or serum chemistries between groups. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the administration of AT resulted in improvement of serum antioxidant status, vitality level, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure in test subjects.

  18. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds of Camellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations of BTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0 µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results: The results showed that BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.95 cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity in vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.94 inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17% on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption of BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  19. Photostabilization of sunscreens by incorporation of tea as the external phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of isolated ultraviolet (UV filters in photoprotective formulations creates products with limited protection against radiation, emphasising the need to develop formulations containing UVA and UVB filter combinations. However, most of the formulations developed to include both filters are unstable as a result of this combination, as well as by exposure to UV radiation. It is, therefore, crucial to include additives that enable photostabilization. Tea is the second most widely consumed beverage in the world and represents a good source of bioactive compounds, particularly polyphenols, which provide antioxidant activity. In the present work formulations containing green tea or black tea, as well as the sunscreens avobenzone (UVA sunscreen and octilmetoxinamato (UVB sunscreen, were developed and evaluated in order to develop new and effective photostable formulations providing broad spectrum photoprotection. These formulations have been developed with complete replacement of the external phase of the oil in water (O/W emulsion by these teas. The results showed that both teas presented photostabilizing capacity, particularly for green tea in the storage conditions at room temperature and at 5 °C, and black tea for the samples stored at 40 °C.

  20. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  1. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Numerous studies in multiple animal models and different cancer cell lines have demonstrated the anti-tumorigenesis by green tea polyphenols. Despite the consistency of laboratory results, evidence of this effect occuring in humans has been inconclusive to date.Objective: To investigate if green tea consumption was associated with longer survival rates in ovarian cancer patients, and a lower risk of ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer, in addition toadult leukemiaMethods: We have conducted one prospective cohort study in ovarian cancer patients, and fivecase-control studies in ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancers, and leukemia over the past decade. Tea consumption was measured using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in a preliminary study, and then evaluated by a test–retest. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios(HRs, 95% confidence intervals(95% CIs, and were adjusted for age at diagnosis, locality, body mass index(BMI, parity, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics(IFGO stage, histologic grade of differentiation, cytology of ascites, residual tumour, and chemotherapeutic status. Odds ratios(ORs and 95% CIs were obtained using logistic regression analyses, which accounted for demographic, lifestyle, hormonal and family cancer factors, and potential confounders.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2

  2. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  3. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  4. Protection against ultraviolet-B radiation-induced local and systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity and edema responses in C3H/HeN mice by green tea polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, S.K.; Elmets, C.A.; Agarwal, Rajesh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Exposure of skin to UV radiation can cause diverse biological effects, including induction of inflammation, alteration in cutaneous immune cells and impairment of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses. Our laboratory has demonstrated that oral feeding as well as topical application of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) affords protection against the carcinogenic effects of UVB (280-320 nm) radiation. In this study, we investigated whether GTP could protect against UVB-induced immunosuppression and cutaneous inflammatory responses in C3H mice. Immunosuppression was assessed by contact sensitization with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene applied to UVB-irradiated skin (local suppression) or to a distant site (systemic suppression), while double skin-fold swelling was used as the measure of UVB-induced inflammation. (author)

  5. Antibacterial activity of polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha against Vibrio cholerae: targeting cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D; Ghosh, D; Bhattacharya, S; Sarkar, S; Karmakar, P; Koley, H; Gachhui, R

    2018-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of a polyphenolic fraction, composed of mainly catechin and isorhamnetin, previously isolated from Kombucha, a 14-day fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against the enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae N16961. Bacterial growth was found to be seriously impaired by the polyphenolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated morphological alterations in bacterial cells when exposed to the polyphenolic fraction in a concentration-dependent manner. Permeabilization assays confirmed that the fraction disrupted bacterial membrane integrity in both time- and dose-dependent manners, which were proportional to the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, each of the polyphenols catechin and isorhamnetin showed the ability to permeate bacterial cell membranes by generating oxidative stress, thereby suggesting their role in the antibacterial potential of Kombucha. Thus, the basic mechanism of antibacterial activity of the Kombucha polyphenolic fraction against V. cholerae involved bacterial membrane permeabilization and morphological changes, which might be due to the generation of intracellular ROS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the investigation of antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae strains has hindered an efficient anti-Vibrio therapy. This study has demonstrated the membrane damage-mediated antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, a popular fermented beverage of sugared tea, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. This study also implies the exploitation of Kombucha as a potential new source of bioactive polyphenols against V. cholerae. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Intelligent evaluation of color sensory quality of black tea by visible-near infrared spectroscopy technology: A comparison of spectra and color data information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Zhao, Jiewen; Guo, Zhiming; Gu, Hang

    2017-06-01

    Instrumental test of black tea samples instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. This study focused on an investigation of the feasibility for estimation of the color sensory quality of black tea samples using the VIS-NIR spectroscopy technique, comparing the performances of models based on the spectra and color information. In model calibration, the variables were first selected by genetic algorithm (GA); then the nonlinear back propagation-artificial neural network (BPANN) models were established based on the optimal variables. In comparison with the other models, GA-BPANN models from spectra data information showed the best performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.8935, and the root mean square error of 0.392 in the prediction set. In addition, models based on the spectra information provided better performance than that based on the color parameters. Therefore, the VIS-NIR spectroscopy technique is a promising tool for rapid and accurate evaluation of the sensory quality of black tea samples.

  7. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yue Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  9. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2017-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  10. Soil effect on polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyphenols have gained much interest recently due to their antioxidant capacity and possible benefits to human health. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of polyphenols and has higher antioxidant activity than teas and red wines. Cocoa and its derived products contain different types of polyphenols and possess ...

  11. DFT/TDDFT and Experimental Studies of Natural Pigments Extracted from Black Tea Waste for DSSC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. R. N. Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results of combined experimental and theoretical studies of black tea waste extract (BTE as a potential sensitizer for TiO2-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. UV-vis absorption data revealed that BTE contains theaflavin. DSSC sensitized with pigment complexes of BTE showed a photon-energy conversion efficiency of %, while a significant increase (% is observed when pH of the pigment solution was lowered. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels were calculated using experimental data of UV-vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry. These calculations revealed a reduction of the band gap by 0.17 eV and more negativity of HOMO level of acidified pigment, compared to that of original pigment. Combined effect of these developments caused the enhanced efficiency of DSSC. Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT computational calculations were carried out to study the four theaflavin analogues which are responsible for the dark colour of BTE. According to the calculations, two theaflavin analogues, theaflavin and theaflavin digallate, are the most probable sensitizers in this dye-sensitized solar cell system.

  12. Tea Drinking and Its Association with Active Tuberculosis Incidence among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Avril Zixin; Pan, An; Chee, Cynthia Bin Eng; Wang, Yee-Tang; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2017-05-25

    Experimental studies showed that tea polyphenols may inhibit growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . However, no prospective epidemiologic study has investigated tea drinking and the risk of active tuberculosis. We investigated this association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese aged 45-74 years recruited between 1993 and 1998 in Singapore. Information on habitual drinking of tea (including black and green tea) and coffee was collected via structured questionnaires. Incident cases of active tuberculosis were identified via linkage with the nationwide tuberculosis registry up to 31 December 2014. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relation of tea and coffee consumption with tuberculosis risk. Over a mean 16.8 years of follow-up, we identified 1249 incident cases of active tuberculosis. Drinking either black or green tea was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in tuberculosis risk. Compared to non-drinkers, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 1.01 (0.85-1.21) in monthly tea drinkers, 0.84 (0.73-0.98) in weekly drinkers, and 0.82 (0.71-0.96) in daily drinkers ( p for trend = 0.003). Coffee or caffeine intake was not significantly associated with tuberculosis risk. In conclusion, regular tea drinking was associated with a reduced risk of active tuberculosis.

  13. Tea Drinking and Its Association with Active Tuberculosis Incidence among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Zixin Soh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies showed that tea polyphenols may inhibit growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, no prospective epidemiologic study has investigated tea drinking and the risk of active tuberculosis. We investigated this association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese aged 45–74 years recruited between 1993 and 1998 in Singapore. Information on habitual drinking of tea (including black and green tea and coffee was collected via structured questionnaires. Incident cases of active tuberculosis were identified via linkage with the nationwide tuberculosis registry up to 31 December 2014. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relation of tea and coffee consumption with tuberculosis risk. Over a mean 16.8 years of follow-up, we identified 1249 incident cases of active tuberculosis. Drinking either black or green tea was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in tuberculosis risk. Compared to non-drinkers, the hazard ratio (HR (95% confidence interval (CI was 1.01 (0.85–1.21 in monthly tea drinkers, 0.84 (0.73–0.98 in weekly drinkers, and 0.82 (0.71–0.96 in daily drinkers (p for trend = 0.003. Coffee or caffeine intake was not significantly associated with tuberculosis risk. In conclusion, regular tea drinking was associated with a reduced risk of active tuberculosis.

  14. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario

    2015-02-25

    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  15. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  16. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Fox, Mark

    2010-12-14

    To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Randomised controlled crossover study. 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium (13)Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Cumulative percentage dose of (13)C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of (13)C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; Pcheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696.

  17. Acute effects of tea on fasting and postprandial vascular function and blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Burke, Valerie; Puddey, Ian B

    2005-01-01

    Effects of regular exposure to polyphenolic compounds found in tea, leading to improved endothelial function and blood pressure, may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Controlled trials in humans have found that ingestion of tea can improve endothelial function, but also cause a rapid onset acute increase in blood pressure. To examine the acute effects of tea consumption on fasting and postprandial vascular function and blood pressure. Endothelium-dependent dilatation of the brachial artery, assessed using ultrasound and blood pressure were measured in 20 participants with a history of coronary artery disease. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 3.5 h (blood pressure) and 4 h (endothelial function) after drinking three cups of black tea or hot water (consumed at time = 0, 1.5 and 3 h) with and without a high-fat (50 g) meal: a total of four treatments administered in random order. The high-fat meal did not impair endothelial function. In comparison to water alone, endothelium-dependent dilatation was increased by the meal with tea (1.7 (0.4, 3.0)%, P = 0.02), but was not significantly altered by the tea alone (0.7 (-0.6, 2.0)%, P = 0.32). Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased by tea alone in comparison to each of the other three groups: water alone (9.3 (4.5, 14.1) mmHg, P = 0.0003), meal with water (9.8 (5.0, 14.6) mmHg, P = 0.0001) and meal with tea (7.2 (2.4,12.0) mmHg, P = 0.004). Consumption of a meal negated the acute increase in systolic blood pressure found with tea in the fasting state. Consumption of food may alter the acute effects of tea on vascular function and blood pressure.

  18. Reflectance spectroscopy of biochemical components as indicators of tea, Camellia Sinensis, quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Fei, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Wang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of reflectance spectroscopy to estimate the concentration of biochemical compounds related to tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) quality (total tea polyphenols and free amino acids) is demonstrated. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed to establish the relationship between

  19. Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2013-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and co-fortified with zinc, as zinc sulfate consumed with black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ≥60 mg/kg flour.

  20. Tea Polysaccharides and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Du

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a beverage beneficial to health and is also a source for extracting bioactive components such as theanine, tea polyphenols (TPP and tea polysaccharides (TPS. TPS is a group of heteropolysaccharides bound with proteins. There is evidence showing that TPS not only improves immunity but also has various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperglycemia, and anti-inflammation. However, inconsistent results concerning chemical composition and bioactivity of TPS have been published in recent years. The advances in chemical composition and bioactivities of TPS are reviewed in the present paper. The inconsistent and controversial results regarding composition and bioactivities of TPS are also discussed.

  1. Evaluation and application of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients for development of ready to drink tea beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Shweta; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Singhal, Rekha S

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes. The combined enzymatic extraction amplified total extractives up to 76% in GTE and 72% in BTE. Total polyphenol was found to be enhanced to 24% in GTE and 19% in BTE. GTE was further selected for development of RTD in two different formats; synbiotic RTD and prebiotic RTD premix and analyzed for sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, and acceptability). Synbiotic RTD was also evaluated for stability over a period of 28 days at 4 °C. Synbiotic RTD developed an unpleasant flavor and aroma during the shelf life. Premix format of RTD developed using spray drying was reconstituted and found to be functionally and sensorially acceptable.

  2. Evaluation of the Stability of the Total Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Contents, and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activities of Kombucha Teas Using an In Vitro Model of Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindani I. Watawana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activity of three different types of Kombucha beverages prepared by three pellicles with different microbial compositions. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days and the assessments of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities as well as tea phenolic compounds were carried out. These parameters were also evaluated after subjecting the final fermented samples to gastric and duodenal digestion in an in vitro digestion model. The pH had a statistically significant decrease during the period of fermentation. The total phenolics content and antioxidant activities had increased during the fermentation process as well as when subjected to digestion. The starch hydrolase inhibitory activities also increased in a similar manner during the different phases. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities showed statistically significant increases (P<0.05 as the fermentation progressed, while an increase was observed after being subjected to pancreatic and duodenal digestion as well. All three types of tea showed a higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

  3. What is under the hump? Mass spectrometry based analysis of complex mixtures in processed food--lessons from the characterisation of black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and caramel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Nikolai; Dairpoosh, Farnoosh; Yassin, Ghada; Golon, Agnieszka; Jaiswal, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution we review our work on the characterisation of processed food. We review novel methods and analysis strategies developed to account for the composition of extraordinarily complex materials such as black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and thermally treated carbohydrates. Our methods are mainly based on modern mass spectrometry and are introduced and critically discussed. A series of novel previously unpublished data interpretation strategies are presented as well. Finally an evaluation of the insight obtained in the composition of selected processed foods is given discussing potential consequences for assessing beneficial and adverse health effects of processed food.

  4. Incubator proof miniaturized Holomonitor to in situ monitor cancer cells exposed to green tea polyphenol and preosteoblast cells adhering on nanostructured titanate surfaces: validity of the measured parameters and their corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Nador, Judit; Juhasz, Krisztina; Dobos, Agnes; Körösi, Laszlo; Székács, Inna; Patko, Daniel; Horvath, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The in situ observation of cell movements and morphological parameters over longer periods of time under physiological conditions is critical in basic cell research and biomedical applications. The quantitative phase-contrast microscope applied in this study has a remarkably small size, therefore it can be placed directly into a humidified incubator. Here, we report on the successful application of this M4 Holomonitor to observe cancer cell motility, motility speed, and migration in the presence of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin gallate, as well as to monitor the adhesion of preosteoblast cells on nanostructured titanate coatings, relevant for biomedical applications. A special mechanical stage was developed to position the sample into that range of the optical arrangement where digital autofocusing works with high reproducibility and precision. By in-depth analyzing the obtained single cell morphological parameters, we show that the limited vertical resolution of the optical setup results in underestimated single cell contact area and volume and overestimated single cell averaged thickness. We propose a simple model to correct the recorded data to obtain more precise single cell parameters. We compare the results with the kinetic data recorded by a surface sensitive optical biosensor, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy.

  5. Methylxanthines and catechines in different teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze – influence on antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, there are four basic types of tea: green (not fermented, black (fermented, oolong and white tea (partially fermented. The differences among these types are in the processing technology, which is largely reflected in their chemical composition. The most influential factor that significantly affects the quality and quantity of substances (biologically active is the processing temperature, which causes changes in the composition (isomerization and/or transformation. The present paper focuses on monitoring content of three methylxanthines - alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, and seven flavan-3-ols - catechins ((+-catechin (C, (--catechin-3-gallate (C-3-G, (--epicatechin (EC, (--epicatechin-3-gallate (EC-3-G, (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGC-3-G, (--gallocatechin (GC and (--gallocatechin-3-gallate (GC 3-G, which are characteristic for tea. Attention was also given to the assessment of selected antioxidant parameters using spectrophotometric procedures (ABTS - radical cation decolorization assay and Phosphomolybdenum reducing antioxidant power assay in relation to the determined substances using RP-HPLC/DAD analysis. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that a type of tea clearly affects the quality and quantity of the substances that have a positive impact on the consumer's health, significantly reflected in the levels of antioxidant active substances determined by the spectrophotometric procedures. The highest content of methylxanthin, catechins, polyphenols and antioxidant substances was recorded in the green tea sample GT3. The highest content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was recorded in the Pu-erh tea sample PT 5.

  6. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Lin, C.S.; Wu, C.; Liao, C.E.; Lin, H.Y.

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  7. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  8. Identification of key aromatic compounds in Congou black tea by PLSR with variable importance of projection scores and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shihong; Lu, Changqi; Li, Meifeng; Ye, Yulong; Wei, Xu; Tong, Huarong

    2018-04-13

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) is the most frequently used method to estimate the sensory contribution of single odorant, but disregards the interactions between volatiles. In order to select the key volatiles responsible for the aroma attributes of Congou black tea (Camellia sinensis), instrumental, sensory and multivariate statistical approaches were applied. By sensory analysis, nine panelists developed 8 descriptors, namely, floral, sweet, fruity, green, roasted, oil, spicy, and off-odor. Linalool, (E)-furan linalool oxide, (Z)-pyran linalool oxide, methyl salicylate, β-myrcene, phenylethyl alcohol which identified from the most representative samples by GC-O procedure, were the essential aroma-active compounds in the formation of basic Congou black tea aroma. In addition, 136 volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), among which 55 compounds were determined as the key factors for the six sensory attributes by partial least-square regression (PLSR) with variable importance of projection (VIP) scores. Our results demonstrated that HS-SPME/GC-MS/GC-O was a fast approach for isolation and quantification aroma-active compounds. PLSR method was also considered to be a useful tool in selecting important variables for sensory attributes. These two strategies allowed us to comprehensively evaluate the sensorial contribution of single volatile from different perspectives, can be applied to related products for comprehensive quality control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective effects of dietary polyphenols from black soybean seed coats on islet and renal function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ju; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Peng; Wang, Jing; Lu, Lingang

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of the crude polyphenol extract (BSCP) from black soybean seed coats (BSC) and the whole flour of BSC and illustrate the mechanism in terms of islet and renal protection. BSCP and BSC effectively controlled the increased blood glucose level and impaired glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats after 8 weeks of treatment. They increased the concentrations of serum insulin, C-peptide and Glp-1 (P BSC tended to decrease serum creatinine (0.05 BSC significantly (P BSC at a low dose of polyphenols plays a role in controlling blood glucose and lipids levels by promoting insulin secretion and restoring islet β-cell function, the same as BSCP. These benefits are accompanied by their potential protection of diabetic renal dysfunction. BSCP is mainly responsible for the antidiabetic effect of BSC. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans. PMID:21538848

  11. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  12. Effect of Chemical Composition of Honey on Cream Formation in Honey Lemon Tea

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hategekimana; J.G. Ma, Y. Li, E. Karangwa, W. Tang and F. Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chemical composition of honey and environmental factors such as pH, storage temperature and ionic strength on cream formation in honey lemon tea drink. The results showed that minerals, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were involved in cream formation while Fe2+ participated in changing color to tar black at pH 4.12 and above. Honey rich in polyphenols and proteins increased the cream to 2.51%. High proline content (0.506 mg/g) induced creaming in GH (Germany Ho...

  13. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China); Yang, Chung S. [Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China)

    2015-02-15

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  14. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: Comparative study of the reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  15. In vitro antifungal activity against Candida species of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal potential of different grades of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea [orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1] belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high. Methods: Antifungal activity was assessed in vitro using methanolic extracts (300 µg/disc and agar disc diffusion bioassay technique against three Candida species, Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida glabrata (C. glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. ketoconazole and itraconazole mixture was used as positive control (10 µg/disc and methanol was used as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were also determined using standard protocols. Results: None of the extracts were effective against Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, orange pekoe grade tea belonging to all agro-climatic elevations did not induce any antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata as well. Conversely, Dust No. 1 belonging to all three agro-climatic elevations and low-grown BOPF showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Interestingly, the severity of the antifungal effect varied with agroclimatic elevations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 64.00–128.00 µg/mL against C. glabrata and 128.00-256.00 µg/mL against C. albicans. Conclusions: Sri Lankan Dust No. 1 and BOPF have marked antifungal activity in vitro and offer promise to be used as a supplementary beverage in prophylaxis and during drug treatment in candidiasis.

  16. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    1400. The custom of tea serving continues today, and the tea flower continues to be used according to the demand. After that, it seems that "FURICHA" (tea with bubbles) continued to be used for 640 years, until 1590 (AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA period) because MANCHARAZU was regarded as important in religion. Then, it is believed that the customs of "BOTEBOTECHA" and/or"BATABATACHA" succeeded traditionally. The culture of both tea drinking and cooking, each development course, existed respectively from the relations of tea and food. The state that was accompanied with neither tea nor cooking, such as "KISHUU-CHAGAYU (tea gruel)" and BOTEBOTECHA, continued for a while, but it was combined together as "ICHIJUU-ICHISSA (one soup one tea)" of "KAISEKIRYOURI (tea-ceremony dish)." It is noteworthy that the tea flower is used as preserved food seasoned with "MISO (fermented soybean paste)" and "TSUKUDANI (boiled food in sweetened soy sauce)." Even though old documents about the use of tea flowers as food in China were not found, according to literature in the past ten years, seven descriptions were found that the tea flower was used for food provided alone or with black tea, oolong tea or green tea. As for tea leaves and tea flowers being used as medicine, drink or food in Japan, as well as in neighboring countries which belong to the Lucidophyllous forest zone. The process that they were regarded as important with the time was investigated and reported here.

  17. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  18. Identification of Green, Oolong and Black Teas in China via Wavelet Packet Entropy and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop an automatic tea-category identification system with a high recall rate, we proposed a computer-vision and machine-learning based system, which did not require expensive signal acquiring devices and time-consuming procedures. We captured 300 tea images using a 3-CCD digital camera, and then extracted 64 color histogram features and 16 wavelet packet entropy (WPE features to obtain color information and texture information, respectively. Principal component analysis was used to reduce features, which were fed into a fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM. Winner-take-all (WTA was introduced to help the classifier deal with this 3-class problem. The 10 × 10-fold stratified cross-validation results show that the proposed FSVM + WTA method yields an overall recall rate of 97.77%, higher than 5 existing methods. In addition, the number of reduced features is only five, less than or equal to existing methods. The proposed method is effective for tea identification.

  19. Time-dependent extraction kinetics of infused components of different Indian black tea types using UV spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Gani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent aqueous extraction of six tea types was carried out with leaf–water–ratio of 0.5 g/100 ml, temperature of extraction 90°C and time of extraction ranging from 1 to 10 min. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis in the range varying from 220 to 900 nm of the aqueous tea extracts showed a prominent peak at 273 nm in the ultraviolet region which can be associated with n → π* electronic transition of caffeine molecules. Parabolic diffusion, Power law, hyperbolic, Weibull’s and Elovich’s models were fitted to represent the aqueous soluble component extraction behaviour for time-dependent extraction of aqueous extractables. Parabolic diffusion model, Power law and Elovich’s model were a close fit to the experimental data for all the selected tea types with correlation coefficients (R2 ranging 0.8029–0.9953, whereas hyperbolic and Weibull’s models showed poor fitness to represent the extraction behaviour of fanning and AO leaf, LD, fanning and dust, respectively, with R2 < 0.8, for time-dependent aqueous soluble component extraction.

  20. Consumption of polyphenol plants may slow aging and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Utku; Seremet, Sila; Lamping, Jeffrey W; Adams, Jerome M; Liu, Deede Y; Swerdlow, Russell H; Aires, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Slowing aging is a widely shared goal. Plant-derived polyphenols, which are found in commonly consumed food plants such as tea, cocoa, blueberry and grape, have been proposed to have many health benefits, including slowing aging. In-vivo studies have demonstrated the lifespan-extending ability of six polyphenol-containing plants. These include five widely consumed foods (tea, blueberry, cocoa, apple, pomegranate) and a flower commonly used as a folk medicine (betony). These and multiple other plant polyphenols have been shown to have beneficial effects on aging-associated changes across a variety of organisms from worm and fly to rodent and human.

  1. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  2. Simultaneous Separation and Purification of Tea Bioactives from summer Green Tea by Column Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Lei, S.C.; Sun, B.H.; ZENG, X.X.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, feasibility of producing high quality of tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine from the extract of summer green tea by column chromatography was investigated. Crude extract of summer green tea obtained by hot water extraction was passed through columns of polyamide and NKA-II macroporous resin respectively, resulting in tea polyphenols-enriched fraction (96.27 +- 1.78%), the anine-enriched fraction (99.02 +- 0.43%) and caffeine-enriched fraction (99.25 +- 0.36%). The recovery rates for tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine were 72.42 +- 1.41%, 66.12 +- 1.66% and 62.07 +- 2.17%, respectively. The separation procedure allowed the production of such products by decreasing impurities and avoiding the use of poisonous organic solvent. The results suggested that it was possible to produce high-quality products of rich-in tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine by a simple way. From industrial point of view, this novel method has many merits such as high efficiency of separation, low consumption of energy and environment-friendly procedure. (author)

  3. Effects of Tea Polyphenols on the Expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and Survivin 
in Lewis Lung Carcinoma Xenografts in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing WANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The anti-angiogenic effect of tea polyphenols (TPs on lung carcinoma was confirmed in our previous study. The effect of TPs on the expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and Survivin in Lewis lung cancer xenograft in mice was observed to explore the anti-angiogenic mechanism of TPs. Methods Lewis lung carcinoma was successfully implanted in 32 C57BL/6 mice, which were then randomly divided into the model control group, the Thalidomide group, the TPs group and the TPs combined with Thalidomide group. The tumor inhibition rates in these groups were determined, whereas the expressions of NF-κB, COX-2 and Survivin were detected using immunohistochemical techniques to investigate the molecular mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of TPs. Results (1 The tumor inhibition rates in the Thalidomide control group, the TPs group and the TPs plus Thalidomide group were 17.26%, 20.81%, 44.32% respectively. Compared with the model control group, the tumor inhibition rate was significantly higher in the TPs plus Thalidomide group (P<0.05; (2 Compared with the model control group, the expression of NF-κB was significantly decreased in the TPs group and the TPs plus Thalidomide group, and it was significantly downregulated in the latter (P<0.05; (3 The expression of COX-2 decreased in all treatment groups, and was significantly downregulated in the TPs plus Thalidomide group compared with the model control group (P<0.05; (4 Compared with the model control group, Survivin expression was significantly downregulated in all treatment groups (P<0.05, and was most obviously reduced in the TPs plus the Thalidomide group (P<0.01. Conclusion TPs plus Thalidomide significantly inhibits Lewis lung cancer growth. TPs possibly downregulates the expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and Survivin in tumor tissue, thereby

  4. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  5. Comparison of Catechins and Antioxidant Activity in Four kinds of Sichuan tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Chen, Shengxiang; Zhu, Mingzhu; Meng, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    Absract:Catechins of the nine representative teas produced in Sichuan, which belonged to green tea, yellow tea, dark tea and black tea, were determined by UHPLC. Their antioxidant activity was determined by the hydroxyl radical scavenging. The results showed that: the total amount of their catechins was between 0.45(Qingzhuan) ˜ 121.21 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea > dark tea (black tea); except Qingzhuan, their EGCG contents were between 1.07 ± 0.01 (Chuanhong gongfu) ˜ 76.16 ±0.43 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea> dark tea (black tea); EGCG3“Me, which only remained in green and yellow tea, their contents were between 0.05±0.02 (Mengding Huangya) ˜ 0.39±0.04 mg/g (Mengding ganlu); their hydroxyl radical scavenging was between 48.37±0.20 (Fuzhuan) ˜75.51±0.63% (Mengding Huangya) and their IC50 was between 3.31±0.028 ˜5.18±0.012 mg/mL, the order for their clear rates was yellow tea> green tea> dark tea (black tea). Mengding Huangya showed the highest antioxidant activity in sichuan tea.

  6. Polyphenols and antioxidant activities of Kombucha beverage enriched with Coffeeberry® extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essawet Najmi Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, which derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a bioreactor at 28±1°C for nine days. The results showed that the CoffeeBerry® extract has contributed to a faster fermentation of cultivation medium. Some individual polyphenolic compounds and catehins in fermentation broth samples were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Among the bioactive compounds present in investigated samples obtained during Kombucha fermentation of the sweetened black tea enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract, chlorogenic acid (188.94-458.56 μg/mL was the predominant. The antioxidant activity of investigated samples was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were increased with duration of fermentation. IC50 values for Kombucha fermentation broth enriched with CoffeBerry®, based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, were in the range 26.33-170.13 μL/mL and 11.33-102.22 μL/mL, respectively.

  7. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  8. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceresini, Paulo C. [UNESP; Costa-Souza, Elaine [UNESP; Zala, Marcello; Furtado, Edson Luiz [UNESP; Souza, Nilton L. [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of...

  9. Impact of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich dietary sources on gut microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Usune; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Aguirre, Leixuri; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo, María P

    2013-10-09

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in host physiology and metabolism. Indeed, the relevance of a well-balanced gut microbiota composition to an individual's health status is essential for the person's well-being. Currently, investigations are focused on analyzing the effects of pre- and probiotics as new therapeutic tools to counteract the disruption of intestinal bacterial balance occurring in several diseases. Polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial health effects. However, although specific attention has been paid in recent years to the function of this "biological entity" in the metabolism of polyphenols, less is known about the modulatory capacity of these bioactive compounds on gut microbiota composition. This review provides an overview of the latest investigations carried out with pure polyphenols, extracts rich in polyphenols, and polyphenol-rich dietary sources (such as cocoa, tea, wine, soy products, and fruits) and critically discusses the consequences to gut microbiota composition which are produced.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Green Tea Polyphenols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 4 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Green tea phytocompounds as anticancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is universally considered significant and its benefits have been experimentally explored by researchers and scientists. Anticancer potential of green tea has been completely recognized now. Green tea contains anti-cancerous constituents and nutrients that have powerful remedial effects. By using electronic data base (1998–2015, different compounds in green tea possessing anticancer activity including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, paclitaxel and docetaxel combinations, ascorbic acid, catechins, lysine, synergistic arginine, green tea extract, proline, and green tea polyphenols has been reported. Green tea extracts exhibited remedial potential against cancer of lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemic cells, prostate, breast, human cervical cells, head, and neck. For centuries, green tea has been utilized as medicine for therapeutic purposes. It originated in China and extensively used in Asian countries for blood pressure depression and as anticancer medicine. Green tea has therapeutic potential against many diseases such as lowering of blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, weight loss, esophageal disease, skin-care, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

  12. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  13. Combination of HSCCC and Sephadex LH-20 methods An approach to isolation and purification of the main individual theaflavins from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjun; Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2008-01-01

    In order to separate the main individual theaflavin monomers from black tea, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography were applied. The results showed that theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3) can be obtained by HSCCC using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:3:1:6, v/v/v/v), but the TF1 was containing epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). Similarly, Sephadex LH-20 can also effectively separate TF2A(B) and TF3, but epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) contaminated TF1, too. Combination of HSCCC and Sephadex LH-20, the preferably purified TF1, TF2A(B) and TF3 were obtained than single separation technique. In addition, ECG and EGCG were also suggested to be able to be comprehensively separated by combination of the two techniques.

  14. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption | Sharma | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea is the most common beverage after water. It is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (family: Theaceae). It is consumed in different forms, namely, oolong, green, black and Ilex tea depending on post-harvest treatment and chemical components. Being rich in natural antioxidants, tea is reported to be used in the ...

  17. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-09

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  18. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  19. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  20. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  1. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Taguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%. The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day, also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2% and green tea (26.6% were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  2. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  3. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, microbiological characteristics, and biogenic amines formation in dry-cured bacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (tea polyphenol, grape seed extract, and gingerol) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol significantly...

  4. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Imali Ranatunge; Subshini Adikary; Piumi Dasanayake; Chamira Dilanka Fernando; Preethi Soysa

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis) were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVP...

  5. Changes in chlorophyll and polyphenols content in Camellia sinensis var. sinensis at different stage of leaf maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawira-Atmaja, M. I.; Shabri; Khomaini, H. S.; Maulana, H.; Harianto, S.; Rohdiana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Chlorophyll and polyphenols are chemical compound related to parameter quality of green tea. We studied the variation of chlorophyll and polyphenol in the development stage of tea leaves (bud, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th). Five clones of tea (Camelia sinensis var. sinensis) from Indonesia and a clone from Japan were used in this study. The results showed that total chlorophyll and total polyphenol content in bud between 1.59-2.15 mg/g (db) and 12.24-14.59% respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll increased significantly with developments stage of leaf while total polyphenol tended to decrease with leaf maturity. Pearson Correlation analysis showed that chlorophyll content was negatively correlated (r = -0.83; p = 0.05) with total polyphenol during developmental stage of tea leaves. Results suggests that five clones of tea from Indonesia have similar quality with tea clone from Japan in chlorophyll and polyphenol content. The present study also provides guidelines on application plucking standard to produce high quality of green tea.

  6. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  7. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Braakhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli, and fruit (apples, citrus. At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5–10 g daily and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched.

  8. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans.

  9. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5.......0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  10. Green tea intake is associated with urinary estrogen profiles in Japanese-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrman Barbara J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scope Intake of green tea may reduce the risk of breast cancer; polyphenols in this drink can influence enzymes that metabolize estrogens, known causal factors in breast cancer etiology. Methods and results We examined the associations of green tea intake ( Conclusions Findings suggest that intake of green tea may modify estrogen metabolism or conjugation and in this way may influence breast cancer risk.

  11. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  12. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  13. Addition of milk to tea infusions: Helpful or harmful? Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Everett, David W

    2017-10-13

    Tea consumption is practised as a tradition, and has shown potential to improve human health. Maximal uptake of tea antioxidants and milk proteins without a negative impact on tea flavor is highly desired by consumers. There is a conflicting evidence of the effect of milk addition to tea on antioxidant activity. Differences in the type of tea, the composition, type and amount of milk, preparation method of tea-milk infusions, the assays used to measure antioxidant activity, and sampling size likely account for different findings. Interactions between tea polyphenols and milk proteins, especially between catechins and caseins, could account for a decrease in antioxidant activity, although other mechanisms are also possible, given the similar effects between soy and bovine milk. The role of milk fat globules and the milk fat globule membrane surface is also important when considering interactions and loss of polyphenolic antioxidant activity, which has not been addressed in the literature.

  14. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  15. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  16. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imali Ranatunge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.

  17. Comparative study of the anti-oxidant activity of the total polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., Glycine max L. Merr., yellow tea and red wine through reaction with DPPH free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Andzi Barhé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of the evaluation of extracts of Glycine max L. Merr and Hibiscus L. Sabdariffa as antioxidants. A comparative study was performed with extracts of yellow tea and commercial red wine, two foods known for their antioxidant activity. The method applied is free radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°. The antioxidant properties were identified and measured by the determining the anti-radical activity reducing index, expressed in percentage % RSA (Radical Scavenger Activity, and by the determination of the colouring intensity (IC50. All results are compared to those of ascorbic acid as reference antioxidant. The results indicate the following order for the antioxidant power of the extracts tested. % RSA (tea > % RSA (Glycine max % > RSA (red wine % > RSA (Sabdariffa Hibiscus, and colouring intensities (IC50 ranging from 4.62 μM (ascorbic acid to 1.10 μM (Hibiscus sabdariffa correlated with their chemical structure and the content of phenolic compounds.

  18. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or of black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M. R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Zock, Peter L; Katan, M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Background: In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to I g chlorogenic acid/d. Objective: We studied

  19. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL Oxidation in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, H.M.G.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Blonk, C.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Langius, J.A.E.; Meinders, A.E.; Pijl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Intake of flavonoids is associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Oxidation of LDL is a major step in atherogenesis, and antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. Because tea is an important source of flavonoids which are strong antioxidants, we have assessed in a randomized,

  20. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  1. Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    cancer (PCa). BODY: Synthesis of chitosan-based nanoparticles encapsulating EGCG: Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized in mild acidic conditions...with green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Cancer Res 2009; 69:1712-6. PMID: 19223530 3. Perez C, Sanchez A, Putnam D, Ting D, Langer R

  2. Extraction and analysis of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMONDI-GUYA

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... value < 3.5 meq O2/kg, saponification value between 182 to 187 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid < 1.5% oleic acid, total ... Key words: Tea seed oil, iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acids, total polyphenols, antioxidant .... This was estimated according to the method of Morales and.

  3. NMR-based metabonomics approaches for the assessment of the metabolic impact of dietary polyphenols on humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duynhoven, J.; van Velzen, E.; Gross, G.; van Dorsten, F.; Jacobs, D.; Bingham, M.; Draijer, R.; Mulder, T.; Koning, T.; Vaughan, E.; van der Wiele, T.; Westerhuis, J.; Smilde, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, as present in for example tea, fruit and vegetables, are associated with several beneficial health effects. Most evidence is still based on epidemiological studies. So far, most nutritional intervention studies on dietary polyphenols are directly focused on pre-identified

  4. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  5. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Xindi, Yuan; Gumienna, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer containing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are polyphenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components' biological activity.

  6. Tea, coffee, and milk consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005-07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91-2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk.

  7. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of polyphenols extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuping; Yang, Lei; Yang, Xiaolan; Tian, Yanhua

    2014-06-01

    Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain 40-140 mg g(-1) polyphenols. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic composition of a high-purity (total phenolic content = 887 mg g(-1) ) hop polyphenol extract (HPE) and evaluate its antioxidant activities in vivo and in vitro and its antimutagenic activity. The antioxidant activity of HPE was compared with the activity of green tea polyphenols. The phenolic compositions of HPE were more than 55% proanthocyanidins and more than 28% flavonoid glycosides. In vitro, HPE effectively scavenged α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, and inhibited DNA oxidative damage. In vivo, oral HPE at a polyphenol dose of 200-800 mg kg(-1) body weight significantly prevented a bromobenzene-induced decrease in liver superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, and decreased levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in bromobenzene-treated mice. An oral dose of 20-80 mg kg(-1) body weight HPE significantly reduced the frequency of bone marrow micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide. The antioxidant activities of hop polyphenols in vitro and in vivo were higher than green tea polyphenols at the same concentration. Hop polyphenols had the same or higher antioxidant activity than tea polyphenols. Hop polyphenols might be useful as natural antioxidants and antimutagens. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Diepvens, Kristel; Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Tremblay, Angelo

    2006-08-30

    Consumption of spiced foods or herbal drinks leads to greater thermogenesis and in some cases to greater satiety. In this regard, capsaicin, black pepper, ginger, mixed spices, green tea, black tea and caffeine are relevant examples. These functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis, and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome sometimes may appear straightforwardly but also depends too strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  9. A RP-HPLC method for the determination of tea catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khokhar, S.; Venema, D.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    An HPLC method with gradient elution for the quantification of catechins ((−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), ( )-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechingallate (EGCg) and (−)-epicatechingallate (ECg)) in tea was developed. The method was used to determine catechins in black tea, green tea

  10. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LAPHET LABORATORY PROCESS AND TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) PRODUCTS BETWEEN CHINA AND MYANMAR

    OpenAIRE

    Pyie Phyo Maung; Qian He

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of extraction method on the flavonoids and antioxidant activity was investigated. The flavonoid contents of Laphet(fermented pickled tea leaves) possessed more than twice as much than fresh tea leaves. Chinese green tea had higher flavonoid contents than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar black tea’s flavonoid contents were higher. In laphet, both countries tea’s products possessed similar contents. Antioxidant activity of tea extracts were determined by using DPPH assay...

  11. Anticancer Efficacy of Polyphenols and Their Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, found abundantly in plants, display many anticarcinogenic properties including their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation as well as inducing apoptosis. In addition, they can modulate immune system response and protect normal cells against free radicals damage. Most investigations on anticancer mechanisms of polyphenols were conducted with individual compounds. However, several studies, including ours, have indicated that anti-cancer efficacy and scope of action can be further enhanced by combining them synergistically with chemically similar or different compounds. While most studies investigated the anti-cancer effects of combinations of two or three compounds, we used more comprehensive mixtures of specific polyphenols and mixtures of polyphenols with vitamins, amino acids and other micronutrients. The mixture containing quercetin, curcumin, green tea, cruciferex, and resveratrol (PB demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Fanconi anemia head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 secretion, cell migration and invasion through Matrigel. PB was found effective in inhibition of fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and melanoma A2058 cell proliferation, MMP-2 and -9 expression, invasion through Matrigel and inducing apoptosis, important parameters for cancer prevention. A combination of polyphenols (quercetin and green tea extract with vitamin C, amino acids and other micronutrients (EPQ demonstrated significant suppression of ovarian cancer ES-2 xenograft tumor growth and suppression of ovarian tumor growth and lung metastasis from IP injection of ovarian cancer A-2780 cells. The EPQ mixture without quercetin (NM also has shown potent anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro in a few dozen cancer cell lines by inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, MMP-2 and -9 secretion, invasion

  12. Predicting foliar biochemistry of tea (Camellia sinensis) using reflectance spectra measured at powder, leaf and canopy levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Wang, T.; Liu, X.; Zeng, R.; Fei, T.

    2013-01-01

    Some biochemical compounds are closely related with the quality of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)). In this study, the concentration of these compounds including total tea polyphenols, free amino acids and soluble sugars were estimated using reflectance spectroscopy at three different levels: powder,

  13. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on April 16, 2015. [Database subscription]. Hartley L, Flowers N, Holmes J, et al. Green and black ... health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH. ...

  14. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry; Genuis, Stephen J.; Rodushkin, Ilia

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i) tea leaves, (ii) tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii) tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety. PMID:24260033

  15. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  16. Correlation between fluorine content in tea and bone assessed using neutron activation analysis in a Canadian urban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, F.E.; Chettle, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Brewed tea from Canadian brands was analyzed for fluorine content using neutron activation analysis. Black tea contained (mean ± SEM) 5.4 ± 0.2 μg F/ml, while green tea contained less, 3.7 ± 0.5 μg F/ml. Using the numbers from black tea, and our unique data from non-invasive measurements of fluoride in bone, we estimate that tea drinkers in Hamilton are consuming, on average, 25 μg F/kg bw per day, the equivalent of approximately 1.5 cups of tea per day. (author)

  17. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  18. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  19. Major water-soluble polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, in leaves of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kayoko; Aketa, Saiko; Nakanami, Mitsuhiro; Iizuka, Shinzo; Hirayama, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The amounts and compositions of polyphenol in persimmon leaves and persimmon leaf tea were investigated. The predominant polyphenols in fresh leaves were water-soluble, and the contents reached a maximum (2.40% w/w) in June, and then gradually decreased. Separation of them followed by thiolytic degradation revealed that the major components were unique proanthocyanidin oligomers consisting of four heterogeneous extension units, including epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Persimmon leaf tea also contained similar proanthocyanidins with similar compositional units. Oral administration of starch with polyphenol concentrate of persimmon leaf tea resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in the blood glucose level in Wistar rats. This effect is considered to be due to inhibition of pancreas alpha-amylase. These results indicate that persimmon leaf tea containing peculiar proanthocyanidins has a significant role in suppressing blood glucose elevation after starch intake, and that the best harvest time is June.

  20. Dietary Polyphenols, Mediterranean Diet, Prediabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols come mainly from plant-based foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, coffee, tea, and nuts. Polyphenols may influence glycemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D through different mechanisms, such as promoting the uptake of glucose in tissues, and therefore improving insulin sensitivity. This review aims to summarize the evidence from clinical trials and observational prospective studies linking dietary polyphenols to prediabetes and T2D, with a focus on polyphenol-rich foods characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. We aimed to describe the metabolic biomarkers related to polyphenol intake and genotype-polyphenol interactions modulating the effects on T2D. Intakes of polyphenols, especially flavan-3-ols, and their food sources have demonstrated beneficial effects on insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Several prospective studies have shown inverse associations between polyphenol intake and T2D. The Mediterranean diet and its key components, olive oil, nuts, and red wine, have been inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2D. To some extent, these associations may be attributed to the high amount of polyphenols and bioactive compounds in typical foods conforming this traditional dietary pattern. Few studies have suggested that genetic predisposition can modulate the relationship between polyphenols and T2D risk. In conclusion, the intake of polyphenols may be beneficial for both insulin resistance and T2D risk.

  1. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gorzynik-Debicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate, as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  2. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzynik-Debicka, Monika; Przychodzen, Paulina; Cappello, Francesco; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Knap, Narcyz; Wozniak, Michal; Gorska-Ponikowska, Magdalena

    2018-02-28

    Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  3. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear tea consumption has an inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  4. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  5. The protective activity of tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Shimamura, T

    1991-02-01

    Extracts of black tea exhibited bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae O1. The tea extract inhibited the haemolysin activity of V. cholerae O1, El Tor and the morphological changes of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by cholera toxin. Tea extract also reduced fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice and by V. cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea has protective activity against V. cholerae O1.

  6. Phytochemical profile and biological potential of mulberry teas (Morus nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čestić, Slađana; Radojković, Marija; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Mašković, Pavle; Đurović, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Black mulberry is the most medicinally important plant of the genus Morus. This study examines the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of mulberry leaves tea. The tea drinks were prepared in water (70, 80, 90 ° C and boiling temperature). This study has shown that mulberry teas have high antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Experimental investigation has shown that the best conditions for preparing mulberry tea are with boiling water. Mulberry...

  7. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides- Contaminated Tea Infusion Blocks Lipids Reduction and Induces Kidney Damage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jin; Sun, Kang; Ma, Qingping; Chen, Jin; Wang, Le; Yang, Dingjun; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xinghui

    2017-01-01

    When the homogenate of fresh tea tree leaves was fermented to produce black tea beverage, the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (main pathogen or endophyte of Camellia sinensis) may be mixed into the fermentation liquor. However, it was unclear whether C. gloeosporioides-contaminated tea beverage would damage human health. Therefore, we investigated the changes of functional components and the influences on mice. C. gloeosporioides was added to the green tea infusion. After cultivation of 48 h, ...

  8. Estimation of dietary intake and patterns of polyphenol consumption in Polish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zujko, M E; Witkowska, A M; Waśkiewicz, A; Sygnowska, E

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols play an important role in the prevention of degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancers. The purpose was to estimate dietary polyphenol intake in Polish adults, using own database of food polyphenols, and to establish main dietary sources of polyphenols. Polish men and women (6661) aged 20-74 years were randomly selected from the Polish National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ). Subjects` daily food consumption was estimated by the 24-hour recall method and was continued for 3 years. It was determined on this basis, that 96 plant foods and plant food products were consumed. The own dietary database of polyphenol contents in food was used to calculate polyphenol intakes in the subjects. The daily total polyphenol intakes were calculated for both genders in individual age categories: 20-40 years, 41-60 years and 61-74 years. The average polyphenol consumption for the men was 1172 mg/day, and for the women it made 1031 mg/day. Plant food categories such as beverages, vegetables, fruits and cereals were found to be significant sources of polyphenols, of which tea, coffee, potatoes, apples and white bread were the main contributors. The amount of polyphenol consumption in Polish adult population is similar to the polyphenol intake in other countries populations, accounting roughly for 1g of polyphenols for both genders and different age groups. Patterns of polyphenol consumption, however, vary for genders and age groups. Polyphenols are characterized by a spectrum of antioxidant capabilities, therefore future studies should focus on dietary intakes of individual polyphenols.

  9. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy for simultaneous geographical and varietal classification of tea infusions simulating a home-made tea cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino

    2016-02-01

    In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chung, Felicia F L; Lee, Sui M; Dykes, Gary A

    2013-04-11

    Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues.

  11. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  12. Effect of extraction methods on the chemical components and taste quality of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2018-05-15

    The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of a low polyphenol or low ellagitannin dietary intervention and its impact on ellagitannin metabolism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kristen M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Hinton, Alice; Gu, Junnan; Riedl, Kenneth M; Vodovotz, Yael; Abaza, Ronney; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2017-03-01

    Plant polyphenols are widespread in the American diet, yet estimated intake is uncertain. We examine the application of the Polyphenol Explorer® (PED) database to quantify polyphenol and ellagitannin (ET) intake of men with prostate cancer and tested the implementation of diets restricted in polyphenols or ETs. Twenty-four men enrolled in a 4-week trial were randomized to usual, low-polyphenol or low-ET diet. Estimated polyphenol and ET intakes were calculated from 3-day diet records utilizing the PED. Urine and plasma metabolites were quantified by UPLC-MS. Adherence to the restricted diets was 95% for the low polyphenol and 98% for low-ET diet. In the usual diet, estimated dietary polyphenol intake was 1568 ± 939 mg/day, with coffee/tea beverages (1112 ± 1028 mg/day) being the largest contributors and estimated dietary ET intake was 12 ± 13 mg/day. The low-polyphenol and low-ET groups resulted in a reduction of total polyphenols by 45% and 85%, respectively, and omission of dietary ETs. UPLC analysis of urinary host and microbial metabolites reflect ET intake. PED is a useful database for assessing exposure to polyphenols. Diets restricted in total polyphenol or ET intake are feasible and UPLC assessment of ET metabolites is reflective of dietary intake. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golem Devon L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle soreness and decreased performance often follow a bout of high-intensity exercise. By reducing these effects, an athlete can train more frequently and increase long-term performance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a high-potency, black tea extract (BTE alters the delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cortisol (CORT responses to high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Methods College-age males (N = 18 with 1+ yrs of weight training experience completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects consumed the BTE (1,760 mg BTE·d-1 or placebo (PLA for 9 days. Each subject completed two testing sessions (T1 & T2, which occurred on day 7 of the intervention. T1 & T2 consisted of a 30 s Wingate Test plus eight 10 s intervals. Blood samples were obtained before, 0, 30 & 60 min following the interval sessions and were used to analyze the total to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG, 8-isoprostane (8-iso, CORT, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 secretion. DOMS was recorded at 24 & 48 h post-test using a visual analog scale while BTE or PLA continued to be administered. Significance was set at P . Results Compared to PLA, BTE produced significantly higher average peak power (P = 0.013 and higher average mean power (P = 0.067 across nine WAnT intervals. BTE produced significantly lower DOMS compared to PLA at 24 h post test (P and 48 h post test (P . Compared to PLA, BTE had a slightly higher GSH:GSSG ratio at baseline which became significantly higher at 30 and 60 min post test (P . AUC analysis revealed BTE to elicit significantly lower GSSG secretion (P = 0.009, significantly higher GSH:GSSG ratio (P = 0.001, and lower CORT secretion (P = 0.078 than PLA. AUC analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total IL-6 response (P = 0.145 between conditions. Conclusions Consumption of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract led to improved recovery and a reduction in

  15. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  16. In Vitro Chemopreventive Properties of Green Tea, Rooibos and Honeybush Extracts in Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandeka U. Magcwebeba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive properties of the herbal teas rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and honeybush (Cyclopia spp. have been demonstrated on mouse skin in vivo but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of rooibos and two Cyclopia species in different skin cells, using green tea (Camellia sinensis as a benchmark. Extracts were also characterised for their major individual polyphenols by high performance liquid chromatography and spectroscopically for the total polyphenol (TP groups. The methanol extract of rooibos, containing higher levels of polyphenols than its aqueous extract, displayed similar activity to green tea as it selectively targeted premalignant cells by inhibiting cell proliferation at lower concentrations whilst inducing apoptosis via membrane depolarisation at higher concentrations. Specific roles of the major rooibos dihydrochalcones and flavanol/proanthocyanidin-type (FLAVA compounds are likely to be involved. The aqueous extracts of the Cyclopia species were more active against cell proliferation and at inducing apoptosis which was associated with a higher FLAVA content and a reduced TP/FLAVA ratio. In contrast, their methanol extracts exhibited a cytoprotective effect against apoptosis which was related to their monomeric xanthone and flavanone content. The underlying chemopreventive properties of green tea and the herbal teas appear to be associated with diverse and complex monomeric/polymeric polyphenolic cell interactions.

  17. Determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras comerciais de chás verde e preto - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae = Determination of phenolic componds in commercial samples of green and black tea - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O chá de Camellia sinensis é rico em compostos fenólicos antioxidantes, responsáveis por efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as determinações da concentração de fenóis totais e flavonoides de sete amostras comerciais dos chás preto e verde. Os teores de fenóis totais variaram de 4,80 a 26,60 mg de pirogalol g-1 de amostra e os de flavonoides, de 0,46 a 1,10 mg de quercetina g-1 de amostra. A análise anatômica do conteúdo das amostras permitiu caracterizar a autenticidade dos produtos,observando-se os marcadores anatômicos típicos da espécie (estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio e esclereides.The tea from Camellia sinensis (green tea and black tea is rich in antioxidant phenolic compounds, responsible for beneficial effects to human health. In this work, determinations were carried out on theconcentration of total phenols and flavonoids in seven commercial samples of black tea and green tea. The samples presented concentrations of total phenols varying between 4.80 and 26.60 mg of pyrogallol g-1 and concentrations of flavonoids from 0.46 to 1.10 mg of quercetin g-1. With the purpose of characterizing the authenticity of the product contained in the sachets, the samples were fixed for histological studies. The samples presented the typical anatomical markers of the species (anomocytic stomata, unicellular non-glandulartrichomes, dorsiventral mesophyll, calcium oxalate druses and sclereids.

  18. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Trebatická

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

  19. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Diuretic Effects of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) and Nigella damascena L. (Lady-in-a-Mist) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Claudia-Crina; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Vlase, Laurian; Mogoșan, Cristina; Mocan, Andrei

    2015-05-26

    This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic profile, antioxidant and diuretic effects of black cumin and lady-in-a-mist seeds. In the phenolic profile, differences between the two species are significant. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC-UV/MS method. Hyperoside was the only identified flavonoid glycoside (1.08 ± 0.01 μg∙g-1 dw plant material), in the N. damascena extract. Regarding the flavonol profile, kaempferol was identified before the hydrolysis, only in the N. sativa extract (6.06 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material) and quercetin only in N. damascena seeds (14.35 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material). The antioxidant potential of the two species was tested through several electron transfer assays, which indicated, excepting for the FRAP assay, N. damascena as exhibiting a higher free radical scavenging activity. The diuretic activity of the two extracts was tested using a rat-experimental model on acute diuresis. Administration of the ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 mg∙kg-1) resulted in a significant increase in urine volume, although less than found with the reference drug; in addition N. damascena extract did not present a diuretic effect. In reference to the elimination of Na+, K+ and uric acid, the black cumin extract exhibited a higher natriuretic than kaluretic effect and a similar uricosuric effect with control and N. damascena. For N. damascena, the Na+/K+ ratio was sub unitary, but not due to an increasing of the kaluretic effect, but mostly to a decrease of Na+ excretion.

  20. Comparison of the mineral composition of leaves and infusions of traditional and herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac T. Rampedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on teas has focused on organic composition and less attention has been given to the mineral composition. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the mineral compositions (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Al of eight commonly consumed teas. The teas included three traditional black or green teas (from Africa, China and Sri Lanka and five herbal teas – two from South America (maté and coca and three from South Africa (rooibos, honeybush and Athrixia phylicoides. Analyses were conducted on five samples of dry tea leaves of each of the teas and their infusions (steeping time: 6 min using identical techniques in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. It was found that each tea has a unique mineral profile. Dry tea leaves and their respective infusions also exhibited different mineral profiles. The tea infusions that contained relatively higher concentrations of beneficial minerals were maté, coca and Athrixia. High levels of aluminium were found in the traditional black and green teas whilst rooibos was high in sodium. Although teas are not rich sources of nutrients, the consumption of maté could contribute significantly to dietary manganese requirements.

  1. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  2. Analysis of trace metals and perfluorinated compounds in 43 representative tea products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai; Li, Jian-Long; Li, Hai-Hang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Li, Hua-Shou

    2014-06-01

    Six trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn) and 2 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were analyzed in 43 representative tea products (including 18 green, 12 Oolong, and 13 black teas) from 7 main tea production provinces in China, using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer for trace metals analysis and HPLC-MS/MS for PFOS and PFOA analysis. The average contents of the 3 essential metals Mn, Cu, and Zn ions in the tea samples were 629.74, 17.75, and 37.38 mg/kg, whereas 3 toxic metals Cd, Cr, and Pb were 0.65, 1.02, and 1.92 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in the 3 types of tea were in the order of black tea > Oolong tea > green tea. Both PFOS and PFOA contents were low and PFOA content was higher than PFOS in the tea samples. The highest concentration of PFOA was 0.25 ng/g dry weight found in a Hunan green tea. The Principal component analysis was performed with the trace metals and PFCs to analyze the relationships of these indices. The results showed that black teas had higher trace metals and PFCs than green and Oolong teas, and the teas from Hunan and Zhejiang provinces had higher Pb and Cr than others. This paper reports trace metals, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in wide range of tea products produced in the south China area. This paper also warns the low PFOS and PFOA pollution in tea. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Quantitative analysis of the effect of specific tea compounds on germination and outgrowth of Bacillus subtilis spores at single cell resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.; ter Beek, A.; Vischer, N.O.E.; Smelt, J.P.P.M.; Kemperman, R.; Manders, E.M.M.; Brul, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and known for its antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms. Preliminary studies have shown that tea polyphenols can inhibit the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria. However, the effect of these compounds on

  4. Impedance study of tea with added taste compounds using conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Mopsy; Kapur, Pawan; Ganguli, Abhijit; Singla, Madan Lal

    2012-09-01

    In this study the sensing capabilities of a combination of metals and conducting polymer sensing/working electrodes for tea liquor prepared by addition of different compounds using an impedance mode in frequency range 1 Hz-100 KHz at 0.1 V potential has been carried out. Classification of six different tea liquor samples made by dissolving various compounds (black tea liquor + raw milk from milkman), (black tea liquor + sweetened clove syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened ginger syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened cardamom syrup), (black tea liquor + sweet chocolate syrup) and (black tea liquor + vanilla flavoured milk without sugar) using six different working electrodes in a multi electrode setup has been studied using impedance and further its PCA has been carried out. Working electrodes of Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Glassy Carbon (GC) and conducting polymer electrodes of Polyaniline (PANI) and Polypyrrole (PPY) grown on an ITO surface potentiostatically have been deployed in a three electrode set up. The impedance response of these tea liquor samples using number of working electrodes shows a decrease in the real and imaginary impedance values presented on nyquist plots depending upon the nature of the electrode and amount of dissolved salts present in compounds added to tea liquor/solution. The different sensing surfaces allowed a high cross-selectivity in response to the same analyte. From Principal Component Analysis (PCA) plots it was possible to classify tea liquor in 3-4 classes using conducting polymer electrodes; however tea liquors were well separated from the PCA plots employing the impedance data of both conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

  5. Systematic Analysis of the Multiple Bioactivities of Green Tea through a Network Pharmacology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoude Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a number of studies have demonstrated multiple beneficial health effects of green tea. Polyphenolics are the most biologically active components of green tea. Many targets can be targeted or affected by polyphenolics. In this study, we excavated all of the targets of green tea polyphenolics (GTPs though literature mining and target calculation and analyzed the multiple pharmacology actions of green tea comprehensively through a network pharmacology approach. In the end, a total of 200 Homo sapiens targets were identified for fifteen GTPs. These targets were classified into six groups according to their related disease, which included cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, muscular disease, and inflammation. Moreover, these targets mapped into 143 KEGG pathways, 26 of which were more enriched, as determined though pathway enrichment analysis and target-pathway network analysis. Among the identified pathways, 20 pathways were selected for analyzing the mechanisms of green tea in these diseases. Overall, this study systematically illustrated the mechanisms of the pleiotropic activity of green tea by analyzing the corresponding “drug-target-pathway-disease” interaction network.

  6. Evaluation of authenticity and green tea antimicrobial activity of different commercial brands that are sold in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Campos, Jeyson

    2014-01-01

    Various brands of green tea are compared with the leaves of camellia sinensis to verify the antimicrobial effect, authenticity and quality. The main components with antibacterial effect commercially presented are compared to the components present in green tea leaf to determine the quality and authenticity, by thin layer chromatography. The brands marketed studied green tea in the metropolitan area of San Jose, Costa Rica has been really green tea good quality, this can be ensured by the findings in the analysis and comparison of the different profiles of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids and amino acids. The antimicrobial activity has been without to confirmed in the bands of catechins analyzed [es

  7. Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ. Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1 total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2 free radical (DPPH scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO trapping, (3 anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models, (4 anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models, and, (5 murine microglia (BV-2 neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

  8. Coffee, tea, colas, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoon Ju; Kristal, Alan R; Wicklund, Kristine G; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2008-03-01

    Associations of coffee, tea, and other caffeinated beverages with ovarian cancer risk remain uncertain. In a population-based study in Washington State, 781 women with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in 2002 to 2005 and 1,263 controls completed self-administered questionnaires detailing consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated coffee, teas, and colas and in-person interviews regarding reproductive and hormonal exposures. We assessed risk associated with coffee, tea, and cola drinking and with total caffeine consumption using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated coffees were associated with ovarian cancer risk; also, we observed no association of total caffeine with risk using a combined index that summed intake from coffee, tea, and carbonated soft drinks. Among teas, neither herbal/decaffeinated nor black teas were associated with risk; however, women who reported drinking >or=1 cup/d of green tea had a 54% reduction in risk (P trend = 0.01). Associations of green tea with risk were similar when invasive and borderline cases were considered separately and when Asian women were excluded from analysis. Green tea, which is commonly consumed in countries with low ovarian cancer incidence, should be further investigated for its cancer prevention properties.

  9. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  10. Dietary intake of 20 polyphenol subclasses in a cohort of UK women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Hanis Mastura; Day, Andrea; Lawton, Clare; Myrissa, Kyriaki; Croden, Fiona; Dye, Louise; Williamson, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Establishing and linking the proposed health benefits of dietary polyphenols to their consumption requires measurement of polyphenol intake in appropriate samples and an understanding of factors that influence their intake in the general population. This study examined polyphenol intake estimated from 3- and 7-day food diaries in a sample of 246 UK women aged 18-50 years. Estimation of the intake of 20 polyphenol subclasses commonly present in foods consumed by the sample studied was done using Phenol-Explorer(®) and USDA polyphenol databases. Women were participants in the Leeds Women's Wellbeing Study (LWW) (n = 143), a dietary intervention study aimed at overweight women (mean age 37.2 ± 9.4 years; mean BMI 30.8 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)), and the Diet and Health Study (DH) (n = 103) which aimed to examine the relationship between polyphenol intake and cognitive function (mean age 25.0 ± 9.0 years; mean BMI 24.5 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)). The estimated intake of polyphenol subclasses was significantly different between the two samples (p polyphenols consumed by both groups, owing to tea and coffee consumption. Other major polyphenol food sources included fruits, vegetables and processed foods. Older women consumed more polyphenol-containing foods and beverages, which was due to the higher coffee and tea consumption amongst the LWW participants.

  11. A comparative analysis of chemical compositions in Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara, a novel Chinese tea, by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fang; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ting-Mei; Li, Wei-Xi; Tian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Hong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara (Puan tea) is a kind of ancient tea plant newly found in Jiangxipo and the surrounding areas of Puan County (Guizhou, China). People there always believe that drinking Puan tea is beneficial to the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. However, detailed information on its compositions has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids and polyphenols in Puan tea were identified and determined by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Our results showed that theacrine, but not caffeine, was the dominated purine alkaloid detected in Puan tea. Meanwhile, Puan tea contained B-type procyanidin dimer, trimer and dimer monogallate, which were not detected in Camellia sinensis, Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia assamica var. kucha. The obtained results could support the local uses of Puan tea in health and nutrition and contribute to the research of tea variety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influences of charcoal and bamboo charcoal amendment on soil-fluoride fractions and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2012-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in tea plants pose a potential health risk to humans who drink tea. It has been demonstrated that tea plant fluoride is closely related to the available fluoride in soil. But approaches that could be used to regulate the availability of fluoride in soil have been rarely seen. This study aims to investigate how the addition of charcoal and bamboo charcoal affected soil fluoride availability and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants. In a microcosm experiment, tea plants were grown in the tea garden soil mixed with different amounts of charcoal and bamboo charcoal [that is, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 % (w/w)]. Soil-fluoride fractions and fluoride accumulated in tea plants were determined using the sequential extraction and ion selective electrode method. Obtained results showed that both charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions significantly enhanced the concentrations of Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluoride, but significantly reduced the concentrations of water-soluble and exchangeable fluoride (p Charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions also significantly decreased the amounts of fluoride in tea roots and tea leaves (p charcoal and bamboo charcoal had no impacts on the tea quality, as indexed by the concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and caffeine in tea leaves. These results suggested that application of charcoal and bamboo charcoal may provide a useful method to reduce the availability of fluoride in soil and the subsequent fluoride uptake by tea plants.

  13. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  14. Metabolomics-driven nutraceutical evaluation of diverse green tea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6 and Sunrouge (SR strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive

  15. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  16. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) were determined. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in Japan. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2017-11-14

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympatho-excitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel

  18. Caffeine in tea Camellia sinensis--content, absorption, benefits and risks of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, A

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic properties of tea Camellia sinensis are of particular interest since it has been consumed for ages and was always regarded as safe beverage. Tea is most popular beverage in the world because of its attractive aroma, exceptional taste, health promoting and pharmaceutical potential. Current results showed that antioxidative, antibacterial and other health effects are attributed to its caffeine content and caffeine - polyphenols interactions. An overview is given on caffeine content in different tea leaves beverage. Special attention is drawn to caffeine physiological effect on human organism. Controversies concerning the possible caffeine influence on human physical and psychological health are briefly summarized and presented.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of kombucha made from Rtanj tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage with special therapeutic properties produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in sweetened black tea (traditional cultivation medium. The antimicrobial activity of kombucha (for consumption made from black tea and Rtanj tea, as well as particular control samples, was examined by the modified disc diffusion method. Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Sarcina lutea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Rhodotorula sp. Candida pseudotropi-calis and Saccharomyces cerevisae have been used as test organisms. Acetic acid and kombucha samples show significant antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except Sarcina lutea. The other control samples (neutralized kombucha, tea and a "model sistem" show less bacteriostatic activity. Kombucha and acetic acid solution show borderline inhibitory activity against some moulds, while was no activity against yeasts.

  20. Principle and application of portable NIR tea drinks analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyi; Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli

    2009-11-01

    Tea polyphenols (Tp) and free amino acids (Aa) are the most important quality materials in tea drinks. Due to the high number of samples to be analyzed, new analytical techniques providing fast and reliable data about the quality are essential. Therefore, a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) analyzer was developed for real-time, continuous and quantitative determination of Tp and Aa in tea drinks. The portable NIR tea drinks analyzer is composed of a lamphouse, a temperature-controlled sample chamber, an optical fiber and an InGaAs array mini grating spectrometer. The analyzer is compact, lightweight and robust with no movable elements. The software with the functions of spectrum acquisition, model establishment, method selection and real-time analysis was also developed for the analyzer. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, the calibration models for the quantification of Tp and Aa were established with reference to the GB methods (the national standard methods). The values of root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of the models for Tp and Aa calibration were 0.059 mg/mL, 0.005 mg/mL, the values of the correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.99 and 0.98 respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ten repetitive testing were 3.17% and 4.15%. It suggested that the portable NIR tea drinks analyzer could be a fast and reliable alternative for tea drinks quality testing.

  1. The Czech Tea Profession and the Phenomenon of Tea Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröderová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture and tea profession across tea rooms. I have dealt with influences that led to the present tea rooms' appearances. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what conduces to the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi- structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all comp...

  2. Tea: age-old beverage as an effective cancer chemopreventive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine George

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the major public health problem, causing approximately 7 million deaths every year worldwide. The existing treatment approaches and surgical techniques have not been able to cope effectively with this dreaded disease. Because of this, the concept of chemoprevention is now considered a valid approach to reduce the incidence of cancer. There is convincing epidemiological and experimental evidence to show that dietary polyphenolic plant-derived compounds have cancer preventive properties. Based on evidence from in vitro, in vivo data and epidemiological studies, tea has received considerable attention over recent years for reducing the risk of several cancers. Much of the cancer preventive effects of tea, and in particular green tea, appear to be mediated by the polyphenols they contain. In addition to inhibiting mutagenesis and proliferation, tea is relatively non-toxic, is low cost, and can be taken orally or as a part of the daily diet. Therefore it is logical that future clinical studies should focus on examining the efficacy of tea and its active constituents, such as epigallocatechin- 3-gallate (EGCG and theaflavins (TFs, in chemoprevention as an alternative to pharmacological agents. In this review, we address the use of tea and its constituents for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Further mechanistic and dose-response studies will help us to understand the effects of tea consumption on human carcinogenesis.

  3. Kombucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, C J; Steinkraus, K H; Ledford, R A

    2000-07-01

    Kombucha is a slightly sweet, slightly acidic tea beverage consumed worldwide, but historically in China, Russia, and Germany. Kombucha is prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea preparations with a symbiotic culture of yeasts and bacteria. Potential health effects have created an increased interest in Kombucha. Yet, only a few research studies have shown that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity and enhances sleep and pain thresholds in rats. Furthermore, Kombucha consumption has proven to be harmful in several documented instances.

  4. Symposium on Plant Polyphenols: Nutrition, Health and Innovations, June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ann S; Yeong, Boon-Yee; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2010-04-01

    Reported here is a summary of the proceedings of the Symposium on Plant Polyphenols: Nutrition, Health and Innovations, which was cosponsored by the Southeast Asia Region branch of the International Life Sciences Institute and the Nutrition Society of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 22-23, 2009. The symposium provided a timely update of research regarding the protective effects of polyphenols in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, as well as the development of innovative polyphenol-containing food products with enhanced nutritive and health properties. Presentations covered polyphenols from a wide range of food sources such as tea, coffee, nuts and seeds, cocoa and chocolate, soy, and Asian fruits, vegetables, and spices. The symposium was attended by a large and diverse group of nutritionists, dietitians, researchers and allied health professionals, as well as management, research and development, and marketing personnel from the food and beverage industry. Their enthusiastic participation was a testament to the increasing awareness and interest in polyphenols in the prevention and control of chronic diseases. Presented here are some of the highlights and important information from the symposium.

  5. Effect of irradiation decontamination on the qualities of green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Liu Chunquan; Yu Gang; Zhao Yongfu; Ji Ping; Jin Jie; Gu Guiqiang

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of irradiation on the main chemical components, such as heavy metal elements, pesticide residues as well as sensory qualities of green tea. The results indicated that irradiation had no significant impact on proteins, tea polyphenols, theine and heavy metal elements, slight differences in the contents of soluble sugar and amino acids. The content of cypermethrin reduced with the increase of irradiation dose. The color, liquor color, flavor and aroma of the tea decoction changed slightly when irradiated at the dose lower than 5 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal doses for the purpose of green team decontamination was at the range of 3-5 kGy according to the analysis of various quality factors. (authors)

  6. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users.

  7. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture.

  9. Aged leaves effect on essential components in green and oolong tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaf encompasses essential components like caffeine, polyphenol, lipid etc. The study was conducted to find out the essential constituents in green and oolong tea from aged tea leaves during the year of 2012. Tea leaves with different plucked aged were collected from Lackatoorah Tea Estate at sylhet district in Bangladesh. Collected leaves were processesed to make desirable samples for biochemical analysis in the laboratory of Department of Food Enginnering and Tea Technology, SUST. Results revealed that the essential constituents like moisture, caffeine, polyphenol, lipid, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, acidity and pH value in green tea made from different aged leaves were found slightly higher than oolong tea, ranged from 6.38±1.06 to 3.49±0.59%; 4.91±0.82 to 1.49±0.24%; 30.88±5.15 to 18.23±3.04%; 7.50±1.25 to 9.58±1.59%; 13.15±2.19 to 17.33±2.88%; 3.87±1.65 to 7.86±1.31%; 48.4±8.05 to 21.3±3.55(mg; 2.13±0.68 to 1.18±0.19% and 5.52±0.11 to 5.97±0.18%, respectively. Similarly, the moisture, caffeine, polyphenol, lipid, protein, ash, ascorbic acid, acidity and pH value from different aged leaves were found in oolong tea from 6.19±1.04 to 2.98±0.49%; 4.68±0.78 to 1.11±0.19%; 20.89±3.48 to 8.23±1.37%; 6.40±1.07 to 9.13±1.52%; 13.03±2.17 to 17.19±2.86%; 3.44±0.58 to 7.57±1.27% 6.44±1.08 to 0.98±0.17 (mg; 2.02±0.34to 1.02±0.17% and 5.53±0.11 to 5.97±0.20%, respectively. Therefore, young tea leaves (i.e. 5 to 8 days tea leaves should be plucked for considering useful constituents in processed green tea and oolong tea.

  10. Effect of teapot materials on the chemical composition of oolong tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zih-Hui; Chen, Ying-Jie; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lee, Maw-Rong; Mai, Fu-Der; Rairat, Tirawat; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2018-01-01

    The flavor and quality of tea are widely believed to be associated with the pot in which the tea is made. However, this claim is mostly by experiences and lacks solid support from scientific evidence. The current study investigated and compared the chemical compositions of oolong tea made with six different teapot materials, namely Zisha, Zhuni, stainless steel, ceramic, glass and plastic. For each tea sample, polyphenols and caffeine were examined by HPLC-UV, volatile compounds by GC/MS, amino acids by LC/MS and minerals by ICP-MS. The results suggested that tea infusions from Zisha and Zhuni pots contain higher levels of EGC, EGCG and total catechins and less caffeine than those from ceramic, glass and plastic pots and tend to have the lowest total mineral contents, potassium and volatile compounds in tea soup. The statistical differences were not all significant among Zisha, Zhuni and stainless steel pots. Based on the overall chemical composition of the tea infusion, Yixing clay pots (Zisha and Zhuni) produce tea infusions that are presumably less bitter and more fragrant and tend to contain more healthful compounds than tea infusions from other pots. The results could partially explain why Yixing clay pots are among the most popular teapots. The beneficial effects of long-term repeated use of these teapots warrants further study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Quality components and antidepressant-like effects of GABA green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jie; Zhou, Wen; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Wenfang; Huang, Yahui; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-20

    Gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea, with high GABA content, is a kind of special green tea. The goals of this study are to analyze the changes in quality components of green tea during anaerobic treatment, and to investigate whether or not the extract of GABA present in green tea can prevent depression or improve the depressive state of animals. Results showed that GABA content in green tea had increased significantly after anaerobic treatment. The contents of tea polysaccharides, total free amino acids, and water extracts were also increased whereas tea polyphenols were reduced. More importantly, the extract of GABA green tea could alleviate mouse depression and stress from desperate environments through the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mRNA and protein expression levels of GABA A receptors. Therefore, these results indicate that GABA green tea may have a health effect on prevention and alleviation of depression, and it works on the GABAergic neurotransmission of mouse cerebral cortex via up-regulating expression of the GABA A receptor α1 subunit, thus ameliorating depression.

  12. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGCG may be due to the generation of ROS. DISCUSSION. The present study demonstrates that EGCG exhibits significant concentration- dependent inhibitory effects against the growth of lung cancer H1155 cells in tumor xenografts as well as in culture. Furthermore, EGCG markedly increased the levels of ROS in a ...

  13. Development of green tea scented with organic roses "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/11/03 - Accepted: 2014/12/15The aim of this study was to obtain a flavored green tea with organic rose petals "Vitality" from Nevado Ecuador. Green tea, purchased from a private company, it was subjected to analysis to verify compliance with the requirements of standard INEN 2381: 2005. The Characterization of fresh rose petals was to made and for the dehydration was used two temperatures and two geometries. Analysis of total polyphenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant capacity (TEACmethod were performed. The dried petals, with a higher content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, were used in the preparation to flavored tea. Three formulations with different amounts of dried rose petals (10, 17.5 and 25% were tested sensorially by 100 judges to determine the aroma rose in the tea. The final product was analyzed to determine compliance of the requirements of the standard INEN of the tea. Finally acceptability and purchase intention of the product is evaluated. The values of content total polyphenol in the extracts of rose petals were superior to fruits such as blackberries, and strawberries.

  14. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  15. Polyphenol Intake from Beverages in Japan over an 18-Year Period (1996-2013): Trends by Year, Age, Gender and Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Yoshida, Daishi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An association between the dietary intake of polyphenols and human health has been shown in many epidemiological studies. Since beverages are rich sources of polyphenols, we aimed to evaluate the polyphenol intake from beverages in Japanese individuals with a focus on differences according to year, age, gender and season. More than 10,000 Japanese male and female subjects aged 1-99 y old participated in this survey every year from 1996 to 2013, and their beverage consumption and amount of polyphenol intake were calculated. Polyphenol intake from beverages in Japan showed no tendency to increase or decrease over the 18-y period, and the major sources of polyphenols in Japanese daily life were coffee and green tea. Polyphenol intake was larger in participants with higher age up to 59 y old in both male and female subjects. There was a slight difference in polyphenol intake by gender, with adult males consuming more polyphenols than adult females. Polyphenols were consumed slightly more in the winter than the summer, although the seasonal difference in polyphenol intake was not large. Our results suggest that polyphenol intake from beverages is influenced by age rather than gender or season in Japan, and may not have changed over time, at least over the 18-y period beginning in 1996 in Japan.

  16. Managing hypertension by polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Camps, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Some polyphenols, obtained from plants of broad use, induce a favorable endothelial response in hypertension and beneficial effects in the management of other metabolic cardiovascular risks. Previous studies in our laboratories using the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa as a source of polyphenols show that significant effects on hypertension are noticeable in humans only when provided in high amounts. Available data are suggestive in animal models and ex vivo experiments, but data in humans are difficult to acquire. Additionally, and despite the low bioavailability of polyphenols, intervention studies provide evidence for the protective effects of secondary plant metabolites. Assumptions on public health benefits are limited by the lack of scientific knowledge, robust data derived from large randomized clinical trials, and an accurate assessment of the bioactive components provided by common foodstuff. Because it is likely that clinical effects are the result of multiple interactions among different polyphenols rather than the isolated action of unique compounds, to provide polyphenol-rich botanical extracts as dietary supplements is a suggestive option. Unfortunately, the lack of patent perspectives for the pharmaceutical industries and the high cost of production and release for alimentary industries will hamper the performance of the necessary clinical trials. Here we briefly discuss whether and how such limitations may complicate the extensive use of plant-derived products in the management of hypertension and which steps are the necessary to deal with the predictable complexity in a possible clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A; Hémon, Bertrand; Moskal, Aurelie; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Peppa, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Hjartåker, Anette; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Lu, Yunxia; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers. This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.

  18. Mechanism of hydrolysis of native and cooked starches from different botanical sources in the presence of tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzar, Igor; Ragaee, Sanaa; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to highlight the mechanism of inhibition of hydrolysis and differences in hydrolysis among starches from different sources in the presence of green or black tea extract. The first experiment showed that black tea extract was more effective at reducing final viscosity for all starches. The second experiment showed that black tea was more effective at inhibiting starch hydrolysis compared to green tea when starch, tea extract, and pancreatin were added at the beginning of pasting. The third experiment, when starches were pretreated with tea extracts, showed that both treatments reduced starch hydrolysis. Analysis of supernatant free phenolic content and of soluble dextrins showed that amyloglucosidase activity was affected, with exceptions for potato starch. These observations suggest that starch hydrolysis is affected by interactions and also by the impact on specific enzymes based on starch structure. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Anticancer Synergy Between Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Lewandowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention has recently gained a new dimension due to the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of chemopreventive agents at the molecular level. Many compounds have been proved to inhibit early stages of carcinogenesis in experimental models. These compounds include both recognized drugs (such as tamoxifen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and natural constituents of edible and therapeutic plants, particularly polyphenols. Phenolics are characterized by high structural diversity and, consequently, a very broad spectrum of biological activities. They are increasingly looked upon as a valuable alternative or a support for synthetic drugs, as evidenced by a growing number of clinical trials regarding the use of phenolic compounds and polyphenol-rich extracts in chemoprevention and therapy. In the present work, we discuss the effectiveness of natural polyphenols as cancer preventive and therapeutic agents resulting from their synergy with synthetic or semisynthetic anticancer drugs as well as with other phenolic compounds of plant origin.

  20. Effects of Tea Phenolics on Iron Uptake from Different Fortificants by Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in vitro effects of tea phenolics on Fe uptake from different fortificants (FeSO4, FeCl3, FeEDTA) by Caco-2 cells were compared. Cell cultures were exposed to catechin, tannic acid, green or black tea solutions added within Fe-containing solution, or used to pre-treat cell cultures before Fe-exp...

  1. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  2. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  3. Polyphenol compounds and PKC signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joydip; Ramani, Rashmi; Suraju, M Olufemi

    2016-10-01

    Naturally occurring polyphenols found in food sources provide huge health benefits. Several polyphenolic compounds are implicated in the prevention of disease states, such as cancer. One of the mechanisms by which polyphenols exert their biological actions is by interfering in the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. PKC belongs to a superfamily of serine-threonine kinase and are primarily involved in phosphorylation of target proteins controlling activation and inhibition of many cellular processes directly or indirectly. Despite the availability of substantial literature data on polyphenols' regulation of PKC, no comprehensive review article is currently available on this subject. This article reviews PKC-polyphenol interactions and its relevance to various disease states. In particular, salient features of polyphenols, PKC, interactions of naturally occurring polyphenols with PKC, and future perspective of research on this subject are discussed. Some polyphenols exert their antioxidant properties by regulating the transcription of the antioxidant enzyme genes through PKC signaling. Regulation of PKC by polyphenols is isoform dependent. The activation or inhibition of PKC by polyphenols has been found to be dependent on the presence of membrane, Ca(2+) ion, cofactors, cell and tissue types etc. Two polyphenols, curcumin and resveratrol are in clinical trials for the treatment of colon cancer. The fact that 74% of the cancer drugs are derived from natural sources, naturally occurring polyphenols or its simple analogs with improved bioavailability may have the potential to be cancer drugs in the future. C