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Sample records for black tea polyphenols

  1. Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M S; Imran, A; Sharif, M K; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Xiao, Hang; Imran, M; Rsool, H A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment.

  2. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols

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    Haibo Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as “fermented tea”, has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  3. Exploring the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from black, green and white tea infusions - an overview.

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    Tenore, Gian C; Daglia, Maria; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Black, green, and white teas are the main commercial teas obtained from buds and leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.). The postharvest processing treatments, together with genotype and growing techniques, may strongly affect the chemical composition of the tea infusion and, thereby, its potential effects on health. Catechins constituted up to 30% of tea leaves dry weight. During fermentation, polyphenols undergo enzymatic oxidation, leading to the formation of condensed polymeric compounds regarded as responsible for the typical organoleptic properties of black tea leaves and related infusions. Scientific studies has been recently focusing on the possibility that tea polyphenols, particularly those of black and green tea, may lead to healthy properties in individuals affected by diseases correlated to metabolic syndrome. In vivo experiments reveal that green and black tea polyphenols may be able to reduce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Other works suggest that black tea polymeric products may be effective in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and hypertriacylglycerolemia. To this regard, very few data about white tea, being the rarest and the least handled tea, are available so far. It has been reported that white tea could show higher antioxidative capacity than green tea and to exert in vitro lipolytic activity. Considering the increasing interest towards healthy potential through diet and natural medicaments, the aim of the present review was to overview the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from tea after various degrees of fermentation.

  4. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

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    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  5. An essential role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in vasorelaxations induced by black tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Green tea has received much attention as protective agent against cardiovascular disease and cancer, the two primary targets of preventive medicine. Since our first demonstration in 1999 of the involvement of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the acute vasodilator effect of green tea polyphenols, several new vascular protective effects of green tea catechins have been identified. Theaflavins are another class of polyphenol pigments found in black tea, however, little is known about their bioactivity in the vascular system. We have recently demonstrated that black tea and its theaflavins cause relaxations of rat aortas via endothelial nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms and the tea polyphenols are very effective in protecting endothelial function agonist oxidative stress. The present results support the vascular benefit of consumption of black tea, which is equal to that of drinking green tea in terms of their endothelial cell protection and antioxidant capacity.

  6. Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a pleasant, popular and safe beverage. Tea provides a dietary source of bioactive components to help humans reduce a wide variety of cancer risks and chronic diseases. The antioxidative activity of green tea-derived polypbenols known as catchins has been extensively studied. The reducfive effect is a synergistic action between EGCG,EGC, ECG, EC, pheophytins a and b, and other components in tealeaves, which are more bioavailable for human body.Green tea has a higher content of catechins than black tea. Green tea extract with hot water has high potential and more efficiencytoreducecancerriskthananyotherteaproductsorpureEGCG. Protein, iron, andotherfoodcomponentsmay interfere with the bioavailability of tea polyphenols. Drinkinggreentea (orpolyphenol-rich tea extract ) also enhances the cancer-preventive activity of some cancer-fighting medication such as Sulindac and Tamoxifen. Further studies are required to determine the bioavailability of green tea and cancer-preventive functionality.

  7. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions.

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    Astill, C; Birch, M R; Dacombe, C; Humphrey, P G; Martin, P T

    2001-11-01

    The effects of product and preparation variables on the in-cup chemical composition of tea extracts is of interest because the appearance and taste characteristics and the possible health effects of a tea liquor arise from the chemical components extracted from the leaf during tea preparation. A comprehensive study was therefore undertaken to determine the contributions of product and preparation variables on the total soluble solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of tea extracts. The results of this study show that the variety, growing environment, manufacturing conditions, and grade (particle size) of the tea leaves each influence the tea leaf and final infusion compositions. In addition, the composition of the tea infusion was shown to be influenced by whether the tea was contained in a teabag and, if so, the size and material of construction of the bag. Finally, the preparation method, including the amounts of tea and water used, infusion time, and amount of agitation, was shown to be a major determinant of the component concentrations of tea beverages as consumed. An illustration of the variation introduced by these product and preparation factors is provided by comparing solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of green and black tea infusions when commercial products are prepared according to the instructions given on their packaging.

  8. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-02-15

    The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8-99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2-15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels.

  9. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice var...

  10. Short-term effects of polyphenol-rich black tea on blood pressure in men and women.

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    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo; Fuchs, Dagmar; Croft, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that black tea polyphenols contribute to vascular health. We have recently shown that regular ingestion of polyphenol-rich black tea over 6 months results in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, the time course of these effects remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to determine if short-term effects of tea on blood pressure could contribute to longer-term benefits of regular tea consumption on blood pressure. Men and women (n = 111) were recruited to a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind parallel designed trial. During a 4-week run-in, all participants consumed 3 cups per day of black tea. Participants then consumed 3 cups over 1 day of either powdered black tea solids containing 429 mg of polyphenols (tea), or a control product matched in flavour and caffeine content but containing no tea solids. The 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate was measured at the end of the 4-week run-in (baseline) and again during the 24 h intervention period. The 24 h day-time and night-time blood pressures were not significantly different between tea and control (P > 0.05). Baseline-adjusted net effects on mean 24 h ambulatory blood pressure for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were -0.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.5 to 1.0), P = 0.72, and 0.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.0 to 0.9), P = 0.95, respectively. Heart rate was significantly lower for tea compared to control during the night-time and early-morning periods (-2.0 (95% CI, -3.2, -0.8) bpm, and -1.9 (95% CI, -3.7, -0.2) bpm, respectively; P black tea on blood pressure are unlikely to be due to short-term changes.

  11. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets.

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    Heber, David; Zhang, Yanjun; Yang, Jieping; Ma, Janice E; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-09-01

    Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol

  12. The inhibition of the mammalian DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a by dietary black tea and coffee polyphenols

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    Jeltsch Albert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea is, second only to water, the most consumed beverage globally. Previously, the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 was shown by dietary polyphenols and epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, and 5-caffeoyl quinic acid, the main phenolic constituent of the green coffee bean. Results We studied the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3a by a series of dietary polyphenols from black tea such as theaflavins and thearubigins and chlorogenic acid derivatives from coffee. For theaflavin 3,3 digallate and thearubigins IC50 values in the lower micro molar range were observed, which when compared to pharmacokinetic data available, suggest an effect of physiological relevance. Conclusions Since Dnnmt3a has been associated with development, cancer and brain function, these data suggest a biochemical mechanism for the beneficial health effect of black tea and coffee and a possible molecular mechanism for the improvement of brain performance and mental health by dietary polyphenols.

  13. Extraction of polyphenols from black tea--conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Simon; Chemat, Farid; Strube, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Products from plant raw materials gain increasing importance in food-, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. By way of contrast, due to lack of detailed physico-chemical fundamentals, existing production processes are economically not optimal designed. This leads to a need for deeper understanding of the processes and furthermore a systematic process and equipment design for the potentially applicable extraction techniques. Using the example of polyphenol extraction from black tea (Kenya), the conventional and ultrasound assisted extractions are investigated. Here, the state of the art as well as a comparison between the two techniques is in focus. Especially, resulting quasi-equilibria and mass transport kinetics serves as a criteria. The physico-chemical background is discussed taking particle size distributions and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements into account. Conclusively, process alternatives are projected and discussed. Hence, the present study makes influences of ultrasound technique on physico-chemical characteristics during extraction a subject of discussion.

  14. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  15. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

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    Fengxiang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  16. Evaluation of black tea polyphenol extract against the retrogradation of starches from various plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huaxi; Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Fengxiang

    2012-07-06

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  17. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

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    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  18. Polyphenols extracted from black tea (Camellia sinensis) residue by hot-compressed water and their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase in vitro.

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    Yuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Suzuki, Manabu; Asano, Yuzo; Ochi, Hiroshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-12-01

    Polyphenols, retained in black tea wastes following the commercial production of tea beverages, represent an underutilized resource. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential use of hot-compressed water (HCW) for the extraction of pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea residues. Black tea residues were treated with HCW at 10 °C intervals, from 100 to 200 °C. The resulting extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed to determine their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Four theaflavins (TF), 5 catechins, 2 quercetin glycosides, quinic acid, gallic acid, and caffeine were identified. The total polyphenol content of extracts increased with increasing temperature but lipase inhibitors (TF, theaflavin 3-O-gallate, theaflavin 3'-O-gallate, theaflavin 3,3'-O-gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate) decreased over 150 °C. All extracts inhibited pancreatic lipase but extracts obtained at 100 to 140 °C showed the greatest lipase inhibition (IC(50) s of 0.9 to 1.3 μg/mL), consistent with the optimal extraction of TFs and catechins except catechin by HCW between 130 and 150 °C. HCW can be used to extract pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea waste. These extracts have potential uses, as dietary supplements and medications, for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  19. Influence of Steep Time on Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Black, Green, Rooibos, and Herbal Teas

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    Michael D. McAlpine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential health benefits of tea consumption are often attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Whether steep time, often variable in a real-life situation, makes a biological difference in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity is uncertain. The study objective was to characterize eight popular and commercially available teas for total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity in relation to steep time. Dragonwell (DW, Sencha (S, English Breakfast (EB, Golden Monkey (GM, Green Rooibos (GR, Red Rooibos (RR, Chamomile (C, and Peppermint (P loose leaf teas were individually steeped in water for 1–10 min at 1 min intervals. TPC increased with longer durations of steep time; however, the majority of polyphenols observed after 10 minutes were extracted in the first 5 min regardless of tea type. After 5 min of steeping, differences (p < 0.05 in TPC were observed across teas (JS~EB~P > DW > GM~GR~RR > C. Different teas also varied in their ability to inhibit the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH when normalized for polyphenol concentration (1 µg/mL and there was no effect due to steep time. Predicted antioxidant capacity of teas also demonstrated significant differences among teas after 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, steep time modulates TPC but not the antioxidative capacity of tea polyphenols.

  20. Effect of black tea and black tea pomace polyphenols on α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition, relevant to type 2 diabetes prevention

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    Lisa eStriegel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT were 5.77 mg/mL, and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the recovered hydrophobic fraction (HBBT was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW. The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 mg/mL and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50=8.97 µg/mL followed by HBBT fraction (IC50=14.83 µg/mL. However the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50=0.049 mg/mL. The black tea pomace (AOBT had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=14.72 µg/mL but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.21 mg/mL. The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  1. Effect of Black Tea and Black Tea Pomace Polyphenols on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibition, Relevant to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, Lisa; Kang, Bouhee; Pilkenton, Sarah J; Rychlik, Michael; Apostolidis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT) and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT) were 5.77 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the resulting hydrophobic fraction (HBBT) was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW) and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW). The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 8.97 μg/mL) followed by HBBT fraction (IC50 = 14.83 μg/mL). However, the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50 = 0.049 mg/mL). The black tea pomace (AOBT) had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 14.72 μg/mL) but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.21 mg/mL). The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  2. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

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    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  3. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

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    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  4. Study of the protection of polysaccharide and polyphenols of black tea,green tea and Oolong tea on DNA%红茶、绿茶和乌龙茶多糖及多酚对DNA的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金娥; 张海容

    2011-01-01

    The protection action of tea polysaccharide and polyphenols on DNA are investigated using EB as a fluorescent probe in the work. The fluoresence integral intensity of DNA and EB mixture are determined in the presence of polysaccharide and polyphenols in extracts of 8 Chinese teas, such as Longjing tea, Puer tea and Oolong tea etc. D is defined as the interaction constant of different teas with DNA. According to the size of D, the impaction of protection action of tea polysaccharide and polyphenols on DNA was discussed. The result shown that the 8 kinds of teas can interact with DNA,but the degree of interaction is different.The bigger the D was,the stronger the interaction of teas and DNA was. The order of protection action of tae polysaccharide was Qimen black tea > Green tea (An-hui) > Puer tea > Oolong tea > Black tea of Fujian Zhenghe > Shouning green tea > Xinyang needle tea > Longjing tea.The order of protection action of tea polyphenols was Qimen black tea > Black tea of Fujian Zhenghe > Shouning green tea > Longjing tea > Oolong tea > Green tea ( Anhui) > Xinyang needle tea > Puer tea.%用溴化乙锭(EB)作为荧光探针研究了各种茶叶多糖、多酚类化合物对DNA的保护作用.测定了龙井、普耳茶、乌龙茶等8种茶叶中多糖和多酚类提取物存在下DNA与EB混合液的荧光积分强度,并把不同茶叶与DNA相互作用的常数定义为结合常数D,根据D的大小讨论了多糖及多酚类化合物的存在DNA保护作用的影响.结果表明,8种茶叶与DNA有较好的作用,但作用程度不同.D值越大,茶叶对DNA的保护作用越好.多糖保护作用顺序如下:祁门红茶>绿茶(安徽)>普尔茶>乌龙茶>福建政和红茶>寿宁绿茶>信阳毛尖>龙井;多酚保护作用顺序如下:祁门红茶>福建政和红茶>寿宁绿茶>龙井>乌龙茶>绿茶(安徽)>信阳毛尖>普尔茶.

  5. Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53.

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    Jasmine George

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary agents has received considerable importance because of their cost-effectiveness and wide safety margin. However, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP in suppressing two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. Resveratrol/BTP alone treatment decreased tumor incidence by ∼67% and ∼75%, while combination of both at low doses synergistically decreased tumor incidence even more significantly by ∼89% (p<0.01. This combination also significantly regressed tumor volume and number (p<0.01. Mechanistic studies revealed that this combinatorial inhibition was associated with decreased expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and increased in total p53 and phospho p53 (Ser 15 in skin tissue/tumor. Treatment with combinations of resveratrol and BTP also decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse skin tissues/tumors than their solitary treatments as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, histological and cell death analysis also confirmed that resveratrol and BTP treatment together inhibits cellular proliferation and markedly induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results for the first time lucidly illustrate that resveratrol and BTP in combination impart better suppressive activity than either of these agents alone and accentuate that development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention using dietary agents will be more beneficial against cancer. This promising combination should be examined in therapeutic trials of skin and possibly other cancers.

  6. Cancer prevention by tocopherols and tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-06-28

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that - and -tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas -tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated.

  7. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

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    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  8. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

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    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  9. 黑茶中茶多酚及咖啡碱的超临界CO2流体萃取研究%Extraction of Tea Polyphenols and Caffeine from Black Tea with Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志芳; 钟桐生; 彭晓赟; 李劼; 王科

    2012-01-01

      Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract tea polyphenols and caffeine from black tea. Conditions such as teperature, pressure, entrainer agents concentration and the dosage of entrainer were optimized with orthogonal test (extraction time was 2 hours). The content of tea polyphenols and caffeine were determined by spectrophotometry. According to the results of orthogonal test, it showed that the optimum conditions were: the extraction temperature 50℃, pressure 2 volume ratio) as cosolvent, and the most appropriate amount 100 mL/150 g for tea polyphenols;the extraction temperature 40℃, pressure 2 appropriate amount 300 mL/150 g for coffeine. The extraction rate was (0.190±0.004)%for tea polyphenols and (0.457±0.036)%for caffeine in this extraction condition.%  以益阳黑茶为原料,采用超临界CO2萃取技术提取黑茶中的茶多酚和咖啡碱,采用正交试验对萃取温度、萃取压力、夹带剂浓度和夹带剂用量等因素进行优化(固定萃取时间为2 h).采用分光光度法测定茶叶中茶多酚和咖啡碱的含量,根据正交试验极差分析结果得出茶多酚的最佳萃取条件:萃取温度50℃,萃取压力20 MPa,夹带剂采用体积分数为70%的乙醇,适宜用量为100 mL/150 g,得率为(0.190±0.004)%.咖啡碱的最佳萃取条件:萃取温度40℃,萃取压力20 MPa,夹带剂采用体积分数为70%的乙醇,适宜用量为300 mL/150 g,咖啡碱得率为(0.457±0.036)%.

  10. Tea derived galloylated polyphenols cross-link purified gastrointestinal mucins.

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    Pantelis Georgiades

    Full Text Available Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria.

  11. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

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    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  12. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-12-29

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies) and tea, type not specified (two studies). Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  13. Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2014-06-01

    The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation.

  14. Green tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Daniel, Kenyon G; Kuhn, Deborah J; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhigang; Wan, Sheng Biao; Lam, Wai Har; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2004-09-01

    The cancer-preventive effects of green tea and its main constituent (-)-epigallocatechin gallate [(-)-EGCG] are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies in the recent decade. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols affect several signal transduction pathways, including growth factor-mediated, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea lowers the risk of cancer. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment by green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Phase I and II clinical trials were carried out recently to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in patients with cancer. At this time, more mechanistic research, animal studies, and clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the role of green tea in cancer prevention.

  15. Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented interest in the antioxidant activity of green tea polyphenols (GTP) is due to the apparent health benefits of tea drinking and the experimental results with the polyphenols. The results suggest that the galloylated catechins show stronger antioxidant effect than that of nongalloylated catechins and the double bond in C ring also plays an important role in this effect. There are synergic effects between different catechins and the antioxidant effectof (+)-epimers is stronger than that of (-)-epimers. The active site to scavenge free radicals mainly locates in p-hydroxyl of phenol in gallic acid and hydroxyl of phenol in the pyrane also shows activity. The large π bond in chromane and benzene ring of catechin is the structure base for their antioxidant effects. The prevent effect of GTP against diseases and their redox regulation in cell signal pathway are very important to be studied in the future.

  16. Anti-cariogenic effects of polyphenols from plant stimulant beverages (cocoa, coffee, tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F; Amato, Ivana; Ingenito, Aniello; De Natale, Antonino; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-07-01

    Polyphenols occurring in cocoa, coffee and tea can have a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, due to their antibacterial action. Cocoa polyphenol pentamers significantly reduce biofilm formation and acid production by Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis. In the same way, trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic acid occurring in green and roasted coffee interfere with S. mutans adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Studies carried out on green, oolong and black tea indicate that tea polyphenols exert an anti-caries effect via an anti-microbial mode-of-action, and galloyl esters of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-gallocatechin show increasing antibacterial activities. The anti-cariogenic effects against alpha-haemolytic streptococci showed by polyphenols from cocoa, coffee, and tea suggest further studies to a possible application of these beverages in the prevention of pathogenesis of dental caries.

  17. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Balz; Higdon, Jane V

    2003-10-01

    Tea is particularly rich in polyphenols, including catechins, theaflavins and thearubigins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of tea. Tea polyphenols act as antioxidants in vitro by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chelating redox-active transition metal ions. They may also function indirectly as antioxidants through 1) inhibition of the redox-sensitive transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1; 2) inhibition of "pro-oxidant" enzymes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases and xanthine oxidase; and 3) induction of phase II and antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases and superoxide dismutases. The fact that catechins are rapidly and extensively metabolized emphasizes the importance of demonstrating their antioxidant activity in vivo. Animal studies offer a unique opportunity to assess the contribution of the antioxidant properties of tea and tea polyphenols to the physiological effects of tea administration in different models of oxidative stress. Most promising are the consistent findings in animal models of skin, lung, colon, liver and pancreatic cancer that tea and tea polyphenol administration inhibit carcinogen-induced increases in the oxidized DNA base, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In animal models of atherosclerosis, green and black tea administration has resulted in modest improvements in the resistance of lipoproteins to ex vivo oxidation, although limited data suggest that green tea or green tea catechins inhibit atherogenesis. To determine whether tea polyphenols act as effective antioxidants in vivo, future studies in animals and humans should employ sensitive and specific biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA.

  18. Simultaneous determination of polyphenols and major purine alkaloids in Greek Sideritis species, herbal extracts, green tea, black tea, and coffee by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Tsagiannidis, Anastasios; Sarakatsianos, Ioannis

    2012-02-01

    Herein, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic antioxidants: flavan-3-ols, (-)-epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-gallocatechin, a phenolic acid (gallic acid), a hydroxycinnamic acid (chlorogenic acid), flavones (apigenin), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin), and purine alkaloids (caffeine theophylline, theobromine) in different herb extracts, tea, and coffee varieties. The developed method was validated and successfully applied in order to determine the polyphenolic content to estimate the antioxidant activity of the Sideritis species commonly known as Greek mountain tea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantitative determination of catechins and other polyphenols in Greek mountain tea. Acidic hydrolysis was necessary for the simultaneous determination of the aglycones of the target analytes. According to our results, chlorogenic acid, myricetin, apigenin, catechin, and epicatechin gallate are found in the Sideritis species.

  19. Tea polyphenols inhibit rat osteoclast formation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yoshiomi; Iwai, Shinichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Irie, Yuko; Yatomi, Kentaro; Ryu, Kakei; Yamada, Shoji; Inagaki, Katsunori; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in degeneration of the matrix associated with bone and cartilage. Regulation of osteoclast activity is essential in the treatment of bone disease, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Polyphenols in green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), inhibit MMPs expression and activity. However, the effects of the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on osteoclast and MMP activity are unknown. Therefore, we examined whether TFDG and EGCG affect MMP activity and osteoclast formation and differentiation in vitro. TFDG or EGCG (10 and 100 µM) was added to cultures of rat osteoclast precursors cells and mature osteoclasts. Numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts and actin rings decreased in polyphenol-treated cultures relative to control cultures. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were lower in TFDG- and EGCG-treated rat osteoclast precursor cells than in control cultures. MMP-9 mRNA levels declined significantly in TFDG-treated osteoclasts in comparison to control osteoclasts. TFDG and EGCG inhibited the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts via inhibition of MMPs. TFDG may suppress actin ring formation more effectively than EGCG. Thus, TFDG and EGCG may be suitable agents or lead compounds for the treatment of bone resorption diseases.

  20. Oxidative deamination of benzylamine and lysine residue in bovine serum albumin by green tea, black tea, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Shigemitsu, Tomoko; Suyama, Kyozo

    2005-10-01

    Oxidative deamination by various polyphenolic compounds is presumed to be due to the oxidative conversion of polyphenols to the corresponding quinones through autoxidation. Here we examined the oxidative deamination by the polyphenol-rich beverages green tea, black tea, and coffee at a physiological pH and temperature. Green tea, black tea, and coffee extracts oxidatively deaminated benzylamine and the lysine residues of bovine serum albumin to benzaldehyde and alpha-aminoadipic delta-semialdehyde residues, respectively, in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C in both the presence and absence of Cu2+, indicating the occurrence of an amine (lysyl) oxidase-like reaction. We also examined the effects of pH and metal ions on the reaction. The possible biological effects of drinking polyphenol-rich beverages on human are also discussed.

  1. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Poppel, G. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    Background: Tea is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Antioxidant polyphenol compounds (such as catechins and flavonols) are abundantly present in both green and black teas and have been observed to have anticarcinogenic properties in cell and animal model studies. In black

  2. Phenolic acid metabolites as biomarkers for tea- and coffee-derived polyphenol exposure in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Chan, Shin Yee; Puddey, Ian B; Devine, Amanda; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lukito, Widjaja; Burke, Valerie; Ward, Natalie C; Prince, Richard L; Croft, Kevin D

    2004-02-01

    Tea and coffee are rich in polyphenols with a variety of biological activities. Many of the demonstrated activities are consistent with favourable effects on the risk of chronic diseases. 4-O-methylgallic acid (4OMGA) and isoferulic acid are potential biomarkers of exposure to polyphenols derived from tea and coffee respectively. 4OMGA is derived from gallic acid in tea, and isoferulic acid is derived from chlorogenic acid in coffee. Our major objective was to explore the relationships of tea and coffee intake with 24 h urinary excretion of 4OMGA and isoferulic acid in human subjects. The relationships of long-term usual (111 participants) and contemporaneously recorded current (344 participants) tea and coffee intake with 24 h urinary excretion of 4OMGA and isoferulic acid were assessed in two populations. 4OMGA was related to usual (r 0.50, Pcoffee intake. Overall, our present results are consistent with the proposal that 4OMGA is a good biomarker for black tea-derived polyphenol exposure, but isoferulic acid may be of limited usefulness as a biomarker for coffee-derived polyphenol exposure.

  3. ROS-related Enzyme Expressions in Endothelial Cells Regulated by Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN-JIANG YING; XIU-FA SUN; SHU-LIN ZHANG; XI-PING ZHANG; LI-MEI MAO; XUE-ZHI ZUO; AND PING YAO

    2004-01-01

    Objective Elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially the level of superoxide is a key event in many forms of cardiovascular diseases. To study the mechanism of tea polyphenols against cardiovascular diseases, we observed the expressions of ROS-related enzymes in endothelial cells. Methods Tea polyphenols were co-incubated with bovine carotid artery endothelial cells (BCAECs) in vitro and intracellular NADPH oxidase subunits p22phox and p67phox, SOD-1, and catalase protein were detected using Western blot method. Results Tea polyphenols of 0.4 μg/mL and 4.0 μg/mL (from either green tea or black tea) down-regulated NADPH oxidase p22phox and p67phox expressions in a dose-negative manner (P<0.05), and up-regulated the expressions of catalase (P<0.05). Conclusions Tea polyphenols regulate the enzymes involved in ROS production and elimination in endothelial cells, and may be beneficial to the prevention of endothelial cell dysfunction and the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Effect of tea polyphenols on alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-rongHE; Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the scavenging effects of tea polyphenols on aldehyde in vitro and searching for the preliminary mechanism of tea polyphenols (TP) on alcoholic liver disease.METHODS: The effect of aldehyde absorption is tested at gaseous and liquid phases. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, HPll00Series) and UV-visible Detector(Wavelength: 235 nm) are used to analyze the components of the outcome of solution reaction. RESULTS: In vitro study showed

  5. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  6. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Milacic, V; Chen, M S; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Huo, C; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Cui, Q C; Wali, A; Chan, T H; Dou, Q P

    2008-04-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.

  7. The Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Tea and Its Polyphenols on in vitro and in vivo N—Nitrosation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYong-Ning; WANGHuai-Zhou; 等

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Chinese tea as a natrural inhibitor of N-nitrosation,and to compare the relative inhibitory potency of various kinds of Chinese tea in vitro and in vivo.Studies on the inhibitory effect of 145 samples of Chinese tea on the formation of N-nitrosomorpholine(NMOR)showed that the inhibitory potency of the 7 types of Chinese tea differed greatly,the average blocking rate of green ta(89.04%,n=60),crush,tear,and curl(CTC)black tea(86.99%,n=13),brick tea(85.40%,n=7),fasmine tea (84.99%,n=21),Oolong tea(82.37%,n=9),sun-dried tea(61.99%,n=13)and Chinese Gongfu black tea(54.98%,n=22),wre ositively correlated with thir polyphenols contents.The inhibitory effect of greeen tea and black tea on endogenous N-nitrosation was also confirmed in 3 human volunteer experiments.Drinking tea after meal had a greatr effect than drinking it before meal.It is concluded that Chinese tea can exert a relatively strong inhibitory potency for N-Nitroso compounds(NOC)formation both in vitro and in humans,and the active constitutents may be related to their polyphenols contents,especially the tea catechin derivatives.The results also demonstrated that the amounts of NMOR formed in vitro depended on the molecular structure of tea catechin derivatives and their molar rations to nitrite.

  8. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GREEN TEA POLYPHENOL AND FLUORIDE ON STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸣宇; 刘正

    2000-01-01

    Objective To disclose the mechanism of green tea polyphenol in the prevention of dental caries.Methods Using sodium fluoride (highly effective anticaries agent) as control and Streptococcus mutans (carigenous microbe) as target, green tea polyphenol (potential bacterial inhibitor) was used to testify its action on the change of microbial morphology, extramicrobial sucrase, glucosyltransferase (GTF), lactate hydrogenase (LDH),protein and pH values of the culture media. Results GTF activities were inhibited both by green tea polyphenol and sodium fluoride, the inhibitory efficacy was stronger in green tea polyphenol. Morphologic changes consisted of membrane disruption in tea polyphenol treated microbes, and cytoplasmic vacuolization in fluoride treated bacteria.High protein level in fluoride treated culture media means cytoplasmic decomposition, intracellular protein leakage into media. Conclusion The inhibition of GTF activity was stronger in green tea polyphenol treated microbes.The target of action was cell membrane disruption in green tea polyphenol treated cell and cytoplasmic in fluoride treated microbes.

  10. Anti-melanogenic effects of black, green, and white tea extracts on immortalized melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Chul; Choi, So Young; Park, Eun Ye

    2015-01-01

    Tea contains polyphenols and is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Because most tyrosinase inhibitors that regulate melanogenesis are phenol/catechol derivatives, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Camellia sinensis water extracts (CSWEs), including black tea, green tea, and white tea extracts, on melanogenesis using immortalized melanocytes. CSWEs inhibited melanin accumulation and melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were superior to those of arbutin, a well-known depigmenting agent. The anti-melanogenic activity of black (fermented) tea was higher than that of a predominant tea catecholamine, epigallocatechin gallate. CSWEs, especially black tea extract, decreased tyrosinase protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-melanogenic effect of CSWEs is mediated by a decrease in both tyrosinase activity and protein expression, and may be augmented by fermentation. Thus, CSWEs could be useful skin-whitening agents in the cosmetic industry.

  11. [Aging Process of Puer Black Tea Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Curve-Fitting Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-yu; Shi, You-ming; Yi, Shi Lai

    2015-07-01

    For better determination of the chemical components in the Puer black tea, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of Puer black tea at different aging time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that the chemical components had change in Puer black tea at different aging time. The leaf of Puer black tea was a complex system, its Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a total overlap of each absorption spectrum of various components. Each band represented an overall overlap of some characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups in the Puer black tea. In order to explore the change of characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups with aging time, the prediction positions and the number of second peaks in the range of 1900-900 cm(-1) were determined by Fourier self-deconvolution at first, and later the curve fitting analysis was performed in this overlap band. At different aging time of Puer black tea, the wave number of second peaks of amide II, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides at overlap band were assigned by curve fitting analysis. The second peak at 1520 cm(-1) was characteristic absorption band of amide II, the second peaks of tea polyphenol and pectin appeared at 1278 and 1103 cm(-1) respectively. Two second peaks at 1063 and 1037 cm(-1), corresponds mainly to glucomannan and arabinan. The relative area of these second peaks could be indicated the content of protein, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides in the Puer black tea. The results of curve fitting analysis showed that the relative area of amide II was increasing first and then decreasing, it indicated the change of protein in Puer black tea. At the same time, the content of tea polyphenol and pectin were decreased with the increase of aging time, but the glucomannan and arabinan were increased in reverse. It explained that the bitter taste was become weak and a sweet taste appeared in the tea with the increase of

  12. Chemistry of Secondary Polyphenols Produced during Processing of Tea and Selected Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review will discuss recent progress in the chemistry of secondary polyphenols produced during food processing. The production mechanism of the secondary polyphenols in black tea, whisky, cinnamon, and persimmon fruits will be introduced. In the process of black tea production, tea leaf catechins are enzymatically oxidized to yield a complex mixture of oxidation products, including theaflavins and thearubigins. Despite the importance of the beverage, most of the chemical constituents have not yet been confirmed due to the complexity of the mixture. However, the reaction mechanisms at the initial stages of catechin oxidation are explained by simple quinone–phenol coupling reactions. In vitro model experiments indicated the presence of interesting regio- and stereoselective reactions. Recent results on the reaction mechanisms will be introduced. During the aging of whisky in oak wood barrels, ellagitannins originating from oak wood are oxidized and react with ethanol to give characteristic secondary ellagitannins. The major part of the cinnamon procyanidins is polymerized by copolymerization with cinnamaldehyde. In addition, anthocyanidin structural units are generated in the polymer molecules by oxidation which accounts for the reddish coloration of the cinnamon extract. This reaction is related to the insolubilization of proanthocyanidins in persimmon fruits by condensation with acetaldehyde. In addition to oxidation, the reaction of polyphenols with aldehydes may be important in food processing.

  13. Coffee and green tea as a large source of antioxidant polyphenols in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yoichi; Ohie, Takashi; Yonekawa, Yasuhiko; Yonemoto, Kohei; Aizawa, Hiroki; Mori, Yoko; Watanabe, Makoto; Takeuchi, Masato; Hasegawa, Maiko; Taguchi, Chie; Kondo, Kazuo

    2009-02-25

    Food and beverages rich in polyphenols with antioxidant activity are highlighted as a potential factor for risk reduction of lifestyle related diseases. This study was conducted to elucidate total polyphenol consumption from beverages in Japanese people. Total polyphenol (TP) contents in beverages were measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method removing the interference of reduced sugars by using reverse-phase column chromatography. A beverage consumption survey was conducted in the Tokyo and Osaka areas in 2004. Randomly selected male and female subjects (10-59 years old, n = 8768) recorded the amounts and types of all nonalcoholic beverages consumed in a week. Concentration of TP in coffee, green tea, black tea, Oolong tea, barley tea, fruit juice, tomato/vegetable juice, and cocoa drinks were at 200, 115, 96, 39, 9, 34, 69, and 62 mg/100 mL, respectively. Total consumption of beverages in a Japanese population was 1.11 +/- 0.51 L/day, and TP contents from beverages was 853 +/- 512 mg/day. Coffee and green tea shared 50% and 34% of TP consumption in beverages, respectively, and contribution of each of the other beverages was less than 10%. TP contents in 20 major vegetables and 5 fruits were 0-49 mg and 2-55 mg/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant activities, Cu reducing power, and scavenging activities for DPPH and superoxide, of those samples correlated to the TP contents (p coffee, contributed to a large share of the consumption of polyphenols, as antioxidants, in the Japanese diet.

  14. [Antioxidant activities of green and black teas determined by the cumene hydroperoxide/hemoglobin.methylene blue method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Osamu; Ishizawa, Nobuhito; Nakano, Masaharu; Matsuto, Takayuki; Okada, Masahiko

    2003-09-01

    Antioxidant activity in tea was measured by the new cumene hydroperoxide/hemoglobin.methylene blue(CHP/Hb.MB) method developed in our laboratory. Using the CHP/Hb.MB method, we investigated the activities of polyphenols(11 varieties) in order to determine their reactivity on CHP. According to the CHP/Hb.MB method, an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups in polyphenols induced high antioxidant activity. We found that this method was capable of measuring the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Consequently, we were able to measure the antioxidant activities of heated, green, powdered and black teas by this method. The average of antioxidant activities of heated green tea was 207 nmol/ml, while that of green tea was 280 nmol/ml, powdered green tea was 481 nmol/ml and black tea was 215 nmol/ml respectively.

  15. In vivo evaluation of black and green tea dermal products against UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, M; Uğurlu, T; Gedik, G; Yılmaz, A M; Süha Yalçin, A

    2010-10-01

    Aqueous extracts of black and green tea (Camellia sinensis) were obtained by freeze-drying for this study. The extracts were evaluated based on tea quality control tests, UV, IR scans, and in vitro antioxidant capacity tests. Dermal products from the tea extracts were designed and manufactured. Black and green tea gels were tested in vivo in the forearms of six subjects using an artifical UV (200-400 nm) source. The tested formulations were green tea gel, black tea gel, 0.3% caffeine gel, carbomer gel base, and a control. Depending on tea quality, the samples resulted in water soluble fractions of 24.5-39.5%. UV and IR scans specifically showed peaks for alkaloids like caffeine, catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate, and polyphenols with dimeric and polymeric structures such as theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigins (TRs). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of black and green tea samples were found to be high and comparable; activity levels for black tea, green tea, high quality black tea, and L-ascorbic acid were 0.48, 0.50, 0.82, and 1.32 mM TR/mg, respectively. No UV-induced erythema was observed at the black and green tea gel sites in any of the subjects. UV-induced erythema was consistently present in various grades at caffeine gel, carbomer gel, and control sites. Results led to the conclusion that freeze-dried black and green tea extracts had strong UV absorbance. Formulating those extracts into dermal gels protected the skin against UV-induced erythema. Therefore, tea extracts were found to be promising candidates for their ability to protect against the harmful effects of UV radiation, such as erythema and premature aging of the skin.

  16. Protective Mechanisms of Green Tea Polyphenols in Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia OyetakinWhite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental, chemical, and genotoxic agents that contribute to disease and carcinogenesis. Ultraviolet light (UVR is the main external stress that leads to immunosuppresion, oxidative stress, premature aging, and tumor formation. Scientists and health professionals emphasize the importance of prevention strategies to circumvent such unfavorable outcomes. Plant polyphenols are a promising approach to disease prevention and treatment. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols that exhibit significant antioxidant, chemopreventive, and immunomodulatory effects in protecting the skin.

  17. 不同发酵类型的茶叶茶多酚含量的比较分析%The comparative analysis of tea polyphenols content in different types of fermentation teas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of three different types of fermentation in tea tea polyphenols content is repor -ted.For three different types of fermentation in tea tea polyphenols content was determinated by high perform -ance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.Method of variation coefficient is less than 4.38%,recovery rate of 96 .6%to 96 .6%.The analysis result is:the three different types of fermentation in tea tea polyphenols con-tent from more to less order:not fermented green tea ,half fermented oolong tea ,all fermented black tea ,the tea polyphenols content was reduced with increase the degree of fermentation .%采用高效液相色谱法对3种不同发酵类型的茶叶中茶多酚的含量进行测定和比较分析.方法的变异系数小于4.38%,回收率为96.6%~104.0%.其分析结果为:3种不同发酵类型的茶叶中茶多酚的含量由多到少的顺序为:不发酵的绿茶,半发酵青茶,全发酵红茶,即茶叶中茶多酚的含量随着发酵程度增大而减少.

  18. A novel convenient process to obtain a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction using a lignocellulose column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanaka, Senji

    2003-05-01

    Lignocellulose prepared from sawdust was investigated for its potential application in obtaining a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction from tea extract. Tea polyphenols having gallate residues, namely, (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), were adsorbed on the lignocellulose column, while caffeine was passed through it. Adsorbed polyphenols were eluted with 60% ethanol, and the elute was found to consist mainly of EGCg and ECg. The caffeine/EGCg ratio was 0.696 before lignocellulose column treatment, but it became 0.004 after the column treatment. These results suggest that the lignocellulose column provides a useful and convenient process of purification of tea polyphenol fraction accompanied by decaffeination.

  19. Green tea polyphenols protect spinal cord neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Zhao; Shiqiang Fang; Yajiang Yuan; Zhanpeng Guo; Jinhao Zeng; Yue Guo; Peifu Tang; Xifan Mei

    2014-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants and can reduce free radical damage. To investigate their neuroprotective potential, we induced oxidative damage in spinal cord neurons using hy-drogen peroxide, and applied different concentrations (50-200 µg/mL) of green tea polyphenol to the cell medium for 24 hours. Measurements of superoxide dismutase activity, malondial-dehyde content, and expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins revealed that green tea polyphenol effectively alleviated oxidative stress. Our results indicate that green tea polyphenols play a protective role in spinal cord neurons under oxidative stress.

  20. Inhibition of gastrointestinal lipolysis by green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea polyphenols during simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kwang Hyun; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Sang Min; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2012-07-25

    Green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea, which are rich in polyphenols, may exhibit antiobesity effects by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. However, the bioavailability of some polyphenols is poor due to either degradation or absorption difficulties in the gastrointestinal tract, thus making their beneficial effects doubtful. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of three beverages on lipolysis and the contribution of their major polyphenols during simulated digestion. During simulated digestion, gomchui tea was the most potent at inhibiting gastrointestinal lipolysis, whereas green tea was the least potent. The strongest lipase inhibitor among purified major polyphenols was a green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, IC(50) = 1.8 ± 0.57 μM), followed by di-O-caffeoylquinic acid isomers (DCQA, IC(50) from 12.7 ± 4.5 to 40.4 ± 2.3 μM), which are gomchui tea polyphenols. However, the stability of DCQA was greater than that of EGCG when subjected to simulated digestion. Taken together, gomchui tea, which has DCQA as the major polyphenol, showed stronger lipolysis inhibitory activity during simulated digestion compared to both green tea and coffee.

  1. Polyphenol composition of a functional fermented tea obtained by tea-rolling processing of green tea and loquat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shii, Takuya; Tanaka, Takashi; Watarumi, Sayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Matsui, Toshiro; Kouno, Isao

    2011-07-13

    Phenolic constituents of a new functional fermented tea produced by tea-rolling processing of a mixture (9:1) of tea leaves and loquat leaves were examined in detail. The similarity of the phenolic composition to that of black tea was indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography comparison with other tea products. Twenty-five compounds, including three new catechin oxidation products, were isolated, and the structures of the new compounds were determined to be (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone 2-O-gallate, dehydrotheasinensin H, and acetonyl theacitrin A by spectroscopic methods. In addition, theacitrinin A and theasinensin H were obtained for the first time from commercial tea products. Isolation of these new and known compounds confirms that reactions previously demonstrated by in vitro model experiments actually occur when fresh tea leaves are mechanically distorted and bruised during the production process.

  2. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dong-Xin; Thompson, Patricia A; Teitel, Candee; Chen, Jun-Shi; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen.

  3. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2003-03-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen.

  4. Isolation and Purification of a Novel Long-chain Acyl Catechin from Lipophilic Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 杜琪珍

    2003-01-01

    Llpophilic tea polyphenols (LTP) was prepared by esterification of green tea polyphenols (GTP) with hexadecanoyl chloride. A novel long-chaln acyl catechin was isolated and purified from LTP by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).Its molecular structure was elucidated as epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-4'-O-hexadecanate by elemental analysis, IR, MS and 1H NMR spectra.

  5. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Peiró; Gordon, Michael H.; Mónica Blanco; Francisca Pérez-Llamas; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols w...

  6. Preparation of a tea polyphenol nanoliposome system and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qun; Li, Di-Cai; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2011-12-28

    Tea polyphenol is rich in green tea with diverse biological activities. However, its application in the food industry is limited due to its instability toward oxygen and light. In this study, the preparation of tea polyphenol liposome by the thin film ultrasonic dispersion method was performed in order to enhance the bioavailability of tea polyphenol. The process conditions were optimized using response surface analysis, and the optimal parameters were as follows: ratio of tea polyphenol to lecithin, 0.125:1; ratio of lecithin to cholesterol, 4:1; phosphate buffered saline (PBS) pH, 6.62; ultrasonic time, 3.5 min. The theoretical and practical entrapment efficiency were 60.36% and 60.09 ± 0.69%, respectively. Furthermore, physicochemical properties including size distribution, zeta potential, permeability, infrared spectrum and in vitro release of liposomal formulations were determined. The mean size of tea polyphenol liposome was 160.4 nm, and the ζ-potential value was -67.2. The tea polyphenol liposome was formed by physical interaction, and the in vitro release process followed a first-order equation. The results indicated that the prepared tea polyphenol liposome was stable and suitable for more widespread application.

  7. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  8. 绿茶和发酵茶的茶多酚组成比较%Comparison of the Composition of the Polyphenols in Green Tea and Fermented Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴警; 刘春莹; 郭久宁; 杨刚; 鱼红闪; 金凤燮

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To compare the composition of the polyphenols in green tea and fermented tea ( including Black tea, Dianhong and Pu-Er tea). [ Method] Liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to the determination of the polyphenols. [ Result] Five catechins, GA( Gallic acid)and CAF(Caffeine) in commercial green tea and fermented tea (including Black tea, Dianhong and Pu-Er tea). The results showed that, five catechins such as GC (Gallocatechin), EGC ( Epigallocatechin), EGCG ( Epigallocatechin gallate), EC ( Epicatechin ), ECG ( Epicatechin gallate), Gallic acid and Caffeine were all contained in green tea. EGCG was the major active components. “Semi-fermented” tea Tieguanyin was all detected. The contents of EGCG was the highest, 16.610 mg/g. “Fermented” tea Black tea was degraded partly. The contents of GC, EGC, EGCG were low. The content of Caffeine in Black tea was high, 17. 304 mg/g. The content of EGCG and ECG were high in Dianhong, 4.588 mg/g and 3. 559 mg/g. The major components in Pu-Er tea were Gallic acid and Caffeine. Other five catechins could not be detected. [ Conclusion] According to the different fermentation process of tea, tea polyphenols were degraded to varying degrees.%[目的]比较市售4种绿茶和发酵茶(包括红茶、滇红茶和普洱茶)的茶多酚组成和比例.[方法]采用高效液相色谱法检测茶多酚种类和含量.[结果]市售绿茶均含有没食子儿茶素(GC)、表没食子儿荼素(EGC)和表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)、表儿茶素(EC)和表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)等茶多酚,以及没食子酸(GA)和咖啡因(CAF),EGCG为4种绿茶有效成分中的主要物质.半发酵茶铁观音7种有效成分全部检出,EGCG含量最高为16.610mg/s.发酵茶红茶中茶多酚(儿茶素)部分被降解,GC、EGC、EGCG含量低,咖啡因含量高为17.304 mg/g;滇红茶中EGCG和ECG含量最高,分别为4.588和3.559 mg/g;普洱荼主要有效成分为没食子酸和咖啡因,几乎测不出其他5

  9. Effect of different doses of un-fractionated green and black tea extracts on thyroid physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; De, Neela; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy

    2011-08-01

    Tea is a rich source of polyphenolic flavonoids including catechins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of it. Flavonoids have been reported to have antithyroid and goitrogenic effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of green and black tea have a harmful effect on thyroid physiology. Un-fractionated green and black tea extracts were administered orally to male rats for 30 days at doses of 1.25 g%, 2.5 g% and 5.0 g%. The results showed that green tea extract at 2.5 g% and 5.0 g% doses and black tea extract only at 5.0 g% dose have the potential to alter the thyroid gland physiology and architecture, that is, enlargement of thyroid gland as well as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and inhibition of the activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5(')-deiodinase I with elevated thyroidal Na+, K+-ATPase activity along with significant decrease in serum T3 and T4, and a parallel increase in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study concludes that goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of un-fractionated green tea extract is much more than black tea extract because of the differences in catechin contents in the tea extracts.

  10. Black tea extract: a supplementary antioxidant in radiation-induced damage to DNA and normal lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debjani; Pal, Sandip; Saha, Chabita; Chakrabarti, Amit Kumar; Datta, Salil C; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Myriad research has contributed significantly toward the understanding and identification of health benefits stemming from tea polyphenols and many other naturally occurring flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. These flavonoids are known to mitigate reactive oxygen species-induced damage by scavenging them. In this study, hot-water black tea extract rich in flavonoids is evaluated as a supplementary antioxidant. The antioxidant efficacy of black tea extract was investigated by evaluating radioprotection conferred to pBR322 DNA, calf thymus DNA, and normal lymphocytes during gamma irradiation. The protection was measured by gel electrophoresis, fluorimetric study, cell viability assay, cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei assay, and comet assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability of the tea extract used increased in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 182.45 µg/mL). Positive correlation of radioprotection with antioxidant activity of black tea extract was observed in all systems. Maximum protection against radiation-induced damage was observed in pBR322 DNA and calf thymus DNA at ≥200 µg/mL of black tea extract. At a dose of black tea extract as low as 5 µg/mL, efficient radioprotection was observed in normal lymphocytes, which is encouraging and can be tested in the future as a natural antioxidant supplement during radiotherapy.

  11. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice.

  12. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  13. Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuated Glutamate Excitotoxicity via Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathway in the Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin; Cao, Chang; Cheng, Yong; Qin, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols are a natural product which has antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. It has been shown that glutamate excitotoxicity induced oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study we explored the neuroprotective effect of green teen polyphenols against glutamate excitotoxicity in the primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate induced neurotoxicity in the cortical neurons as measured by MTT and TUNEL assays. Green tea polyphenols were then showed to inhibit the glutamate induced ROS release and SOD activity reduction in the neurons. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols restored the dysfunction of mitochondrial pro- or antiapoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 caused by glutamate. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols was abrogated when the neurons were incubated with siBcl-2. Taken together, these results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate excitotoxicity through antioxidative and antiapoptotic pathways.

  14. Interaction of green tea polyphenols with dairy matrices in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Azimy, Naheed; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion.

  15. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activation of NF-κB and the secretion of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases by macrophages stimulated with Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagha, Amel Ben; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum has been associated with both periodontal disease and inflammatory bowel disease. This Gram-negative bacterium possesses a high inflammatory potential that may contribute to the disease process. We hypothesized that green and black tea polyphenols attenuate the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages mediated by F. nucleatum. We first showed that the tea extracts, EGCG and theaflavins reduce the NF-κB activation induced by F. nucleatum in monocytes. Since NF-κB is a key regulator of genes coding for inflammatory mediators, we tested the effects of tea polyphenols on secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL8 by macrophages. A pre-treatment of macrophages with the tea extracts, EGCG, or theaflavins prior to a stimulation with F. nucleatum significantly inhibited the secretion of all four cytokines and reduced the secretion of MMP-3 and MMP-9, two tissue destructive enzymes. TREM-1 expressed by macrophages is a cell-surface receptor involved in the propagation of the inflammatory response to bacterial challenges. Interestingly, tea polyphenols inhibited the secretion/shedding of soluble TREM-1 induced by a stimulation of macrophages with F. nucleatum. The anti-inflammatory properties of tea polyphenols identified in the present study suggested that they may be promising agents for the prevention and/or treatment of periodontal disease and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27694921

  16. Redox chemistry of green tea polyphenols: therapeutic benefits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, H M; Jackson, N

    2012-05-01

    Evidence for the medicinal and health benefits of polyphenols in green tea for the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, various types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases is advancing. Their in vivo effectiveness and molecular mechanisms are difficult to elucidate and remain a challenging task. We review the redox responsiveness and amyloid protein perturbation biophysical properties of the major green tea polyphenol constituent (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG].

  17. Green Tea Polyphenols in drug discovery - a success or failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Green tea is made from unfermented dried leaves from Camellia sinensis and has been consumed by humans for thousands of years. For nearly as long, it has been used as a folk remedy for a wide array of diseases. More recently, a large number of in-vitro and in-vivo scientific studies have supported this ancient contention that the polyphenols from green tea can provide a number of health benefits. Since these compounds are clearly safe for human consumption and ubiquitous in the food supply, they are highly attractive as lead compounds for drug discovery programs. However, as drugs, they are far from optimum. They are relatively unstable, poorly absorbed, and readily undergo a number of metabolic transformations by intestinal microbiota and human enzymes. Further, since these compounds target a wide array of biological systems, in-vivo testing is rather difficult since effects on alternative pathways need to be carefully eliminated. The purpose of this review is to discuss some of the challenges and benefits of pursuing this family of compounds for drug discovery. PMID:21731575

  18. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  19. Molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective/neurorescue action of multi-target green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Silvia A; Weinreb, Orly; Amit, Tamar; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that lifestyle factors, especially nutrition are essential factor for healthy ageing. However, as a result of the increase in life expectance, neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's (AD and PD, respectively) are becoming an increasing burden, as aging is their main risk factor. Brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases of the elderly are characterized by oxidative damage, dysregulation of redox metals homeostasis and inflammation. Thus, it is not surprising that a large amount of drugs/agents in therapeutic use for these conditions are antioxidants/metal complexing, bioenergetic and anti-inflammatory agents. Natural plant polyphenols (flavonoids and non-flavonoids) are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet and as such, are ideal nutraceuticals for neutralizing stress-induced free radicals and inflammation. Human epidemiological and new animal data suggest that green and black flavonoids named catechins, may help protecting the aging brain and reduce the incidence of dementia, AD and PD. This review will present salient features of the beneficial multi-pharmacological actions of black and green tea polyphenols in aging and neurodegeneration, and speculate on their potential in drug combination to target distinct pathologies as a therapeutic disease modification approach.

  20. UV light photo-Fenton degradation of polyphenols in oolong tea manufacturing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaikai, Waraluk; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The UV light photo-Fenton degradation of oolong tea polyphenols in tea manufacturing effluent that color the wastewater to a dark brown has been examined. In order to elucidate the photo-Fenton degradation mechanism of oolong tea polyphenols and find the optimal dosages of the Fenton reagents, systematic study has been conducted. For the UV light photo-Fenton degradation of oolong tea effluent being 70 mg-(polyphenol) L(-1), the optimum dosages of Fenton reagents were found to be 20 mgL(-1) of total Fe and 500 mgL(-1) of H2O2. The polyphenol degradation could be divided into two stages. The polyphenols concentration rapidly decreased to around 30% of the initial concentration within 2 min and the degradation rate significantly slowed down in the subsequent stage. After 60 min of UV light irradiation, 97% polyphenol removal was obtained. The initial quick degradation of oolong tea polyphenols suggests that hydroxyl radical generated by the photo-Fenton process might preferentially attack polyphenols having high antioxidant activity by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. Almost complete decolorization of the oolong tea effluent was achieved after 80 min. About 96% mineralization of 63 mgL(-1) TOC loading was achieved within 60 min and then further mineralization was rather slow. The complete COD removal of 239 mgL(-1) COD loading was obtained after 100 min. The present results indicate that the UV light photo-Fenton degradation process can treat tea manufacturing wastewaters very effectively.

  1. Vascular and Metabolic Actions of the Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate robust correlations between green tea consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular complications. However, underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Health promoting actions of green tea are often attributed to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea. Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction play key roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabe...

  2. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  3. Green tea polyphenols inhibit testosterone production in rat Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina S.Figueiroa; Juliany S.B.Cesar Vieira; Disleide S.Leite; Ruben C.O.Andrade Filho; Fabiano Ferreira; Patricia S.Gouveia; Daniel P.Udrisar; Maria I.Wanderley

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its polyphenol constituents, (-)-epigal-locatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin (EC), on basal and stimulated testosterone production by rat Leydig cells in vitro. Leydig cells purified in a Percoll gradient were incubated for 3 h with GTE, EGCG or EC and the testosterone precursor androstenedione, in the presence or absence of either protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC) activators. The reversibility of the effect was studied by pretreating cells for 15 min with GTE or EGCG, allowing them to recover for 1 h and challenging them for 2 h with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or androstenedione. GTE and EGCG, but not EC, inhibited both basal and kinase-stimulated testosterone production. Under the pretreatment conditions, the inhibitory effect of the higher concentration of GTE/EGCG on hCG/LHRH-stimulated or 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-induced testosterone production was maintained, whereas androstenedione-supported testosterone production returned to control levels. At the lower concentration of GTE/EGCG, the inhibitory effect of these polyphenols on 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-supported testosterone production was reversed. The inhibitory effects of GTE may be explained by the action of its principal component, EGCG, and the presence of a gallate group in its structure seems important for its high efficacy in inhibiting testosterone production. The mechanisms underlying the effects of GTE and EGCG involve the inhibition of the PKA/PKC signalling pathways, as well as the inhibition of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase function.

  4. The prevention of lung cancer induced by a tobacco-specific carcinogen in rodents by green and black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, F L

    1999-04-01

    A growing body of evidence from studies in laboratory animals indicates that green tea protects against cancer development at various organ sites. We have previously shown that green tea, administered as drinking water, inhibits lung tumor development in A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-l-butanone (NNK), a potent nicotine-derived lung carcinogen found in tobacco. The inhibitory effect of green tea has been attributed to its major polyphenolic compound, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and, to a lesser extent, to caffeine. We have also demonstrated that while levels of O6-methylguanine, a critical lesion in NNK lung tumorigenesis, were not affected in lung DNA. However, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly suppressed in mice treated with green tea or EGCG. These studies underscore the importance of the antioxidant activity of green tea and EGCG for their inhibitory activity against lung tumorigenesis. Unlike green tea, the effect of black tea on carcinogenesis has been scarcely studied, even though the worldwide production and consumption of black tea far exceeds that of green tea. The oxidation products found in black tea, thearubigins and theaflavins, also possess antioxidant activity, suggesting that black tea may also inhibit NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. Indeed, bioassays in A/J mice have shown that black tea given as drinking water retarded the development of lung cancer caused by NNK. However, data on the relationship of black tea consumption with the lung cancer risk in humans are limited and inconclusive. There is a need for additional tumor bioassays in animal models to better examine the protective role of black tea against lung cancer. The development of adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas in F344 rats upon chronic administration of NNK provides an important and relevant model for lung carcinogenesis in smokers. Thus far, no information was previously

  5. Controlled-release of tea polyphenol from gelatin films incorporated with different ratios of free/nanoencapsulated tea polyphenols into fatty food simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatin films having controlled-release properties were developed by incorporation of different free/encapsulated tea polyphenol (TP) ratios through modifying the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of TP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Different EEs were obtained by adjusting the chitosan hydrochloride (C...

  6. Rapid and sustained systemic circulation of conjugated gut microbiol catabolites after single-dose black tea extract consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Foltz, M.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbial catabolites of black tea polyphenols (BTPs) have been proposed to exert beneficial cardiovascular bioactivity. This hypothesis is difficult to verify because the conjugation patterns and pharmacokinetics of these catabolites are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to identi

  7. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jin [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Feng [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fang, Yong; Yang, Wenjian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China); An, Xinxin; Zhao, Liyan; Xin, Zhihong; Cao, Lin [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu, Qiuhui, E-mail: qiuhuihu@njau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Tea polyphenols have strong antioxidant and antitumor activities. However, these health benefits are limited due to their poor in vivo stability and low bioavailability. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems may provide an alternative approach for enhancing bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. In this study, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using two different chitosan biomaterials, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in HepG2 cells, including cell cytotoxicity comparison, cell morphology analysis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle detection. The results indicated that the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a branch shape and heterogeneous distribution in prepared suspension. MTT assay suggested that tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the cytotoxicity rates were increased gradually and appeared an obvious dose-dependent relationship. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the HepG2 cells treated with tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited some typical apoptotic features, such as microvilli disappearance, margination of nuclear chromatin, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and the mitochondrial swelling. In addition, the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles had relatively weak inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells compared with tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenols not only induced cancer cell apoptosis, but also promoted their necrosis. However, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited their antitumor effects mainly through inducing cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that the inhibition effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on tumor cells probably depended on their controlled drug release and effective cell delivery. The chitosan nanoparticles themselves as the delivery carrier showed limited antitumor effects compared with their encapsulated drugs. - Highlights: • Tea polyphenol

  8. Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Zhang, Qiuyue; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-08-20

    Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions.

  9. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  10. Inhibition of free radical induced oxidative hemolysis of red blood cells by green tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBC) was used as a model to study the free radical induced damage of biological membranes and the inhibitory effect of natural antioxidants. The hemolysis was induced by a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2′-azo(2- asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) and inhibited by the principal polyphenolic components extracted from green tea leaves, i.e. (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicat- echin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA). Addition of AAPH at 37°C caused fast hemolysis after a short period of inhibition period, while addition of the green tea polyphenols efficiently suppressed the hemolysis in the activity sequence of EGCG>EGC>ECG≈EC>GA, demonstrating that these green tea polyphenols are effective antioxidants which could protect biological membranes from free radical induced oxidative damage.

  11. Green tea polyphenols require the mitochondrial iron transporter, mitoferrin, for lifespan extension in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry E; Pham, Hoang M; Nguyen, Benjamin V; Tahmasian, Yerazik; Ramsden, Shannon; Coskun, Volkan; Schriner, Samuel E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-12-01

    Green tea has been found to increase the lifespan of various experimental animal models including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. High in polyphenolic content, green tea has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in part by its ability to bind free iron, a micronutrient that is both essential for and toxic to all living organisms. Due to green tea's iron-binding properties, we questioned whether green tea acts to increase the lifespan of the fruit fly by modulating iron regulators, specifically, mitoferrin, a mitochondrial iron transporter, and transferrin, found in the hemolymph of flies. Publicly available hypomorph mutants for these iron regulators were utilized to investigate the effect of green tea on lifespan and fertility. We identified that green tea could not increase the lifespan of mitoferrin mutants but did rescue the reduced male fertility phenotype. The effect of green tea on transferrin mutant lifespan and fertility were comparable to w(1118) flies, as observed in our previous studies, in which green tea increased male fly lifespan and reduced male fertility. Expression levels in both w(1118) flies and mutant flies, supplemented with green tea, showed an upregulation of mitoferrin but not transferrin. Total body and mitochondrial iron levels were significantly reduced by green tea supplementation in w(1118) and mitoferrin mutants but not transferrin mutant flies. Our results demonstrate that green tea may act to increase the lifespan of Drosophila in part by the regulation of mitoferrin and reduction of mitochondrial iron.

  12. Green tea polyphenols extend the lifespan of male drosophila melanogaster while impairing reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T; Huey, Jocelyn; Jafari, Mahtab

    2014-12-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Black Tea-Derived Catechins and Theaflavins in Tissues of Tea Consuming Animals Using Ultra-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Souradipta; G., Taposh Kumar; Mantha, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of the major tea polyphenols, catechins and theaflavins as well as their gallated derivatives are yet to be precisely elucidated on a single identification platform for assessment of their relative bioefficacy in vivo. This is primarily due to the lack of suitable analytical tools for their simultaneous determination especially in an in vivo setting, which continues to constrain the evaluation of their relative health beneficiary potential and therefore prospective therapeutic application. Herein, we report a rapid and sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the simultaneous determination of the major catechins and theaflavins in black tea infusions as well as in different vital tissues and body fluids of tea-consuming guinea pigs. This method allowed efficient separation of all polyphenols within seven minutes of chromatographic run and had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of ~5 ng/ml. Using this method, almost all bioactive catechins and theaflavins could be simultaneously detected in the plasma of guinea pigs orally administered 5% black tea for 14 days. Our method could further detect the majority of these polyphenols in the lung and kidney as well as identify the major catechin metabolites in the urine of the tea-consuming animals. Overall, our study presents a novel tool for simultaneous detection and quantitation of both catechins and theaflavins in a single detection platform that could potentially enable precise elucidation of their relative bioavailability and bioefficacy as well as true health beneficiary potential in vivo. Such information would ultimately facilitate the accurate designing of therapeutic strategies utilizing high efficacy formulations of tea polyphenols for effective mitigation of oxidative damage and inflammation in humans as well as prevention of associated diseases. PMID:27695123

  14. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes.

  15. Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuated Glutamate Excitotoxicity via Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathway in the Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Cong; Chang Cao; Yong Cheng; Xiao-Yan Qin

    2016-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols are a natural product which has antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. It has been shown that glutamate excitotoxicity induced oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In this study we explored the neuroprotective effect of green teen polyphenols against glutamate excitotoxicity in the primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate induced neurotox...

  16. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  18. Comparative study of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of black tea theaflavins and green tea catechin on murine myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Hong-Lok; Ip, Wai-Ki; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Mak, Nai-Ki; Leung, Kwok-Nam

    2004-03-01

    Among the black tea polyphenols, theaflavins are generally considered to be the more effective components for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. In this study, we attempted to compare the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of the four black tea theaflavins (TF-1, TF-2A, TF-2B and TF-3) with the major green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. All the four black tea theaflavins were shown to exert potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects on the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose-dependent manner. The observed anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects were in the following order of potency: EGCG > TF-2B > TF-3 > TF-2A > TF-1. In addition, all theaflavins were capable of inducing apoptosis in the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. Among the four theaflavins tested, TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be slightly more potent in inducing apoptosis of the WEHI-3B JCS cells than that of TF-2A and TF-1 but were comparable to the major green tea epicatechin EGCG. More interestingly, both TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be much more effective than TF-1 and TF-2B in reducing both the in vitro clonogenicity and in vivo tumorigenicity of the WEHI-3B JCS cells, suggesting that these two black tea theaflavins might represent potential candidates for the treatment of some forms of leukemia.

  19. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Naping; Wu, Yuemin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Rongbin

    2009-09-01

    Studies investigating the association of green tea and black tea consumption with lung cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis on the topic. Studies were identified by a literature search in PubMed from 1966 to November 2008 and by searching the reference lists of relevant studies. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on random-effects model. Our meta-analysis included 22 studies provided data on consumption of green tea or black tea, or both related to lung cancer risk. For green tea, the summary RR indicated a borderline significant association between highest green tea consumption and reduced risk of lung cancer (RR=0.78, 95% CI=0.61-1.00). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of two cups/day was associated with an 18% decreased risk of developing lung cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.96). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observe through the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.70-1.05; an increment of two cups/day, RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.65-1.03). In conclusion, our data suggest that high or an increase in consumption of green tea but not black tea may be related to the reduction of lung cancer risk.

  20. Model system-based mechanistic studies of black tea thearubigin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Koek, Jan H; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-08-01

    Thearubigins are the most abundant pigments found in black tea, comprising polyphenolic oxidation products, whose composition and chemical nature have remained unresolved until recently. In the course of studying the mechanism of thearubigin formation from green tea flavan-3-ols, a model system, based on electrochemical oxidation of one of the main tea flavan-3-ol substrates, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was employed. Reaction intermediates and products were subsequently analysed using mass spectrometry techniques, allowing for the identification of key intermediates and products. The results provided, for the first time, spectroscopic evidence for the structures of primary oxidation products, and led to the conclusion that oxidation is mainly taking place on the B-ring and the galloyl group, where the oxidized components undergo oxidative coupling for the formation of theaflavins, theasinensins and polyhydroxylated flavan-3-ols, all precursors for thearubigin formation. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to support key findings.

  1. Excretion of Four Catechins in Tea Polyphenols in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate excretion profiles of the four major anti-oxidant active catechins, (-) epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-) epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC) in tea polyphenols (TP) in rats in order to provide experimental data for clinical uses and development of TP as a novel drug. Methods The above four catechins in urine, bile, and feces were simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector (HPLC-UV) assay with a binary gradient elution. The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate prior to HPLC. The quantification was carried out by peak area internal standard method. Following iv dosing TP 100 mg/kg to rats, the samples were collected at different time intervals up to 8 h (urine and bile) and 24 h (feces). Results The urinary Ae, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion amount over 8 h) of EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC were, on the average, 150.83, 30.75, 116.69, and 254.56 μg, corresponding to fe, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion fraction of dose over 8 h) of 1.45%, 0.84%, 7.88%, and 10.73%, respectively; the biliary Ae, 0-8 h were 12.61, 42.64, 6.61, and 1.24 μg, corresponding to the fe, 0-8 h of 0.12%, 1.16%, 0.45%, and 0.053%,respectively. For fecal excretion, only EGCG and EGC were detected with Ae, 0-24 h of 7.38 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 0.07%) and 157 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 9.99 %), respectively. The fe, total (the total fe of 3 excretory routes) were 18.32%, 10.78%, 2.00%, and 1.64% for EGC, EC, ECG, and EGCG, respectively. Conclusion EGCG and EC are mainly excreted in urine, ECG in bile, and EGC in feces by reference to their Ae and fe. The excretion of the four catechins based on fe, total is ranked in order of EGC > EC > ECG > EGCG. Only small amount of four catechins are recovered in urine, bile, and feces, indicating an extensive metabolic conversion of catechins in the rat body.

  2. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  3. Supplementation with green tea polyphenols improves bone microstructure and quality in aged, orchidectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies show that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate bone loss and microstructure deterioration in ovariectomized aged female rats, a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, it is not known if such an osteo-protective role of GTP is demonstrable in androgen-deficient aged rats, a mo...

  4. Green tea polyphenols attenuate glial swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction following oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrocyte swelling is a major component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemia. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been hypothesized to contribute to such swelling in cultures. We investigated the protective effects of polyphenol-rich green tea extract (GTE) on key features of ischemi...

  5. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  6. Heterogeneous photodegradation of methylene blue with iron and tea or coffee polyphenols in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Claudio Kendi; Shinohara, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we developed two new Fenton catalysts using iron (Fe) and spent tea leaves or coffee grounds as raw material. In this study, Fe-to-tea or Fe-to-coffee polyphenol complexes were successfully tested as heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalysts. The photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue solutions with Fe-to-polyphenol complexes was higher than that of homogeneous iron salts in the photo-Fenton process. Furthermore, the tested Fe-to-polyphenol complexes could be reused by simply adding H2O2 to the solutions. After three sequential additions of H2O2, the conventional catalysts FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3 removed only 16.6% and 53.6% of the dye, while the catalysts made using spent coffee grounds and tea leaves removed 94.4% and 96.0% of the dye, respectively. These results showed that the complexes formed between Fe and chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid and catechin, which are the main polyphenols in tea and coffee, can be used to improve the photo-Fenton process.

  7. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles (NZVI) Synthesized using tea-polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A “green” protocol was used for the rapid generation of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles using tea polyphenols. The NZVI particles were subsequently examined for in vitro biocompatibility using the human keratinocyte cell (HaCaT) line as a skin exposure model. The cell...

  8. Green tea polyphenols attenuate deterioration of bone microarchitecture in female rats with systemic chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Our previous study demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) benefit bone health in female rats with chronic inflammation, because of GTP’s antioxidant capacity. The current study further evaluates whether GTP can restore bone microstructure along with related mechanism in rats wit...

  9. Green Tea Polyphenols and Vitamin D3 Protect Bone Microarchitecture in Female Rats with Chronic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study showed that green tea polyphenols (GTP) in conjunction with 1-a-OH¬vit-D3 (vitD3) treatment mitigates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone mineral density loss in female rats. This study was undertaken to further explore the mechanism and bone microarchitecture of GTP plus vitD3 in...

  10. Novel tea polyphenol-modified calcium phosphate nanoparticle and its remineralization potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, L.; Deng, D.; Zhou, X.; Cheng, L.; ten Cate, J.M.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Crielaard, W.

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenols (TP) are not only potent antimicrobial and antioxidant agents but also effective modifiers in the formation of nanosized crystals. Since nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is known to enhance remineralization of dental hard tissue, our aims were to synthesize nanosized calcium phosphate part

  11. Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heyuan; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Thräne, Claudia; Maiwald, Beate; Stark, Janina

    2015-09-15

    An UHPLC method for the determination of flavonol glycosides (FOG) from green and oolong tea vs. black tea has been developed for the first time. Sample clean-up method by means of polyamide column chromatography was optimized with multiple-step elution. Using UHPLC and HPLC with gradient elution and photodiode array detection, eighteen FOG compounds were determined with the aid of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. These FOG compounds were qualified on both UHPLC and HPLC, and this UHPLC method successfully separated rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and K-grg (kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoglucoside) while conventional HPLC method did not. The total amounts of FOG compounds in the tea samples were 2.32-5.67g/kg dry weight (calculated as aglycones), and there is no significant difference for the total FOG content among green tea, oolong tea and black tea. However, kaempferol glycosides are more abundant in green teas, while oolong tea has more quercetin and myricetin glycosides. In black tea quercetin glycosides were most abundant.

  12. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB) was used as the sample in this study. Anti-glycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  13. Effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials.

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    Dongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of the studies that have investigated the effects of black tea on blood cholesterol are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the effects of black tea on cholesterol concentrations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library (through to July 2014 were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to investigate the effect of black tea on blood cholesterol concentrations. The study quality was assessed by the Jadad scoring criteria. Pooled effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol concentrations was evaluated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate dose effects of black tea polyphenols on concentrations of blood cholesterol. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the potential source of heterogeneity. RESULTS: The consumption of black tea did not significantly lower TC concentrations either in healthy subjects or patients with coronary artery diseases based on both fixed-effects and random-effects analysis. No significant change was observed in HDL-C concentrations in healthy participants or in subjects with coronary artery disease supplemented with black tea when compared with control participants. The pooled net change of LDL-C in healthy participants was -5.57 mg/dL (95% CI, -9.49 to -1.66 mg/dL; P = 0.005 in fixed-effects analysis and -4.56 (95% CI, -10.30 to 1.17 mg/dL; P = 0.12 in random-effects analysis. No significant net change was observed in LDL-C concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease. Subgroup and sensitivity did not significantly influence the overall outcomes of this meta-analysis. No significant dose effects of black tea polyphenols on blood cholesterol concentrations were detected in meta-regression analyses. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis suggests that the consumption of black tea might not have beneficial effects on concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and

  14. Polyphenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activities of Oolong Tea Infusion under Various Steeping Conditions

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    Feng Chen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of oolong tea extract wereinvestigated after tea was steeped in 90 or 100 oC water for 3 or 10 min. The extractionyield increased with increasing temperature and extended steeping time. However, highertemperature and longer time (100 oC water for 10 min led to loss of phenolics. Theaqueous extract of oolong tea (AEOT at 100 oC for 3 min exhibited the strongestantioxidant activity. The major polyphenolic components of the AEOT were identified as(--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG. The two major catechins (EGC and EGCG in the tea infusion contributedsignificantly to the investigated antioxidant activities [i.e., the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavengingactivities] with high correlation values in r = 0.9486 and 0.9327 for the EGC and r =0.9592 and 0.8718 for the EGCG, respectively.

  15. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

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    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  16. Artificial neural network modeling and optimization of ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; Xue, Yujing; Xu, Yinxiang; Shen, Yuhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols was modeled and optimized by a three-layer artificial neural network. A feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was used to evaluate the effects of pressure, liquid/solid ratio and ethanol concentration on the total phenolic content of green tea extracts. The neural network coupled with genetic algorithms was also used to optimize the conditions needed to obtain the highest yield of tea polyphenols. The obtained optimal architecture of artificial neural network model involved a feed-forward neural network with three input neurons, one hidden layer with eight neurons and one output layer including single neuron. The trained network gave the minimum value in the MSE of 0.03 and the maximum value in the R(2) of 0.9571, which implied a good agreement between the predicted value and the actual value, and confirmed a good generalization of the network. Based on the combination of neural network and genetic algorithms, the optimum extraction conditions for the highest yield of green tea polyphenols were determined as follows: 498.8 MPa for pressure, 20.8 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio and 53.6% for ethanol concentration. The total phenolic content of the actual measurement under the optimum predicated extraction conditions was 582.4 ± 0.63 mg/g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value (597.2mg/g DW). This suggests that the artificial neural network model described in this work is an efficient quantitative tool to predict the extraction efficiency of green tea polyphenols.

  17. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

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    Xueling Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf and Tea Poly-phenols (TP from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions were determined using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, 80% aqueous ethanol of, eluent volume of 4 times of Bed Volume (BV. After column separation, the purity of Caf was enhanced from 6 to 23%, TP from 38 to 61% and with the final yield of 16.9% following the separation by D101 resin. This study demonstrated macro-porous resin can effectively separated Caf and TP from instant tea waste liquor.

  18. New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Suk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is rich in polyphenol flavonoids including catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG is the most abundant and potent green tea catechin. EGCG has been extensively studied for its beneficial health effects as a nutriceutical agent. Based upon its chemical structure, EGCG is often classified as an antioxidant. However, treatment of cells with EGCG results in production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the presence of Fe (III. Thus, EGCG functions as a pro-oxidant in some cellular contexts. Recent investigations have revealed many other direct actions of EGCG that are independent from anti-oxidative mechanisms. In this review, we discuss these novel molecular mechanisms of action for EGCG. In particular, EGCG directly interacts with proteins and phospholipids in the plasma membrane and regulates signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, DNA methylation, mitochondrial function, and autophagy to exert many of its beneficial biological actions.

  19. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  20. Synergistic effects of tea polyphenols and ascorbic acid on human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Jian-xiang; Tu, You-ying

    2010-06-01

    Tea polyphenols have been shown to have anticancer activity in many studies. In the present study, we investigated effects of theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TF(3)), one of the major theaflavin monomers in black tea, in combination with ascorbic acid (AA), a reducing agent, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenol presented in green tea, in combination with AA on cellular viability and cell cycles of the human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) of TF(3), EGCG, and AA on SPC-A-1 cells were 4.78, 4.90, and 30.62 micromol/L, respectively. The inhibitory rates of TF(3) combined with AA (TF(3)+AA) and EGCG combined with AA (EGCG+AA) at a molar ratio of 1:6 on SPC-A-1 cells were 54.4% and 45.5%, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that TF(3)+AA and EGCG+AA obviously increased the cell population in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the SPC-A-1 cell cycle from 53.9% to 62.8% and 60.0%, respectively. TF(3)-treated cells exhibited 65.3% of the G(0)/G(1) phase at the concentration of its IC(50). Therefore, TF(3)+AA and EGCG+AA had synergistic inhibition effects on the proliferation of SPC-A-1 cells, and significantly held SPC-A-1 cells in G(0)/G(1) phase. The results suggest that the combination of TF(3) with AA or EGCG with AA enhances their anticancer activity.

  1. Degradation of bromothymol blue by 'greener' nano-scale zero-valent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A green single-step synthesis of iron nanoparticles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described that uses no added surfactants/polymers as a capping or reducing agents. The expeditious reaction between polyphenols and ferric nitrate occurs within few minutes at room te...

  2. Synergistic Effect of Green Tea Polyphenols and Vitamin D on Chronic Inflammation-Induced Bone Loss in Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study demonstrated a bone-protective role of green tea polyphenols (GTPs), extracted from green tea, in chronic inflammation-induced bone loss of female rats through reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. This study further examines effects of GTPs in conjunction with vitamin D (...

  3. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B Esha; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with the following order of potency: BHT > "Natural" commercial green tea > "Black Label" commercial black tea > O. gratissimum > P. betle > O. tenuiflorum > M. koenigii. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay reflected a similar antioxidative order for BHT and "Natural" commercial green tea, with however P. betle, O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum exhibiting higher activities than "Black Label" commercial black tea and M. koenigii. Based on their potent antioxidant capacity, P. betle (0.2 % m/m) and O. tenuiflorum (0.2 % m/m) extracts, and green tea (0.1 % m/m) infusate were compared with BHT (0.02 % m/m) on their ability to retard lipid oxidation in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise during storage at 40 °C. P. betle and green tea were more effective than BHT in both food systems. Moreover, odour evaluation by a sensory panel showed that the plant extracts and green tea infusate effectively delayed the development of rancid odours in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise (p < 0.05).

  4. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

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    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  5. Consumption of Green Tea, but Not Black Tea or Coffee, Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara; Sohshi Yuki; Chiaki Dohmoto; Yoshihisa Ikeda; Miharu Samuraki; Kazuo Iwasa; Masami Yokogawa; Kimiko Asai; Kiyonobu Komai; Hiroyuki Nakamura; Masahito Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with...

  6. In vitro Accumulation of Polyphenols in Tea Callus Derived from Anther

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevala, Naga Pavan Kumar; Chevala, Naga Thirumalesh; Dhanakodi, Kirubakaran; Nadendla, Rama Rao; Nagarathna, Chandrashekara Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tea is an economic important crop with high medicinal value due to rich polyphenols content. In the present research we studied the accumulation of polyphenols of in vitro regenerated callus from anthers. Objective: Callus induction of tea anthers and in vitro accumulation of phenolic compounds from the anther-derived callus. Materials and Methods: Standardization of callus induction for tea anthers. In vitro generated callus was screened for in vivo accumulation of catechins and its isomers were screened by FC reagent staining technique. The methanol extract of dry and green callus obtained were estimated qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)–alternative total reflection (ATR) and quantitatively by HPLC method. Results: Anthers inoculated on half strength MS media fortified with 2,4-dichloro acetic acid (2 mg/L), Kn (1 mg/L), and BAP (1 mg/L) induced callus under photoperiod of 9:15 h light. The in vivo histochemical studies revealed the accumulation of polyphenols in the callus. The in vitro generated fresh and dry callus were used for extraction and screened for accumulated polyphenols [galic acid, (+)-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, (−)-gallocatechins, (−)-epicatechin gallate] were estimated qualitatively by FTIR–ATR method and quantitatively by HPLC method. Conclusion: The FC staining technique used here helps in localization of polyphenol compounds accumulation in the tissues by instant microscopic studies. The study have scope in large-scale isolation of various medicinally important flavonol by using anther culture. Abbreviations used: HPLC: high pressure liquid chromatography; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; 2,4-D: 2,4-dichloro acetic acid; BAP: N6-benzyl amino purine; kn: kinetin

  7. Storage stability and physical characteristics of tea-polyphenol-bearing nanoliposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, Ibrahim; Corredig, Milena

    2013-04-03

    The objective of this work was to better understand the functional properties of milk phospholipids when used as ingredients to prepare liposomes. Liposomal dispersions (10%) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization, and their physical properties as well as their ability to encapsulate tea polyphenols were investigated. The extent of encapsulation, measured by HPLC, increased with tea polyphenol concentration up to about 4 mg·mL(-1). At polyphenol concentrations ≥ 6 mg·mL(-1), the liposome dispersions were no longer stable. The influence of pH (3-7), storage temperature (room temperature or refrigeration), and addition of sugars (0-15%) were studied for liposomes containing 4 mg·mL(-1) polyphenols. The liposomal dispersions were also stable in the presence of peptides. The storage stability of the systems prepared with milk phospholipids was compared to that of liposomes made with soy phospholipids. Soy liposomes were smaller in size than milk phospholipid liposomes, the encapsulation efficiency was higher, and the extent of release of tea polyphenols during storage was lower for milk phospholipid liposomes compared to soy liposomes. The results suggest that milk phospholipids could be employed to prepare tea-polyphenol-bearing liposomes and that the tea catechins may be incorporated in the milk phospholipid bilayer more efficiently than in the case of a soy phospholipid bilayer.

  8. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Herbal Tea from Vietnamese Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri

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    Phan-Tai Huan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable process to produce herbal tea from Vietnamese water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri has been conducted. The product can be used as traditional Ayuvedic medicinal herb. In this study, factors affecting drying process have been investigated including temperature ranging from 60 to 80°C, material thickness from 0.18 to 0.54 g/cm2 and air velocity from 0.5 to 1.5 m/s. Total polyphenols and soluble solid contents were observed during the process. Antioxidant capacity of raw and dried water hyssop have been also evaluated. The optimum result showed that at temperature of 60°C, material thickness of 0.18 g/cm2 and air velocity of 1.5 m/s, polyphenols content and total soluble solids in final herbal tea were found at 15.13 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 4.00%. With saponins concentrations of 0.53% and 0.50%, the IC50 values of 3.94 µg/ml and 4.45 µg/ml were found in the raw and dried water hyssop tea, respectively. It’s required to dry water hyssop at optimum condition in 180 minutes and chop materials into 1mm lengths before being used as herbal tea.

  9. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent.

  10. Inhibitory effects of oolong tea polyphenols on pancreatic lipase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Masaaki; Fukui, Yuko; Asami, Sumio; Toyoda-Ono, Yoshiko; Iwashita, Takashi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Mitsunaga, Tohru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2005-06-01

    Fifty-four polyphenols isolated from tea leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase, the key enzyme of lipid absorption in the gut. (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG), which is one of major polyphenols in green tea, showed lipase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.349 microM. Moreover, flavan-3-ol digallate esters, such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3,5-digallate, showed higher activities of inhibition on lipase with an IC50 of 0.098 microM. On the other hand, nonesterified flavan-3-ols, such as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin, showed zero and/or the lowest activities against pancreatic lipase (IC50 > 20 microM). These data suggested that the presence of galloyl moieties within the structure was required for enhancement of pancreatic lipase inhibition. It is well-known that flavan-3-ols are polymerized by polyphenol oxidase and/or heating in a manufacturing process of oolong tea. Oolonghomobisflavans A and B and oolongtheanin 3'-O-gallate, which are typical in oolong tea leaves, showed strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 0.048, 0.108, and 0.068 microM, respectively, even higher than that of EGCG. The oolong tea polymerized polyphenols (OTPP) were prepared for the assay from oolong tea extract, from which the preparation effectively subtracted the zero and/or less-active monomeric flavan-3-ols by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and number-average molecular-weight (Mn) values of OTPP were 2017 and 903, respectively, by using gel permeation choromatography. OTPP showed a 5-fold stronger inhibition against pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 0.28 microg/mL) by comparison with that of the tannase-treated OTPP (IC50 = 1.38 microg/mL). These data suggested that the presence of galloyl moieties within their chemical structures and/or the polymerization of flavan-3-ols were required for enhancement of pancreatic lipase inhibition.

  11. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  12. Green tea polyphenol blocks h(2)o(2)-induced interleukin-8 production from human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Isowa, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takashi; Liu, Mingyao; Wada, Hiromi

    2002-06-07

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung transplants. Reactive oxygen species may stimulate the production of neutrophil chemotactic factors such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), from alveolar epithelial cells, causing recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the reperfused tissue. Green tea polyphenol has potent anti-oxidative activities and anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing cytokine production. In the present study, we found that green tea polyphenol significantly inhibited IL-8 production induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549 line). It has been shown that mitogen activated protein kinases, such as Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and p44/42, could mediate IL-8 production from a variety of cell types. We further investigated the effect of green tea polyphenol on these protein kinases, and demonstrated that H(2)O(2)-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 but not p44/42 was inhibited by green tea polyphenol in A549 cells. We speculate that green tea polyphenol may inhibit H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 production from A549 cells through inactivation of JNK and p38.

  13. Epigenetic effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Wang, Piwen; Carpenter, Catherine L; Heber, David

    2013-12-01

    Epigenetics describes heritable alterations of gene expression and chromatin organization without changes in DNA sequence. Both hypermethylation and hypomethylation of DNA can affect gene expression and the multistep process of carcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes are reversible and may be targeted by dietary interventions. Bioactive compounds from green tea (GT) such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate have been shown to alter DNA methyltransferase activity in studies of esophageal, oral, skin, Tregs, lung, breast and prostate cancer cells, which may contribute to the chemopreventive effect of GT. Three out of four mouse model studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on DNA methylation. A human study demonstrated that decreased methylation of CDX2 and BMP-2 in gastric carcinoma was associated with higher GT consumption. It is the goal of this review to summarize our current knowledge of the potential of GT to alter epigenetic processes, which may be useful in chemoprevention.

  14. Black Tea Extract and Its Theaflavin Derivatives Inhibit the Growth of Periodontopathogens and Modulate Interleukin-8 and β-Defensin Secretion in Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo Bedran, Telma Blanca; Morin, Marie-Pierre; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, several studies have brought evidence suggesting that tea polyphenols, mostly from green tea, may have oral health benefits. Since few data are available concerning the beneficial properties of black tea and its theaflavin derivatives against periodontal disease, the objective of this study was to investigate their antibacterial activity as well as their ability to modulate interleukin-8 and human β-defensin (hBD) secretion in oral epithelial cells. Among the periodontopathogenic bacteria tested, Porphyromonas gingivalis was found to be highly susceptible to the black tea extract and theaflavins. Moreover, our data indicated that the black tea extract, theaflavin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate can potentiate the antibacterial effect of metronidazole and tetracycline against P. gingivalis. Using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells, the black tea extract (100 μg/ml), as well as theaflavin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (50 μg/ml) reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by 85%, 79%, and 86%, respectively, thus suggesting an anti-inflammatory property. The ability of the black tea extract and its theaflavin derivatives to induce the secretion of the antimicrobial peptides hBD-1, hBD-2 and hBD-4 by oral epithelial cells was then evaluated. Our results showed that the black tea extract as well as theaflavin-3,3'-digallate were able to increase the secretion of the three hBDs. In conclusion, the ability of a black tea extract and theaflavins to exert antibacterial activity against major periodontopathogens, to attenuate the secretion of IL-8, and to induce hBD secretion in oral epithelial cells suggest that these components may have a beneficial effect against periodontal disease.

  15. Colonic metabolism of polyphenols from coffee, green tea, and hazelnut skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calani, Luca; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Derlindati, Eleonora; Scazzina, Francesca; Bruni, Renato; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    Dietary polyphenolic compounds are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. The absorbed fraction follows the common metabolic pathway of drugs, undergoing phase II enzymatic detoxification with the conjugation of glucuronic acid, sulfate, and methyl groups. However, the unabsorbed fraction can reach the colon, becoming available for the wide array of enzymes produced by the local commensal microbiota. Gut bacteria can hydrolyze glycosides, glucuronides, sulfates, amides, esters, and lactones and are able to break down the polyphenolic skeleton and perform reactions of reduction, decarboxylation, demethylation, and dehydroxylation. These complex modifications generate several low-molecular-weight metabolites that can be efficiently absorbed in situ, subsequently undergoing further phase II metabolism, locally and/or at the liver level, before entering the systemic blood circulation and finally being excreted in urine in substantial quantities that exceed the excretion of phenolic metabolites formed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This brief work focuses on the phenolic composition and colonic microbial transformation of 2 of the most polyphenol-rich dietary sources, namely, green tea and coffee, and a new interesting and innovative ingredient, hazelnut skin, recently evaluated as one of the richest edible sources of polyphenolic compounds.

  16. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  17. Tea polyphenols prevent lung from preneoplastic lesions and effect p53 and bcl-2 gene expression in rat lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihua; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Qiong; Xia, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the cancers that have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rate, and it is of great interest to identify ways to prevent its occurrence. We had established an animal model by using 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection in our previous study, and had observed that the rats lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced by green tea administration. This study further investigated the effect of tea polyphenols on rat lung preneoplastic lesions using the lung carcinoma model established by 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection. Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age were randomly divided into 10 groups and treated with 3,4-benzopyrene by intra-pulmonary injection. Five groups were given 0.3% solution of tea polyphenols (equivalent to 1.2% of green tea) in drinking water, while the other 5 groups were given pure drinking water. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment. In the control groups of rats, local bronchial inflammation were observed at 1 week after 3,4-benzopyrene treatment. From 4 weeks to 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment, hyperplasia, cell hyperproliferation, heterogeneity were observed in the bronchial epithelium. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 mRNA and protein, as well as the level of bcl-2, increased in the bronchial epithelial lesion. Tea polyphenols treatment significantly alleviated the bronchial epithelial lesions. At the same time, tea polyphenols treatment enhanced p53 expression, but reduced bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that tea polyphenols may have preventive effect against lung preneoplasm lesions, possibly through regulating the expression of some critical genes such as p53 and bcl-2.

  18. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  19. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  20. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics

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    Jianhua Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  1. Pro-bone and antifat effects of green tea and its polyphenol, epigallocatechin, in rat mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun Hay; Siu, Wing Sum; Wong, Hing Lok; Shum, Wai Ting; Fung, Kwok Pui; San Lau, Clara Bik; Leung, Ping Chung

    2011-09-28

    Green tea has been demonstrated recently as a potent bone supportive agent. Our previous studies showed that green tea and its polyphenolic constituents can promote bone-forming osteoblast activities and inhibit the bone-resorpting osteoclast formation. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether green tea and its components can regulate the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in pluripotent rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The rat MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of tibiae and femora. The cells were treated with decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and six tea polyphenols under osteogenic induction. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and matrix calcium (Ca) deposition were assessed after 7 and 14 days of treatment. Our results demonstrated that GTE could significantly increase ALP dose dependently in the concentrations without cytotoxicity (0-100 μg/mL). Among six tested tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin (EGC) was shown to be the most effective in promoting osteogenic differentiation. At 20 μM, EGC increased ALP levels and Ca deposition significantly by 2.3- and 1.7-fold, respectively, when compared with the control group. EGC also increased the mRNA expression of bone formation markers runt-related transcription factor 2, ALP, osteonectin, and osteopontin. Furthermore, EGC demonstrated its antiadipogenicity by decreasing the adipocyte formation and inhibiting the mRNA expression levels of the adipogenic markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, ccaat/enhancer-binding protein β, and fatty acid binding protein 4. In conclusion, this is the first report of the dual action of green tea polyphenol EGC in promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipocyte formation in MSCs. Our results provide scientific evidence to support the potential use of green tea in supporting the bone against degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis.

  2. Chitosan green tea polyphenol complex as a released control compound for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yao; WANG Hong-wei; Thirupathi Karuppanapandian; Wook Kim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, oxidative stress has been implicated in a variety °enerative pro-cess and diseases, including acute and chronic inflamma-tory conditions such as wound healing.Green tea polyphe-nols have shown anti-oxidant property.The present study discussed the application of chitosan green tea polyphenol complex on the wound healing.Methods: The wound healing effect ofchitosan green tea polyphenol complex was studied in ten-week-old healthy male Sherman rats weighing 150-180 g by two wound models.The rats were randomly chosen and divided into four groups (n=5), administered with distilled water in Group A as con-trol group, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in Group B, chitosan-EGCG complex in Group C and chitosan-green tea polyphenols complex in Group D, respectively.In rats'incision wound model, two straight paravertebral inci-sions were made and skin tensile strength was measured using continuous water flow technology on the 10th day.In rats'excision wound model, wound contraction and pe-riod of epithelization were measured.The polyphenols re-lease from the complex was continuously monitored by an elution technique in aqueous solution at different pH val-ues (pH=4, 5, 6, 7).Results: The treatment groups showed significantly enhanced the breaking strength in incision wound (328±4.5) g and (421±18.5) g compared with control (264±16.7) g.In the excision wound model, the wound contraction percentage in treatment groups was relatively increased during the re-covery period.Respectively, the percentage of wound contraction ranged from 47.60%±2.15% on day 4 to 107.98% ±1.26% on day 16 compared with control group (8.46%±5.42% to 59.80%±4.47%).The complex demonstrated a gradual in-crease in the release rate from the initial stage and slow increase at different pH values.The release rate approxi-mated 0.6-0.7 in the complex and remained stable 6 hours after injury, which may be the end of the release process.Conclusions: In our study, chitosan

  3. Stability evaluation of selected polyphenols and triterpene glycosides in black cohosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Lyles, James T; Reynertson, Kurt A; Kronenberg, Fredi; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-10-22

    Black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa L.) is rich in both triterpene glycosides and polyphenols, which have various biological activities that may be important to its medical use. To evaluate the stability of the polyphenolic constituents and triterpene glycosides of black cohosh, experiments were conducted using three sample types: plant material, extracts of black cohosh, and encapsulated commercial extract. The samples were stored at various temperatures and humidity conditions. Three triterpene glycosides and six major polyphenols in black cohosh were quantitatively measured with an HPLC-PDA method at 0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The triterpene glycosides were stable at the tested conditions, whereas the polyphenols were stable only at room temperature and low humidity and not stable at higher temperature and/or humidity due to hydrolysis and/or oxidation. The rate of compound decomposition depended upon the chemical structure of the individual polyphenols. Polyphenols in the extracts decomposed more readily than those in plant material.

  4. In vitro Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Tea Polyphenols and Tea Saponin against Rhizopus stolonifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Feng, Kejue; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities and mechanism of action of tea polyphenols (TP), tea saponin (TS) and their combination were evaluated against Rhizopus stolonifer. The results showed that both TP and TS inhibited the mycelial growth in a dose-dependent manner, and their combination at the ratio of 7:3 exhibited synergistic antifungal interaction. We also observed that the treatment of TP or TS significantly induced the production of H2O2 and resulted in membrane lipid peroxidation, thus leading to an increase in cell membrane permeability and the leakage of K(+), soluble protein and soluble sugar. Moreover, combining them for treatment increased the induction of H2O2 production and oxidative damage. Scanning electron microscopic observations also showed the damage to the hyphal cell structure. It was concluded that TP, TS and their combination inhibit the growth of R. stolonifer through the induction of H2O2 production, leading to cell membrane oxidative damage and intracellular constituent leakage. These findings suggest that TP and TS can potentially be used as an alternative to control postharvest fruit diseases caused by R. stolonifer.

  5. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

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    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  6. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Content of Tea-Polyphenols and Antioxidation Activity in Different Teas%不同加工形式茶叶茶多酚含量及抗氧化活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万方; 张怀令; 陈丽; 史彩艳; 肖怀

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tea polyphenols(TPs) content and antioxidant activity in different processed Chinese teas. Methods:The TPs was extracted with 95%ethanol though ultrasonic after crushing. The content was determined by spectrophotometry at the wavelength of 765 nm using Folin-Ciocalteu as the chromogenic agent and gallic acid as the reference. The antioxidant activity was also tested by UV spectrophotometry though adding the Fe3+ion as the oxidant. Results:The sequence of content of TPs and its antioxidant activity were consistency. Green teas and the not fermented teas contained the highest TPs and had the most powerful reducing capacity. While the fermented teas such as red teas and black teas had the lower polyphenols and antioxidant activity. Conclusion:The content of TPs is negatively related with the fermented degree of teas and the antioxidant activity shows a good dose effect relationship with the TPs.%目的:比较不同加工形式茶叶中茶多酚含量及其抗氧化活性,为不同需求人群提供选择依据。方法:茶叶粉碎后用95%乙醇超声提取,以没食子酸作为对照品,采用福林酚比色法在波长765 nm处测定各种茶叶中茶多酚的含量。抗氧化活性通过紫外分光光度法测定茶叶提取物对Fe3+的还原能力进行评价。结果:不同加工形式茶叶中茶多酚含量及抗氧化活性差异较大,其中绿茶茶多酚含量最高,其抗氧化活性也最好。结论:茶叶中多酚含量与茶叶发酵程度密切相关,发酵程度越大,茶多酚含量越低;茶叶提取物的抗氧化活性与茶多酚含量呈现良好的量效关系,说明茶叶的抗氧化能力主要与其中的茶多酚含量有关。

  8. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: Biogenic amines formation and quality determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong eLi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea polyphenols (TP have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25 °C for 160 days. The shrimp paste samples were assigned into four groups: (1 control; (2 tea polyphenols treatment (0.3%; (3 6-gingerol treatment (0.3%; (4 tea polyphenols (0.15% + 6-gingerol (0.15%. Samples with no addition were used as control. The results indicate that treatment with tea polyphenols + 6-gingerol (TPGR maintained paste appearance, inhibited oxidation of protein and lipids, and reduced microorganism counts compared to control treatment. The efficiency was superior to that of tea polyphenols or 6-gingerol treatment. Furthermore, shrimp paste treated with TPGR also exhibited significantly higher inhibition of biogenic amines. Total amino acids determination proved the efficacy of TPGR by maintaining the more amino acids of shrimp paste during ambient temperature storage. Our study suggests that TPGR might be a promising candidate for fermented foods due to its synergistic effect to maintain products quality and extending their shelf-life.

  9. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: biogenic amines formation and quality determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Luyun; Liu, Shucheng; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Yaling; Ji, Hongwu; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR) has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25°C for 160 days. The shrimp paste samples were assigned into four groups: (1) control; (2) tea polyphenols treatment (0.3%); (3) 6-gingerol treatment (0.3%); (4) tea polyphenols (0.15%) + 6-gingerol (0.15%). Samples with no addition were used as control. The results indicate that treatment with tea polyphenols + 6-gingerol (TPGR) maintained paste appearance, inhibited oxidation of protein and lipids, and reduced microorganism counts compared to control treatment. The efficiency was superior to that of tea polyphenols or 6-gingerol treatment. Furthermore, shrimp paste treated with TPGR also exhibited significantly higher inhibition of biogenic amines. Total amino acids determination proved the efficacy of TPGR by maintaining the more amino acids of shrimp paste during ambient temperature storage. Our study suggests that TPGR might be a promising candidate for fermented foods due to its synergistic effect to maintain products quality and extending their shelf-life.

  10. inhibitory effects of citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols on mixed biofilm formation by foodborne Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Wenyan; Yang, Anlin; Liu, Yanlan; Jiang, Yan; Huang, Shaosong; Su, Jianyu

    2014-06-01

    Biofilms are significant hazards in the food industry. In this study, we investigated the effects of food additive such as citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols on mixed biofilm formation by foodborne Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. The adhesion rates of mixed strains in sub-MIC of additives were determined by a microtiter plate assay and bacterial communication signal autoinducer 2 (AI-2) production via a bioluminescence reporter Vibrio harveyi BB170. The structure of mixed biofilm was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the disinfectants hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid was tested on the mixed biofilm. Our results demonstrated that citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols were able to significantly inhibit mixed biofilm formation, while citral could reduce the synthesis of AI-2. Conversely, we observed a significant increase in AI-2 mediated by cinnamaldehyde. Tea polyphenols at lower concentrations induced AI-2 synthesis; however, AI-2 synthesis was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (300 m g/ml). Food additives inhibited the adhesion of mixed bacteria on stainless steel chips and increased the sensitivity of the mixed biofilm to disinfectants. In conclusion, citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols had strong inhibitory effects on mixed biofilm formation and also enhanced the effect of disinfectant on mixed biofilm formation. This study provides a scientific basis for the application of natural food additives to control biofilm formation of foodborne bacteria.

  11. Synergistic effects of green tea polyphenols and alphacalcidol on chronic inflammation-induced bone loss in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary: Studies suggest that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol is promising agent for preventing bone loss. Findings that GTP supplementation in the drinking water plus alphacalcidol administration resulted in increased bone mass via a decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation sugges...

  12. Protective actions of green tea polyphenols and alfacalcidol on bone microstructure in female rats with chronic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) and alfacalcidol on bone microstructure and strength along with possible mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. A 12-week study using a 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5%, w/v GTP in drinking water) × 2 (no alfacalcidol vs. 0.05 ug/kg alfacal...

  13. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  14. Development of LC-MS/MS method for analysis of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea and coffee samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and fast method for the analysis of a wide range of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea, and coffee samples was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was based on a simple sample preparation “dilute and shoot” approach, and LC-MS/MS triple qu...

  15. Inhibitory effect of tea polyphenols on renal cell apoptosis in rat test subjects suffering from cyclosporine-induced chronic nephrotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施邵华; 郑树森; 朱有法; 贾长库; 谢海洋

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of tea polyphenols on renal cell apoptosis in rat test subjects suffering from cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced chronic nephrotoxicity. Methods Four groups of rats with CsA-induced chronic nephrotoxicity were respectively treated with vehicle olive oil, tea polyphenols, CsA and tea polyphenols plus CsA. At the end of the 28th day of treatment, 24 hours urine and blood samples were obtained, and the animals were then sacrificed. The serum and urine samples were analysed for creatinine clearance, and kidney tissue was used for pathologic analysis of renal tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. The TUNEL assay, apoptosis-related enzyme caspase-3 mRNA detected by RT-PCR, and its enzymatic activity were analysed for the possible detections of cell apoptosis.Results CsA-treated rats displayed increased apoptosis of the tubular and interstitial cells, in comparison with vehicle-treated controls (18.3±4.6 vs 4.8±1.3 cells/mm2, P<0.05). In comparision with animals treated by CsA, animals treated with CsA plus tea polyphenols demonstrated significantly improved levels of creatinine clearance (0.12±0.03 vs 0.22±0.02 ml*min-1*100g-1 body weight, P<0.05), tubular injury (2.29±0.43 vs 1.42±0.26, P<0.05), and interstitial fibrosis (2.83±0.20 vs 1.46±0.19, P<0.05), and showed a statistically significant decrease in tubular and interstitial cell apoptosis (18.3±4.6 vs 7.7±2.1 cells/mm2, P<0.05). The expression of caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-3 activity was significantly higher in the CsA-treated group than that of the CsA plus tea polyphenols (TP)-treated group (P<0.05).Conclusion These results suggested that tea polyphenols significantly inhibits apoptosis of the tubular and interstitial cells in rats with cyclosporine-induced chronic nephrotoxicity, and that tea polyphenols may be useful to prevent CsA-associated kidney toxicity.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G Walch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea. The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analysed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardisation, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterise the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone with potentially adverse effects.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  18. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A....... niger. A part of the calmodulin gene in 17 isolates were sequenced, and these 17 isolates were all identified as Aspergillus acidus (=A. foetidus var. acidus). The rest of the 47 isolates were also identified as A. acidus from their metabolite profile. Neither production of ochratoxin A nor fumonisins B...

  19. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: biogenic amines formation and quality determination

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Luyun; Liu, Shucheng; Sun, Lijun; Wang,Yaling; Ji, Hongwu; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR) has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25°C for 160 days. The shrimp paste s...

  20. Application of tea polyphenols in combination with 6-gingerol on shrimp paste of during storage: Biogenic amines formation and quality determination

    OpenAIRE

    Jianrong eLi

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties in the food industry. Assessment of anti-oxidation potential of 6-gingerol (GR) has also been verified. As little is known about the use of tea polyphenols either individually or in combination with 6-gingerol in shrimp paste, we aimed to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols combined with 6-gingerol on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality of shrimp paste stored at 25 °C for 160 days. The shrimp paste ...

  1. Effects of caffeine, tea polyphenol and daidzein on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine, tea polyphenol and daidzein on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites. Rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30 mg·kg-1, once per day, tea polyphenol (400 mg·kg-1, once per day or daidzein (13.5 mg·kg-1, once per day for 14 days, followed by an intragastric administration of lansoprazole (8 mg·kg-1 on the 15th day. The plasma concentrations of lansoprazole and its two primary metabolites, 5-hydroxylansoprazole and lansoprazole sulfone, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. Tea polyphenol significantly elevated the Area Under the Curve (AUC of lansoprazole from 680.29 ± 285.99 to 949.76 ± 155.18 μg/L.h and reduced that of lansoprazole sulfone from 268.82 ± 82.37 to 177.72 ± 29.73 μg/L.h. Daidzein increased the AUC of lansoprazole from 680.29 ± 285.99 to 1130.44 ± 97.6 μg/L.h and decreased that of lansoprazole sulfone from 268.82 ± 82.37 to 116.23 ± 40.14 μg/L.h. The pharmacokinetics of 5-hydroxylansoprazole remained intact in the presence of tea polyphenol or daidzein. Caffeine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its metabolites. The results imply that tea polyphenol and daidzein may inhibit the in vivo metabolism of lansoprazole by suppressing CYP3A.

  2. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB.

  3. SPME-GC-MS Analysis of Aromatic Components in Sichuan Black Tea, Yunnan Black Tea and Qimen Black Tea%SPME-GC-MS联用分析川红、滇红和祁红香气成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗学平; 李丽霞

    2016-01-01

    The aromatic components in Sichuan black tea, Yunnan black tea and Qimen black tea were analyzed with the method of SPME-GC-MS. The results show that 150 aromatic components are detected in these black teas. There exist 79 aromatic components in Sichuan black tea and Yunnan black tea respectively and 89 aromatic components in Qimen black tea. And 33 aromatic components including linalool and its oxides, geraniol, methyl salicylate, phenylethyl alcohol, nerolidol and benzene acetaldehyde are common components in these teas. There exist 18 main aromatic components in⁃cluding geraniol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, linalool oxide II, methyl salicylate and delta-cadinene in Sichuan black tea, 16 aromatic components including linalool, methyl salicylate, geraniol, linalool oxide II, geraniol, linalool oxide IV and phenylethyl alcohol in Yunnan black tea, 26 aromatic components including geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide II, phenylethyl alcohol and methyl salicylate in Qimen black tea. The floral and fruity scent in Sichuan black tea and Qimen black tea is probably caused by the high content of geraniol, linalool and methyl salicylate. The terpene index of Sichuan black tea, Yunnan black tea and Qimen black tea is 0.47, 0.72 and 0.40, respectively, therefore, Sichuan black tea and Qimen black tea have high aroma, that accords with the results of sensory evaluation.%采用固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法对川红、滇红和祁红香气成分进行分析.结果表明:共检测到150种香气化合物,其中川红和滇红均为79种,祁红为89种,共有芳樟醇及其氧化物、香叶醇、水杨酸甲酯、苯乙醇、橙花叔醇、苯乙醛等33种成分是三个红茶中的共有成分.在主体香气成分方面,川红中检出香叶醇、芳樟醇、苯乙醇、芳樟醇氧化物Ⅱ、水杨酸甲酯、δ-杜松萜烯等18种,滇红中检出芳樟醇、水杨酸甲酯、香叶醇、芳樟醇氧化物Ⅱ、芳

  4. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1{beta} secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Lixia Z.; Liu, Weimin; Luo, Yuchun; Okamoto, Miyako; Qu, Dovina; Dunn, Jeffrey H. [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Fujita, Mayumi, E-mail: mayumi.fujita@ucdenver.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth via inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} suppression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-melanoma effect of EGCG has been previously suggested, but no clear mechanism of action has been established. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1-1 {mu}M). In the search for mechanisms of EGCG-mediated melanoma cell suppression, we found that NF-{kappa}B was inhibited, and that reduced NF-{kappa}B activity was associated with decreased IL-1{beta} secretion from melanoma cells. Since inflammasomes are involved in IL-1{beta} secretion, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} suppression was mediated by inflammasomes, and found that EGCG treatment led to downregulation of the inflammasome component, NLRP1, and reduced caspase-1 activation. Furthermore, silencing the expression of NLRP1 abolished EGCG-induced inhibition of tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role of inflammasomes in EGCG efficacy. This paper provides a novel mechanism for EGCG-induced melanoma inhibition: inflammasome downregulation {yields} decreased IL-1{beta} secretion {yields} decreased NF-{kappa}B activities {yields} decreased cell growth. In addition, it suggests inflammasomes and IL-1{beta} could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics.

  5. Acute effect of tea, wine, beer, and polyphenols on ecto-alkaline phosphatase activity in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Maria R; Keating, Elisa; Faria, Ana; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria J

    2006-07-12

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an ecto-enzyme widely distributed across species. It modulates a series of transmembranar transport systems, has an important role in bone mineralization, and can also be involved in vascular calcification. Polyphenol-rich diets seem to have protective effects on human health, namely, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the effects of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich beverages upon membranar alkaline phosphatase (ecto-ALP) activity in intact human vascular smooth muscle cells (AALTR). The ecto-ALP activity was determined at pH 7.8, with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as the substrate, by absorbance spectrophotometry at 410 nm. Cell viability was assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method, and the polyphenol content of beverages was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. All polyphenols tested inhibited ecto-ALP activity, in a concentration-dependent way. Teas, wines, and beers also inhibited ecto-ALP activity, largely according to their polyphenol content. All tested compounds and beverages improved or did not change AALTR cell viability. Stout beer was an exception to the described behavior. Although more studies must be done, the inhibition of AALTR ecto-ALP activity by polyphenolic compounds and polyphenol-containing beverages may contribute to their cardiovascular protective effects.

  6. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  7. Synthesis of PLGA nanoparticles of tea polyphenols and their strong in vivo protective effect against chemically induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava AK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amit Kumar Srivastava,1 Priyanka Bhatnagar,2 Madhulika Singh,1 Sanjay Mishra,1 Pradeep Kumar,2 Yogeshwer Shukla,1 Kailash Chand Gupta1,2 1Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR, Lucknow, India; 2Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR, Delhi University Campus, India Abstract: In spite of proficient results of several phytochemicals in preclinical settings, the conversion rate from bench to bedside is not very encouraging. Many reasons are attributed to this limited success, including inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. To achieve improved efficacy, polyphenolic constituents of black (theaflavin [TF] and green (epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] tea in poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs were entrapped with entrapment efficacy of ~18% and 26%, respectively. Further, their preventive potential against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse skin using DNA alkaline unwinding assay was evaluated. Pretreatment (topically of mouse skin with either TF or EGCG (100 µg/mouse doses exhibits protection of 45.34% and 28.32%, respectively, against DMBA-induced DNA damage. However, pretreatment with TF-loaded PLGA-NPs protects against DNA damage 64.41% by 1/20th dose of bulk, 71.79% by 1/10th dose of bulk, and 72.46% by 1/5th dose of bulk. Similarly, 51.28% (1/20th of bulk, 57.63% (1/10th of bulk, and 63.14% (1/5th of bulk prevention was noted using EGCG-loaded PLGA-NP doses. These results showed that tea polyphenol-loaded PLGA-NPs have ~30-fold dose-advantage than bulk TF or EGCG doses. Additionally, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed significant potential for induction of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, and ERCC3 and suppression of DNA damage responsive genes (p53, p21, MDM2, GADD45α, and COX-2 as compared with respective bulk TF or EGCG doses. Taken together, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed a superior

  8. Influence of green tea polyphenols on mitochondrial permeability transition pore and Ca2+ transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈生荣; 于海宁; 金超芳

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of green tea polyphenols(GPSs) on the liver mitochondria permeability transition pore(PTP) opening through mitochondria sweling and change of mitochcodrin membrane potetial .The data showed that GPSs had obvious protective effect on the Ca2+ -induced PTP opening in a dose-dependent manner detected by mitochondria swelling.The results were obtained by meating the change of mitochondria membrane potential through Rh 123.Further experiments were conducted to examine the detailed influence of GTPs on Ca2+ import and export of mitochondria.The results showed that GTPs had remarkably inhibitory effect on the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ import in mitochondria.and they could accelerate Ca2+ -release from from mitochondria.Our data provide an altemate interpretation of the potent protective function of GPSs on cell against apoptosis.

  9. Influence of green tea polyphenols on mitochondrial permeabi lity transition pore and Ca2+ transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈生荣; 于海宁; 金超芳

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on the liver mitochondria permeability transition pore (PTP) opening through mit ochondria swelling and change of mitochondria membrane potential. The data showe d that GTPs had obvious protective effect on the Ca2+-induced PTP opening in a d ose-dependent manner detected by mitochondria swelling. The results were obtain ed by measuring the change of mitochondria membrane potential through Rh 123. Further experiments were conducted to examine the detailed influence of GTP s on Ca2+import and export of mitochondria. The results showed that GTPs h ad rem arkably inhibitory effect on the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ import in mitoch ondria; and t hat they could accelerate Ca2+-release from mitochondria. Our data provid e an al ternate interpretation of the potent protective function of GTPs on cell against apoptosis.

  10. Tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate inhibits Escherichia coli by increasing endogenous oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Gui; Chen, Yi-Jun; Tong, Jie-Wen; Huang, Jian-An; Li, Juan; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-15

    The antibacterial effects of tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a common phytochemical with a number of potential health benefits, are well known. However, the mechanism of its bactericidal action remains unclear. Using E. coli as a model organism, it is argued here that H2O2 synthesis by EGCG is not attributed to its inhibitory effects. In contrast, the bactericidal action of EGCG was a result of increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and blunted adaptive oxidative stress response in E. coli due to the co-administration of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, and not on account of exogenous catalase. Furthermore, we noted a synergistic bactericidal effect for EGCG when combined with paraquat. However, under anaerobic conditions, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was prevented. In conclusion, EGCG caused an increase in endogenous oxidative stress in E. coli, thereby inhibiting its growth, and hence the use of EGCG as a prooxidant is supported by this study.

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: avoidance of artifacts and analysis of caffeine-precipitated SII thearubigins from 15 commercial black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drynan, J Warren; Clifford, Michael N; Obuchowicz, Jacek; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-05-01

    Thearubigins are the quantitatively major phenolic compounds in black tea, accounting for some 60-70% of the solids in a typical black tea infusion. MALDI-TOF mass spectra for caffeine-precipitated SII thearubigins (SII CTRs) from 15 different commercial teas support previous conclusions that SII CTRs are polyhydroxylated oligomers (rather than polymers) of catechins and catechin gallates in redox equilibrium with their quinone counterparts. Some 4500 peaks were revealed in a mass range from m/z 500 to 2100. Polyphenols are redox-susceptible and readily generate artifacts during MALDI-TOF analysis when the matrix is also redox-susceptible. Of the nine matrices evaluated, 3',4',5'-trihydroxyacetophenone (F) provided the best compromise between signal intensity and redox artifact formation.

  12. 绿茶中茶多酚的提取工艺研究%Technical Research of Tea Polyphenols Extraction from Green Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莉娟

    2011-01-01

    从绿茶中提取茶多酚,研究不同提取方法、乙醇浓度、提取温度、提取时间、沉淀茶多酚pH 5个单因素对提取结果的影响,提出最佳工艺条件为:质量分数70%乙醇水溶液作为提取液,料液比为1:20,提取温度为70℃,提取时间为2 h,离子沉淀条件为Zn2+作为沉淀剂,质量分数为15%的NaHC03水溶液调节pH为6.0,茶多酚沉淀转溶条件最佳表现组合为:A2B1C2D3,即茶多酚沉淀用2 mol/L硫酸溶液,料酸体积比为1:2,于20℃转溶15 min较为合适.%In this study, the rate of tea polyphenols extraction from green tea, including alcohol concentration, temperature, extraction duration and pH value, were evaluated using orthogonal experiment.The optimal extraction points were listed as followings; 70% ethanol solution, an 1/10 ratio of tea to extractant, 70 ℃ temperature, 2 h duration, Zn2 + precipitator and about 6.0 pH value that was mediated by 15% NaHCO3 solution.The dissolution of precipitated tea polyphenols reached its highest on the conditions of using 2 mol/L sulphuric acid as solution at a 1/2 ratio of tea polyphenols to the solution, and at 20 ℃ temperature with 15 min duration.

  13. Human studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Michael N; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Crozier, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Recent research on the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols after ingestion of green tea by humans is reviewed. Glucuronide, sulfate, and methyl metabolites of (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin glucuronide reach peak nanomolar per liter plasma concentrations 1.6-2.3 h after intake, indicating absorption in the small intestine. The concentrations then decline, and only trace amounts remain 8 h after ingestion. Urinary excretion of metabolites over a 24-h period after green tea consumption corresponded to 28.5% of the ingested (epi)catechin and 11.4% of (epi)gallocatechin, suggesting higher absorption than that of most other flavonoids. The fate of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, the main flavan-3-ol in green tea, is unclear because it appears unmetabolized in low concentrations in plasma but is not excreted in urine. Possible enterohepatic recirculation of flavan-3-ols is discussed along with the impact of dose and other food components on flavan-3-ol bioavailability. Approximately two-thirds of the ingested flavan-3-ols pass from the small to the large intestine where the action of the microbiota results in their conversion to C-6-C-5 phenylvalerolactones and phenylvaleric acids, which undergo side-chain shortening to produce C-6-C-1 phenolic and aromatic acids that enter the bloodstream and are excreted in urine in amounts equivalent to 36% of flavan-3-ol intake. Some of these colon-derived catabolites may have a role in vivo in the potential protective effects of tea consumption. Although black tea, which contains theaflavins and thearubigins, is widely consumed in the Western world, there is surprisingly little research on the absorption and metabolism of these compounds after ingestion and their potential impact on health.

  14. Green tea polyphenols rescue of brain defects induced by overexpression of DYRK1A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Guedj

    Full Text Available Individuals with partial HSA21 trisomies and mice with partial MMU16 trisomies containing an extra copy of the DYRK1A gene present various alterations in brain morphogenesis. They present also learning impairments modeling those encountered in Down syndrome. Previous MRI and histological analyses of a transgenic mice generated using a human YAC construct that contains five genes including DYRK1A reveal that DYRK1A is involved, during development, in the control of brain volume and cell density of specific brain regions. Gene dosage correction induces a rescue of the brain volume alterations. DYRK1A is also involved in the control of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Increased gene dosage results in brain morphogenesis defects, low BDNF levels and mnemonic deficits in these mice. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG - a member of a natural polyphenols family, found in great amount in green tea leaves - is a specific and safe DYRK1A inhibitor. We maintained control and transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A on two different polyphenol-based diets, from gestation to adulthood. The major features of the transgenic phenotype were rescued in these mice.

  15. Green tea polyphenol tailors cell adhesivity of RGD displaying surfaces: multicomponent models monitored optically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beatrix; Farkas, Eniko; Forgacs, Eniko; Saftics, Andras; Kovacs, Boglarka; Kurunczi, Sandor; Szekacs, Inna; Csampai, Antal; Bosze, Szilvia; Horvath, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of the anti-adhesive coating, poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) and its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) functionalized form, PLL-g-PEG-RGD, with the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) was in situ monitored. After, the kinetics of cellular adhesion on the EGCg exposed coatings were recorded in real-time. The employed plate-based waveguide biosensor is applicable to monitor small molecule binding and sensitive to sub-nanometer scale changes in cell membrane position and cell mass distribution; while detecting the signals of thousands of adhering cells. The combination of this remarkable sensitivity and throughput opens up new avenues in testing complicated models of cell-surface interactions. The systematic studies revealed that, despite the reported excellent antifouling properties of the coatings, EGCg strongly interacted with them, and affected their cell adhesivity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the differences between the effects of the fresh and oxidized EGCg solutions were first demonstrated. Using a semiempirical quantumchemical method we showed that EGCg binds to the PEG chains of PLL-g-PEG-RGD and effectively blocks the RGD sites by hydrogen bonds. The calculations supported the experimental finding that the binding is stronger for the oxidative products. Our work lead to a new model of polyphenol action on cell adhesion ligand accessibility and matrix rigidity. PMID:28186133

  16. A silver nanorod resonance rayleigh scattering-energy transfer analytical platform for trace tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihui; Wang, Yaohui; Wen, Guiqing; Zhang, Xinghui; Luo, Yanghe; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-04-15

    The stable silver nanorod (AgNR) sol in red was prepared by the two-step procedure of NaBH4-H2O2 and citrate heating reduction, and it exhibited a strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) peak at 346 nm. In pH 3.8 HAc-NaAc buffer solution, tea polyphenols (TP) reacted with ammonium molybdate (AM) to form yellow organic molybdate (OM) as receptor that was closed to the donor of AgNR, the RRS energy transfer (RRS-ET) takes place, owing to the overlapping between the AgNR RRS spectra and OM absorption spectra. When TP concentration increased, the RRS intensity decreased due to the RRS-ET increasing. So, a simple and sensitive AgNR surface plasmon RRS-ET analytical platform was fabricated to detect trace TP in the range of 0.05-0.85 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL TP. The TP in tea samples was analyzed by this RRS-ET analysis platform, with satisfactory results.

  17. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  18. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  19. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  20. Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols from Plant-Processing Byproducts of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Bilen, Fatma Damla; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Camp, John

    2016-03-30

    Plant-processing byproducts of black carrot represent an important disposal problem for the industry; however, they are also promising sources of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. The present study focused on the changes in polyphenols from black carrot, peel, and pomace during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas identification and quantification of polyphenols were carried out using UPLC-ESI-MS(E) and HPLC-DAD, respectively. TPC, TMAC, and TAC significantly decreased (23-82%) as a result of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nevertheless, the amount of pomace anthocyanins released at all stages of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was higher than black carrot anthocyanins, suggesting that pomace may be a better source of bioaccessible anthocyanins. Overall, the current study highlighted black carrot byproducts as substantial sources of polyphenols, which may be used to enrich food products.

  1. Application of enzymes in the production of RTD black tea beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandini S; Subramanian, R; Rao, L Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) tea is a popular beverage in many countries. Instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is the common problem faced in the production of RTD black tea beverages. Thus decreaming is an important step in the process to meet the cold stability requirements of the product. Enzymatic decreaming approaches overcome some of the disadvantages associated with other conventional decreaming methods such as cold water extraction, chill decreaming, chemical stabilization, and chemical solubilization. Enzyme treatments have been attempted at three stages of black tea processing, namely, enzymatic treatment to green tea and conversion to black tea, enzymatic treatment to black tea followed by extraction, and enzymatic clarification of extract. Tannase is the most commonly employed enzyme (tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20) aiming at improving cold water extractability/solubility and decreasing tea cream formation as well as improving the clarity. The major enzymatic methods proposed for processing black tea having a direct or indirect bearing on RTD tea production, have been discussed along with their relative advantages and limitations.

  2. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlan

  3. Study on Adaptability of Three Tea Cultivars in Wuyi Mingcong For Summer Black Tea%三种武夷名丛夏暑红茶适制性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兰馨; 冯花; 罗盛财; 吴玉琼; 郑瑜丹; 王飞权

    2013-01-01

    为充分利用武夷山夏暑茶资源和开发武夷名丛红茶,以向天梅、金毛猴、玉井流香三种武夷名丛夏暑茶鲜叶为原料,参照传统工夫红茶初制工艺,研究了其适制性及品质特征。结果表明:制得的红茶各生化成分以玉井流香红茶最丰富,向天梅红茶最少,其中氨基酸、黄酮类含量差异显著,而水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱含量差异达到极显著水平;感观审评综合得分由高到低依次为:向天梅(83.85)>金毛猴(79.5)>玉井流香(77.8)。武夷名丛向天梅夏暑红茶综合表现较好,较适宜加工夏暑红茶,其香气甜浓,滋味甜醇,具备较好的红茶品质。%In order to make full use of summer tea resources in Wuyi mountain and develop the Wuyi Mingcong black tea ,taking the three of Wuyi Mingcong summer fresh tea leaves of Xiangtianmei ,Jinmaohou and Yujingli-uxiang as raw material ,traditional processing technology of Gongfu black tea ,the adaptability and quality char-acteristics were studied .The results indicated that the biochemical components of them were rich ,and the Yu-jingliuxiang black tea had the most biochemical components and the Xiangtianmei black tea had the least .The differences of the amino acids and the flavonoid contents were obvious ,and the contents difference of aqueous extracts ,polyphenols and caffeine were reached significant level .The composite scores of the three kinds black tea for sensory evaluation were that Xiangtianmei (83 .85)>Jinmaohou (79 .5) >Yujingliuxiang (77 .8) .Com-pared with three kinds of Wuyi Mingcong black tea ,Xiangtianmei was generally supposed to be the best one which is suitable for processing black tea in summer with rich fragrance ,sweet taste and excellent quality .

  4. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  5. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  6. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: Designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyu Ming-Chien

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. Evidence suggests the importance of oxidative stress in bone metabolism and bone loss. Tea consumption may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its antioxidant capability. However, lack of objective data characterizing tea consumption has hindered the precise evaluation of the association between tea ingestion and bone mineral density in previous questionnaire-based epidemiological studies. On the other hand, although published studies suggest that Tai Chi (TC exercise can benefit bone health and may reduce oxidative stress, all studies were conducted using a relatively healthy older population, instead of a high-risk one such as osteopenic postmenopausal women. Therefore, this study was designed to test an intervention including green tea polyphenol (GTP and TC exercise for feasibility, and to quantitatively assess their individual and interactive effects on postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Methods/Design One hundred and forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia (defined as bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip between 1 to 2.5 SD below the reference database were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms: (1 placebo group receiving 500 mg medicinal starch daily, (2 GTP group receiving 500 mg of GTP per day, (3 placebo+TC group receiving both placebo treatment and TC training (60-minute group exercise, 3 times per week, and (4 GTP+TC group receiving both GTP and TC training for 24 weeks. The outcome measures were bone formation biomarker (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, bone resorption biomarker (serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, and oxidative DNA damage biomarker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. All outcome measures were determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Urinary and serum GTP concentrations were also determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks for bioavailability. Liver function was monitored monthly for safety. A

  7. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  8. Spatial variability of theaflavins and thearubigins fractions and their impact on black tea quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Borah, Paban; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of theaflavin and thearubigin fractions and their impact on black tea quality were investigated using multivariate and geostatistics techniques. Black tea samples were collected from tea gardens of six geographical regions of Assam and West Bengal, India. Total theaflavin (TF) and its four fractions of upper Assam, south bank and North Bank teas were higher than the other regions. Simple theaflavin showed highest significant correlation with tasters' quality. Low molecular weight thearubigins of south bank and North Bank were significantly higher than other regions. Total thearubigin (TR) and its fractions revealed significant positive correlation with tasters' organoleptic valuations. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The semivariogram for quality parameters were best represented by gaussian models. The nugget/sill ratio indicated a strong/moderate spatial dependence of the studied parameters. Spatial variation of tea quality parameters may be used for quality assessment in the tea growing areas of India.

  9. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  10. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  11. Green tea polyphenols block the anticancer effects of bortezomib and other boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitors.

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    Golden, Encouse B; Lam, Philip Y; Kardosh, Adel; Gaffney, Kevin J; Cadenas, Enrique; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Chen, Thomas C; Schönthal, Axel H

    2009-06-04

    The anticancer potency of green tea and its individual components is being intensely investigated, and some cancer patients already self-medicate with this "miracle herb" in hopes of augmenting the anticancer outcome of their chemotherapy. Bortezomib (BZM) is a proteasome inhibitor in clinical use for multiple myeloma. Here, we investigated whether the combination of these compounds would yield increased antitumor efficacy in multiple myeloma and glioblastoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Unexpectedly, we discovered that various green tea constituents, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and other polyphenols with 1,2-benzenediol moieties, effectively prevented tumor cell death induced by BZM in vitro and in vivo. This pronounced antagonistic function of EGCG was evident only with boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitors (BZM, MG-262, PS-IX), but not with several non-boronic acid proteasome inhibitors (MG-132, PS-I, nelfinavir). EGCG directly reacted with BZM and blocked its proteasome inhibitory function; as a consequence, BZM could not trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress or caspase-7 activation, and did not induce tumor cell death. Taken together, our results indicate that green tea polyphenols may have the potential to negate the therapeutic efficacy of BZM and suggest that consumption of green tea products may be contraindicated during cancer therapy with BZM.

  12. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

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    Mei Xin [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tu Youying, E-mail: youytu@zju.edu.c [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  13. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Xiao; Tu, You-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene.

  14. Dose-dependent functionality and toxicity of green tea polyphenols in experimental rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira

    2014-09-01

    A large number of physiologically functional foods are comprised of plant polyphenols. Their antioxidative activities have been intensively studied for a long period and proposed to be one of the major mechanisms of action accounting for their health promotional and disease preventive effects. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) are considered to possess marked anti-oxidative properties and versatile beneficial functions, including anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. On the other hand, some investigators, including us, have uncovered their toxicity at high doses presumably due to pro-oxidative properties. For instance, both experimental animal studies and epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that GTPs may cause hepatotoxicity. We also recently showed that diets containing high doses (0.5-1%) of a GTP deteriorated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In addition, colitis mode mice fed a 1% GTP exhibited symptoms of nephrotoxicity, as indicated by marked elevation of serum creatinine level. This diet also increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, a reliable marker of oxidative damage, in both kidneys and livers even in normal mice, while the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs) were diminished in colitis and normal mice. Intriguingly, GTPs at 0.01% and 0.1% showed hepato-protective activities, i.e., they significantly suppressed DSS-increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. Moreover, those diets remarkably restored DSS-down-regulated expressions of heme oxygenase-1 and HSP70 in livers and kidneys. Taken together, while low and medium doses of GTPs are beneficial in colitis model mice, unwanted side-effects occasionally emerge with high doses. This dose-dependent functionality and toxicity of GTPs are in accordance with the concept of hormesis, in which mild, but not severe, stress activates defense systems for adaptation and survival.

  15. Quercetin increased bioavailability and decreased methylation of green tea polyphenols in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Heber, David; Henning, Susanne M

    2012-06-01

    The extensive methylation of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in vivo may limit their chemopreventive potential. We investigated whether quercetin, a natural inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), will differentially increase the intracellular concentration and decrease the methylation of GTPs in different cancer cell lines. Intrinsic COMT activity was lowest in lung cancer A549 cells, intermediate in kidney 786-O cells and highest in liver HepG2 cells. Quercetin increased the cellular absorption of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) four-fold in A549 cells with a decreased methylation rate from 63 to 19%, 2-fold in 786-O cells with a decreased methylation from 97% to 56%, while no significant effect was observed in HepG2 cells. The combination significantly decreased the activity and protein expression of COMT and decreased the protein expression of MRP1 compared to individual treatments. The combination exhibited the strongest increase in antiproliferation in A549 cells, an intermediate effect in 786-O cells and lowest effect in HepG2 cells. The effect of quercetin on bioavailability and metabolism of GTPs was confirmed in vivo. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were administered brewed green tea (GT) and a diet supplemented with 0.4% quercetin alone or in combination for 2 weeks. We observed a 2- to 3-fold increase of total and non-methylated EGCG in lung and kidney and an increasing trend in liver. In summary, combining quercetin with GT provides a promising approach to enhance the chemoprevention of GT. Responses of different cancers to the combination may vary by tissue depending on the intrinsic COMT and MRP activity.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Bashiri, Hamideh; Dabiri, Shahriar; Ghotbi, Payam; Sarveazad, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Joukar, Farzin; Abbaszadeh, Mahsa

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. Animal groups were control, black tea, nicotine and black tea plus nicotine. Test groups received nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and black tea brewed (p.o.) each alone and in combination for 4 weeks. On the 28th day, myocardial damage was induced by isoproterenol (50 mg/kg i.p.), and blood samples were taken. On day 29, after hemodynamic parameters recording, hearts were removed for histopathological evaluation. Tea or nicotine consumption had no significant effects on hemodynamic indices of animals without heart damage. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

  17. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves.

  18. [Cancer prevention with green tea: reality and wishful thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Barbara; Bartsch, H

    2002-01-01

    Different processing of the leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis yields green or black tea, the subject of numerous investigations on the preventive effects on chronic degenerative diseases. The tea polyphenols, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found to account for most of the protective effects. Since the concentration of EGCG is 5 times higher in green than in black tea, it is assumed that green tea possesses a greater preventive potential. Protection against cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the most important biomedical effects. In experimental models the preventive activity of tea is well documented for tumors at many organ sites. In humans, tea was reported to be protective against tumors of the lung, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, were shown to exert cancer-protective activity by the following mechanisms: they inhibit the metabolic activation of carcinogens and induce at the same time detoxifying enzymes. They inhibit signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and tumor growth such as protein kinase C and the release of tumor necrose factor-alpha from cells. Tea polyphenols reactivate processes which are impaired in tumor cells, such as the programmed cell death and the tumorsuppressor gene p53. Finally, tea polyphenols can also block angiogenesis leading to a starvation of the tumor. By inactivation of proteolytic enzymes they inhibit the development of metastases. This short review summarizes relevant recent findings on the protective effects of green tea constituents.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, stimulates hepatic autophagy and lipid clearance.

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    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major polyphenol in green tea that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-steatotic effects on the liver. Autophagy also mediates similar effects; however, it is not currently known whether EGCG can regulate hepatic autophagy. Here, we show that EGCG increases hepatic autophagy by promoting the formation of autophagosomes, increasing lysosomal acidification, and stimulating autophagic flux in hepatic cells and in vivo. EGCG also increases phosphorylation of AMPK, one of the major regulators of autophagy. Importantly, siRNA knockdown of AMPK abrogated autophagy induced by EGCG. Interestingly, we observed lipid droplet within autophagosomes and autolysosomes and increased lipid clearance by EGCG, suggesting it promotes lipid metabolism by increasing autophagy. In mice fed with high-fat/western style diet (HFW; 60% energy as fat, reduced levels of calcium, vitamin D3, choline, folate, and fiber, EGCG treatment reduces hepatosteatosis and concomitantly increases autophagy. In summary, we have used genetic and pharmacological approaches to demonstrate EGCG induction of hepatic autophagy, and this may contribute to its beneficial effects in reducing hepatosteatosis and potentially some other pathological liver conditions.

  20. Antimicrobial effect and membrane-active mechanism of tea polyphenols against Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shumin; Wang, Wei; Bai, Fengling; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Li, Xuepeng; Xu, Yongxia; Sun, Tong; He, Yutang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial effect of tea polyphenols (TP) against Serratia marcescens and examined the related mechanism. Morphology changes of S. marcescens were first observed by transmission electron microscopy after treatment with TP, which indicated that the primary inhibition action of TP was to damage the bacterial cell membranes. The permeability of the outer and inner membrane of S. marcescens dramatically increased after TP treatment, which caused severe disruption of cell membrane, followed by the release of small cellular molecules. Furthermore, a proteomics approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis was used to study the difference of membrane protein expression in the control and TP treatment S. marcescens. The results showed that the expression of some metabolism enzymes and chaperones in TP-treated S. marcescens significantly increased compared to the untreated group, which might result in the metabolic disorder of this bacteria. Taken together, our results first demonstrated that TP had a significant growth inhibition effect on S. marcescens through cell membrane damage.

  1. Supplementation with green tea polyphenols improves bone microstructure and quality in aged, orchidectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Cao, Jay J; Dagda, Raul Y; Tenner, Thomas E; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Yeh, James K

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies show that green tea polyphenols (GTPs) attenuate bone loss and microstructure deterioration in ovariectomized aged female rats, a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study evaluated the efficacy of GTPs at mitigating bone loss and microstructure deterioration along with related mechanisms in androgen-deficient aged rats, a model of male osteoporosis. A 2 (sham vs. orchidectomy) × 2 (no GTP and 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design was studied for 16 weeks using 40 aged male rats. An additional 10 rats (baseline group) were killed at the beginning of study to provide baseline parameters. There was no difference in femoral mineral density between baseline and the sham only group. Orchidectomy suppressed serum testosterone and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentrations, liver glutathione peroxidase activity, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Orchidectomy also decreased trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness in the distal femur and proximal tibia and bone-formation rate in trabecular bone of proximal tibia but increased serum osteocalcin concentrations and bone-formation rates in the endocortical tibial shaft. GTP supplementation resulted in increased serum osteocalcin concentrations, bone mineral density, and trabecular volume, number, and strength of femur; increased trabecular volume and thickness and bone formation in both the proximal tibia and periosteal tibial shaft; decreased eroded surface in the proximal tibia and endocortical tibial shaft; and increased liver glutathione peroxidase activity. We conclude that GTP supplementation attenuates trabecular and cortical bone loss through increasing bone formation while suppressing bone resorption due to its antioxidant capacity.

  2. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

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    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J. (CH-PA); (UPENN); (Danforth)

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  3. Green tea polyphenols control dysregulated glutamate dehydrogenase in transgenic mice by hijacking the ADP activation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-09-30

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  4. Nutritional and functional characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpen, Arda; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Yavuz, Havvana Tuba; Gökmen, Vural; Özcan, Nihat; Özçelik, Beraat

    2012-08-01

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were examined for their proximate composition, dietary fiber, minerals, and water-soluble vitamins as well as total phenolic content, various antioxidant assays, phenolics (flavanols, alkoloids, condensed phenolics, and phenolic acids), chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Some variations, albeit to different extents, were observed (p black tea. With respect to proximate composition, dietary fiber was the predominant compound (ranging from 49.68 to 54.31 g/100 g), followed by protein, carbohydrate, and, to a lesser extent, ash, moisture, and fat. Thirteen minerals, four water-soluble vitamins, six flavanols, two alkoloids, three condensed phenolics, one phenolic acid, two chlorophylls, and two carotenoids were identified in the seven grades of black tea. Total phenol content ranged from 7.52 to 8.29 g of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g, being lowest in grade 6 and highest in grade 1. With regard to antioxidant activities, a large variation in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values was observed among all grades of black tea (ranging from 777 μmol of trolox equivalents (TE)/g in grade 7 to 1210 μmol of TE/g in grade 3). The present work suggests that high- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished on the basis of their nutritional and functional characteristics. The combination of nutritional compounds together with functional characteristics renders combination effects that provide the characteristic quality of each grade of black tea.

  5. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  6. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  7. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  8. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam J.; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Lan; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency, which are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenols (TP) and low levels of amino acids (AA) in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) of EBR increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration (0.5 ppm) caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential

  9. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids in Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency that are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenol (TP and low levels of amino acids (AA in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration of EBR (0.5 ppm caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate (GOGAT enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential implication

  10. Study on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols injection in rat plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ting; LIANG Jun; HAN Guo-zhu; L(U) Li; LI Nan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients (-) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-) Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) of tea polyphenols (TP) injection in rats. Methods EGCG and ECG in rat plasma were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, by which EGCG and ECG were eluted from a Kromasil C18 column with a linear gradient mobile phase consisting of CH3CN -0.1% citric acid at a gradient flow rate of 1.0-1.5 mL·min-1 and monitored at a wavelength of 280 nm. Fifteen rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals receiving iv administration of TP injection, formulated with catechins-containing extract from green tea, at doses of 150,100 and 50 mL·min-1, respectively. Blood samples were collected pre-dosing and 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120,180,240,300 min postdosing. Aliquots of obtained plasma (200 μL) were cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction with double volumes of EtoAe and were reconstituted with 100 μL of 10 96 CH3CN aqueous solution before injecting to chromatograph. Results The time course of EGCG and ECG concentrations in rat plasma decayed in a biexponential fashion. Their iv pharmacokinetics could be described by the two-compartment model and first-order kinetics with t1/2β 112.39-145.20 min and 46.63-61.48 min, Vd 6.28-7.96 L·kg-1 and 0.90-1.22 L·kg-1, CL 0.034-0.044 L·kg-1·min-1 and 0.010-0.015 L·kg-1·min-1 for EGCG and ECG, respectively. Conclusions The EGCG and ECG in plasma of rats administered i. v. TP injection pharmacokinetically behaved with linear kinetics over dose range studied. The two catechin derivatives undergo rapid elimination from rat body. As compared with ECG, EGCG eliminates at a relatively slow rate, and is distributed very widely with a Vd greatly exceeding the volume of total body water, suggesting that EGCG is likely to enter the tissue cells or strongly bind to some tissues to exert its potent antioxidant effects.The aforementioned characteristics of EGCG may be due to its high lipophilicity.

  11. 茶多酚抗骨质疏松的研究进展%Advancement in Anti-osteporosis Activity of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范於菟; 孔祥鹤; 梅其炳

    2011-01-01

    茶多酚是茶叶中所含有的多酚类化合物的总称,基于多酚类化合物显著的抗骨质疏松、抗骨丢失活性,已成为近年来研究热点.本文就近年来国内外对茶多酚抗骨质疏松的作用及相关机制的研究进展作一综述.%Tea polyphenol is a total call of polyphenols contains in the tea. Recently interest has focused on its anti-osteporosis and anti-bone loss effect. This review describes the effect of tea polyphenols on osteporosis as well as its possible mechanisms.

  12. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Maliakal, Pius; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The bioavailability and biotransformation of tea polyphenols, however, are key factors limiting these activities in vivo. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.

  13. Research progress in the treatment of osteoporosis using tea polyphenol%茶多酚治疗骨质疏松症的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车晓明; 陈亮; 顾勇; 吴雪花

    2015-01-01

    Tea polyphenol is a general name of polyphenol compounds in the tea.It is the most potent antioxidant currently found, with multi-biological functions.Research shows that tea polyphenol has many pharmacological and healthy effects, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radioprotective, antihyperlipidemic, and anti-aging.Tea polyphenol has become a hot research topic in the pharmaceutical field.In recent years, some studies have shown that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of tea polyphenol provide evidence of the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.This review describes the effect of tea polyphenol on osteoporosis as well as its possible mechanism.%茶多酚是茶叶中所含有的多酚类化合物的总称,是一种具有多种生物学活性的高效抗氧化剂,研究发现茶多酚具有抗氧化、抗炎、抗肿瘤、抗辐射、抗高血脂、延缓衰老等药理和保健作用,有关茶多酚的研究目前已成为药学领域的研究热点。近年来有研究认为茶多酚的抗氧化、抗炎功效使其在骨质疏松的预防及治疗方面起着重要的作用。本文就近年来国内外对茶多酚抗骨质疏松的作用及相关机制的研究进展作一综述。

  14. Lysosomal trafficking of {beta}-catenin induced by the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Carter, Orianna [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Al-Fageeh, Mohamed [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Li, Qingjie [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H. [Linus Pauling Institute, 571 Weniger Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States)]. E-mail: Rod.Dashwood@oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-11

    {beta}-Catenin is a cadherin-binding protein involved in cell-cell adhesion, which also functions as a transcriptional activator when complexed in the nucleus with members of the T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) family of proteins. There is considerable interest in mechanisms that down-regulate {beta}-catenin, since this provides an avenue for the prevention of colorectal and other cancers in which {beta}-catenin is frequently over-expressed. We show here that physiologically relevant concentrations of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited {beta}-catenin/TCF-dependent reporter activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with wild type or mutant {beta}-catenins, and there was a corresponding decrease in {beta}-catenin protein levels in the nuclear, cytosolic and membrane-associated fractions. However, {beta}-catenin accumulated as punctate aggregates in response to EGCG treatment, including in human colon cancer cells over-expressing {beta}-catenin endogenously. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that the aggregated {beta}-catenin in HEK293 cells was extra-nuclear and co-localized with lysosomes, suggesting that EGCG activated a pathway involving lysosomal trafficking of {beta}-catenin. Lysosomal inhibitors leupeptin and transepoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanido)butane produced an increase in {beta}-catenin protein in total cell lysates, without a concomitant increase in {beta}-catenin transcriptional activity. These data provide the first evidence that EGCG facilitates the trafficking of {beta}-catenin into lysosomes, presumably as a mechanism for sequestering {beta}-catenin and circumventing further nuclear transport and activation of {beta}-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling.

  15. Green tea polyphenols and sulfasalazine have parallel anti-inflammatory properties in colitis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S Oz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no cure for autoimmune chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD patients commonly use complementary and alternative medications of which the safety, efficacy and interaction with standard-of-care therapies are not fully known. Thus the consequences can become life-threatening. Sulfasalazine commonly used in IBD, potentially has severe adverse effects, including infertility, pulmonary fibrosis, lack of response and ultimately patients may require intestinal resection. We hypothesized that green tea polyphenols (GrTP, EGCG and sulfasalazine have similar anti-inflammatory properties. Methods: BALB/c mice received Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS to induce colitis (ulcerative colitis model. Exposure of IL-10 deficient mice (BALB/c-background to normal microbiota provoked enterocolitis (mimics Crohn’s disease. Animals were treated with agents incorporated into daily diets. Control animals received sham treatment. Results: DSS-treated animals developed severe bloody diarrhea and colitis (score 0-4, 3.2+0.27. IL-10 deficient mice developed severe enterocolitis as manifested by diarrhea, rectal prolapse and colonic lesions. Animals tolerated regimens (GrTP, EGCG, sulfasalazine with no major side effects, and further developed less severe colitis/enterocolitis. GrTP, EGCG and sulfasalazine significantly ameliorated colonic damage and histological scores in treated animals in a similar manner (GrTP vs DSS p<0.05; EGCG, sulfasalazine vs DSS p<0.01. The inflammatory markers TNFα (3-fold, IL-6 (14-fold and serum amyloid A (40-fold increased in colitic animals and significantly decreased with treatment regiments. In contrast, circulatory leptin levels decreased in colitic animals (2-fold. EGCG additionally reduced leptin levels (p<0.01 while GrTP and sulfasalazine had no effect on leptin levels (p<0.05. Hepatic and colonic antioxidants were significantly depleted in colitic animals and treatment regiments significantly restored

  16. Green tea polyphenol (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate restores Nrf2 activity and ameliorates crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ye

    Full Text Available Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN is the most severe form of GN and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite aggressive immunotherapy with steroids, cytotoxic drugs, and plasmapheresis. We examined the therapeutic efficacy of the green tea polyphenol (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 50 mg/kg BW/day x3 weeks, a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent, on experimental crescentic GN induced in 129/svJ mice by administration of rabbit anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane sera. Routine histology and key molecules involved in inflammatory and redox signaling were studied. EGCG treatment significantly reduced mortality, decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine, and markedly improved renal histology when compared with vehicle-treated mice. The improvements in renal function and histology were accompanied by the restoration of Nrf2 signaling (which was impaired in vehicle-treated mice as shown by increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and cytoplasmic glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit, and glutathione peroxidase. EGCG-treated mice also showed reduction in p-Akt, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and p-P38 as well as restoration of PPARγ and SIRT1 levels. Lower dose of EGCG (25 mg/kg BW/day x2 weeks treatment also significantly decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine, and markedly improved renal histology when compared with vehicle-treated mice. Thus, our data illustrate the efficacy of EGCG in reversing the progression of crescentic GN in mice by targeting multiple signaling and inflammatory pathways as well as countering oxidative stress.

  17. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate restores Nrf2 activity and ameliorates crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Zhen, Junhui; Du, Yong; Zhou, Jason K; Peng, Ai; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Mohan, Chandra; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Xin J

    2015-01-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is the most severe form of GN and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite aggressive immunotherapy with steroids, cytotoxic drugs, and plasmapheresis. We examined the therapeutic efficacy of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 50 mg/kg BW/day x3 weeks), a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent, on experimental crescentic GN induced in 129/svJ mice by administration of rabbit anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane sera. Routine histology and key molecules involved in inflammatory and redox signaling were studied. EGCG treatment significantly reduced mortality, decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine, and markedly improved renal histology when compared with vehicle-treated mice. The improvements in renal function and histology were accompanied by the restoration of Nrf2 signaling (which was impaired in vehicle-treated mice) as shown by increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and cytoplasmic glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit, and glutathione peroxidase. EGCG-treated mice also showed reduction in p-Akt, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and p-P38 as well as restoration of PPARγ and SIRT1 levels. Lower dose of EGCG (25 mg/kg BW/day x2 weeks) treatment also significantly decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine, and markedly improved renal histology when compared with vehicle-treated mice. Thus, our data illustrate the efficacy of EGCG in reversing the progression of crescentic GN in mice by targeting multiple signaling and inflammatory pathways as well as countering oxidative stress.

  18. Comparative assessment of total polyphenols, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different tea varieties of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yead Morshed Nibir

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that Bangladeshi tea, especially the green tea, may act as a substitute for natural antioxidants and as a promising antibacterial agent for beneficial influence in human health.

  19. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate suppressed the differentiation of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, Masayoshi; Zhao, Ran; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2009-12-16

    Recently, various physiological effects of the tea polyphenol catechin for alleviating diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia and osteoporosis have been reported. However, the physiological effect of catechin on bone metabolism remains unclear. We examined the physiological effect of EGCG [(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate], which is the main component of green tea catechin, on osteoblast development using the precursor cell line of osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1, and co-culture of the osteoblasts from mouse newborn calvaria and mouse bone marrow cells. Although EGCG did not affect the viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, EGCG inhibited the osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, EGCG did not affect the mineralization of differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells, and reduced osteoclast formation in co-culture. These results suggest that EGCG can effectively suppress bone resorption, and can be used as an effective medicine in the treatment of the symptoms of osteoporosis.

  20. Downstream carcinogenesis signaling pathways by green tea polyphenols: a translational perspective of chemoprevention and treatment for cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Zhang, Lei; Rong, Yefei; Ni, Xiaoling; Sun, Yihong

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. For several decades, numerous epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTPs), especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have cancer-preventing effects on various cancers. In this review, we present inhibition of carcinogenesis in different animal models by GTPs or EGCG, including prostate cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, intestinal cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and skin cancer. In vitro studies showed that GTPs/EGCG potently induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and suppresses metastasis in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. The molecular mechanisms of these activities are discussed in detail to elucidate GTPs/EGCG downstream carcinogenesis signaling pathways and their values of perspective of chemoprevention and treatment for cancers.

  1. Impacts of flushing and fermentation times on the quality of black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari Hojjat Reza; Asil Hassanpour Moazzam; Rabiei Babak; Dadashpour Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Flushing and fermentation times are the two main parameters determining the quality of black tea. In this research, the effects of different flushing and fermentation times were studied on the quality of black tea in two clones, 100 and natural Chinese hybrid. Analysis of variance showed there were the significant differences between the clone types, flushing and fermentation times for theaflavin, thearubigin, total color, brightness, tannin and caffeine. C...

  2. Compositional variation among black tea across geographies and their potential influence on endothelial nitric oxide and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paul Mark; Changarath, Jayashree; Damodaran, Anita; Joshi, Manoj Kumar

    2014-07-16

    Black tea (C. sinensis) consumption is well associated with enhanced endothelial function (EF) and reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk. This clinical end benefit is endorsed to flavonoids in tea. The black tea flavonoid composition varies across geographies and may impact its health benefits. Moreover, the underlying functional species and a precise working mechanism responsible for the observed health benefit also remain to be investigated. In this Article, we investigated the effect of black teas from various geographies (WoBTs) on different working mechanisms (antioxidant potential and endothelial function) proposed to influence certain risk factors of CVH, in vitro. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant benefits are fairly influenced by majority of tea actives such as catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and phenolic acids, while NO potentiating effects are mainly regulated by catechins in black tea. The data also suggest that the net vascular function benefit of black tea is majorly influenced by NO enhancement, while mildly contributed by its antioxidant benefit.

  3. Green Tea Polyphenols Potentiate the Action of Nerve Growth Factor to Induce Neuritogenesis: Possible Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    OpenAIRE

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H.; Schiffman, Jason E.; Hinton, David R.; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2010-01-01

    Exogenously administered nerve growth factor (NGF) repairs injured axons, but it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Thus, agents that could potentiate the neuritogenic ability of endogenous NGF would be of great utility in treating neurological injuries. Using the PC12 cell model, here we show that unfractionated green tea polyphenols (GTPP) at low concentrations (0.1 μg/ml) potentiate the ability of low concentrations of NGF (2 ng/ml) to induce neuritogenesis at a level comparable to th...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND TYPE OF SOLVENT ON EFFICIENCY OF THE EXTRACTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM GREEN TEA AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OBTAINED EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Drużyńska; Agnieszka Stępniewska; Rafał Wołosiak

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the type of solvent and time on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant properties extracts obtained from green tea. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: water and 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and 80% acetone (water solutions, v/v) at 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Extracts were analysed for contents of polyphenols and catechins. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two methods: scaven...

  5. Protective effect of black tea on integral membrane proteins in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szachowicz-Petelska, Barbara; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta; Figaszewski, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol intoxication is accompanied by oxidative stress formation. Consequently, it leads to disturbances in cellular metabolism that can alter the structure and function of cell membrane components. Black tea displays antioxidant properties, protects membrane phospholipids and may protect integral membrane proteins. In the present study, we examined whether black tea induces changes in the liver integral membrane proteins of 12-months old rats chronically intoxicated with ethanol. To estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the levels of the liver integral membrane proteins, the proteins were selectively hydrolyzed by trypsin, the obtained peptides were resolved by HPLC and the levels of specific amino acids within the individual peptides were determined. All of the obtained peptides contained phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and lysine (Lys). Compared to the control group, rats in the ethanol intoxication group showed decreased liver levels of integral membrane proteins as well as fewer trypsin-hydrolyzed peptides and amino acids in the hydrolyzed peptides. Administration of black tea to ethanol-intoxicated rats partially protected proteins against the structural changes caused by ethanol. Black tea prevented decreases in the levels of cysteine (in about 90% of cases), lysine (in about 60% of cases), phenylalanine (in about 70% of cases) and examined peptides (in about 60% of cases). The liver protein level was higher (by about 18%) in rats who received black tea and ethanol than in those who received ethanol alone. In conclusion, black tea partially protects the composition and level of rat liver cell integral membrane proteins against changes caused by ethanol intoxication.

  6. New ethanol extraction improves the anti-obesity effects of black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bongju; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Bonggyeong; Kim, Ingyum; Baek, Namjoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Seok-Yong; Son, Miwon; Park, Hyunsung

    2016-03-01

    Black tea has been reported to have anti-obesity effects in both rodents and humans. Gallic acid, an active component of black tea, decomposes quickly into pyrogallol in high-temperature solutions. This study introduced a new, aqueous ethanol extraction of black tea, which resulted in extracts with higher concentrations of gallic acid than conventional black tea extracts prepared by hot-water extraction or hot-ethanol extraction. We confirmed that, compared with the hot-water extract of black tea, the cold-ethanol extract of black tea (CE-BTE) had greater effects on reducing body weight and body fat, improving fatty liver, regulating blood glucose, and reducing blood cholesterol in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Nonetheless, although CE-BTE significantly reduced fat content, it did not reduce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) protein in epididymal fat tissue of HFD mice. We also showed that CE-BTE did not inhibit the function of PPARγ protein to drive adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Considering that PPARγ is a master transcription factor not only for adipocyte differentiation, but also for adipose tissue function, such as glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, these results suggest that CE-BTE reduced fat mass and body weight without dampening fat cell homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

  7. An exposure and risk assessment for fluoride and trace metals in black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofuoglu, Sait C. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Research Center, Guelbahce, Urla 35430 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: cemilsofuoglu@iyte.edu.tr; Kavcar, Pinar [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Research Center, Guelbahce, Urla 35430 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: pinarkavcar@iyte.edu.tr

    2008-10-30

    Exposure and associated health risks for fluoride and trace metals in black tea were estimated. Fifty participants were randomly recruited to supply samples from the tea that they drink, and self-administer a questionnaire that inquired about personal characteristics and daily tea intake. Analyzed trace metals included aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and zinc. Fluoride and four metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Ni) were detected in all samples while barium was detected only in one sample. The remaining metals were detected in >60% of the samples. Fluoride and aluminum levels in instant tea bag samples were greater than in loose tea samples (p < 0.05) while the differences in elemental concentrations of loose and pot bag tea samples were not significant. Median and 90th percentile daily tea intake rates were estimated as 0.35 and 1.1 l/day, respectively. Neither fluoride nor aluminum levels in black tea were found to associate with considerable risks of fluorosis and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 1.0 x 10{sup -6} even at the median level. According to sensitivity analysis, daily tea intake was the most influencing variable to the risk except for arsenic for which the concentration distribution was of more importance.

  8. Comparative Analysis on Tea Polyphenols Extraction Rates of Four Kinds of Green Teas in Tongren%铜仁市四种绿茶茶多酚提取率的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁道旺; 鲁连芳; 罗磊

    2012-01-01

    To provide a scientific basis for tea quality and components in Tongren city, the experiment applied ferrous tartrate colorimetric method to compare the tea polyphenols extraction rates of four different green teas in Tongren city: Fanjing Mountain green tea from Yinjiang, ecological green tea from Songtao, Tai green tea from Shiqian, and the cloud green tea from Yanhe, which were picked in the same season and also in the same grade. The tea polyphenols extraction rates of Songtao ecological green teas from the same origin but in different picking seasons were also compared. The results showed that Tai green tea from Shiqian extracted the most, ecological green tea from Songtao, the cloud green tea from Yanhe, Fanjing Mountain green tea from Yinjiang progressively declinded. Meanwhile, among the Songtao ecological green teas in different picking seasons, the tea in Qingming season extracted the most, the tea before Qingming follows, then the tea in Guyu, the tea after Qingming the lest.%为对铜仁市茶叶品质成分提供科学依据,用酒石酸亚铁比色法对铜仁市的印江梵净山绿茶、松桃生态绿茶、石阡苔茶、沿河云雾绿茶四县同一季节同一等级茶叶中茶多酚提取率进行比较研究,同时对松桃生态绿茶同一产地不同采收时节茶叶中茶多酚的提取率进行比较研究。结果表明:茶多酚的提取率含量较高的是石阡苔茶,其次是松桃生态绿茶、沿河云雾绿茶、印江梵净山绿茶;松桃县云雾绿茶不同采收时节的茶叶中茶多酚提取率含量较高的是清明茶,其次是清明前茶、谷雨茶、清明后茶。

  9. Meta-analysis of black tea consumption and breast cancer risk: update 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Dao-Song; Bai, Yang; Xia, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Black tea is a commonly consumed beverage in the world, comprising approximately 80% of all tea consumed. We sought to examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of breast cancer, using all available epidemiologic evidence to date. PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, and China Biological Medicine Database were used to search for citations using the MeSH terms as "breast neoplasm" AND "black tea." Then we performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer risk published between 1985 and 2013 by using RevMan 5.0 software. The results showed that no association between black tea consumption and breast cancer risk in overall [odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89-1.05]. We further performed a stratified analysis according to region (United States/Europe). Black tea consumption did not decrease breast cancer risk in the United States (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) and in Europe (OR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.93-1.06). In addition, the summary OR from all cohort studies (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18) or all case-control studies (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88-1.02) showed black tea intake has no effects on breast cancer risk. However, the association between black tea consumption and breast cancer incidence remains unclear based on the current evidence. Further well-designed large studies are needed to confirm our result.

  10. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Sri Lankan Dust grade Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the antidiarrhoeal potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis in mice using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 tea. Different concentrations of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ ml (equivalent to 1.5 cups, 167 mg/ ml (equivalent to 3 cups, 501 mg/ ml (equivalent to 9 cups or 1336 mg/ ml (equivalent to 24 cups], or a high concentration (equivalent to 9 cups of green tea brew (GTB of Chinese and Japanese types or reference drug, toperamide (10 mg/ kg were orally administered to different groups of mice (N = 9-12/group and were subjected to two antidiarrhoeal tests: normal defecation test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. The results show that BTB of Sri Lankan Dust grade tea dose-dependently and markedly decreased the number of faecal boluses produced in the normal defecation test and improved the severity of the diarroheal condition in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. However, the antidiarrhoeal effect of BTB was superior to Japanese type of GTB and inferior to loperamide. BTB also prolonged the gastrointestinal transit time, impaired intestinal fluid secretion, increased intestinal fluid absorption and reduced in vitro nitric oxide production. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea possesses marked antidiarrhoeal activity supporting the folkloric claim that Sri Lankan black tea is a good remedy for acute non specific diarrhoea.

  11. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  12. Characterization of epoxydecenal isomers as potent odorants in black tea (Dimbula) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2006-06-28

    In a black tea (Dimbula) infusion, the potent "sweet and/or juicy" odorants were identified as the cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals by comparison of their gas chromatography retention indices, mass spectra, and odor quality to those of the actual synthetic compounds. Of the two odorants, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal has been identified for the first time in the black tea. On the basis of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the flavor distillate obtained using the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique from the black tea infusion, these isomers showed higher flavor dilution (FD) factors. The FD factors and concentrations of these odorants in the black tea infusion were observed to be much higher than those from Japanese green tea. In addition, the model studies showed that these odorants were generated from linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides by heating, but the generated amounts of these odorants from linoleic acid were much less than those of its hydroperoxides. It can be assumed from these results that the withering and fermentation, which are characteristic processes during the manufacturing of the black tea, which includes the enzymatic reaction such as lipoxygenase, is one of the most important factors for the formation of the epoxydecenal isomers.

  13. Age-dependent changes in the proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance after alcohol and black tea consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, A; Bylińska, A; Skrzydlewska, E

    2011-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes in the redox balance that is additionally modified by alcohol. Ethanol metabolism is connected with generation of free radicals which can damage cell components especially when antioxidant mechanisms are not able to neutralize them. In connection with the necessity of prevention against oxidative consequences, natural antioxidants are looked for. A natural and commonly used component of the diets with antioxidant properties are teas, especially the black tea. This study provides evidence of the role of black tea in the protection of rat plasma proteins and lipids against oxidative stress caused by aging and ethanol intoxication. For 5 weeks, the rats (2-, 12-, and 24-months old) used for the experiment received a black tea beverage (3 g/l) without or with alcohol (given for 4 weeks). The decrease in antioxidant abilities determined as total antioxidant status during aging and ethanol intoxication resulted in enhanced lipid and protein oxidation (determined as malondialdehyde, carbonyl groups, dityrosine, tryptophan and sulfhydryl groups level). In consequence the decrease in anti-proteases (alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin) activity and the increase in proteases (elastase and cathepsin G) activity were observed. Black tea protected the plasma antioxidants and prevented oxidative modifications of lipid and protein observed during aging as well as ethanol intoxication. The results indicate that a shift into plasma proteolytic activity results from a decrease in antioxidant abilities, so the use of black tea appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress caused by ethanol and/or aging.

  14. Black Tea Consumption and Risk of Skin Cancer: An 11-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Arovah, Novita Intan; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Tea consumption has been shown to protect against skin carcinogenesis in laboratory-based studies; however, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This prospective study examined the association between black tea consumption and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Usual black tea consumption was estimated from food frequency questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 by 1,325 Australian adults. All histologically confirmed skin cancers diagnosed in participants from 1997 to 2007 were recorded. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using generalized linear models with Poisson and negative binomial distributions and adjusted for confounding factors including skin phenotype and sun exposure. Compared with never drinking black tea, drinking ≥4 cups/day was not associated with BCC (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.70-1.53; P-trend = 0.74) or SCC (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.71-2.19; P-trend = 0.29) in person-based analyses. Stratification by previous history of skin cancer as well as tumor-based analyses also showed no significant associations between black tea intake and incidence of BCC or SCC tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that high black tea consumption reduces risk of skin cancer, including in people with a previous history of skin cancer.

  15. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits TLR4 signaling through the 67-kDa laminin receptor on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Eui-Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Han-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: ehbyun80@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG-treated DCs inhibited MAPKs activation and NF-{kappa}B p65 translocation via 67LR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG elevated the expression of the Tollip protein through 67LR in DCs. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to down-regulate inflammatory responses in dendritic cells (DCs); however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by EGCG in DCs. The expressions of CD80, CD86, and MHC class I and II, which are molecules essential for antigen presentation by DCs, were inhibited by EGCG via 67LR. In addition, EGCG-treated DCs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, and IL-6) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 translocation through 67LR. Interestingly, we also found that EGCG markedly elevated the expression of the Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, through 67LR. These novel findings provide new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses that are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases.

  16. Study on preparation of low-caffeine tea by tea polyphenol solution treatment%茶多酚水溶液浸提法生产低咖啡碱茶叶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尔朝娟; 王洪新; 金循; 娄在祥; 田洪芸; 贺雪姣; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    首次采用茶多酚水溶液浸提法脱除鲜茶叶与干茶叶中的咖啡碱,并保留其中的主要功能性成分茶多酚。鲜茶叶最佳浸提条件为:温度100℃,料液比1:10(g/mL),茶多酚水溶液质量体积分数5%,时间5min。此条件下咖啡碱脱除率达80.61%,比传统热水浸提法提高31.25%,且茶多酚无损失。干茶叶最佳浸提条件为:温度100℃,料液比1:20(g/mL),茶多酚水溶液质量体积分数15%,时间7min。此条件下咖啡碱脱除率达81.61%,且处理后的茶叶中茶多酚含量提高90.02%。研究结果表明,针对鲜茶叶和干茶叶原料,茶多酚水溶液浸提法均能有效脱除其咖啡碱,并有效保留或提高茶叶中的茶多酚,比传统热水浸提法有明显优势,是一种生产低咖啡碱茶叶的新方法。%A new production method of low-caffeine tea was obtained.Both fresh and dry tea leaves were lixiviated by tea polyphenol solution and the decaffeination effects was compared with traditional hot water lixiviation method.The perecntage of decaffeination reached 80.61% when fresh tea leaf was decaffeinated with a ratio of tea leaf to water of 1:10(g/mL) in 5%(g/mL) tea polyphenol solution at 100℃ for 5min,which was 31.25% higher than decaffeinated by hot water.Meanwhile there was no loss of tea polyphenol after the decaffeination.Similarly,the percentage of decaffeination reached to 81.61% when dry tea leaf was decaffeinated with a ratio of tea leaf to water of 1:20(g/mL) in 15%(g/mL) tea polyphenol solution at 100℃ for 7min,and the content of tea polyphenol increased by 90.02% which was much higher than in undecaffeinated dry tea leaf.It was considered that the tea polyphenol solution treatment was a effective method to decaffeinate and retain tea polyphenol for both fresh and dry tea leaves.

  17. ANTI-CARIOGENIC EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOL PLANT PRODUCTS-A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar Kshitiz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols occurring in Grape seeds, cocoa, coffee and tea can have a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, due to their antibacterial action. Cocoa polyphenol pentamers significantly reduce biofilm formation and acid production by Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis. In the same way, trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic acid occurring in green and roasted coffee interfere with S. mutans adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Studies carried out on green oolong tea and black tea indicate that tea polyphenols exert an anti-caries effect via an anti- microbial mode-of-action, and galloyl esters of epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin showed increasing antibacterial activities. The anti-cariogenic effects against streptococci showed by polyphenols from cocoa, coffee, and tea suggest further studies to a possible application of these beverages in the prevention of pathogenesis of dental caries.

  18. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwen Lu

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.

  19. Green Tea Polyphenols Reduce Body Weight in Rats by Modulating Obesity-Related Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuanwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Shen, Chwan-Li; Gao, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380

  20. Production of hydrogen peroxide by polyphenols and polyphenol-rich beverages under quasi-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Shigemitsu, Tomoko; Suyama, Kyozo

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the ability of the production of H(2)O(2) by polyphenols, we incubated various phenolic compounds and natural polyphenols under a quasi-physiological pH and temperature (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C), and then measured the formation of H(2)O(2) by the ferrous ion oxidation-xylenol orange assay. Pyrocatechol, hydroquinone, pyrogallol, 1,2,4-benzenetriol, and polyphenols such as catechins yielded a significant amount of H(2)O(2). We also examined the effects of a metal chelator, pH, and O(2) on the H(2)O(2)-generating property, and the generation of H(2)O(2) by the polyphenol-rich beverages, green tea, black tea, and coffee, was determined. The features of the H(2)O(2)-generating property of green tea, black tea, and coffee were in good agreement with that of phenolic compounds, suggesting that polyphenols are responsible for the generation of H(2)O(2) in beverages. From the results, the possible significances of the H(2)O(2)-generating property of polyphenols for biological systems are discussed.

  1. Protective effects of polyphenols-enriched extract from Huangshan Maofeng green tea against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanmang; Yang, Xingbin; Lu, Xinshan; Chen, Jinwen; Zhao, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The study was to characterize the polyphenolic composition, antioxidant properties, and hepatoprotective effects of a polyphenols-enriched extract (HMTP) from Huangshan Maofeng green tea. HPLC analysis showed that three predominantly polyphenolic compounds present in HMTP were epigallocatechin (271.2 μg/mg extract), rutin (239.3 μg/mg) and epicatechin (89.3 μg/mg). HMTP was shown to exhibit strong scavenging activities against DPPH, O2(-), and OH, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power in vitro. Administration of HMTP at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw in mice prior to CCl4 injury significantly decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum ALT, AST and ALP activities, and prevented an increase in hepatic MDA levels (p<0.05). Mice with HMTP pretreatment displayed a better profile of hepatosomatic index and the improved GSH-Px and SOD activities in the liver, relative to CCl4-intoxicated mice. Liver pathological observation also confirmed the protection on CCl4-caused histological alteration, suggesting that HMTP has potential to be explored as valuable hepatoprotective function food.

  2. Black tea increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Gui; Huang, Jian-An; Li, Juan; Yu, Peng-Hui; Xiong, Zhe; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Hua

    2014-11-19

    The present study examined the effects of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts (BTE) in Caenorhabditis elegans under various abiotic stressors. Results showed BTE increased nematode resistance to osmosis, heat, and UV irradiation treatments. However, BTE could not increase nematodes' lifespan under normal culture conditions and MnCl2-induced toxicity at concentrations we used. Further studies showed that BTE decreased reactive oxygen species and up-regulated some antioxidant enzymes, including GSH-PX, and genes, such as gsh-px and sod-3. However, only a slight extension in mev-1 mutants mean lifespan was observed without significance. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of BTE might be necessary but not sufficient to protect against aging to C. elegans. Moreover, BTE increased the mRNA level of stress-response genes such as sir-2.1 and sek-1. Our finding demonstrated BTE might increase heat and UV stress resistance in a sir.2.1-dependent manner. Taken together, BTE enhanced stress resistance with multiple mechanisms in C. elegans.

  3. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxic effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chuankui; Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Zhengcao; Xiao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxicity, Japanese Medaka was injected intraperitoneally with BaP alone and co-injected with both BaP and GTP of different concentrations, respectively.

  4. Green tea polyphenols improve cardiac muscle mRNA, and protein levels of signal pathways related to insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammation in insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that the consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. To explore the underlying mechanisms of action at the molecular level, we examined the effects of GTP on cardiac mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in insulin an...

  5. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  6. The green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits telomerase and induces apoptosis in drug-resistant lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadava, David; Whitlock, Elizabeth; Kane, Susan E

    2007-08-17

    Epidemiological studies on humans and investigations in animal models suggest that consumption of green tea has anti-cancer effects. Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) has a poor prognosis, particularly due to the development of drug resistance. We investigated the effects of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on human SCLC cells. EGCG had similar effects (IC(50) of approximately 70 microM) on drug-sensitive (H69) and drug-resistant (H69VP) SCLC cells, indicating that it is not part of the drug resistance phenotype expressed in these cells. In both cell lines, incubation in EGCG at 1 x IC(50) for 24h resulted in 50-60% reduced telomerase activity as measured by a PCR-based assay for telomeric repeats. Colorimetric assays of cells treated for 36 h with EGCG demonstrated a reduction in activities of caspases 3 (50%) and 9 (70%) but not caspase 8, indicating initiation of apoptosis. DNA fragmentation as measured by ELISA occurred within cells treated with EGCG and this was confirmed by TUNEL staining. Flow cytometric analysis of SCLC cells incubated for 36 h in EGCG indicated a cell-cycle block in S phase. These data indicate the potential use of EGCG, and possibly green tea, in treating SCLC.

  7. Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of Tea Polyphenol Liposome%茶多酚脂质体的制备和物化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范一文; 鲁群; 李地才; 姜建国

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of tea polyphenol liposome by thin film ultrasonic dispersion method was developed in this research to enhance the bioavailability of tea polyphenol. The process conditions were optimized using response surface analysis. The optimal technological parameters were as follows: ratio of lecithin to tea polyphenol 1:8, ratio of lecithin to cholesterol 4:1, PBS PH 6.62 and ultrasonic time 3.5 min. The theoretical and practical entrapment efficiency was 60.36% and 60.09±0.69%, respectively. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of tea polyphenol liposome were investigated. The mean size of tea polyphenol liposome was 160.4 nm and the ζ-potential value was -67.2. The tea polyphenol liposome was formed by physical interaction and the in vitro release process followed the First-order equation. The results showed that the prepared tea polyphenol liposome was stable.%本文采用薄膜超声分散法制备茶多酚脂质体以提高茶多酚的生物利用率.在制备工艺研究中运用响应面分析,确定其最佳工艺条件:药脂比为1∶8,卵磷脂与胆固醇比为4∶1,缓冲液pH值为6.62,超声时间为3.5 min.理论最佳包埋率60.36%,实际包埋率为60.09±.69%.并对其理化性质进行了考察,平均粒径为160.4 nm;ζ-电位值-67.2;通过红外光谱证实茶多酚经过物理相互作用形成的;体外释放过程符合一级动力学方程.制备的茶多酚脂质体产品稳定性良好.

  8. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  9. A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, Jaouad; El Hassouni, Mohammed; Ouardaoui, Abdelkrim; Sendide, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)).

  10. Research Progress of the Aroma of Black Tea%红茶香气研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 吕才有

    2016-01-01

    红茶是我国生产和出口的主要茶类之一,其色泽红艳、滋味醇厚、兼容性好,是目前世界上消费量最大的一种茶类。我国红茶有小种红茶、功夫红茶、红碎茶等。在影响红茶品质的诸多因素中,香气是决定茶叶品质的关键因素之一,故将以红茶香气为出发点,从茶树品种、自然环境、加工工艺等方面进行探讨,为不断提高和改进红茶总体品质提供理论依据。%Black tea is one of the main tea production and export of China.Black tea is bright red in color, mellow in taste and has good com-patibility.At present, it has the greatest consumption in the world.Chinese black tea is divided into small kind of lapsangsouchong tea, kung-fu tea, broken black tea and so on.In a number of factors that influences the quality of black tea, aroma is one of the key factors determine the tea quality.Therefore, in this research, the aroma of black tea was taken as a starting point.We discussed the black tea aroma from the tea plant varieties, natural environment, processing technology and so on, so as to constantly improve the overall quality of black tea.

  11. Neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols in cerebral ischemia%绿茶多酚在脑缺血中的神经保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣娟; 南淑玲

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a drink made from the steamed and dried leaves of the Camellia sinensis plants.Green tea contains a number of bioactive chemicals,including polyphenols that exert anticancer and antioxidant properties.Many studied have shown that green tea polyphenols have neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia through the mechanisms of antioxidant,antiapoptosis,and reducing brain edema.%绿茶是山茶属植物叶蒸干后制成的一种饮料,含有大量生物活性物质,包括具有抗氧化、抗炎症和抗肿瘤特性的多酚.一些研究表明,绿茶多酚通过抗氧化、抗细胞凋亡和减轻脑水肿等机制在脑缺血中发挥神经保护作用.

  12. Study on the Properties of Gelatin Modified by Tea Polyphenols%茶多酚对明胶的改性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏雨; 焦志华; 刘海英

    2011-01-01

    利用不同浓度茶多酚对明胶进行改性,研究明胶改性前后凝胶强度、流变学性质、分子结构以及蛋白质结晶度的变化,并探讨茶多酚作为明胶改性剂的最佳条件。结果表明,2g/L的茶多酚对明胶凝胶的强度、熔点和凝固点提高最显著;傅里叶红外转换光谱和x-射线衍射的研究结果表明,2g/L的茶多酚对明胶的交联作用最强。总之,浓度为2g/L的茶多酚对明胶具有明显的改性作用。%Gelatin was modified in this work by different concentrations of tea polyphenols. The gel strength, rheological properties, molecular structures and the protein crystallinity in the gelatin before and after modification were comparatively studied, and the optimum tea polyphenols concentration for gelatin modification was discussed. Results showed that 2 g/L of the tea polyphenols mostly benefited to the improvement of gel strength, melting point and freezing point. Results of the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction showed that 2 g/L of the tea polyphenols mostly improved the cross-linking of gelatin. All the results showed that 2 g/L of the tea polyphenols can improve the property of gelatin significantly.

  13. Black tea prevents cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis and lung damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Dhrubajyoti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung damage. One prominent deleterious effect of cigarette smoke is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptosis and lung injury. Since black tea has antioxidant property, we examined the preventive effect of black tea on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury in a guinea pig model. Methods Guinea pigs were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure from five cigarettes (two puffs/cigarette per guinea pig/day for seven days and given water or black tea to drink. Sham control guinea pigs were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Lung damage, as evidenced by inflammation and increased air space, was assessed by histology and morphometric analysis. Protein oxidation was measured through oxyblot analysis of dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the protein carbonyls of the oxidized proteins. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, phosphorylation of p53 as well as over-expression of Bax by immunoblot analyses. Results Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model caused lung damage. It appeared that oxidative stress was the initial event, which was followed by inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury. All these pathophysiological events were prevented when the cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs were given black tea infusion as the drink instead of water. Conclusion Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model causes oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury that are prevented by supplementation of black tea.

  14. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Verhage, Bas A J; Arts, Ilja C W; van Schooten, Frederik J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2013-06-15

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort study, which includes 58,279 men who provided detailed baseline information on several cancer risk factors. From 1986 to 2003, 3,362 prostate cancers were identified, including 1,164 advanced (stage III/IV) cancers. Cox proportional hazards regression using the case-cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intake of total catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and myricetin and consumption of black tea were associated with a decreased risk of stage III/IV or stage IV prostate cancer. Hazard ratios of stage III/IV and stage IV prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest category of black tea consumption (≥5 versus ≤1 cups/day) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97) and 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.91), respectively. No associations were observed for overall and nonadvanced prostate cancer. In conclusion, dietary flavonoid intake and black tea consumption were associated with a decreased risk of advanced stage prostate cancer.

  15. Synergistic Effects of Potentilla fruticosa L. Leaves Combined with Green Tea Polyphenols in a Variety of Oxidation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zehua; Luo, Ziwen; Jia, Caixia; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu

    2016-05-01

    Potentilla fruticosa L. leaves are widely used as tea in China, with many commercial "Jinlaomei" teas available in markets. It has been confirmed to possess significant antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. In this study, the synergistic effects of P. fruticosa leaves extracts (PFE) combined with green tea polyphenols (GTP) were studied to elucidate their use in combination and find specific combinations with least concentrations that enhance the antioxidant activity. Isobolographic analysis indicated that the combination of PFE and GTP demonstrated extensive synergism (22/28 of the tests showed significant synergy) with 3:1 (PFE:GTP) exhibiting the best synergistic effect. Chemical compositions and content of 7 phenolic compounds in PFE, GTP, and their mixtures were evaluated by reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography. While chemical composition did not seem to change after the combination, as no new peaks appeared in the chromatogram, and no existing peaks disappeared. However, the content of (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and , (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) changed. Besides, antioxidant interactions of extracts and compounds were evaluated, EGC with hyperoside exhibited the greatest synergistic effect and the combination of 3:1 exhibited the strongest synergism (DPPH γ = 0.86, ABTS γ = 1.12, FRAP γ = 1.16). Therefore, interaction of phytochemicals may be one reason for the synergistic effects in PFE + GTP, with EGC + hyperoside likely playing an important role. This report provides a theoretical basis for the concomitant use of P. fruticosa blended with GTP, which can be effectively used as a compounded tea, dietary supplements, and substituent of synthetic antioxidant.

  16. Adsorption of Pb(II) on Spent Leaves of Green and Black Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Zuorro; Roberto Lavecchia

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In recent years much attention has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Spent tea leaves, an abundantly available material that is currently disposed of as a solid waste, are potentially suitable for such applications. Approach: To provide some information on the adsorption properties of tea waste, we evaluated the removal efficiency of lead ions by spent leaves of green and black te...

  17. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-02-03

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared with traditional sodium acetate media due in part to its acidophilic pH and its higher organics content. Although high internal resistance remains a big concern, this simple, curiosity-driven experiment gave us the preliminary results to say that energy could be extracted from the reuse of waste resources such the collection of our afternoon-tea\\'s leftovers.

  18. Characterization of corrinoid compounds from a Japanese black tea (Batabata-cha) fermented by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Syuhei; Watanabe, Fumio; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2004-02-25

    A Japanese fermented black tea (Batabata-cha) contained a considerable amount of vitamin B(12) (456 +/- 39 ng per 100 g dry tea leaves and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ng per 100 mL of tea drink). A corrinoid compound was partially purified and characterized from the tea leaves. The patterns of the purified compound by the silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatography and C18 reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography were identical to those of authentic vitamin B(12). When 20 week old vitamin B(12) deficient rats, which excreted substantial amounts (about 250 mg/day) of methylmalonic acid in urine as an index of vitamin B(12) deficiency, were fed the tea drink (50 mL/day, 1 ng of vitamin B(12)) for 6 weeks, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion (169 +/- 29 mg/day) of the tea drink-supplemented 26 week old rats decreased significantly relative to that (250 +/- 32 mg/day) of the deficient rats. The results indicate that the vitamin B(12) found in the fermented black tea is bioavailable in mammals.

  19. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  20. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  1. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p tea consumption (p tea ingestion improves BA FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  2. Human clinical studies of tea polyphenols in allergy or life style-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Many previous epidemiological studies have revealed that green tea or green tea catechins contributed to the preveintion of lifestyle-related diseases. Several cohort studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk/type 2 diabetes mellitus risk have been conducted. The results showed that green tea consumption (5 or more cups/day) was inversely associated with mortality from CVD and all causes. Within CVD mortality, the strongest inverse association was observed for stroke mortality. Furthermore, consumption of green tea, coffee, and total caffeine was associated with a reduced risk for type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, the analysis of randomized clinical trial (RCT) studies showed that the administration of green tea beverages or extracts resulted in significant reductions in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but had no apparent effect on HDL-cholesterol. Green tea reduced fasting blood glucose levels in a small intervention trial, although no improvements in HbA1c levels were seen. Continuous intake of green tea containing catechins and caffeine (5 or more cups per day) may be beneficial for body weight management, vascular disease risk reduction via LDL-cholesterol improvement, and type 2 diabetes risk reduction through the lowering of fasting blood glucose levels. Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me) isolated from cv. "Benifuuki" green tea has been shown to strongly inhibit mast cell activation and histamine release after FcepsilonRI cross-linking through the suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation (Lyn) of cellular protein kinase, and the suppression of myosin light chain phosphorylation and high-affinity IgE receptor expression via the binding to 67 kDa laminin receptors. A double-blind clinical study on subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis was carried out. At the eleventh week after starting intake, which was coincident with the most severe period of cedar pollen

  3. The Microbiota Is Essential for the Generation of Black Tea Theaflavins-Derived Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Hayek, Saeed; Rivera Guzman, Javier; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Jobin, Christian; Sang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    Background Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G), theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF3′G), and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TFDG), are the most important bioactive polyphenols in black tea. Because of their poor systemic bioavailability, it is still unclear how these compounds can exert their biological functions. The objective of this study is to identify the microbial metabolites of theaflavins in mice and in humans. Methods and Findings In the present study, we gavaged specific pathogen free (SPF) mice and germ free (GF) mice with 200 mg/kg TFDG and identified TF, TF3G, TF3′G, and gallic acid as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in SPF mice. These metabolites were absent in TFDG- gavaged GF mice. The microbial bioconversion of TFDG, TF3G, and TF3′G was also investigated in vitro using fecal slurries collected from three healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that TFDG is metabolized to TF, TF3G, TF3′G, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Moreover, both TF3G and TF3′G are metabolized to TF, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Importantly, we observed interindividual differences on the metabolism rate of gallic acid to pyrogallol among the three human subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis have the capacity to metabolize TFDG. Conclusions The microbiota is important for the metabolism of theaflavins in both mice and humans. The in vivo functional impact of microbiota-generated theaflavins-derived metabolites is worthwhile of further study. PMID:23227227

  4. The microbiota is essential for the generation of black tea theaflavins-derived metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G, theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF3'G, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG, are the most important bioactive polyphenols in black tea. Because of their poor systemic bioavailability, it is still unclear how these compounds can exert their biological functions. The objective of this study is to identify the microbial metabolites of theaflavins in mice and in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study, we gavaged specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ free (GF mice with 200 mg/kg TFDG and identified TF, TF3G, TF3'G, and gallic acid as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in SPF mice. These metabolites were absent in TFDG- gavaged GF mice. The microbial bioconversion of TFDG, TF3G, and TF3'G was also investigated in vitro using fecal slurries collected from three healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that TFDG is metabolized to TF, TF3G, TF3'G, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Moreover, both TF3G and TF3'G are metabolized to TF, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Importantly, we observed interindividual differences on the metabolism rate of gallic acid to pyrogallol among the three human subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis have the capacity to metabolize TFDG. CONCLUSIONS: The microbiota is important for the metabolism of theaflavins in both mice and humans. The in vivo functional impact of microbiota-generated theaflavins-derived metabolites is worthwhile of further study.

  5. Black and green tea--how to make a perfect crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancirova, Martina

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant properties of the black and green tea are well known. The latent bloodstains are detectable by luminol. The bloodstains also can be cover up by drinks and foods containing the antioxidants; thus their presence can cause a decrease of the luminol light emission (false-negative results). The aim of this study was to quantify the light emission decrease of the chemiluminescent mixture prepared according to Weber (containing NaOH) and the chemiluminescent mixture of pH 7.4 (for the determination of the total antioxidant capacity) for the open air-dried sample. The black and green teas and white wine were used as the antioxidant's samples (high and low total antioxidant capacity). The significant decrease of the luminol chemiluminescent emission caused by the presence of the black and green teas (and comparable for both of them) was observed in comparison with the presence of white wine.

  6. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  7. Honey and green/black tea consumption may reduce the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Vladimirov, Borislav; Nikolov, Rossen; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dietary and demographic factors and some habits on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in 150 dyspeptic patients examined endoscopically and by the urea breath test. Positivity rate was lower (50.6%) in patients consuming honey ≥1 day weekly compared with the remainder (70.8%) and in those consuming green/black tea ≥1 day weekly (45.2%) compared with the other patients (64.8%). Logistic regression confirmed that the factors associated with significantly lower H. pylori positivity rate were the consumption of honey (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.78) and green/black tea (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95). In conclusion, honey and green/black tea intake is associated with reduced prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  8. Anti-cancer properties of green Tea Probed viaquantum mechanics calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Chitsazan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10.13005/ojc/310147Tea, from the plant camellia sinensis, is consumed in different parts of the world as green, black or oolong tea. Among all of these, however, the most significant effects on human health have been observed with the consumption of green tea. Green tea contains polyphenols, which include flavanols, flavandiols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Most of the green tea polyphenols (GTPs are flavonols, commonly known as catechins. There are four kinds of catechins mainly find in green tea: epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and EGCG. Green tea catechins have demonstrated significant antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, thermogenic, probiotic, and antimicrobial properties in numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies. In the present study, four type catechins of green tea were studied. For each catechin ab initio method was employed for calculations and related parameters were computed.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the anti-inflammatory potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. Family: Theaceae using both acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and chronic (formaldehyde-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma test rat inflammatory models. Three dose of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ml, equivalent to 1.5 cups; 168 mg/ml, equivalent to 3 cups; and 501 mg/ml, equivalent to 9 cups] were made using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 black tea samples and was orally administed to rats (n = 6-9/ dose/ test. The results showed that Sri Lankan BTB possesses marked and significant (P < 0.05 oral anti-inflammatory activity against both acute and chronic inflammation. This anti-inflammatory activity was dose-dependent in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test and cotton pellet granuloma test. Further, in the carrageenan paw oedema model, the anti-inflammatory activity of BTB was almost identical to green tea brew of both Chinese and Japanese types. Further, the BTB had significant antihistamine activity (in terms of wheal test phagocytic cell migration inhibitory activity (in terms carrageenan-induced leucocyte peritoneal infiltration test, nitric oxide production inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity (DPPH method and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity (in terms of rat enteropooling test. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea has marked anti-inflammatory potential against both acute and chronic inflammation which is mediated via multiple mechanisms.

  10. Production of nanoparticles under benign conditions using vitamins, sugars, glutathione and polyphenols from tea and winery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In continuation of our developmental program for sustainable pathways to nanomaterials, an account of greener preparation of nanoparticles utilizing naturally occurring reagents such as vitamins, sugars, tea extracts, and biodegradable polymers will be presented which reduces or ...

  11. Development of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of polyphenolic compounds in liquid samples of grape juice, green tea and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena

    2014-05-01

    A simple and fast method for the analysis of a wide range of polyphenolic compounds in juice, tea, and coffee samples was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was based on a simple sample preparation "dilute and shoot" approach, and LC-MS/MS quantification using genistein-d4 as an internal standard. The performance of six different syringeless filter devices was tested for sample preparation. The method was evaluated for recoveries of polyphenols at three spiking levels in juice, tea, and coffee samples. The recoveries of the majority of polyphenols were satisfactory (70-120%), but some varied significantly (20-138%) depending on the matrix. NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 3257 Catechin Calibration Solutions and 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract with certified concentrations of catechin and epicatechin were used for method validation. The measurement accuracy in two SRMs was 71-113%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of liquid samples of grape juice, green tea, and coffee.

  12. The use of green tea polyphenols for treating residual albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy: A double-blind randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cynthia M; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Duarte, Diego A; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M; Lopes de Faria, José B

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that in experimental diabetes mellitus, green tea reduces albuminuria by decreasing podocyte apoptosis through activation of the WNT pathway. We investigated the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on residual albuminuria of diabetic subjects with nephropathy. We conducted a randomised, double-blind study in 42 diabetic subjects with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) >30 mg/g, despite administration of the maximum recommended dose of renin-angiotensin (RAS) inhibition. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal groups to receive either GTP (containing 800 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, 17 with type 2 diabetes and 4 with type 1 diabetes) or placebo (21 with type 2 diabetes) for 12 weeks. Treatment with GTP reduced UACR by 41%, while the placebo group saw a 2% increase in UACR (p = 0.019). Podocyte apoptosis (p = 0.001) and in vitro albumin permeability (p < 0.001) were higher in immortalized human podocytes exposed to plasma from diabetic subjects compared to podocytes treated with plasma from normal individuals. In conclusion, GTP administration reduces albuminuria in diabetic patients receiving the maximum recommended dose of RAS. Reduction in podocyte apoptosis by activation of the WNT pathway may have contributed to this effect.

  13. Optimization of Purification Technology for Tea Polyphenol from Tea Stalk by Macroporous Resin%大孔树脂纯化茶梗中茶多酚的工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沛鑫; 高英; 李卫民; 李竞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To optimize purification technology of tea-polyphenol from tea stalk by macroporous resin, and provide a reference for secondary development of tea stalk. Method: Static absorption-desorption and dynamic adsorption-desorption was used to select the best one from 9 different type macroporous resin; With the content of tea-polyphenol as index, purification technology parameters of tea polyphenol were optimized by single factor test. Result: LX-18 type resin showed the best purifying profile, its optimum technology conditions were as follows: crude drugs-dry resin weight 1:1, adsorption rate of 2 mL · min-1 , eluted by 10 BV distilled water and 10 BV 50% ethanol; Purity of tea polyphenol was 53.79%. Conclusion: This optimized technology was simple and feasible with good purification effect, so it could provide a reference for development of related products of tea polyphenol.%目的:优选大孔吸附树脂纯化茶梗中茶多酚的工艺条件,为茶梗二次开发提供参考.方法:采用静态吸附-解吸和动态吸附-解吸试验对9种不同型号树脂进行筛选;以茶多酚含量为指标,采用单因素试验优选大孔树脂纯化茶多酚的工艺参数.结果:LX-18型大孔吸附树脂纯化效果最好;最佳工艺条件为上样液中生药与树脂的质量比1∶1,吸附速度2 mL·min-1,分别用10倍量水、50%乙醇洗脱;茶多酚纯度53.79%.结论:该优选的方法简便可行、纯化效果好,可为茶多酚相关产品的开发提供参考.

  14. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i injected with vehicle; (ii treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg via gavage; (iii injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally; (iv treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI. Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI.

  15. Tea polyphenols increase X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 expression in the hippocampus of rats during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Wang; Hui Gao; Xin Wei; Rongliang Xue; Xi Lei; Jianrui Lv; Gang Wu; Wei Li; Li Xue; Xiaoming Lei; Hongxia Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that tea polyphenols can cross the blood-brain barrier,inhibit apoptosis and play a neuroprotective role against cerebral ischemia.Furthermore,tea polyphenols can decrease DNA damage caused by free radicals.We hypothesized that tea polyphenols repair DNA damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis during global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.To test this hypothesis,we employed a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.We demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of tea polyphenols immediately after reperfusion significantly reduced apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region; this effect started 6 hours following reperfusion.Immunohistochemical staining showed that tea polyphenols could reverse the ischemia/reperfusion-induced reduction in the expression of DNA repair proteins,X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 starting at 2 hours.Both effects lasted at least 72 hours.These experimental findings suggest that tea polyphenols promote DNA damage repair and protect against apoptosis in the brain.

  16. Adsorption of Pb(II on Spent Leaves of Green and Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zuorro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years much attention has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Spent tea leaves, an abundantly available material that is currently disposed of as a solid waste, are potentially suitable for such applications. Approach: To provide some information on the adsorption properties of tea waste, we evaluated the removal efficiency of lead ions by spent leaves of green and black tea. Batch adsorption experiments were made at 25 and 40°C at initial lead-ion concentrations between 0.01 and 2 g L-1. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir equation to evaluate the maximum adsorption capacity and the equilibrium constant. The adsorption characteristics of the two materials were also compared with those of coffee grounds, activated carbon and Fullers earth. Results: Experimental data showed that removal efficiencies up to 98-99% can be achieved when using spent tea leaves as lead adsorbent. The results were only marginally affected by the type of tea waste. At low lead loading, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by the Langmuir equation, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 83-130 mg g-1 and an equilibrium constant ranging from 0.112-0.245 L mg-1. A comparison with other adsorbents provided the following order for lead removal efficiency: Black tea, coffee grounds > green tea > Fullers earth > activated carbon. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that using spent tea leaves as an adsorbent may be an efficient and economical means for removing lead and, presumably, other heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  17. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from herbal teas and evaluation of their in vitro hypochlorous acid scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Durusoy, Nazan; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2014-11-19

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) and non-radical and is taking part in physiological processes concerned with the defense of the organism, but there has been limited information regarding its scavenging by polyphenols. This study was designed to examine the HOCl scavenging activity of several polyphenols and microwave-assisted extracts of herbal teas. HOCl scavenging activity has usually been determined spectrophotometrically by a KI/taurine assay at 350 nm. Because some polyphenols (i.e., apigenin and chrysin) have a strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption in this range, their HOCl scavenging activity was alternatively determined without interference using resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) as a fluorogenic probe. In the present assay, HOCl induces the chlorination of resorcinol into its non-fluorescent products. Polyphenols as HOCl scavengers inhibit the chlorination of the probe by this species. Thus, the 25% inhibitive concentration (IC25) value of polyphenols was determined using the relative increase in fluorescence intensity of the resorcinol probe. The HOCl scavenging activities of the test compounds decreased in the order: epigallocatechin gallate > quercetin > gallic acid > rutin > catechin > kaempferol. The present study revealed that epigallocatechin gallate (IC25 = 0.1 μM) was the most effective scavenging agent. In addition to polyphenols, four herbal teas were evaluated for their HOCl activity using the resorcinol method. The proposed spectrofluorometric method was practical, rapid, and less open to interferences by absorbing substances in the range of 200-420 nm. The results hint to the possibility of polyphenols having beneficial effects in diseases, such as atherosclerosis, in which HOCl plays a pathogenic role.

  18. Determination of Tea Polyphenols by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定茶叶中的茶多酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康明艳; 李悦; 魏文静; 静宝元

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,HPLC,applied L-3000 HPLC system established tea extract polyphenols analysis and separation methods,achieved the desired separation. Experiments show that this method is simple pre-processing, analysis accuracy,Good precision,is very suitable for the determination of polyphenols in green tea extract.%采用高效液相法,应用L-3000高效液相色谱系统建立了茶叶提取物中茶多酚的分析分离方法,取得了理想的分离效果。实验证明该方法前处理简便,分析结果准确度高,精密度好,非常适合用于测定绿茶提取物中的茶多酚。

  19. Chemical Composition and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Houttuynia cordata Tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.; Shi, X.L.; Yu, L.H.; Zhu, J.; Ma, R.; Yang, X.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect, and phenolic composition of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from Houttuynia cordata tea. EAF was shown to exhibit strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity against DPPH

  20. Biomimetic 'Green' Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Antioxidants-Vitamins, Glutathione and Polyphenols from Tea and Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our recent activity in chemical synthesis of nanomaterials via benign biomimetic ‘greener’ alternatives,1 such as the use antioxidants present in a variety of natural products, and ubiquitous glutathione in aqueous media.2 Vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea ...

  1. 酶法辅助提取茶多酚的工艺研究%Research of the Extraction Processing of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婕; 汤韧; 吉树臣; 姜淑妍; 徐楠楠

    2016-01-01

    以湖北通城县茶叶产区的绿茶为原料,研究纤维素酶和果胶酶复合辅助提取茶多酚的最佳工艺参数。通过单因素试验和正交试验分析酶用量、浸提时间、浸提温度和pH对茶多酚提取率的影响,进而对茶多酚提取的工艺条件进行优化设计。结果表明:pH和纤维素酶用量对茶多酚提取率影响显著,优化后的提取工艺条件为纤维素酶用量200 U/mL、果胶酶用量300 U/mL、浸提时间50 min、浸提温度为40℃、pH 5.0,此最佳条件下的茶多酚提取率为23.54%,DPPH自由基清除率达30%,显示出优异的抗氧化性能。%The green tea,obtained from tea-producing areas of the Tongcheng County of Hubei Province,was chosen as raw material. The optimum conditions were carefully studied in the process of assisted extraction of tea polyphenols from mixture of cellulose and pectinase. The impact of enzyme concentration,extraction time,ex-traction temperature and pH on tea polyphenols extraction rate was analyzed by single factor and orthogonal ex-periments,which was used to optimize the design of tea polyphenols extraction process conditions. The results showed that pH and cellulose significant could huge impact on the extraction of tea polyphenols. The optimal ex-traction conditions were cellulose 200 U/mL,the pectinase 300 U/mL,extraction time 50 min,extraction tem-perature 40℃,pH 5.0. The polyphenols extracted under optimum conditions was 23.54%and the DPPH free radical clearance rate was 30%,which showed excellent antioxidant properties.

  2. The relativity analysis between the main components of congou black tea and its quality%工夫红茶主要内含成分与品质的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌辉; 杜晓; 齐桂年

    2011-01-01

    通过对11种工夫红茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱、氨基酸、茶黄素、茶红素和茶褐素的含量的测定,并作了感官审评,比较了这些对品质影响较大的内含成分含量与品质之间的相关关系。结果表明,工夫红茶的水浸出物含量与工夫红茶香气得分呈极显著正相关,与汤色呈极显著正相关,与总得分呈极显著正相关;茶褐素含量与茶汤色得分呈极显著负相关,与滋味呈显著性负相关,与茶汤总得分呈显著性负相关;茶红素与茶黄素的比值和茶汤汤色得分呈二次曲线关系;氨基酸的含量与茶汤滋味品质有极显著正相关关系,与香气得分呈显著性正相关。%Determined 11 kinds of congou black tea ‘s aqueous extract, tea polyphenols, the coffeine, the amino acid, the theaflavin, the Congo red element and the dark brown element, and has made the feeling view appraisal. Compared with the realations between the main components of congou black tea and its quality. The result indicated that the free time black tea the water oozes the content and the free time black tea fragrance score assumes is extremely remarkable is being related, is extremely remarkable with tea soup color is being related, with always scores points assumes is extremely remarkable is being related. The dark brown element content and the tea soup color score assume the extremely remarkable inverse correlation, assumes the significance inverse correlation with the taste, always scores points with the tea soup assumes the significance inverse correlation. The Congo red element and tea flavine’s ratio and the tea soup color score assumes the conic section relations. The amino acid content and the tea soup taste quality have the extremely remarkable correlational dependence, assumes the significance with the fragrance score to be related.

  3. Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Robin B

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in tea drinking habits and/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin. Moreover, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of citrus peel and black tea in the development of SCC. Results Hot and iced teas were consumed by 30.7% and 51.8% of the subjects, respectively. Peel consumption was reported by 34.5% of subjects. Controls were more likely than were cases to report citrus peel use (odds ratio (OR = 0.67 and hot tea intake (OR = 0.79. After adjustment for hot and iced tea intake, the ORs associated with citrus peel use were 0.55 and 0.69, respectively, whereas the corresponding adjusted ORs for hot and iced tea intake after adjustment for citrus peel use were 0.87 and 1.22 respectively. Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were 0.60 and 0.30, respectively. Subjects who reported consumption of both hot black tea and citrus peel had a significant marked decrease (OR= 0.22; 95% CI = 0.10 – 0.51 risk of skin SCC. Conclusion These results indicate that both citrus peel use and strong (hot black tea have independent potential protective effects in relation to skin SCC.

  4. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  5. Identification of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in green tea polyphenols as a potent inducer of p53-dependent apoptosis in the human lung cancer cell line A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Rieko; Sasaki, Kaori; Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-08-01

    The effects of green tea polyphenols on cultured cancer cells have been well characterized, especially the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), since EGCg suppresses oncogenic signaling pathways and induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis by regulating cell cycle-associated proteins. In the present study, we attempted to identify signaling pathways or target molecules regulated by each of or a mixture of green tea polyphenols, including epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECg), epigallocatechin (EGC), and EGCg, in the human lung cancer cell line A549. ECg, EGC, and a catechin mixture, in addition to EGCg, significantly decreased cell viability. In contrast, caspase 3/7 activity, an apoptosis indicator, was specifically induced by EGCg. By conducting a series of luciferase-based reporter assays, we revealed that the catechin mixture only up-regulates the p53 reporter. EGCg was a more potent inducer of p53-dependent transcription, and this induction was further supported by the induced level of p53 protein. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated p53 knockdown completely abolished EGCg-induced apoptosis. Finally, a proteome and western blot analysis using approximately 70 different antibodies failed to detect up-regulated proteins in catechin mixture-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that EGCg, among several green tea polyphenols, is a potent apoptosis inducer that functions exclusively through a p53-dependent pathway in A549 cells.

  6. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  7. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP.We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, Chemical Abstracts and EMBASE databases through July 2013. For inclusion, studies had to meet the following pre-defined criteria: 1 placebo controlled design in human adults, 2 minimum of 1 week black tea consumption as the sole intervention, 3 reported effects on systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP or both. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled overall effect of black tea on BP.Eleven studies (12 intervention arms, 378 subjects, dose of 4-5 cups of tea met our inclusion criteria. The pooled mean effect of regular tea ingestion was -1.8 mmHg (95% CI: -2.8, -0.7; P = 0.0013 for SBP and -1.3 mmHg (95% CI: -1.8, -0.8; P<0.0001 for DBP. In covariate analyses, we found that the method of tea preparation (tea extract powders versus leaf tea, baseline SBP and DBP, and the quality score of the study affected the effect size of the tea intervention (all P<0.05. No evidence of publication bias could be detected.Our meta-analysis indicates that regular consumption of black tea can reduce BP. Although the effect is small, such effects could be important for cardiovascular health at population level.

  8. Diuretic activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.. This was assessed in rats using high grown Dust grade No: 1 tea, which is consumed widely by the tea drinkers worldwide. Different doses of hot black tea brew (BTB (84, 167, 501 or 1336 mg/ml respectively equivalent to 1.5, 3, 9 and 24 cups were made and orally administered to previously starved (24 h but subsequently hydrated (with 15 ml of isotonic saline rats and their urinary output was monitored cumulatively at hourly intervals for 6h. The reference drug used was frusemide (13 mg/kg. The results showed that BTB induced significant (P < 0.05, mild to moderate and dose- dependent diuresis (starting from 167 mg/ml. This diuretic activity had a fairly rapid onset (within 2 h and relatively short duration of action (3 h. BTB also significantly (P < 0.05 increased the overall urinary frequency. Further, the diuretic activity of BTB was less potent to frusemide (by 45%. Decaffeination of black tea almost completely abolished the diuresis. The diuresis of the BTB was solely due to increased (by 55 % urinary Na + excretion (with no urinary K + loss. Further, the chronic daily administration of the BTB did not develop tolerance or induce toxicity (general, renal and hepatic. It is concluded that BTB made from Sri Lankan high grown Dust grade No :1 tea has safe, mild to moderate diuretic activity with rapid onset and relatively short duration of action. Further, this study supports the claim made by Sri Lankan indigenous physicians that it is a diuretic.

  9. Inhibitory effect of oolong tea polyphenols on glycosyltransferases of mutans Streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, K; Kawabata, S.; Ono, H; Ogura, K.; Tanaka, T.; Ooshima, T; Hamada, S

    1993-01-01

    Oolong tea extract (OTE) was found to inhibit the water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing enzyme, glucosyltransferase I (GTase-I), of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715. The GTase-inhibitory substance in the OTE was purified successive adsorption chromatography on Diaion HP-21 and HP-20 columns; this was followed by further purification by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. A major fraction that inhibited GTase activity (fraction OTF10) was obtained, and the chemical analysis of OTF10 indicated that ...

  10. 绿茶多酚提高壳聚糖包装膜的抗氧化性能%Adding green tea polyphenols enhances antioxidant of chitosan film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勇; 李云飞※; 项凯翔

    2013-01-01

      为了开发新型的抗氧化活性包装材料,该文以壳聚糖/绿茶多酚构成的复合膜为研究对象,比较分析了甘油和聚乙二醇对壳聚糖膜物理、机械、抗氧化和结构特性的影响。结果表明:未加入绿茶多酚前,壳聚糖甘油膜有着较低的水蒸汽透过系数和膨胀程度,其水蒸汽透过系数为8.84×10-11g/(m·s·Pa)。然而,聚乙二醇膜的抗拉强度和穿透力均高于甘油形成的膜。X射线衍射分析(XRD)表明应用质量分数40%的增塑剂导致11.7°和17.9°出现2个结晶峰,分别对应壳聚糖的水合结晶和无水结晶。加入绿茶多酚后,壳聚糖复合膜的抗氧化能力显著提高,1,1-二苯基-2-苦基肼(DPPH)自由基清除能力在5 min内达到83.9%。加入绿茶多酚显著降低了膜溶液的表观黏度,增加了膜的厚度、颜色和阻水性。从2种增塑剂的对比效果看,绿茶多酚对于甘油膜的机械性能影响较大,其断裂伸长率从42.02%急剧下降到9.19%,并且使膜的结晶结构从水合状态转变为非晶状态。但绿茶多酚对聚乙二醇膜的水蒸汽透过系数、膨胀程度和颜色影响较大。壳聚糖复合膜性能的这种差异与增塑剂中所含羟基的数量以及与绿茶多酚的配比有关。研究结果为绿茶多酚复合包装膜在实际中的应用提供了理论依据。%  Green tea polyphenols, which are extracted from tea and contain catechin, flavones, anthocyan, and phenolic acid, have been generally demonstrated to be powerful antioxidants. The development of antioxidant active packaging materials by the incorporation of tea polyphenols into biocompatible polysaccharide film has aroused significant interest. In order to broaden the application of chitosan film and develop environment-friendly composite film with green tea polyphenols, the effects of green tea polyphenols and plasticizer such as glycerol and polyethylene glycol 200 on the

  11. Acute, subchronic and genotoxicity studies conducted with Oligonol, an oligomerized polyphenol formulated from lychee and green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hajime; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Wakame, Koji; Magnuson, Bernadene A; Roberts, Ashley

    2008-12-01

    Oligonol is a phenolic product derived from lychee fruit extract and green tea extract, containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins, produced by a manufacturing process which converts polyphenol polymers into oligomers. The safety of Oligonol was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In a single dose acute study of Oligonol, male and female rats were administered 2000mg/kg body weight (bw) Oligonol in water by gavage. Oligonol caused no adverse effects and body weight gain and food consumption were within normal range, thus the LD(50) of Oligonol was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. A 90 day subchronic study (100, 300 and 1000mg/kgbw/day, oral gavage) in male and female rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, clinical chemistry, haematology, gross pathology and histopathology. Similarly, no adverse effects were observed in mice fed diets providing 2, 20 or 200mg/kgbw Oligonol or 200mg/kgbw lychee polyphenol for 90 days. Oligonol did not show any potential to induce gene mutations in reverse mutation tests using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA strains. Oligonol did not induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells, but it showed increased polyploidy. In a micronucleus assay in mice, Oligonol did not induce any micronuclei or suppress bone marrow, indicating it does not cause chromosome aberrations. The results from these safety studies and previous reports support the safety of Oligonol for human consumption.

  12. Analysis and Evaluation of Polyphenols Quality of High Polyphenols Content Tea Varieties in Guizhou%贵州高茶多酚茶树品种多酚品质分析评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华富; 高秀兵; 刘晓霞; 曹雨; 周顺珍; 周国兰

    2016-01-01

    为了解贵州高茶多酚茶树品种的多酚品质状况,根据现有资料,选取贵州高茶多酚茶树品种进行茶叶主要内含成分分析,并对茶多酚、儿茶素组分进行茶多酚逆转阀值、儿茶素品质指数、苦涩味指数分析.结果表明:‘黔湄419’、‘黔湄502’、‘黔湄701’茶多酚含量全年平均含量分别为25.4%、26.5%、25.8%,而‘福鼎大白茶’仅17.6%,比‘福鼎大白茶’高出6.8%、8.2%、7.2%.高茶多酚茶树品种与普栽种‘福鼎大白茶’多酚含量差异显著.EGCG含量与儿茶素总量虽然与‘福鼎大白茶’未产生显著差异,但含量均高于‘福鼎大白茶’,分别高出24.7%、12.5%、17.8%和33.7%、24.3%、23.1%,说明3个高荼多酚茶树品种具有较好的品种优势.茶多酚逆转阀值均在水浸出物的40%~60%之间,制作绿茶具会有较好的品质表现.儿茶素品质指数为3.98、4.49和6.06.儿茶素苦涩味指数9.41、9.24和10.51.综合儿茶素品质指数、苦涩味指数考虑,‘黔湄502’多酚类品质要优于‘黔湄419’、‘黔湄701’.%In order to know the polyphenols quality of high content tea varieties in Guizhou Province,based on available data,high polyphenols content tea varieties were selected to analyze the main ingredients in tea,as well as their polyphenols reversed quality index,catechins quality index,catechins bitter taste index of polyphenol and catechins.The results showed that the annum average content of polyphenol in ‘Qianmei 419',‘Qianmei 502' and ‘Qianmei 701' were 25.4%,26.5% and 25.8% respectively,which were 6.8%,8.2%,7.2% higher than that of ‘Fudingdabaicha',whose figure was 17.6%,.The polyphenols difference between high polyphenols content varieties and common tea variety ‘Fudingdabaicha' was significant.Although EGCG and total catechins content were not significantly different between high polyphenols content varieties and

  13. Sustained systemic delivery of green tea polyphenols by polymeric implants significantly diminishes benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengxiao; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Spencer, Wendy A; Cai, Jian; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-06-20

    The polyphenolics in green tea are believed to be the bioactive components. However, poor bioavailability following ingestion limits their efficacy in vivo. In this study, polyphenon E (poly E), a standardized green tea extract, was administered by sustained-release polycaprolactone implants (two, 2-cm implants; 20% drug load) grafted subcutaneously or via drinking water (0.8% w/v) to female S/D rats. Animals were treated with continuous low dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) via subcutaneous polymeric implants (2 cm; 10% load) and euthanized after 1 and 4 weeks. Analysis of lung DNA by (32)P-postlabeling resulted in a statistically significant reduction (50%; p = 0.023) of BP-induced DNA adducts in the implant group; however, only a modest (34%) but statistically insignificant reduction occurred in the drinking water group at 1 week. The implant delivery system also showed significant reduction (35%; p = 0.044) of the known BP diolepoxide-derived DNA adduct after 4 weeks. Notably, the total dose of poly E administered was >100-fold lower in the implant group than the drinking water group (15.7 versus 1,632 mg, respectively). Analysis of selected phase I, phase II, and nucleotide excision repair enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels showed no significant modulation by poly E, suggesting that the reduction in the BP-induced DNA adducts occurred presumably due to known scavenging of the antidiolepoxide of BP by the poly E catechins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sustained systemic delivery of poly E significantly reduced BP-induced DNA adducts in spite of its poor bioavailability following oral administration.

  14. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  15. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF.

  16. Effects of tea polyphenol on the color characteristics of pork sausage%茶多酚对香肠发色效果影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文教; 王文睿; 张永奎; 易宇文

    2012-01-01

    为研究茶多酚对香肠发色效果的影响,将0.015%的茶多酚添加至香肠中,对香肠颜色感官评分、发色率、色泽亮度L*、红度a*、黄度b*和香肠亚硝酸钠残留量进行测定,并分析以上参数之间相关性。实验表明,添加0.015%的茶多酚处理样,香肠的颜色感官评分、发色率、色泽亮度L*、红度a*的变化上都优于对照样,且呈现出更少的亚硝酸盐残留量,特别在发酵贮藏末期(35d),较对照样减少亚硝酸盐残留量高达28%。因此可以认为茶多酚对香肠有良好的发色效果。%In order to study the effects of tea polyphenol on the color characteristics of pork sausage during storage,the control and the sausage added with 0.015% tea polyphenol were analyzed weekly for color sensory score,chromogenic rate,Hunter L*,a*,b*,nitrite residue of the sausage.Correlation between those parameters was also analyzed.Results indicated that the color sensory score,chromogenic rate,and Hunter L*,a* of the sausage processed with tea polyphenols were better than those of the control sample.The sausage processed with tea polyphenol showed less residual nitrite.Especially in the late fermentation storage(35d),the reduction of nitrite residues was up to 28% when compared with the control sample.So it could be concluded that tea polyphenol had good effects on the color characteristics of pork sausage during storage.

  17. Polyphenols as cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, G D; Mukhtar, H

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes available data on the chemopreventive efficacies of tea polyphenols, curcumin and ellagic acid in various model systems. Emphasis is placed upon the anticarcinogenic activity of these polyphenols and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. Tea is grown in about 30 countries and, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea is manufactured as either green, black, or oolong; black tea represents approximately 80% of tea products. Epidemiological studies, though inconclusive, suggest a protective effect of tea consumption on human cancer. Experimental studies of the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of tea have been conducted principally with green tea polyphenols (GTPs). GTPs exhibit antimutagenic activity in vitro, and they inhibit carcinogen-induced skin, lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum and colon tumors in rodents. In addition, GTPs inhibit TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in mice. Although several GTPs possess anticarcinogenic activity, the most active is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent in the GTP fraction. Several mechanisms appear to be responsible for the tumor-inhibitory properties of GTPs, including enhancement of antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and quinone reductase) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) enzyme activities; inhibition of chemically induced lipid peroxidation; inhibition of irradiation- and TPA-induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclooxygenase activities; inhibition of protein kinase C and cellular proliferation; antiinflammatory activity; and enhancement of gap junction intercellular communication. Curcumin is the yellow coloring agent in the spice tumeric. It exhibits antimutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella test and has anticarcinogenic activity, inhibiting chemically induced preneoplastic lesions in the breast and colon and neoplastic lesions in the skin, forestomach, duodenum and colon of rodents. In addition

  18. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greyling, A.; Ras, R.T.; Zock, P.L.; Lorenz, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Draijer, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP) have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to co

  19. Oolong, black and pu-erh tea suppresses adiposity in mice via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoko; Wang, Liuqing; Wang, Lihua; Tanaka, Yuki; Zhang, Tianshun; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that tea has a variety of beneficial impacts on human health, including anti-obesity effects. It is well documented that green tea and its constituent catechins suppress obesity, but the effects of other types of tea on obesity and the potential mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the suppression of adiposity by oolong, black and pu-erh tea and characterized the underlying molecular mechanism in vivo. We found that the consumption of oolong, black or pu-erh tea for a period of one week significantly decreased visceral fat without affecting body weight in male ICR mice. On a mechanistic level, the consumption of tea enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in white adipose tissue (WAT). This was accompanied by the induction of WAT protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1. Our results indicate that oolong, black and pu-erh tea, and in particular, black tea, suppresses adiposity via phosphorylation of the key metabolic regulator AMPK and increases browning of WAT.

  20. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Thea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong WANG

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic. Black garlic polyphenol (BGP was extracted from black garlic. The in vitro antioxidant activities of BGP were determined using DPPH·, OH and O2– radical scavenging assays. The in vivo antioxidant activities were determined by detecting the malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in mice. Results showed that, the DPPH· radical inhibition rate of 200 and 250 μg/mL BGP was equivalent with Vc (P > 0.05. With concentration of 400 and 500 μg/mL, the OH radical inhibition rate of BGP was slightly lower than Vc (P > 0.05. The O2– radical inhibition rates of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/mL BGP were significantly lower than Vc (P < 0.05. In the groups treated with BGP with suitable dose, the serum MDA content was significantly decreased compared with model group (P < 0.05, and the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased (P < 0.05. BGP has obvious DPPH· and ·OH radical scavenging activities, and can significantly decrease the serum MDA content in mice with oxidative damage, and increase the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities.

  2. Observational studies of effect of tea polyphenols for blood lipid of rabbit%茶多酚对家兔血脂影响的观察研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱燕祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of tea polyphenols on hyperlipidemia model group of rabbits blood lipids. Methods 80 rabbits in experimental animal center were divided into four groups by using a random number table future self correction, namely the blank control group, model group, high blood lipid of 0.4% tea polyphenol treatment in treatment group and 0.8% tea polyphenol treatment group, with 20 rats in each group, respectively given basal diet, high fat diet, high fat diet + 0.4% tea polyphenols and high fat diet + 0.8% tea polyphenols, four groups of rabbits body weight, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein were compared. Results After the experiment hyperlipidemia model group, 0.4% tea polyphenol group and 0.8% tea polyphenol group rabbit serum triglyceride, weight, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol cholesterol levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05); Compared with those before experiment, after experimental hyperlipidemia model group, 0.4% groups and 0.8% tea polyphenols of tea polyphenols in body weight, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased significantly (all P < 0.05); while the 0.4% group and 0.8% of tea polyphenols TP group body weight, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein protein levels were significantly better than the hyperlipidemia model group, the difference between groups was significant ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Tea polyphenol can effectively reduce hyperlipidemia model group the level of blood lipid of rabbits, with certain lipid metabolism regulation.%目的 探讨茶多酚对于高脂血症模型组家兔血脂的影响.方法 采用随机数字表法将来自广东省食品药品职业技术学校实验动物中心80只家兔分为四组,即空白对

  3. Black tea lowers blood pressure and wave reflections in fasted and postprandial conditions in hypertensive patients: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Draijer, Richard; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mulder, Theo; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-02-04

    Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP) and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids) or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period). Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (ptea consumption (pBlack tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (-3.2 mmHg, pBlack tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  4. 树脂法绿色制备茶多酚研究%Preparation of the Tea Polyphenols by Resin Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建勇; 江用文; 江和源; 王岩; 王伟伟; 龙丹

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the utilization rate of resources in cheap tea, and to solve the prolem of using chloroform, ethyl acetate and other toxic organic solvent in tea polyphenols production process, which is easy to cause environmental pollution. With cheap tea as the raw material, adopting the safe edible ethanol and water solvent, the effect of static adsorption and de-sorption on tea polyphenols, catechins, and caffeine by BYX, HPD200A, HZ103, HZ841, NKA-9, PA, ADS17, XDA5, XDA7, NPS1, NPS2, HP20 resin. The BYX macro porous resin was screened from the twelve kinds of resins. The BYX macro porous resin was then applied for dynamic elution of tea polyphenols. The result showed that in the condition of 1400 mL BYX resin column, 37.5 g samples, 2 BV/h flowing velocity, 80% ethanol, 3 BV elution volume, the purity and yield of tea polyphenols could respectively reach to 98.36% and 19.56%, and the content of catechins and EGCG could respectively reach to 80.82%and 46.52%, however the content of caffeine was only 0.96%. The green preparation method of tea polyphenols was wieldy, safety and health. Any toxic organic solvents and harm pollutants were not used in all process, such as ethyl acetate, chloroform. It may provide one new way to green manufacturing producing high quality tea polyphenols.%为了提高中低档茶叶资源利用率,解决目前茶多酚生产工艺使用较多氯仿、乙酸乙酯等有毒有机溶剂、易造成环境污染等问题,以中低档茶叶为原料,采用食用级乙醇和水2种易得、安全的溶剂,比较BYX、HPD200A、HZ103、HZ841、NKA-9、PA、ADS17、XDA5、XDA7、NPS1、NPS2、HP20等12种树脂对茶多酚、咖啡碱、儿茶素的静态吸附和解吸附效果,筛选出较好的绿色制备树脂BYX,并应用BYX树脂对茶多酚进行动态洗脱研究.结果表明,以2 BV/h流速、80%乙醇体积分数、3BV洗脱体积的BYX树脂洗脱工艺参数进行茶多酚分离制备,茶多酚

  5. Protective effect of tea polyphenols against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice is significanly correlated with cytochrome P450 suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Chen; Chang-Kai Sun; Guo-Zhu Han; Jin-Yong Peng; Ying Li; Yan-Xia Liu; Yuan-Yuan Lv; Ke-Xin Liu; Qin Zhou; Hui-Jun Sun

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of tea polyphenols (TP) and its relation with cytochrome P450 (CYP450) expression in mice. METHODS: Hepatic CYP450 and CYPb5 levels were measured by UV-spectrophotometry in mice 2 d after intraperitoneal TP (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day). Then the mice were intragastricly pre-treated with TP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg per day) for six days before paracetamol (1000 mg/kg) was given. Their acute mortality was compared with that of control mice. The mice were pre-treated with TP (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg per day) for five days before paracetamol (500 mg/kg) was given. Hepatic CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 protein and mRNA expression levels were evaluated by Western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The hepatic CYP450 and CYPb5 levels in mice of TP-treated groups (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg per day) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with those in the negative control mice. TP significantly attenuated the paracetamol-induced hepatic injury and dramatically reduced the mortality of paracetamol-treated mice. Furthermore, TP reduced CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: TP possess potential hepatoprotective properties and can suppress CYP450 expression.

  6. Green tea polyphenols added to IVM and IVC media affect transcript abundance, apoptosis, and pregnancy rates in bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengguang; Fu, Chunquan; Yu, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) during IVM and IVC on apoptosis and relative transcript abundance (RA) of three genes controlling antioxidant enzymes, as well as subsequent pregnancy rates. In experiment 1, oocytes were matured in the presence of 0, 10, 15, or 25 μM GTP for 24 hours. The GTP dose applied to IVM medium was followed by the same dose supplemented to IVC medium, so oocytes and embryos of a given group were cultured in similar conditions. This resulted in a total of four groups (three experimental groups and the control). After IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in medium containing 0 to 25 μM GTP for 8 days. The addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC increased RA of SOD1, CAT, and GPX genes in blastocysts compared with the control (P decreased the apoptotic index (AI) in blastocysts (7.4% and 6.2% respectively) compared with the control (9.3%; P pregnancy rate was evaluated after embryo transfer in experiment 3. Cows receiving embryos treated with 15 μM GTP had higher pregnancy rates on Day 30 (34.8% vs. 28.6%) and Day 60 (34.8% vs. 23.9%) than those receiving control embryos (P pregnancy rates; this improvement seemed to be associated with the increase of RA of antioxidant enzyme genes and the decrease in AI in bovine blastocysts.

  7. Protective Effect of Tea Polyphenol Ophthalmic Gel on Lens Epithelial Cells in Rabbits with Silicone Oil Tamponade after Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols (TP ophthalmic gel on lens epithelial cells (LECs in rabbits with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy. Methods. In this study, unilateral vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade was performed using 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbits (n = 72; meanwhile, age-matched nonoperated rabbits (n = 18 were used as controls. The TP ophthalmic gel was administered topically in the surgical eyes till they were sacrificed. On days 45 and 90 after operation, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, and apoptosis of LECs were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were also determined. Results. The results indicate that the levels of ROS and apoptosis were elevated for LECs in rabbits after operation, whereas ΔΨm was decreased. Caspase-3 was apparently increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of TP ophthalmic gel could reduce the generation of ROS, maintain ΔΨm, inhibit the overexpression of caspase-3, and thus decrease the apoptosis of LECs of rabbits after operation. Conclusions. TP ophthalmic gel can efficiently inhibit caspase-3 overexpression, reduce the apoptosis of LECs, and prevent LECs from damage. Our result provides a new approach to prevent the development of complicated cataract after vitrectomy.

  8. Epigenetic induction of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 by green tea polyphenols in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Gauri; Thakur, Vijay S; Limaye, Anil M; Gupta, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Aberrant epigenetic silencing of the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) gene that negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that green tea polyphenols (GTP) and its major constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) mediate epigenetic induction of TIMP-3 levels and play a key role in suppressing invasiveness and gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with 20 µM EGCG and 10 µg/mL GTP for 72 h significantly induces TIMP-3 mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, investigations into the molecular mechanism revealed that TIMP-3 repression in breast cancer cells is mediated by epigenetic silencing mechanism(s) involving increased activity of the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), independent of promoter DNA hypermethylation. Treatment of breast cancer cells with GTP and EGCG significantly reduced EZH2 and class I HDAC protein levels. Furthermore, transcriptional activation of TIMP-3 was found to be associated with decreased EZH2 localization and H3K27 trimethylation enrichment at the TIMP-3 promoter with a concomitant increase in histone H3K9/18 acetylation. Our findings highlight TIMP-3 induction as a key epigenetic event modulated by GTPs in restoring the MMP:TIMP balance to delay breast cancer progression and invasion.

  9. Green tea polyphenol EGCG reverse cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cell line through candidate genes demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youwei; Wang, Xiang; Han, Liang; Zhou, Yizhou; Sun, Sanyuan

    2015-02-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been extensively studied as a potential demethylating agent. Our hypothesis is that EGCG could resensitize non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin (DDP) through candidate genes demethylation. The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. MTT, colony formation assay, flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining, real time-PCR, quantitative methylation-specific PCR and in vivo experiments were performed in this study. EGCG+DDP treatment significantly caused proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, increase of apoptosis in A549/DDP cells, along with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, reversal of hypermethylated status and downregulated expression of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 gene in A549/DDP cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with EGCG followed by DDP caused significant tumor inhibition in vivo. Methylation levels of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 were decreased and their expression levels were increased in EGCG-treatment groups, but only combinatorial treatment group caused growth inhibition. In conclusion, we identified EGCG pretreatment resensitized cells to DDP, along with the demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes.

  10. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  11. Efficacy of Black Tea as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent for MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP

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    Amir Hossein Jalali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Evaluation of the use of black tea as negative oral contrast agent in MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP."nPatients and Methods: Thirty-five patients (mean age, 50.3±19.2 years, who were referred for MRCP, entered in this study. MRCP was performed before, after 5 minutes and after 15 minutes following consumption of 300 ml of black tea. Depiction of the gall bladder, cystic duct, proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD, intra hepatic ducts, ampula of Vater, main pancreatic duct (MPD and signal loss of the stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Lickert scores."nResults: Regarding visibility of seven different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree (gall bladder, cystic duct, CBD, common hepatic duct, intrahepatic duct, ampula of Vater and MPD, the post procedure images were better visualized only in the distal part of CBD, ampula of vater and MPD both in Lickert and VAS scoring (all Ps≤0.001."nThere was no significant difference between the images 5 and 15 minutes after tea consumption. Regarding the obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post tea images of the mentioned parts showed significant disappearance of high signal in Lickert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps≤0.001. "nConclusion: Black tea is an affordable, cheap, available, safe, and efficient oral negative contrast agent for MRCP which reduces the signal intensity of fluids in the gastrointestinal tract and is also efficient for better depiction of MPD, distal part of CBD and ampula.

  12. Antioxidants from black and green tea: from dietary modulation of oxidative stress to pharmacological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Serafini, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    The consumption of tea (Camellia sinensis) has been correlated with a low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, in which oxidative stress plays a critical role. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of green tea (GT) and black tea (BT). In addition to their redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as the ability to lower glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA) levels. These activities are mediated by pharmacological mechanisms such as enzymatic inhibition and interaction with transporters. Epigallocatechin gallate is the most active compound at inhibiting the enzymes involved in cholesterol and UA metabolism (hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and xanthine oxidase respectively) and affecting glucose transporters. The structural features of catechins that significantly contribute to their pharmacological effect are the presence/absence of the galloyl moiety and the number and positions of the hydroxyl groups on the rings. Although the inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, maltase, amylase and lipase, multidrug resistance 1, organic anion transporters and proton-coupled folate transport occur at higher concentrations than those apparent in the circulation, these effects could be relevant in the gut. In conclusion, despite the urgent need for further research in humans, the regular consumption of moderate quantities of GT and BT can effectively modulate their antioxidant capacity, mainly in people subjected to oxidative stress, and could improve the metabolism of glucose, lipid and UA.

  13. 茉莉酸甲酯诱导茶鲜叶制成的红茶中香气成分变化%Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang SHI; Li WANG; Cheng-ying MA; Hai-peng LV; Zong-mao CHEN; Zhi LIN

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of poly-phenol oxidase andβ-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time po-lymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase andβ-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P  创新要点:首次将茉莉酸甲酯应用于诱导茶叶香气品质提高,初步验证了茶叶香气品质提高的本质原因:相关酶活性提高,基因表达上调。  研究方法:采用顶空固相微萃取法(HS-SPME)对红茶香气进行富集,气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)进行解吸附分析,实时定量多聚酶链式反应(qRT-PCR)分析茶鲜叶中香气相关酶基因表达。  重要结论:茉莉酸甲酯诱导后的茶鲜叶中多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性上升,β-葡萄糖苷酶活性下降;PPO和β-樱草糖苷酶基因表达上调,β-葡萄糖苷酶基因表达下调。茉莉酸甲酯诱导后的茶鲜叶能明显提高由其制成的红茶香气品质,且萜烯醇类和萜烯类含量明显提高。

  14. Polyphenols and Sunburn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods such as green tea, chocolate, grape seeds, and wine. Polyphenols have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Growing evidence suggests that polyphenols may be used for the prevention of sunburns as polyphenols decrease the damaging effects of ultraviolet A (UVA and ultraviolet B (UVB radiation on the skin. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested polyphenols in prevention of sunburns. The PubMed database was searched for studies that examined polyphenols and its effects on sunburns. Of the 27 studies found, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted on human subjects and eight on animals (mice and rats. Eleven studies evaluated the effects of topical polyphenols, two studies examined ingested polyphenols, and two studies examined both topical and ingested polyphenols. Polyphenol sources included the following plant origins: green tea, white tea, cocoa, Romanian propolis (RP, Calluna vulgaris (Cv, grape seeds, honeybush, and Lepidium meyenii (maca. Eight studies examined green tea. Overall, based on the studies, there is evidence that polyphenols in both oral and topical form may provide protection from UV damage and sunburn, and thus are beneficial to skin health. However, current studies are limited and further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential side effects of various forms and concentrations of polyphenols.

  15. Polyphenols and Sunburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Suzana; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods such as green tea, chocolate, grape seeds, and wine. Polyphenols have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Growing evidence suggests that polyphenols may be used for the prevention of sunburns as polyphenols decrease the damaging effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the skin. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested polyphenols in prevention of sunburns. The PubMed database was searched for studies that examined polyphenols and its effects on sunburns. Of the 27 studies found, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted on human subjects and eight on animals (mice and rats). Eleven studies evaluated the effects of topical polyphenols, two studies examined ingested polyphenols, and two studies examined both topical and ingested polyphenols. Polyphenol sources included the following plant origins: green tea, white tea, cocoa, Romanian propolis (RP), Calluna vulgaris (Cv), grape seeds, honeybush, and Lepidium meyenii (maca). Eight studies examined green tea. Overall, based on the studies, there is evidence that polyphenols in both oral and topical form may provide protection from UV damage and sunburn, and thus are beneficial to skin health. However, current studies are limited and further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential side effects of various forms and concentrations of polyphenols. PMID:27618035

  16. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  17. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  18. Mobilization of Nuclear Copper by Green Tea Polyphenol Epicatechin-3-Gallate and Subsequent Prooxidant Breakage of Cellular DNA: Implications for Cancer Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological as well as experimental evidence exists in support of chemopreventive and anticancer properties of green tea and its constituents. The gallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate is a major polyphenol present in green tea, shown responsible for these effects. Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds are established natural antioxidants which are capable of catalyzing oxidative DNA degradation of cellular DNA, alone as well as in the presence of transition metal ions, such as copper. Here we present evidence to support that, similar to various other polyphenoic compounds, epicatechin-3-gallate also causes oxidative degradation of cellular DNA. Single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (Comet assay was used to assess DNA breakage in lymphocytes that were exposed to various concentrations of epicatechin-3-gallate. Inhibition of DNA breakage in the presence of scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS suggested involvement of ROS generation. Addition of neocuproine (a cell membrane permeable Cu(I chelator inhibited DNA degradation, dose-dependently, in intact lymphocytes. In contrast, bathocuproine, which does not permeate cell membrane, was observed to be ineffective. We further show that epicatechin-3-gallate degrades DNA in cell nuclei, which can also be inhibited by neocuproine, suggesting mobilization of nuclear copper in this reaction as well. Our results are indicative of ROS generation, possibly through mobilization of endogenous copper ions, and support our long-standing hypothesis of a prooxidant activity of plant-derived polyphenols as a mechanism for their documented anticancer properties.

  19. 绿茶多酚提取纯化工艺及药理作用%Extraction and purification technologies of green tea polyphenols and its pharmacological actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思佳; 黄璐; 牟峰

    2013-01-01

    绿茶多酚是绿茶的主要有效成分,多年研究发现绿茶多酚具有抗氧化、抗癌、抗肥胖、抗紫外线、抗龋齿等药理作用,且对神经退行性疾病和心血管系统疾病有一定的防治作用.本文对绿茶多酚近年来的提取纯化工艺及药理作用进行阐述,为绿茶的进一步开发提供参考.%Green tea polyphenols,which are major chemical constituents from green tea,have great pharmacological actions,such as antioxidant,anticancer,anti-obesity,anti-UV,against dental caries,improving cardiovascular function and neurodegenerative diseases.This review focused on the advances on extraction,purification technologies and pharmacological actions of green tea polyphenols in recent years.

  20. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunjian Zhao; Chunying Li; Shuaihua Liu; Lei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging test. Total polyphen...

  1. Discrimination of Chinese teas with different fermentation degrees by stepwise linear discriminant analysis (S-LDA) of the chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quan-Jin; Dong, Qing-Hua; Sun, Wei-Jiang; Huang, Yan; Wang, Qiong-Qiong; Zhou, Wei-Long

    2014-09-24

    This study aimed to construct objective and accurate analytical models of tea categories based on their polyphenols and caffeine. A total of 522 tea samples of 4 commonly consumed teas with different fermentation degrees (green tea, white tea, oolong tea, and black tea) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with spectrophotometry, utilizing ISO 14502, as analytical tools. The content of polyphenols and caffeine varied significantly according to differently fermented teas, indicating that these active constituents may discriminate fermentation degrees effectively. By principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (S-LDA), the vast majority of tea samples could be successfully differentiated according to their chemical markers. This study yielded three discriminant functions with the capacity to simultaneously discriminate the four tea categories with a 97.8% correct rate. In classification of oolong and other teas, there were one discriminant function and two equations with best discriminant capacity. Furthermore, the classification of different degrees of fermentation of oolong and external validation achieved the desired results. It is suggested that polyphenols and caffeine are the distinct variables to establish internationally recognized models of teas.

  2. The Latest Advance in the Research of Black Tea in China%我国红茶最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 龚淑英; 李淦成; 张俊; 解静

    2012-01-01

    Quality formation of black tea is closely related to tea varieties,the ecological environment in tea garden and tea processing technology.The latest research progress of domestic black tea is elaborated and the black tea development is also prospected,which could provide theoretical basis for production of black tea.%红茶品质的形成与茶树品种原料、茶园生态环境和茶叶加工工艺等紧密相关。本文阐述了国内红茶最新研究进展,并对红茶发展前景进行了展望,为红茶生产提供理论依据。

  3. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Although the inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of diabetes has been reported numerous times, the role of caffeine intake in this association has remained unclear. We evaluated the consumption of coffee and other beverages and food containing caffeine in relation to the incidence of diabetes. The study participants were 5897 men and 7643 women in a community-based cohort in Takayama, Japan. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea and chocolate snacks were measured with a semi-quantitative FFQ in 1992. At the follow-up survey in 2002, the development of diabetes and the time of diagnosis were reported. To assess the association, age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, education in years, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, fat intake and women's menopausal status were adjusted. Among men who consumed one cup per month to six cups per week and among those who consumed one cup per d or more, the associated hazard ratios were 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.97) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.98) compared with those who drank little to no coffee, with a P value for trend of 0.32. The hazard ratios for women with the same coffee consumption patterns were 1.08 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.60) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.44, 1.12), with a P value for trend of 0.03. The association between estimated total caffeine intake and risk of diabetes was insignificant both among men and among women. The results imply that coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake.

  4. A Literature Review of Some Deseases Can Cured With Tea Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Anggraini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis very rich in flavonoids and one of the important plant in the world. The six major flavan-3-ols occurring in tea are catechin (C, gallocatechin (GC, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, epicatechin-3-gallate (EGG, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Theaflavins and thearubigins are a group of polyphenol pigments formed during the fermentation of black tea This paper identified the deaseas can cured with the tea properties by literature reviewed. Besides the tea component itself, cancer can prevent with synergyc with capsicum. At a ratio of 25 parts green tea concentrate to 1 part Capsicum preparation, the resultant product exhibited efficacy in the killing of cancer cells in culture 100-times that of green tea on a weight basis. The tea property/polyphenols can use for cancer such as pancreatic cancer, tumor, immortalized keratinocytes and skin cancer cell lines, breast cancer, breaks in bone marrow cells of leukaemic, reduce skin tumor cell, anti-inflammatory, prevent influenza infection in children. Tea pyphenols in black tea nor green tea can reduce human cancer cells, tumor, breast cancer, anti-inflammatory, leukemia and to prevent influenza. EGCG to treat pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, reduce skin tumor cell and keratinocytes. EC for anticancer therapy against acute myeloid leukemia and TF, TR for treating human skin cancer cells.

  5. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) induced intermolecular cross-linking of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xian-Qing; Ren, Jing; Zeng, Cheng-Ming

    2011-03-15

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that EGCG possesses prooxidant potential in biological systems, including modifying proteins, breaking DNA strands and inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the prooxidant effect of EGCG on erythrocyte membranes was investigated. SDS-PAGE and NBT-staining assay were utilized to detect the catechol-protein adducts that generated upon treating the membranes with EGCG. The results indicated that EGCG was able to bind covalently to sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins, leading to the formation of protein aggregates with intermolecular cross-linking. We suggested that the catechol-quinone originated from the oxidation of EGCG acted as a cross-linker on which peptide chains were combined through thiol-S-alkylation at the C2- and C6-sites of the gallyl ring. EGC showed similar effects as EGCG on the ghost membranes, whereas ECG and EC did not, suggesting that a structure with a gallyl moiety is a prerequisite for a catechin to induce the aggregation of membrane proteins and to deplete membrane sulfhydryls. EDTA and ascorbic acid inhibited the EGCG-induced aggregation of membrane proteins by blocking the formation of catechol-quinone. The information of the present study may provide a fresh insight into the prooxidant effect and cytotoxicity of tea catechins.

  6. Effect of theanine and polyphenols enriched fractions from decaffeinated tea dust on the formation of Maillard reaction products and sensory attributes of breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culetu, Alina; Fernandez-Gomez, Beatriz; Ullate, Monica; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2016-04-15

    The antiglycoxidative properties of theanine (TEF) and polyphenols enriched fractions (PEF) prepared from tea dust were tested in a model system composed of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and methylglyoxal (MGO). PEF caused a decrease in available free amino groups of BSA in presence and absence of MGO, suggesting the simultaneous occurrence of glycoxidation reaction and phenols-protein interaction. The presence of PEF and TEF inhibited formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Moreover, theanine (TB) and polyphenol-enriched bread (PB) were formulated. A significant increase in free amino groups was observed in TBs with a dose-response effect, while addition of PEF in bread produced a significant decrease (pfood ingredient allows obtaining a tasty food possessing health promoting properties and lower content of potential harmful compounds (AGEs).

  7. Correlation between catechin content and NF-κB inhibition by infusions of green and black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dos Santos, Ariana; Uberti, Francesca; Moro, Enzo; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates whether infusions of green and black tea inhibit the NF-κB driven transcription in human epithelial gastric AGS cells. Water extracts were prepared from different brands of green and black tea available on the Italian market. Teas with or without caffeine were studied. An industrially prepared freeze-dried water extract of green tea was also tested. Catechin and caffeine contents were measured by HPLC analysis. The decrease in phenol and catechin content three months after the expiry date was also investigated. The NF-κB driven transcription and the free radical scavenger activity were inhibited, and this effect was related to catechin levels. The potency of epigallocatechin 3-gallate in inhibiting NF-κB driven transcription is so great that tea extracts low in epigallocatechin 3-gallate are still highly active. In one decaffeinated sample of green tea, the phenol and catechin content was very low, probably as a consequence of caffeine removal. The decrease in catechin levels after 3 months did not reduce the inhibition of NF-κB driven transcription by tea infusions. This is the first paper reporting the inhibitory effect of NF-κB of commercial green and black infusions at the gastric level, evaluating their stability as well.

  8. Synergistic effect of black tea and curcumin in improving the hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A; Mona, Mohamed H; Shati, Ali A; El-Mekkawy, Haitham I

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found as a contaminant in human food. It is carcinogenic due its potential in inducing the oxidative stress and distortion of the most antioxidant enzymes. Since black tea possesses strong antioxidant activity, it protects cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Curcumin (CMN), a naturally occurring agent, has a combination of biological and pharmacological properties that include antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the possible role of separate and mixed supplementation of black tea extract and CMN in the hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 in rats. A total of 48: adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups with six rats in each group. Group 1 (normal control) includes rats that received no treatment. Groups 2, 3, and 4 (positive control) include rats that received olive oil, black tea extract, and CMN, respectively. Group 5 includes rats that received AFB1 at a dose of 750 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) dissolved in olive oil. Groups 6, 7, and 8 include rats that received AFB1 along with 2% black tea extract, CMN at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., and both black tea extract and CMN at the same previous doses, respectively. After 90 days, biochemical and histopathological examination was carried out for the blood samples and liver tissues. A significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes and a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide in the rats treated with AFB1 were observed. Moreover, there were dramatic changes in the liver function biomarkers, lipid profile, and liver architecture. Supplementation of black tea extract or CMN showed an efficient role in repairing the distortion of the biochemical and histological changes induced by AFB1 in liver. This improvement was more pronounced when both CMN and black tea were used together.

  9. Increased chemopreventive effect by combining arctigenin, green tea polyphenol and curcumin in prostate and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Wang, Bin; Chung, Seyung; Wu, Yanyuan; Henning, Susanne M; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2014-08-05

    The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2-4 mg/L (about 5-10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins, decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer.

  10. Limitations of MTT and MTS-based assays for measurement of antiproliferative activity of green tea polyphenols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemopreventive effect of green tea polyphenols, such as (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, has been well demonstrated in cell culture studies. However, a wide range of IC(50 concentrations has been observed in published studies of the anti-proliferative activity of EGCG from different laboratories. Although the susceptibility to EGCG treatment is largely dependent on cancer cell type, the particular cell viability and proliferation assays utilized may significantly influence quantitative results reported in the literature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared five widely used methods to measure cell proliferation and viability after EGCG treatment using LNCaP prostate cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both methods using dyes to quantify adenosine triphosphate (ATP and deoxynucleic acid (DNA showed accuracy in the measurement of viable cells when compared to trypan blue assay and results showed good linear correlation (r = 0.95. However, the use of MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium as indicators of metabolically active mitochondria overestimated the number of viable cells by comparison with the ATP, DNA, or trypan blue determinations. As a result, the observed IC(50 concentration of EGCG was 2-fold higher using MTT and MTS compared to dyes quantifying ATP and DNA. In contrast, when cells were treated with apigenin MTT and MTS assays showed consistent results with ATP, DNA, or trypan blue assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that MTT and MTS -based assays will provide an underestimation of the anti-proliferative effect of EGCG, and suggest the importance of careful evaluation of the method for in vitro assessment of cell viability and proliferation depending on the chemical nature of botanical supplements.

  11. Effects of green tea polyphenols, insulin-like growth factor I and glucose on developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguang Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and glucose on oocyte in vitro maturation, subsequent embryo development and blastocyst quality in bovine. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC were aspirated from the ovaries and cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid supplemented with MEM amino acids (SOFaa media supplemented with one of the following supplements: GTP (0, 10, 15 and 20 µM, IGF-I (0, 50, 100 and 150 ng/mL or glucose (0, 1.5, 5.6 and 20 mM for 24 h. The results showed that oocytes cultured in media supplemented with 15 µM GTP, 100 ng/mL IGF-I and 5.6 mM glucose, in separate experiments, have higher cleavage and blastocyst rates compared with oocytes cultured in media without or with other concentration of GTP, IGF-I and glucose. Then these three substances with the concentration above were added together into SOFaa media and constituted a modified medium (Modified SOFaa. The COC were cultured in control SOFaa media and modified SOFaa media, respectively. The results showed that modified SOFaa media increased the intracellular glutathione concentration of matured oocytes, blastocyst rates and total cell numbers and cell numbers of inner cell mass per blastocyst compared with the control. Supplementing of GTP, IGF-I and glucose synchronously to maturation media can increase the intracellular GSH concentration of oocytes after in vitro maturation, and improve the embryo development and blastocyst quality in bovine.

  12. Mitigation of oxidative damage by green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi exercise in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease predominantly in postmenopausal women. Green tea polyphenols (GTP and Tai Chi (TC have been shown to be beneficial on human bone health. This study examined the efficacy of GTP and TC on mitigation of oxidative damage in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. METHODS: A 6-month randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 171 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, who were recruited from Lubbock County, Texas. These participants were treated with placebo, GTP (500 mg daily, placebo + TC (60-minute group exercise, 3 times/week, or GTP (500 mg daily + TC (60-minute group exercise, 3 times/week, respectively. Their blood and urine samples were collected at the baseline, 1-, 3- and 6-months during intervention for assessing levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, an oxidative DNA damage biomarker, and concentrations of serum and urine GTP components. RESULTS: The elevated concentrations of serum and urinary GTP components demonstrated a good adherence for the trial. A significant reduction of urinary 8-OHdG concentrations was found in all three treated groups during 3-month (P<0.001 and 6-month (P<0.001 intervention, as compared to the placebo group. The significant time- and dose-effects on mitigation of the oxidative damage biomarker were also found for GTP, TC, and GTP+TC intervened groups. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that GTP and TC interventions were effective strategies of reducing the levels of oxidative stress, a putative mechanism for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and more importantly, working in an additive manner, which holds the potential as alternative tools to improve bone health in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00625391.

  13. Green tea polyphenol stimulates cancer preventive effects of celecoxib in human lung cancer cells by upregulation of GADD153 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Masami; Kurusu, Miki; Suzuki, Kaori; Tasaki, Emi; Fujiki, Hirota

    2006-07-01

    To more clearly understand the molecular mechanisms involved in synergistic enhancement of cancer preventive activity with the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), we examined the effects of cotreatment with EGCG plus celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor. We specifically looked for induction of apoptosis and expression of apoptosis related genes, with emphasis on growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 153 (GADD153) gene, in human lung cancer cell line PC-9: Cotreatment with EGCG plus celecoxib strongly induced the expression of both GADD153 mRNA level and protein in PC-9 cells, while neither EGCG nor celecoxib alone did. However, cotreatment did not induce expression of other apoptosis related genes, p21(WAF1) and GADD45. Judging by upregulation of GADD153, only cotreatment with EGCG plus celecoxib synergistically induced apoptosis of PC-9 cells. Synergistic effects with the combination were also observed in 2 other lung cancer cell lines, A549 and ChaGo K-1. Furthermore, EGCG did not enhance GADD153 gene expression or apoptosis induction in PC-9 cells in combination with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide or with aspirin. Thus, upregulation of GADD153 is closely correlated with synergistic enhancement of apoptosis with EGCG. Cotreatment also activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK: Preteatment with PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) and UO126 (selective MEK inhibitor) abrogated both upregulation of GADD153 and synergistic induction of apoptosis of PC-9 cells, while SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) did not do so, indicating that GADD153 expression was mediated through the ERK signaling pathway. These findings indicate that high upregulation of GADD153 is a key requirement for cancer prevention in combination with EGCG.

  14. Arsenic-induced micronuclei formation in mammalian cells and its counteraction by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dona; Roy, Madhumita; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Bhattacharya, Rathin K

    2005-01-01

    The Gangetic plain of West Bengal, India, has been engulfed by a disastrous environmental calamity of arsenic contamination of the ground water. Chronic arsenic toxicity caused by drinking arsenic-contaminated water has been one of the worst health hazards gradually affecting nine districts of West Bengal since the early 1980s. Over and above hyperpigmentation and keratosis,weakness, burning sensation of the eyes, swelling of the legs, liver fibrosis, chronic lung disease, gangrene of the toes, neuropathy, and skin cancer are other manifestations. Induction of cancer is frequently associated with DNA damage, changes in ploidy of cells, and non-random chromosome aberrations. Counteraction of these genotoxic and cytogenetic abnormalities with natural dietary polyphenols could be a useful strategy to combat arsenic-induced DNA damage and thereby cancer. A review of the literature showed that it is the antioxidant property of tea polyphenols that affords protection against various types of cancer. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the extracts of green tea and black tea (Darjeeling and Assam) as well as their polyphenols could ameliorate this arsenic-induced genotoxicity. The normal mammalian cell culture derived from male Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) was used as the test system to assess the genotoxicity by micronucleus assay. The results showed that both green tea and black tea extracts have equal potential in modulating the arsenic-induced genotoxicity. This effect was perhaps induced by the constituent polyphenols present in green and black tea. In addition, the repair activity of the damaged cells was enhanced when treated with these tea extracts and their polyphenols. Thus, tea and its polyphenols may have a promising role in counteracting the devastating effects of arsenic.

  15. Folin-Ciocalteu 比色法测定甜茶总多酚含量%Determination of Total Polyphenol in Sweet Tea with Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔紫姣; 张彩云; 刘彬彬; 卫钢; 廖莉玲

    2014-01-01

    为寻找操作简单、分析准确度高、速度快的甜茶多酚的分析方法,以没食子酸为对照品,对测定甜茶中总多酚含量的检测波长、碳酸钠溶液用量、Folin-Ciocalteu 试剂用量、反应温度及时间对吸光值的影响进行了研究。结果表明:Folin-Ciocalteu 比色法测定甜茶总多酚的最佳反应条件为 FC 试剂2 mL,15%碳酸钠溶液7.5 mL,在30℃下反应60 min,该条件下的平均回收率为100.23%(RSD=0.45%)。该方法精确度较高,准确性好,可用于甜茶中总多酚含量的测定。%To set up an assay method for the determination of total polyphenol in sweet tea,the determination conditions of total polyphenol content in sweet tea including the detection wavelength,the amount of sodium carbonate solution,Folin-Ciocalteu reagent,reaction temperature and time were studied and gallic acid was used as a standard.The results indicated that the optimum conditions for determining total polyphenol in sweet tea were as follows:2 mL FC reagent,7.5 mL 15% sodium carbonate solution, treating at 30℃ for 60 min,the average recovery was 100.23%(RSD= 0.45%).This method was simple and quick,the result was accurate,repeatable and stable.It can be used for the determination of total polyphenol content in sweet tea.

  16. Identification of antimutagenic properties of anthocyanins and other polyphenols from rose (Rosa centifolia) petals and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-06-01

    Petals from different rose (Rosa centifolia) cultivars ("passion," "pink noblesse," and "sphinx") were assessed for antimutagenicity using Escherichia coli RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based Rif (S) →Rif (R) (rifampicin sensitive to resistant) forward mutation assay against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutagenesis. The aqueous extracts of rose petals from different cultivars exhibited a wide variation in their antimutagenicity. Among these, cv. "passion" was found to display maximum antimutagenicity. Upon further fractionation, the anthocyanin extract of cv. "passion" displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than its phenolic extract. During thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, the anthocyanin extract got resolved into 3 spots: yellow (Rf : 0.14), blue (Rf : 0.30), and pink (Rf : 0.49). Among these spots, the blue one displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than the other 2. Upon high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, this blue spot further got resolved into 2 peaks (Rt : 2.7 and 3.8 min). The 2nd peak (Rt : 3.8 min) displaying high antimutagenicity was identified by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis as peonidin 3-glucoside, whereas less antimutagenic peak 1 (Rt : 2.7) was identified as cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. The other TLC bands were also characterized by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis. The least antimutagenic pink band (Rf : 0.49) was identified as malvidin 3-acetylglucoside-4-vinylcatechol, whereas non-antimutagenic yellow band (Rf : 0.14) was identified as luteolinidin anthocyanin derivative. Interestingly, the anthocyanin extracted from rose tea of cv. "passion" exhibited a similar antimutagenicity as that of the raw rose petal indicating the thermal stability of the contributing bioactive(s). The findings thus indicated the health protective property of differently colored rose cultivars and the nature of their active bioingredients.

  17. Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yu-Jing; Li, Duo

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies regarding the associations of tea and coffee consumption with esophageal cancer (EC) risk are still inconsistent and this meta-analysis was conducted to examine these associations. PubMed, ISI -Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese VIP database up to October 2011 were searched and manual search for reference lists of relevant studies were conducted. Random effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (OR). Twenty-four case-control and cohort studies with 7376 EC cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR of EC was 0.77 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.57, 1.04] for highest vs. non/lowest green tea consumption; but it was statistically significant for case-control studies (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96) and for studies conducted in China (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.95). No significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption against EC risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.86, 2.11). A borderline significantly inverse association of highest vs. non/lowest coffee consumption against EC risk was found (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.01). In conclusion, our data showed that both green tea and coffee consumption, but not black tea consumption, have protective effects on EC.

  18. 论安化黑茶的绿色包装%Talk about the Green Packaging of Anhua Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞野营

    2011-01-01

    通过对绿色包装的内涵及原则的论述,结合安化黑茶包装材料的发展现状,分析了绿色包装材料在安化黑茶包装设计中的重要性。在此基础上,进一步提出了安化黑茶包装材料基于地域资源、地域文化之上的绿色发展方向,提高了安化黑茶包装与社会、自然相互协调、共生互补的境界,确保绿色设计思想在黑茶包装中的可行性。%Through discussion of the connotation and principle of green packaging, combined with the development situation of Anhua black tea packaging materials, it analyzed the importance of green packaging materials in packaging design of Anhua black tea. Based on this, it further proposed the green development orientation of packaging materials of Anhua black tea based on region resources and culture. Finally, it enhanced the anhua black tea packaging to achieve sustainable development with the society and nature, which guaranteed the feasibility of green design ideas in the black tea packaging.

  19. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by black tea theaflavins: Comparative enzymology and in silico modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisan, Shannon L; Grove, Kimberly A; Yennawar, Neela H; Lambert, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) theaflavins on obesity-related targets. Pancreatic lipase (PL) plays a central role in fat metabolism and is a validated target for weight loss. We compared the inhibitory efficacy of individual theaflavins and explored the underlying mechanism. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFdiG), theaflavin-3'-gallate, theaflavin-3-gallate, and theaflavin inhibited PL with IC50 of 1.9, 4.2, 3.0, and >10μmol/L. The presence and location of the galloyl ester moiety were essential for inhibitory potency. TFdiG exhibited mixed inhibition with respect to substrate concentration. In silico modeling showed that theaflavins bind to Asn263 and Asp206, which form a pocket adjacent to the active site, and galloyl-containing theaflavins are then predicted to perturb the protonation of His264. These data provide a putative mechanism to explain the anti-obesity effects of tea.

  20. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  1. 红茶品质化学的研究进展%Research Progresses on Quality and Chemical Components of Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盛美; 李晓霞; 夏丽飞; 陈玫; 唐一春

    2013-01-01

    红茶是世界生产和消费的主要茶类,红茶的品质与化学成分紧密相关.综述了国内外红茶品质化学的研究进展,并对今后红茶品质化学研究进行了展望.%Black tea is the principal tea product in the world' s tea production and consumption, the quality of black tea is closely related to its chemical compositions. The research achievements on quality and chemical composition of black tea were reviewed. The research emphases for quality and chemical composition of black tea in the future were forecasted.

  2. Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.

  3. 四川引进茶树品种茗科1号、铁观音、黄棪的红茶适制性与香气成分分析%Analysis of the suitability for making black tea and aroma components of black tea produced by Mingke1, Tieguan-yin, and Huangyan introduced to Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自琴; 唐茜; 陈玖琳; 郭湘; 许燕

    2015-01-01

    以从福建茶区引进四川茶区种植的茗科1号、铁观音、黄横3个高香乌龙茶良种为供试材料,四川主栽且主产红茶的品种福鼎大白茶为对照,测定3个引进品种春、夏梢所制红茶的主要生化成分、香气组分,并进行感官审评,以了解其红茶适制性及制茶品质,筛选适宜四川茶区推广种植的适制红茶的省外良种.结果表明:3个g进品种春、夏季所制红茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、儿茶素含量均高于对照福鼎大白茶,其中春、夏季红茶的水浸出物含量为34.62%~40.25%,茶多酚含量为10.19% ~ 15.07%,儿茶素总量为13.98 ~25.45 mg/g;茶红素、茶黄素含量均较高,且茶红素与茶黄素比值为10.96~14.86.3个引进品种春、夏季红茶的咖啡碱含量为3.07%~4.04%,铁观音和黄横显著高于对照,茗科1号则低于对照;但氨基酸含量为2.74%~3.86%,均低于对照.春季红茶中均检测出50种香气成分,以醇类物质最丰富,且3个引进品种的香叶醇含量显著高于对照,芳樟醇及氧化物含量则低于对照,属于香叶醇占优势的香气类型.感官审评结果表明,3个引进品种所制红茶香高味浓,花果香或蜜香明显,品质均优于对照.%In this experiment, the Mingke 1, Tie guan-yin and Huangyan three Oolong tea varieties with high aroma which introduced from Fujian province to Sichuan province were tested.Fudingdabaicha which was the dominant variety that usually used to make black tea in Sichuan province used as a control.The main biochemical components, aroma components and sensory quality of the black tea made by the spring shoots and summer shoots of the three varieties had been studied.The suitability? and tea quality were studied in order to select suitable one (s) for making black tea and then plant widely in Sichuan tea region.The results showed that the contents of tea polyphenols, catechins of black tea produced by the spring shoots and summer

  4. Improvement of green tea polyphenol with milk on skin with respect to antioxidation in healthy adults: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fang; Lin, Tung-Yi; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2016-02-01

    Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been widely tested for their effects on several metabolic syndromes and degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The present study was formulated to assess the physiological efficacy of green tea polyphenol infused with milk (GTPM) on skin integrity in correlation with antioxidative status in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy voluntary subjects were recruited and assigned to two groups, who drank 240 ml of mineral water mixed with either an experimental (GTPM) or placebo package (2 packs per day) for the following 6 months. The experimental group then switched to the placebo package, and vice versa, for a further 6 months, with one month of washout period in between. During the initial, 3(rd), 6(th), 10(th), and 13(th) month anthropometric measurements were performed and fasting blood samples were withdrawn for various biochemical assays. Skin examination was performed at the initial, 6(th) and 13(th) month. No significant alterations were observed in any of the anthropometric measurements. Administration of GTPM significantly increased (p antioxidant index and antioxidant enzyme activities when compared with the placebo group, whereas a concomitant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation were noted. Moreover, GTPM intake notably improved skin integrity and texture by markedly lowering (p skin wrinkles and roughness in elderly subjects. GTPM proved to be an effective antioxidant by lowering oxidative stress and thereby ameliorating skin texture and integrity.

  5. Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Intracellular Cytokines, Regulatory T Cells and Metabolic Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Dashti, Ali

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of black tea intake on inflammatory cytokines and metabolic biomarkers in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty patients with T2DM were randomly assigned either to a High Intake (HI) group, consuming three cups (600 mL) of black tea per day; and a Low Intake (LI) group, administered 1 cup (200 mL) per day, each during a 12-week period. Intracellular cytokine expression, regulatory T cells (Treg), glycemic and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and following the tea intake period. Tea consumption correlated with major effects measured in peripheral blood of subjects that included significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, along with increased regulatory T cells CD3+ CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3, CD3+ CD4+ IL-10+ cells (an immunosuppressive phenotype), reduced (pro-inflammatory) CD3+ CD4+ IL-17+ cells and reduced Th1-associated CD3+ CD4+ IFN-Υ+ cells. Tea consumption was also observed to abolish the significance of an inverse correlation between total serum cholesterol and representation of CD4+ IL-4+ T cells, which may reflect protection against atopy-related oxidative stress. Outcomes of this study describe both advantages and limitations to consumption of black tea as an aid to sustained health maintenance by persons at-risk for TD2M and related obesity-associated metabolic syndromes.

  6. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.

  7. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  8. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, Mousumi [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Central Calcutta Polytechnic, Kolkata 700014 (India); Tudu, Bipan, E-mail: bt@iee.jusl.ac.in [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nabarun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Jana, Arun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chatterjee, Anutosh [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700107 (India)

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  9. 茶多酚对猪繁殖性能的影响及其作用机理%Effect of tea polyphenols on reproductive performances and its mechanism in sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓敏; 冯涛; 白佳桦; 许晓玲; 黄正; 韩向敏; 刘彦

    2016-01-01

    Tea polyphenols is the generic term of polyphenols compounds in green tea , which is a green, new, efficient antioxidants. Tea polyphenols has been applied widely due to its special chemical structure which has unique biological effectiveness .In recent years , it has been found to also play an important role on healthy and efficient breeding .This article reviewed the effect of tea polyphe-nols on reproductive performance of sows and its mechanism .%茶多酚是茶叶中多酚类物质的总称,是一种绿色、新型、高效的抗氧化剂。茶多酚因化学结构特殊使其具有独特的生物学功效而得到广泛应用,近年来,在畜禽健康高效养殖中也发挥着重要作用。就茶多酚对猪繁殖性能方面的影响及其作用机理进行简要阐述。

  10. Development of tea polyphenols brown rice sponge cake%茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红利; 吴跃; 李安平; 张燕秋

    2015-01-01

    以糙米粉和蛋糕粉为主要原料,研究茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方。通过单因素和正交试验考察了蛋糕粉、茶多酚、白砂糖和牛奶添加量对茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕感官品质和质构品质的影响,优化了茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方,确定了其最佳配方:蛋糕粉添加量20%,茶多酚添加量0.8%,白砂糖添加量80%,牛奶添加量40%,鸡蛋添加量180%,食用油添加量10%(以糙米粉与蛋糕粉的总量为基准)。按此配方所制得的糙米海绵蛋糕不含其他添加剂,表面呈金黄色,外形规范,隆起正常,而且营养价值高,具有焙烤米香风味,咀嚼性好,不易形成碎渣,爽口、有弹性,存放时间延长。%The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake was studied by using brown rice powder andcake powder as themain rawmaterials.The single factor andorthogonal test examined the effectsof the addition amountofcake powder,tea polyphenols,sugar andmilkon the sensory quality and structure qualityof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake.The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake wasoptimized and the best formula was 20%cake powder,0.8% tea polyphenols,80%sugar,40%milk,180% egg and 10%oil(basedon the total amountof brown rice powder andcake powder).Thecakemade withoutother additiveshad golden surface,appearance specification and normal uplift. In addition,ithadhigh nutritional value,baked rice fragrant flavor,goodchewiness,not easily broken slag formation,prolong storage time and was refreshing and elastic.

  11. 红茶饮料液态发酵影响因素研究进展%Research Status of the Influencing Factors in Liquid Fermentation of Black Tea Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇宙; 午勇泉; 尹军峰; 夏珍珠; 王志岚

    2011-01-01

    In recent yeas, in order to solve the problems of the traditional black tea beverage industry, many scholars study the liquid fermentation which was using for producing the black tea beverage. This article mainly discussed the effects in liquid fermentation system of black tea beverage: included the substrate concentration and the activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, pretreatment of fresh leaves, temperature, pH, oxygen supplements, and time. By affecting the concentration and ratio of theaflavins, thearubigins and theabrownins, these factors can affect the system and the quality of black tea. They played the vital roles in liquid fermentation system of black tea beverage. According to the domestic and international tea beverage liquid fermentation technology, combining the current research situation of the existing problems, the author advanced some measures, such as raw material, enzyme and automatic control. They provided theoretical basis for lucubrating and extensive application of this technology.%为解决传统红茶饮料产业所面临的问题,近年来国内外许多学者对液态发酵生产红茶饮料产品进行了研究.主要从红茶饮料液态发酵体系中影响发酵效果的主要因素方面进行研究.包括底物浓度、多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶活性、鲜叶预处理和液态发酵的技术参数.这些因素通过影响体系中茶黄素、茶红素、茶褐素的含量和比例影响红茶品质.从而对红茶饮料液态发酵过程起着至关重要的作用.根据国内外红茶饮料液态发酵技术的研究现状,结合当前所存在的问题,从原料、酶和自动控制方面提出改进措施,为这一技术的深入研究和广泛应用提供理论基础.

  12. An overview on Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on types of tea, its processing methods, bioactive compounds which are present in it, health benefits, toxic effects, interaction with drugs and herbs, formulations involving tea polyphenols. Tea has been found to possess various bioactive leads and need of the hour is to characterize these leads for better product development.

  13. 绿茶多酚抗紫外线作用机制研究进展%Progress on the anti-UV radiation effects of green tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬虎; 申欣; 冯晴

    2013-01-01

    研究表明,长期受到阳光中紫外线的照射不仅会引起皮肤红斑、晒伤,还会造成体内的氧化应激及免疫抑制,甚至导致皮肤肿瘤的发生.近年来,绿茶茶叶中主要活性成分绿茶多酚的健康效应越来越受到人们的关注.许多研究指出,绿茶多酚具有促进微循环、抗氧化、抗炎症以及抗癌的作用.但在国内,绿茶多酚抗紫外线方面的研究仍然较少.本文从绿茶多酚抗炎、抗氧化、促进DNA修复等几个方面对其抗紫外线的机制作一综述,并且对含有绿茶多酚的防晒用品的实际应用前景进行展望.%The UV radiation may induce erythema,oxidative stress,immune suppression and even skin cancer.In recent years,the most abundant and biologically active compounds in green tea,known as polyphenols,have caused wide attention because of their health effects.Green tea polyphenols can promote microcirculation,anti-inflammatory action,antioxidation,and DNA repair.In China,there is still less research focusing on the anti-UV radiation effects of green tea polyphenols.In this review,recent progress on the anti-inflammatory,anti-oxidant,and DNA-repair effects of green tea polyphenols against UV radiation has been reviewed.Meanwhile,the application of the sunscreen products containing green tea polyphenols has been evaluated.

  14. Construction Technology of Ecological Tea Plantation in Mindong Black-green Tea Area%闽东红绿茶产区生态茶园建设技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨如兴; 张磊; 陈芝芝; 吴志丹

    2014-01-01

    阐述了闽东生态茶园建设措施和目标,总结出适合闽东红绿茶生产的新垦茶园、茶林嵌合型和纯茶种植老茶园生态建设技术。%In this paper, construction measures and objectives of ecological tea plantation in Mindong area were elaborated, and thus construction technology of ecological tea plantation was suggested for the newly-reclaimed young tea plantation, mosaic type plantation of tea and woods, and ageing single-tea plantation, to be proper for the production of black tea and green tea in Mindong area.

  15. The Design and Implementation of Black Tea Traceability System Based on UHF RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caijin; LING; Jinxin; LIU; Jiayao; WU; Qiushuang; WANG; Shumei; LIU; Haiqiang; CHEN; Chaoyi; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the whole process of consumer- producer bidirectional traceability and distinguish the true from the false,according to Yinghong 9,planting,processing and circulation situation,we introduce UHF RFID and Network information technology,to design and develop the UHF RFID black tea traceability system.The system adopts.NET technology,uses Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 + VB.NET,Microsoft SQL SERVER 2005,T-SQL language for development and design,and uses the network architecture of C /S combined with B /S,to randomly generate ID with 20 bit code and label,thereby forming the only corresponding relation and pointing to the corresponding batch and product types.The technology mode using three-layer structure for development realizes the functions of data collection,tracing,sharing and query.The data and business processing are concentrated on the server,simplifying the development,use and maintenance of system.We build and implement Yinghong 9 black tea traceability system,to the needs of government,the public and the producers for Yinghong 9 brand protection,product quality tracking and market regulation.

  16. Black tea extract and its thearubigins relieve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice: a possible role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hussam A S; Abdallah, Hossam M

    2014-11-01

    In this study we hypothesize that a standardized black tea aqueous extract (BTE) and thearubigins, its main polyphenolic pigments, will improve sildenafil-induced delay in gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit (SIT) in mice. Twenty groups of mice (n = 8) were given a phenol red meal, and three sets of experiments were performed. In the first and second sets, effects of different concentrations of BTE, thearubigins (TRs), and sildenafil (SLD), alone and in combinations, on GE and SIT were measured. In the third set, influence of nω -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) pretreatment on effects of these treatments was tested. Black tea extract (3% and 4.5%) and thearubigins (50 and 60 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased GE and SIT, whereas BTE 6% and thearubigins 70 mg/kg did not affect them. Sildenafil dose-dependently reduced both GE and SIT. Combination of metoclopramide, BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, or l-NAME with sildenafil (5 mg/kg) reversed its motility-delaying effects. Pretreatment with l-NAME followed by BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, BTE 4.5% + sildenafil 5, or thearubigins 60 + sildenafil 5 only partially affected the accelerating effects of BTE 4.5% and thearubigins 60. In conclusion, a standardized BTE and its thearubigins improve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice. This improvement was partially blocked by l-NAME suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide. Thus, BTE 4.5% or TRs 60 mg/kg solution could be considered a reliever therapy for the sildenafil-induced dyspepsia.

  17. Accelerated solvent extraction and analysis of tea polyphenols%茶多酚的加速溶剂萃取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 唐美华; 张之翼; 吕凤兰; 陈国松

    2012-01-01

    以毛尖茶叶为原料,用加速溶剂萃取法提取茶多酚粗品.用单因素试验研究和正交试验考察乙醇体积分数、温度和循环次数对萃取率的影响.用二极管阵列-高效液相色谱( DAD - HPLC)对照测定加速溶剂萃取的萘多酚粗品、微波辅助提取的萘多酚粗品和商品荼多酚.结果表明:茶多酚粗品的制备最佳条件为萃取温度160℃、乙醇体积分数60%、循环萃取2次.高温加速溶剂萃取法对茶多酚的粗提率较高,但其中儿茶素的总量却显著下降.降低提取温度,则茶多酚中的主要功能成分儿茶素的含量显著高于微波辅助提取法.%The gross tea polyphenols were extracted from Maojian tea by the accelerated solvent method. Single factor test and orthogonal design were used to explore the effects of ethanol volume fraction, temperature and cycle times on the extraction ratio. The comparison of gross polyphenols got from accelerated solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and commodity was made by diode array detector-high performance liquid chromatography (DAD-HPLC) analysis. Results showed that the optimum operation conditions for gross polyphenlos extraction are 160 ℃ , 2 times, and 60% ethanol. The accelerated solvent extraction ratio at a high temperature was higher for the gross tea polyphenols and lower for the cate-chin. If the extraction temperature was dropped down to 40℃, the content of catechin was much higher than that from microwave-assisted extraction.

  18. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  19. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  20. Research and development of black tea-jujube wine%红茶红枣复合酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁昕; 胡长玉; 汪春霞

    2011-01-01

    The production processing of black tea-jujube wine was studied. The extraction technology of black tea and fermentation conditions were further investigated. The optimal fermentation conditions were obtained. In details, the extraction steps of black tea were firstly extracted in cold water for 30min and then in 90℃ hot water. The jujube juice should be soften firstly and then treated by 0.02% pectinase before filtration. The black tea juice and jujube juice were mixed and fermented at 25℃ for 8d~10d, followed by aging for 3months. The complex tea wine was clear and brilliant with a pure, elegant and soft taste and a deliciously lingering finish. It is a nutritional and healthy complex tea wine.%研究了以红茶、红枣为原料进行发酵酿得保健酒的生产工艺流程,并对生产工艺中红茶的浸提和发酵工艺条件进行了深入研究.实验得出最佳发酵工艺条件为:茶叶先用冷水浸提30min后,用90℃热水恒温浸提,红枣原汁软化后,用0.02%的果胶酶处理过滤,然后将红茶汁与红枣汁混合后于25℃恒温发酵8d~10d,陈酿3个月,最后酿制的复合茶酒色泽晶莹透亮,香味纯净优雅、口感柔和,回味绵长,是一种营养丰富、有多种保健功效的复合茶酒.

  1. Association between consumption of black tea and iron status in adult Africans in the North West Province: The THUSA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Jerling, J.C.; Hoekstra, T.; Boonstra, A.; MacIntyre, U.E.

    2008-01-01

    The association between black tea consumption and iron status was investigated in a sample of African adults participating in the cross-sectional THUSA (Transition and Health during Urbanization of South Africans) study in the North West Province, South Africa. Data were analysed from 1605 apparentl

  2. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  3. Structural characteristics and enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of full biodegradable tea polyphenol/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Zhu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Full biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV composite films were prepared with 5~40 wt% green tea polyphenol (TP as toughener. The effects of mixing TP on mechanical properties, thermal properties and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of composite films were investigated. Tension test results show that the incorporation of TP in the PHBV matrix can enhance the toughness of the composite films. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC studies show that there is a single glass transition temperature and the lower melting point temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR results confirm that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in composite films. Contact angle measurements show that the hydrophilicity of TP/PHBV composite films can be controlled through adjusting the composition of TP.

  4. Changes of major tea polyphenols and production of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins from post-fermented Jing-Wei Fu brick tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun-Fei; Chen, Jing-Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Hu, Xin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Bao, Guan-Hu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-03-01

    HPLC analysis of samples from four major fermentation procedures of Jing-Wei Fu brick tea showed that the level of major tea catechins epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) dropped increasingly to about 1/3 in the final product. Phytochemical study of the final product led to the discovery of four new B-ring fission metabolites of catechins (BRFCs) Fuzhuanin C-F (1-4) together with three known BRFCs (5-7), six known catechins (8-13), five simple phenols (14-18), seven flavones and flavone glycosides (19-25), two alkaloids (26, 27), three triterpenoids (28-30) and one steroid (31). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, LC-HR-ESI-MS, IR, and CD spectra. Five compounds (16-18, 28, 29) were reported for the first time in tea. Possible pathways for the degradation of major tea catechins and the generation of BRFCs were also provided.

  5. Peroxidase Can Perform the Hydroxylation Step in the "oxidative Cascade" during Oxidation of Tea Catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, Annewieke J.W.; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The formation of black tea thearubigins involves at least two of the following oxidation steps: (i) oligomerization, (ii) rearrangement, and (iii) hydroxylation. The first two are mainly catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), whereas the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation has not yet been ident

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction of apocynum tea polyphenols%微波辅助提取罗布麻茶茶多酚的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 訾王贝; 樊海燕; 杨晓玲

    2012-01-01

    Apocynum is a kind of rare wild plants, and mainly grows in the desert saline and alkaline land or bank, valley, hillside sandy earth, such as in north China. Xinjiang desert region has the best quality of apocynum. Tea polyphenol in apocynum consists of flavanones, anthocyanin compounds, flavonoids, flavonol and phenolic acids, etc. Among them flavanol (catechin) is the most important compound in forming the tea color and flavor. It is also one of the health functions ingredients in apocynum tea. In this study, microwave assisted extraction was used in extracting polyphenols from Xinjiang apocynum tea. Through single factor experiment and orthogonal test, optimization extractive conditions were obtained. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50% ethanol concentration, 1/25 material liquid ratio, 70 C for 90s, and 500W microwave power. Under these conditions, the extraction quantity and extraction rate of tea polyphenols were 12. 52mg · g-1and 91. 52% , respectively.%罗布麻又名野麻,是一种世界上稀有的野生植物,它主要生长在沙漠盐碱地或河岸、山沟、山坡的沙质地上,在我国北方大多省区都有生长,尤其以新疆沙漠地区的罗布麻品质最佳.茶多酚是罗布麻茶叶中多酚类物质的总称,包括黄烷醇类、花色苷类、黄酮类、黄酮醇类和酚酸类等,其中以黄烷醇类物质(儿茶素)最为重要,是形成罗布麻茶叶色香味的主要成份之一,也是罗布麻茶叶中有保健功能的主要成份之一.因此本文以新疆罗布麻茶为原料,采用微波辅助提取茶多酚,通过单因素实验和正交试验优化提取条件.结果表明,从罗布麻中提取茶多酚的最佳条件为:乙醇浓度50%、料液比1∶25、温度70℃、提取时间90s、微波功率500W,此条件下茶多酚提取量为12.52mg·g-1,提取率为91.52%.

  7. 茶多酚对三文鱼保鲜效果研究%Studies on the Effect of Tea Polyphenols on the Preservation of Salmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴乐乐; 周军辉; 刘春娥; 孙琳琳; 焉晓东

    2016-01-01

    Salmon has a delicious tasty and rich nutrition especially rich in PUFA. The effects of tea polyphe-nols on preservation of salmon under 4℃were studied using the total number of colonies, Staphylococcus au-reus,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Salmonella typhimurium,Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli bacteria colony number. The salmon were worked by 8 mg/mL tea polyphenols fresh solution and the samples had signifi-cantly lower colony index than the control group it prolonged at least 72 h. Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were the main cause of making the salmon decayed.%三文鱼肉质鲜美,富含多不饱和脂肪酸,营养价值高。以菌落总数、金黄色葡萄球菌、副溶血弧菌、单核增生李斯特氏菌、沙门氏菌、大肠埃希氏菌菌落数为指标,研究茶多酚在4℃条件下对三文鱼生鱼片的保鲜效果。结果表明:茶多酚具有良好的抑菌作用,8 mg/mL浓度下,浸泡处理的三文鱼生鱼片的各项菌落指标均明显低于对照组,试验组的鱼片保鲜时间与对照组相比,可延长72 h以上,金黄色葡萄球菌和副溶血弧菌是引起三文鱼片变质的主要微生物。

  8. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: a diet-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Rasa; Hayes, Jennifer H; Raatz, Susan K; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Khaliq, Waseem; Jacobs, David R; Key, Nigel S; Morawski, Bozena M; Kaiser, Daniel; Bank, Alan J; Gross, Myron

    2015-02-01

    Habitual intake of black tea has been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trial results evaluating the effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have been inconsistent. Several factors could explain these mixed results, in particular, uncontrolled confounding caused by lifestyle factors (eg, diet). This diet-controlled clinical trial estimates the effect of black tea flavonoid consumption on cholesterol concentrations in 57 borderline hypercholesterolemic individuals (total cholesterol concentrations between 190 and 260 mg/dL [4.9 and 6.7 mmol/L]). A double-blind, randomized crossover trial was conducted in Minneapolis, MN, from April 2002 through April 2004 in which key conditions were tightly controlled to minimize possible confounding. Participants consumed a controlled low-flavonoid diet plus 5 cups per day of black tea or tea-like placebo during two 4-week treatment periods. The flavonoid-free caffeinated placebo matched the tea in color and taste. Differences in cholesterol concentrations at the end of each treatment period were evaluated via linear mixed models. Differences among those treated with tea vs placebo were 3.43 mg/dL (0.09 mmol/L) (95% CI -7.08 to 13.94) for total cholesterol, -1.02 mg/dL (-0.03 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.34 to 9.30) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.58 mg/dL (0.02 mmol/L) (95% CI -2.98 to 4.14) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 15.22 mg/dL (0.17 mmol/L) (95% CI -40.91 to 71.35) for triglycerides, and -0.39 mg/dL (-0.01 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.16 to 10.38) for low-density lipoprotein plus high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by -0.1 units (95% CI -0.41 to 0.21). No results were statistically or clinically significant. The intake of 5 cups of black tea per day did not alter the lipid profile of borderline hypercholesterolemic subjects

  9. 茶多酚对肥胖及糖尿病的预防干预作用%Tea polyphenols in the prevention and the treatment of obesity and diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓娟

    2011-01-01

    茶多酚(tea polyphenols,TP)是从天然植物茶叶中提取的多酚化合物复合体,具有较好的抗氧化清除自由基的能力.近年来研究表明,TP具有降血压、调节血脂、降血糖、预防心血管病、预防癌症、抗辐射损伤和防衰延寿等作用.文中主要综述TP对肥胖与糖尿病的作用.%Tea polyphenols are a class of complex compounds extracted from tea, with fine anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging ability. Recent studies show that tea polyphenols have a lot of functions, as lowering blood pressure, regulating blood lipid and blood sugar, preventing cardiovascular disease and cancer, anti-radiacion damage , anti-senility, and so on. This review focuses on its role in the prevention and the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  10. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  11. Identification of novel homologous series of polyhydroxylated theasinensins and theanaphthoquinones in the SII fraction of black tea thearubigins using ESI/HPLC tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Koek, Jan H; Jayaraman, Sujatha; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-10-01

    Thearubigins are the most abundant phenolic pigments found in black tea, produced by enzymatic oxidation of green tea flavan-3-ols in tea fermentation of until recently unknown composition. In this study electrospray ionization tandem LC-MS(n) experiments have been applied for the characterization of crude thearubigins isolated from black tea not exceeding 1000 Da. The aim of this study is to confirm the oxidative cascade hypothesis of tea fermentation. The data revealed the presence of two novel classes of compounds in thearubigin fractions. The first class of compounds revealed the presence of polyhydroxylated dimers of the theanaphthaquinone and theasinensin C structures, which were consistent with the polyhydroxylation hypothesis previously formulated. Furthermore, new classes of peroxo-/epoxy- compounds in the series of theasinensin A were identified, thus indicating the presence of H2O2 and its important contribution as a nucleophile in the tea fermentation process.

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

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    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown were made and tested in vitro (concentration: 300 µg/disc against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 (S. aureus and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778 (B. cereus, and two Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 (E. coli, using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10 µg/disc was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted against S. aureus and B. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further low MIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 > BOPF > OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, and OP pocess in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteria P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  13. Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebouyeh, Farzaneh; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Ziarati, Parisa; Heshmati, Masoomeh; Qomi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (≤ 1-1.6) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.

  14. Selection of the suitable resin for single separation of decaffeinated tea-polyphenols%一次性分离低咖啡碱茶多酚树脂的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺佳; 李多伟; 智彩辉; 刘长霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitable resin for adsorption and desorption of tea-polyphenols and caffeine by using tea-polyphenols and caffeine as the detection targets of the products. Method LX and D101 resins were used for the static and dynamic experiment of adsorption and desorption. Results After the tea extract adsorbed by LX-X5 resin and desorbed by 15% and 75% ethanol,the desorption rate of tea-polyphenols in products was more than 90% ,and the purity was over 98%. The content of caffeine was under 0. 06%. Conclusion According to the static and dynamic experiment of adsorption, we chose the best adsorption resin LX-X5 for single time separation of decaffeinated tea-polyphenols.%目的 以茶叶茶多酚、咖啡碱为检测产物,考察了10种大孔树脂对茶多酚、咖啡碱的吸附分离性能.方法 采用LX系列和D101等树脂进行静态、动态吸附解吸实验.结果 茶叶经LX-X5树脂吸附后,经体积分数为15%的乙醇洗涤,再以体积分数为75%的乙醇洗脱,洗脱产物中茶多酚解吸率达90%以上,质量分数达98%以上,咖啡碱质量分数低于0.06%.结论 通过静态、动态吸附实验,筛选出一次性分离低咖啡碱含量茶多酚较为理想的吸附材料LX-X5树脂.

  15. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink.

  16. Separation of polyphenols and caffeine from the acetone extract of fermented tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Hong, Yong Deog; Lee, Bumjin; Park, Jun Seong; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Wan Gi; Shin, Song Seok; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-07-21

    Leaves from Camellia sienensis are a popular natural source of various beverage worldwide, and contain caffeine and polyphenols derived from catechin analogues. In the current study, caffeine (CAF, 1) and three tea polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg, 2), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg, 3), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg, 4) were isolated and purified by flow-rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v). Two hundred milligrams of acetone-soluble extract from fermented C. sinensis leaves was separated by HPCCC to give 1 (25.4 mg), 2 (16.3 mg), 3 (11.1 mg) and 4 (4.4 mg) with purities over 98%. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by QTOF-MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR, and the obtained data were compared to the previously reported values.

  17. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jen Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  18. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols administered by oral intubation against chemical carcinogen-induced forestomach and pulmonary neoplasia in A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R; Mukhtar, H

    1993-09-30

    Our studies and others have shown the cancer chemopreventive effects of chronic administration of green tea in several animal tumor models. In this study, the administration of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) by oral intubation at a dose of 5 mg in 0.2 ml water 30 min prior to challenge with carcinogen, afforded significant protection against both diethylnitrosamine (DEN)- and benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced forestomach and lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. The protective effects were evident by a decrease in numbers of tumors/mouse in GTP-fed groups compared to non GTP-fed controls. In the forestomach tumorigenesis protocol, GTP afforded 71 and 66% protection against, respectively DEN- and BP-induced tumor multiplicity. In the case of lung tumorigenesis protocol, however, the protective effects of GTP were 41 and 39%, respectively. Histological examination of forestomach tumors showed significantly lesser number of squamous cell carcinoma formation in GTP-fed groups of mice compared to carcinogen alone-treated controls. When pulmonary tumors were examined histologically, no adenocarcinomas were observed in GTP-fed groups compared to 15% mice with adenocarcinomas in DEN and BP alone-treated controls. The results of this study suggest that limited doses of GTP administration by gavage 30 min prior to carcinogen challenge may afford protection against carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in internal body organs.

  19. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols.

  20. Batch fermentation of black tea by kombucha: A contribution to scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local domestic Kombucha was used in fermentation of 1.5 g L-1 of black tea (Indian tea, " Vitamin ", Horgoš, Serbia and Montenegro, sweetened with approximately 70 g L'1 of sucrose. Inoculation was performed either with 10% or 15% (v/v of fermentation broth from previous process. The fermentation was conducted in geometrically similar vessels with 0.4 L, 0.8 L, 4 L and 8 L of substrate, at 22±1 °C for 28 days. The samples were analyzed after 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days, so that their pH values, content of total acids sucrose, glucose and fructose contents, as well as contents of ethanol and vitamin C were determined. Based on the experiment design, the response surface for the product pH, as a function of time, beverage volume and inoculum concentration, was defined in the form of a second-order polynomial. From the obtained response surface, a formula for scaling-up of the process was derived.

  1. Impact of the Consumption of Tea Polyphenols on Early Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Intestinal Bifidobacteria in High-Fat-Fed ApoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhen-Lin; Zeng, Ben-Hua; Wang, Wei; Li, Gui-Hua; Wu, Fei; Wang, Li; Zhong, Qing-Ping; Wei, Hong; Fang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the effect of dietary polyphenols on the intestinal microbiota and the possible associations between this effect and the development of some cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis (AS). However, limited information is available on how these polyphenols affect the gut microbiota and AS development. This study was designed to evaluate the modulation of dietary tea polyphenols (TPs) on intestinal Bifidobacteria (IB) and its correlation with AS development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Fifty C57BL/6 ApoE−/− mice were randomized into one of the five treatment groups (n = 10/group): control group fed normal diet (CK); a group fed a high-fat diet (HFD); and the other three groups fed the same HFD supplemented with TPs in drinking water for 16 weeks. The total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after TP interference. In addition, the TP diet also decreased the plaque area/lumen area (PA/LA) ratios (P < 0.01) in the TP diet group. Interestingly, copies of IB in the gut of ApoE−/− mice were notably increased with TP interference. This increase was dose dependent (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the PA/LA ratio (P < 0.05). We conclude that TPs could promote the proliferation of the IB, which is partially responsible for the reduction of AS plaque induced by HFD. PMID:28066771

  2. Preparation of a Black Tea Jelly%红茶果冻的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志铭; 汤兴福; 吴云辉; 简文杰

    2011-01-01

    In this research, konjac powder, carrageenan and black tea powder were used as main raw materials to produce a new black tea jelly by the orthogonal experiment method The results indicated that, the best ratio of carrageenan to konjac glue, the total dosages of the mixture of carrageenan and konjac glue, sugar, black tea powder and citric acid were 7:3, 0.8%, 14%, 0.2% and 0.12%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the hazel jelly can be prepared after water bath for 15 minutes. It tasted mild and crisp, with rich tea aroma.%本文以魔芋粉、卡拉胶、红茶粉为主要原料,采用正交试验方法探讨红茶果冻的最佳制作工艺.实验结果表明:卡拉胶和魔芋胶两者的配比为7∶3,总胶粉的添加量为0.8%,白砂糖添加量为14%,红茶粉添加量为0.2%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.12%,水浴15min得到浅褐色果冻,口感软滑爽脆,酸甜可口,且具有浓郁茶香味.

  3. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection.

  4. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang

    2015-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  5. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Mazzon, Emanuela; Muià, Carmelo; Genovese, Tiziana; Menegazzi, Marta; Zaffini, Raffaela; Suzuki, Hisanory; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2005-06-29

    Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan), exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2%) into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained many neutrophils (PMNs), an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite/nitrate, tumour necrosis factor alpha. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by green tea extract treatment. Furthermore, carrageenan induced an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) formation, as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and PARS was reduced by green tea extract. Our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with green tea extract exerts a protective effect and offers a novel therapeutic approach for the management of lung injury.

  6. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hisanory

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan, exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2% into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained many neutrophils (PMNs, an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite/nitrate, tumour necrosis factor alpha. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by green tea extract treatment. Furthermore, carrageenan induced an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose synthetase (PARS formation, as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and PARS was reduced by green tea extract. Our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with green tea extract exerts a protective effect and offers a novel therapeutic approach for the management of lung injury.

  7. Simultaneous determination of catechins, caffeine and gallic acids in green, Oolong, black and pu-erh teas using HPLC with a photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yuegang; Chen, Hao; Deng, Yiwei

    2002-05-16

    A simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector was developed for simultaneous determination of four major catechins, gallic acid and caffeine. After multiple extractions with aqueous methanol and acidic methanol solutions, tea extract was separated within 20 min using a methanol-acetate-water buffer gradient elution system on a C(18) column. The sample extraction data demonstrated that the single extraction used in the previous studies with aqueous acetonitrile or methanol is not sufficient; the multiple extraction procedure is essential for the quantitative analysis of catechins, phenolic acids and caffeine in teas. Several green, Oolong, black and pu-erh teas were successfully analyzed by this method. The analytical results obtained indicated that green teas contain higher content of catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin] than both Oolong, pu-erh and black teas because fermentation process during the tea manufacturing reduced the levels of catechins significantly. The fermentation process also remarkably elevated the levels of gallic acid in full-fermented pu-erh and black teas. Another interesting finding is the low level of caffeine in Oolong teas, especially in Fujian Oolong tea.

  8. Formation of enriched black tea extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles via electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Samuel James

    Creating nanoparticles of beneficial nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals has had a large surge of research due to the enhancement of absorption and bioavailability by decreasing their size. One of these ways is by electrohydrodynamic atomization, also known as electrospraying. In general, this novel process is done by forcing a liquid through a capillary nozzle and which is subjected to an electrical field. While there are different ways to create nanoparticles, the novel method of electrospraying can be beneficial over other types of nanoparticle formation. Reasons include high control over particle size and distribution by altering electrospray parameters (voltage, flow rate, distance, and time), higher encapsulation efficiency than other methods, and also it is a one step process without exposure to extreme conditions (Gomez-Estaca et. al. 2012, Jaworek and Sobcyzk 2008). The current study aimed to create a chitosan encapsulated theaflavin-2 enriched black tea extract (BTE) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The first step of this process was to create the smallest chitosan nanoparticles possible by altering the electrospray parameters and the chitosan-acetic acid solution parameters. The solution properties altered include chitosan molecular weight, acetic acid concentration, and chitosan concentration. Specifically, the electrospray parameters such as voltage, flow rate and distance from syringe to collector are the most important in determining particle size. After creating the smallest chitosan particles, the TF-2 enriched black tea extract was added to the chitosan-acetic acid solution to be electrosprayed. The particles were assessed with the following procedures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology and size, and loading efficiency with ultraviolet--visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). Chitosan-BTE nanoparticles were successfully created in a one step process. Diameter of the particles on average

  9. Black Tea Processing Technology%红茶加工工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康孟利; 凌建刚; 林旭东; 俞静芬; 陈曙颖; 葛能培

    2015-01-01

    以宁波中小叶红茶叶为试材,研究揉捻、发酵对中小叶红茶品质的影响研究。结果显示,随着揉捻时间的延长,从轻揉5 min—重揉5 min—轻揉5 min至轻揉10 min—重揉10 min—轻揉10 min ,条形紧缩,红汤加深;发酵时间越长,由发酵2~4 h,颜色加深,以发酵6 h为佳。总体评价,轻揉10 min—重揉10 min—轻揉10 min,发酵4h为最佳工艺,含水量差异不显著。%Taking Ningbo small leaf black tea as raw material, studied the kneading and rolling effect on quality of black tea. Results show that as the rolling time longer, lighter knead knead 5 min—5 min—knead gently massage for 5 min to 10 min—heavy knead gently knead 10 min—10 min, bar austerity, deep red soup; The longer the fermentation time, 2~4 h by fermentation, color deepened, for 6 h fermentation is preferred. Overall evaluation, massage for 10 min—heavy knead gently knead 10 min—10 min, 4 h as the best fermentation process, the water content of significant difference.

  10. Polyphenols from green tea prevent antineuritogenic action of Nogo-A via 67-kDa laminin receptor and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H; Barseghian, Barsegh A; Tzeng, William S; Rayudu, David V; Cadenas, Enrique; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2015-01-01

    Axonal regeneration after injury to the CNS is hampered by myelin-derived inhibitors, such as Nogo-A. Natural products, such as green tea, which are neuroprotective and safe for long-term therapy, would complement ongoing various pharmacological approaches. In this study, using nerve growth factor-differentiated neuronal-like Neuroscreen-1 cells, we show that extremely low concentrations of unfractionated green tea polyphenol mixture (GTPP) and its active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), prevent both the neurite outgrowth-inhibiting activity and growth cone-collapsing activity of Nogo-66 (C-terminal domain of Nogo-A). Furthermore, a synergistic interaction was observed among GTPP constituents. This preventive effect was dependent on 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) to which EGCG binds with high affinity. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and cell-permeable catalase abolished this preventive effect of GTPP and EGCG, suggesting the involvement of sublethal levels of H2 O2 in this process. Accordingly, exogenous sublethal concentrations of H2 O2 , added as a bolus dose (5 μM) or more effectively through a steady-state generation (1-2 μM), mimicked GTPP in counteracting the action of Nogo-66. Exogenous H2 O2 mediated this action by bypassing the requirement of 67LR. Taken together, these results show for the first time that GTPP and EGCG, acting through 67LR and elevating intracellular sublethal levels of H2 O2 , inhibit the antineuritogenic action of Nogo-A. Currently, several agents are being evaluated for overcoming axonal growth inhibitors to promote functional recovery after stroke and spinal cord injury. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), present in green tea polyphenol mixture (GTPP), prevents antineuritogenic activity of Nogo-A, a myelin-derived axonal growth inhibitor. The preventive action of EGCG involves the cell-surface-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor and H2 O2 . GTPP may complement ongoing efforts to treat neuronal injuries.>

  11. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  12. The galloyl catechins contributing to main antioxidant capacity of tea made from Camellia sinensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunjian; Li, Chunying; Liu, Shuaihua; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82-32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34-24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R (2) = 0.67-0.87). The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin) were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG).

  13. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R2=0.67–0.87. The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, epicatechin gallate (ECG, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG.

  14. 茶提取物抗氧化活性与茶多酚、儿茶素关系探究%The Research of the Relationship between Antioxidation of Tea Extractive and Tea Polyphenols as Well as Catechins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉萍; 唐德松; 龚淑英

    2013-01-01

    以6种茶提取物为研究对象,测定它们的总酚含量、儿茶素含量以及抗氧化能力和自由基清除率.根据实验结果分析茶的抗氧化活性、自由基清除率与总酚含量、儿茶素含量之间的关系.分析结果显示:茶提取物抗氧化活性与总酚含量的相关性总体上高于与儿茶素总量和EGCG的相关性,表明茶多酚中非儿茶素类多酚物质同样具有重要的抗氧化能力;茶提取物抗氧化活性与EGCG含量的相关性总体上高于与儿茶素总量的相关性,表明EGCG的抗氧化活性高于儿茶素的平均水平;总酚、儿茶素、EGCG对不同自由基的清除能力不同.%In this experiment,six kinds of tea extractive were tested as research objects,their total phenol content,catechins content,antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activities were determined,and the relationships between them were analyzed according to the results.The analysis showed that the correlation coefficient between antioxidant activity and total phenol content is higher than that between antioxidant activity and total catechins content as well as EGCG by and large,indicating that tea polyphenols without catechins also has high antioxidant ability; the correlation coefficient between antioxidant activity and EGCG content is higher than that between antioxidant activity and total catechins,indicating that antioxidant activity of EGCG is higher than that of catechins' average; the results also showed that free radical scavenging ability of tea polyphenols,catechins and EGCG is different from each other.

  15. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Hisanory; Zaffini Raffaela; Menegazzi Marta; Genovese Tiziana; Muià Carmelo; Mazzon Emanuela; Di Paola Rosanna; Cuzzocrea Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan), exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2%) into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained...

  16. The mycoflora of tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Halweg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger was most often isolated from 3 various black lea species dust obtained from packer factory. 10 species of black tea packaged in Poland and 28 various species of black tea and one species of green tea packed abroad. Other fungi were seen lees frequently. It seems that A. niger spores alone or with tea dust may induce various respiratory disorders in tea packers. Serum antibodies to antigens of A. niger and tea extracts imply that both may be important etiological factors.

  17. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  18. 中国红茶产销现状与发展前景%Production and Marketing Status and Development Prospects of Black Tea in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江用文; 张建勇; 江和源; 叶阳; 袁海波

    2012-01-01

    回顾了我国和世界其它国家红茶产销情况,分析了我国红茶产销的优劣势,并对我国红茶产业发展前景予以展望,提出了我国红茶产业的发展对策。%The production and marketing of black tea in world and China were reviewed. The production and marketing status and the advantage and deficiency of black tea in China were analyzed. The development prospect of black tea industry in China was looked forward, and the development countermeasures of black tea industry in China were put forward.

  19. 茶多酚对肉品保鲜的机理及其应用研究%Study on mechanisms of tea polyphenols and its application in meat preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭乃才

    2015-01-01

    茶多酚具有抗氧化、抑菌等功效,已成为食品防腐保鲜新的研究方向。从茶多酚的组成和性质、保鲜机理以及在肉品中的应用等方面进行综述,以期为后续研究提供一定的理论依据。%Tea polyphenols has a good antioxidant, antibacterial functions. It has become a new re⁃search direction of food preservation. The composition and properties of tea polyphenols, mechanism of preservation and its application in meat preservation were summarized. It would provide a theoretical ba⁃sis for follow-up study.

  20. Research on Fermented Black Tea Beverage Processing Technology%发酵型红茶饮料加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫刚; 熊昌云

    2014-01-01

    以云南CTC红茶为主要原料,经乳酸菌、酵母菌共生发酵,研究发酵型红茶饮料的加工工艺。%Taking Yunnan CTC black tea as the main raw material, after symbiotic fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, this paper studied the fermented black tea beverage process.

  1. 木瓜蛋白酶对白茶浸提液中茶多酚含量的影响%Effects of Papain on the Extractive Content of White Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文净; 刘祖锋

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects on the extractive content of white tea polyphenols was investigated by adding papain, changing extraction temperature and time. The factors which had influenced on the extraction content of tea polyphenols was studied by single factors and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the sequence of influencing factors was as follows: extraction temperature, extraction time, papain dosage; The optimum process was as follows:extraction temperature 65 ℃, extraction time 40 min, papain dosage 3 %. Under this condition, the extractive content of white tea polyphenols was up to 8.31 g/kg.%通过对浸提温度、浸提时间、酶添加量进行单因素和正交试验,探讨木瓜蛋白酶辅助浸提法对白茶茶多酚浸提含量的影响.结果表明,影响白茶茶多酚浸出量的主次顺序为浸提温度、浸提时间、酶添加量;最佳工艺为浸提温度65℃,浸提时间为40 min,酶添加量为3%,此条件下白茶茶多酚浸出量为8.31 g/kg.

  2. Effects of γ-radiation on microbial load and antioxidant proprieties in black tea irradiated with different water activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, G. B.; Hassimotto, N. M. A.; Bastos, D. H. M.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of gamma radiation on black tea irradiated with different water activities. The black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (0.92, 0.65, and 0.18) and were irradiated in 60Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The methods used were: microbiology, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC, and quantification of the main antioxidants. It was observed that the greater the amount of free water present in the samples, lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. Regardless the water activity used, there was no difference in content of the phenolic compounds and at the mainly theaflavins, as well in the antioxidant activity at doses up to 5.0 kGy.

  3. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb) and bovine testicular hyaluronidase. Results: The results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose dependent (r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r2=0.93, P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB. Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  4. Storage and allogeneic transplantation of peripheral nerve using a green tea polyphenol solution in a canine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our previous study, allogeneic-transplanted peripheral nerve segments preserved for one month in a polyphenol solution at 4°C could regenerate nerves in rodents demonstrated the same extent of nerve regeneration as isogeneic fresh nerve grafts. The present study investigated whether the same results could be obtained in a canine model. Methods A sciatic nerve was harvested from a male beagle dog, divided into fascicules of Sry and β-actin to investigate whether cells of donor origin remained in the allogeneic nerve segments. FK506 concentration was measured in blood samples taken before the animals were killed. Results The total myelinated axon numbers and amplitudes of the muscle action potentials correlated significantly with the blood FK506 concentration. Few axons were observed in the allogeneic-transplanted nerve segments in the PA0.025 group. PCR showed clear Sry-specific bands in specimens from the PA0.1 and PA0.05 groups but not from the PA0.025 group. Conclusions Successful nerve regeneration was observed in the polyphenol-treated nerve allografts when transplanted in association with a therapeutic dose of FK506. The data indicate that polyphenols can protect nerve tissue from ischemic damage for one month; however, the effects of immune suppression seem insufficient to permit allogeneic transplantation of peripheral nerves in a canine model.

  5. Quality of Newly Developed Black Tea,Panyong Congou “Daxueshi”%坦洋工夫‘大学士’红茶的研制及品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 杨如兴; 陈芝芝; 郭聪; 郭光辉

    2014-01-01

    Fresh leaves from the new variety of tea,Tanyang Caicha ,were processed into the black tea,Panyong Congou “Daxueshi”.The sensory quality and aromatic constituents of the tea were determined.The sensory score of the tea was 4.25 points higher than the Super Panyong Congou tea available on the market,with better ratings on the shape,flavor and taste.The contents of water soluble matters,polyphenols,free amino acids,catechin and caffeine of the tea sample were 46.8%,16.8%,4.3%,3.1% and 3.98%,respectively.There were 43 aromatic compounds isolated from the tea.Among them,the alcohols had the highest concentration (51.91%,13.14%,and 9.91% were cis-geraniol,salicylic acid methyl ester and β-linalool,respectively).They rendered the characteristic sweet,flowery and fruity aroma of Panyong Congou “Daxueshi”.%以新选坦洋菜茶品系1芽1叶初展为原料,研制坦洋工夫“大学士”红茶样品,并对其进行感官品质审评及理化品质检测分析。结果表明:坦洋工夫“大学士”红茶的感官审评总得分比市售特级坦洋工夫红茶高4.25分,其外形、香气和滋味等感官品质达到或超过特级坦洋工夫红茶品质水平;干茶水浸出物含量46.8%、茶多酚总量为16.8%、游离氨基酸含量4.3%、儿茶素总量3.1%、咖啡碱含量为3.98%;共检测出香气成分47种,以具花果香的醇类物质为主体,其中香叶醇含量达51.91%、水杨酸甲酯含量达13.14%、β-芳樟醇含量达9.91%,新产品表现出“嫩甜香、花果香显”的香气特征。

  6. 遂昌细嫩红茶加工技术%Processing Technology of Suichang Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伟忠

    2015-01-01

    Suichang tea industry is one of the pillar industries of agriculture in Lishui, which makes it one of the eight major Mee Tea export counties in the country. The development of Black Tea processing technology can optimize the tea area structure, improve the market competitiveness of tea products and increase the economic benefits of tea production. The main processing technology of Suichang Black Tea was withering-rolling-fermentation-drying-fragrance treatment. After hot air withering for 8~12 h in the withering trough tunnels with the temperature of 33~34 ℃, the leaves were rolled in order of light-heavy-light for about 2~4 h. Fermentation was in a basket for 2.5~3 h, turning once. Then the leaves were dried with hot air ( 110~120 ℃) for 1.5 h. At last, dried with the temperature 80~90 ℃ for 8~9 h as a fragrance treatment. The final product should be curl, black bloom, highly flavored, orange red liquid color with soft, fine and tender securinega.%遂昌是全国八大眉茶出口县之一,茶产业是丽水的农业支柱产业之一. 细嫩红茶加工技术的研制是优化地区茶类结构,提高茶产品市场竞争力的有效手段,有助于提高茶叶生产的经济效益. 其主要工艺技术为萎凋,把鲜叶放在热风萎凋槽,33~34 ℃热鼓风萎凋8~12 h;揉捻,掌握轻重轻原则,切勿重压,时间控制在2~4 h;发酵,发酵篮发酵2.5~3 h,中间翻动一次;毛火干燥,热风温度110~120 ℃,时间1.5 h;提香,80~90 ℃慢烘8~9h. 制得细嫩红茶紧细乌润、香高味醇,回甘持久,汤色橙红明亮、叶底细而柔软.

  7. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period.

  8. The Involvement of a Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Black Chokeberry in Oxidative Stress on Experimental Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ciocoiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the content of Aronia melanocarpa Elliott (black chokeberry extract and also to estimate the influence of polyphenolic compounds contained in chokeberries on oxidative stress, on an L-NAME-induced experimental model of arterial hypertension. The rat blood pressure values were recorded using a CODA Noninvasive Blood Pressure System. HPLC/DAD coupled with ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry allowed identification of five phenolic compounds in berries ethanolic extract as follows: chlorogenic acid, kuromanin, rutin, hyperoside, and quercetin. The serous activity of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px has significantly lower values in the hypertensive (AHT group as compared to the group protected by polyphenols (AHT + P. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC values are lower in the AHT group and they are significantly higher in the AHT + P group. All the measured blood pressure components revealed a biostatistically significant blood pressure drop between the AHT group and the AHT + P group. The results reveal the normalization of the reduced glutathion (GSH concentration as well as a considerable reduction in the malondialdehyde (MDA serum concentration in the AHT + P group. Ethanolic extract of black chokeberry fruits not only has a potential value as a prophylactic agent but also may function as a nutritional supplement in the management of arterial hypertension.

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya; Sachitra Gayanthi Ratnasooriya; Ranga Dissanayake

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP), broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF) and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown) were made and testedin vitro (concentration: 300µg/disc) against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria,Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC25923) (S. aureus) andBacillus cereus (ATCC11778) (B. cereus), and two Gram-negative bacteriaPseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC9027) (P. aeruginosa) andEscherichia coli (ATCC35218) (E. coli), using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10µg/disc) was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action againstP. aeruginosa andE. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted againstS. aureus andB. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further lowMIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 >BOPF >OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, andOP pocessin vitro antibacterial activity againstS. aureus andB. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteriaP. aeruginosa andE. coli.

  11. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  12. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses rat hepatic stellate cell invasion by inhibition of MMP-2 expression and its activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-chuan ZHEN; Xiao-hui HUANG; Qian WANG; Kai SUN; Yun-jian LIU; Wen LI; Long-Juan ZHANG; Liang-qi CAO; Xi-ling CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major component of green tea polyphenols, whose wide range of biological properties includes anti-fibrogenic activity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) that participate in extracellular matrix degradation are involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. The present study investigates whether EGCG inhibits activation of the major gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Methods: The expression of MMP-2, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), and membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. MMP-2 activity was evaluated by zymography and MT1-MMP activity was assessed by an enzymatic assay. HSC migration was measured by a wound healing assay and cell invasion was performed using Transwell cell culture chambers. Results: The expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein in HSC was substantially reduced by EGCG treatment. EGCG treatment also reduced con-canavalin A (ConA)-induced activation of secreted MMP-2 and reduced MT1-MMP activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EGCG inhibited either HSC migration or invasion. Conclusion: The abilities of EGCG to suppress MMP-2 activation and HSC invasiveness suggest that EGCG may be useful in the treatment and prevention of hepatic fibrosis.

  13. Scavenging Action of Zinc and Green Tea Polyphenol on Cisplatin and Nickel Induced Nitric Oxide Generation and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEEMA JOSHI; S. K. HASAN; RAMESH CHANDRA; M. M. HUSAIN; R.C.SRIVASTAVA

    2004-01-01

    Toxic metal ions have been implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Metallothionines (MT) and plant flavonoids have been reported in the intervention against oxidative damage. We investigated the effect of zinc induced MT and green tea polyphenol (GTP) in reducing the oxidative responses induced by nickel and platinum. Methods Zinc (10 mg/kg b. wt, sc) was administered to rats twice at a gap of 24hrs and GTP (10 mg/100 mL in drinking water) was fed ad libitum for 8 days. Nickel chloride (150 umol/kgb.wt, ip) and cisplatin (50 (mol/kg b.wt, sc) was administered to rats 24 h after Zn or GTP pre-treatment. Animals of all the groups were sacrificed 16 hrs after treatment and biochemical markers for toxicity were monitored. Results Zinc or GTP pre-treatment caused significant protection against nickel or cisplatin enhanced mortality in rats, and reduction in lipid peroxidation and NO. Conclusion It is proposed that inhibition of ROS and NO by GTP and zinc may prove useful as a selective pharmacological agent in the amelioration of metal toxicity.

  14. 不同方法提取茶多酚的比较研究%A comparison study on extracting tea polyphenols by different technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素霞; 魏秋红

    2009-01-01

    Using fresh tea as material,extracting the polyphenols by ultrasonic wave auxiliary method and the traditional organic solvent extraction method was comparison studied in this paper,the different effect on the extraction rate and quality was also studied too.The conclusion shows:the ultrasonic wave auxiliary method was better than the traditional organic solvent extraction method at the same condition,and have many advantages,for example the time-saving, the high efficiency, the low cost, the easy to operate, the improving product quality etc.%以新鲜茶叶为材料,比较研究了茶多酚超声波提取和传统有机溶剂提取两种工艺及其对茶多酚提取率和品质的影响.实验结果表明,同等条件下,超声波法具有省时、成本低、操作简便、提取率高、氧化损耗小、产品纯度高等优点,提高了产品的品质和收率,提取的效果优于传统有机溶剂法.

  15. Mechanisms of tea polyphenol attenuating radiationinduced damage in vitro or in vivo%茶多酚抗辐射研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亮宇; 林金科

    2011-01-01

    过量的辐射是多种疾病的主因,近年来摄入茶多酚被被认为有益健康,能够帮助人体抵御辐射。本文针对近年来茶多酚在体内和体外展开的实验,概括了茶多酚抗辐射的机理研究进展,新的研究理论表明茶多酚对人体健康有益,并阐释了茶多酚抗辐射的内在机理。%Excessive exposure to radiation is one of the major factors leading to the development of several diseases. For the past years, the consumption of tea polyphenol (TP) has been linked to numerous health bene? ts including anti-radiation of human body. In this paper, we have discussed the recent investigations and mechanistic studies which de? ne the potential anti-radiation efficacy of TP in vitro or in vivo. The new mechanistic investigations support the anti-radiation activity of TP and explain the bene? ts of for human health.

  16. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg quality, liver antioxidant stress and shorten the recovery time.

  17. Inhibitory effects of polyphenol-enriched extract from Ziyang tea against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondria molecular mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A polyphenol-enriched extract from selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea (ZTP was selected to evaluate its antitumor effects against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In ZTP, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (28.2% was identified as the major catechin, followed by (−-epigallocatechin (5.7% and (−-epicatechin gallate (12.6%. ZTP was shown to inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 172.2 μg/mL by blocking cell-cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptotic death. Western blotting assay indicated that ZTP induced cell-cycle arrest by upregulation of p53 and reduced the expression of CDK2 in MCF-7 cells. ZTP-caused cell apoptosis was associated with an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. MCF-7 cells treated with ZTP also showed an overproduction of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that reactive oxygen species played an important role in the induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This is the first report showing that ZTP is a potential novel dietary agent for cancer chemoprevention or chemotherapy.

  18. Green tea polyphenols induce cell death in breast cancer MCF-7 cells through induction of cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-min; Ou, Shi-yi; Huang, Hui-hua

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in treatment or prevention of breast cancer, the cytotoxic effects of GTPs on five human cell lines (MCF-7, A549, Hela, PC3, and HepG2 cells) were determined and the antitumor mechanisms of GTPs in MCF-7 cells were analyzed. The results showed that GTPs exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against the detected cancer cell lines, particularly the MCF-7 cells. Studies on the mechanisms revealed that the main modes of cell death induced by GTPs were cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that GTPs mediated cell cycle arrest at both G1/M and G2/M transitions. GTP dose dependently led to apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathways, as evidenced by induction of chromatin condensation, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m), improvement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of DNA fragmentation, and activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the present paper. PMID:28124838

  19. Protection against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-caused inflammation in SENCAR mouse ear skin by polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R; Ekker, S; Wood, G S; Mukhtar, H

    1993-03-01

    Earlier studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) possesses anti-skin tumor initiating and anti-skin tumor promoting activity in the two-stage skin tumorigenesis protocol in SENCAR mouse. We have also shown that topical application of GTP inhibits tumor promoter-caused induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity in SENCAR mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that its oral feeding in drinking water to SKH-1 hairless mice enhances antioxidant and phase II enzyme activity in liver, lung, small bowel and skin. In this study, we show that single or multiple applications of GTP on SENCAR mouse ear prior to or after the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) afford significant protection (P protection against TPA-induced hyperplasia in the ear skin. The percentage protection by GTP both in terms of epidermal thickness and vertical cell layers was 75 and 90% respectively (P protective effect of GTP against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils in the ear skin of SENCAR mouse, by determining a naturally occurring constituent of neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, as a quantitative marker of tissue neutrophil content. Prior application of GTP resulted in significant protection against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils (P < 0.005). These results suggest that GTP possesses potential as a cancer chemopreventive agent against stage I tumor promotion.

  20. Extraction of Theanine from Waste Liquid of Tea Polyphenol Production in Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Cationic and Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junwei; WANG Yan; PENG Qijun

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of theanine from waste liquid of tea polyphenol production was studied in aqueous surfactant two-phase system (ASTP) with cationic suffactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDS).Results indicate that the region of ASTP is narrow and there is only a two-phase region of cationic surfactant.The increase in concentrations of NaBr and Na2SO4 are beneficial to the formation of ASTP.Theanine concentration in the bottom phase increases with increasing concentration of theanine,whereas the partition coefficient and extraction rate only change a little when the concentration of theanine is above 0.2 g· L-1.With the increase of SDS concentration,the phase ratio and the partition coefficient decrease,while the extraction efficiency of theanine increases and the concentration of theaninc changes a little in the range from 2.4/7.5 to 2.8/7.2 for SDS/CTAB ratio.The temperature has a notable effect on the concentration of theanine in the bottom phase,partition coefficient and extraction rate of theanine.The increase of waste liquid decreases the phase ratio,increases the concentration and extraction rate of theanine in the bottom phase,since the protein and the saccharide enter the bottom phase with theanine.

  1. Green tea polyphenols alleviate obesity in broiler chickens through the regulation of lipid-metabolism-related genes and transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinbao; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Xie, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2013-09-11

    The current study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on lipid metabolism and its mechanisms using broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 36 male chickens (35 days old) had been subjected to an oral administration of GTPs at a dosage of 0, 50 (low), and 100 (high) mg/kg of body weight for 20 days. Our results showed that GTPs significantly decreased the abdominal and subcutaneous fat masses of broilers and reduced the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to those of the control. Furthermore, the expression levels for lipid anabolism genes were significantly downregulated, while the expression levels of fat transportation and catabolism-related genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT-I), acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in liver, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in abdominal fat, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscles, were notably upregulated. Our data have revealed that GTPs alleviate obesity and serum lipid levels in broiler chickens by suppressing fatty acid synthesis and stimulating lipolysis.

  2. IR Study on Tea Polyphenol Extracted by Polyamide/SiO2%聚酰胺/硅胶吸附茶多酚的红外光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅锦坤; 林种玉; 古萍英; 杨如; 曾金龙

    2000-01-01

      The main components of tea were extracted by the adsorbent of supported polyamide/SiO2 at room temperature. IR spectroscopy has been adopted to examine the interaction of polyamide with SiO2 as well as tea polyphenol with polyamide/SiO2. The result indicated that after polyamide adsorbed on SiO2, the vibration of O-H on the surface of SiO2 decreased from 3446cm-1 to 3426cm-1. The Si-O vibration decreased from 1101cm-1 to 1094cm-1. The C=O vibration at 1641cm-1 remained unchanged. After adsorption of tea polyphenol in a water solution with PA/ SiO2, the peak of C=O in polyamide molecular decreased from 1641cm-1 to 1630cm-1, and the band of O-H in tea polyphenol reduced from 3362cm-1 to 3344cm-1. On the other hand, no change was observed by IR Spectra in adsorption of coffeine or aminoacid with PA/ SiO2.%  IR谱表明:聚酰胺/硅胶吸附剂中,聚酰胺的N-H和硅胶表面OH以氢键结合,nC=O无位移;室温下该吸附剂中C=O和茶多酚中O-H作用后,nC=O和nO-H分别红移了11cm-1和18cm-1;而与咖啡因及氨基酸作用后nC=O无位移。

  3. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on Used Black Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B fromaqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism.The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-secondorder kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  4. Gas chromatographic method for the determination of hexaconazole residues in black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnachamy KARTHIKA; Paul James SACHIN

    2008-01-01

    A highly reliable, quantitative and sensitive analytical method for determining the residues of the fungicide, hexaconazole in black tea is described. The proposed method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatographic determination, using nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) for the identification and quantitation of hexaconazole. The most was cleaned up by adsorption column chromatography using activated florisil. Performance of the method was assessed by evaluating quality parameters such as recovery value, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. When the method was assessed for repeatability, the percentage of recovery ranged between 86% and 96% while the relative standard deviation was between 0.30% and 2.35%. In studies on reproducibility the recovery ranged from 81% to 85% and relative standard deviation from 1.68% to 5.13%, implying that the method was reliable. A field trial was conducted to verify the application of this method with real samples. Results prove that the validated method was suitable for extracting hexaconazole residues.

  5. Protective Role of Black Tea Extract against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Induced Skeletal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper aimed to examine the chemoprotective actions of aqueous black tea extract (BTE against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis- (NASH- induced skeletal changes in rats. Material. Wistar rats (body wt. 155–175 g of both sexes, aged 4–5 months, were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Group A (control, Group B (60% high-fat diet; HFD, and Group C (HFD + 2.5% BTE. Methods. Several urinary (calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and calcium-to-creatinine ratio serum (alkaline phosphatase and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and molecular markers of bone turnover (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and estrogen were tested. Also, several bone parameters (bone density, bone tensile strength, bone mineral content, and bone histology and calcium homeostasis were checked. Results. Results indicated that HFD-induced alterations in urinary, serum, and bone parameters as well as calcium homeostasis, all could be significantly ameliorated by BTE supplementation. Conclusion. Results suggest a potential role of BTE as a protective agent against NASH-induced changes in bone metabolism in rats.

  6. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto Used Black Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the kinetic and thermodynamic investigation of the adsorption of crystal violet (CV on used black tea leaves (UBTL from aqueous solution to evaluate the feasibility of the process. The effects of concentration, solution pH and temperature on adsorption kinetics were carried out in batch process. Kinetic studies have shown that the adsorption data partially follow simple first order, second order and pseudo second order kinetic equations for different initial concentrations at pH 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, equilibrium concentration and rate constant were calculated from better fitted pseudo second order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations. The equilibrium amount adsorbed (200 mg/g at 30 oC increased with the increase of temperature, indicated endothermic nature of the adsorption. The apparent activation energy of adsorption was determined from Arrhenius plot using pseudo second order rate constant and the value, Ea = 83.1 kJ/mol, revealed the process is chemisorption. Thermodynamic parameters: DHo, DGo and DSo, were determined from the equilibrium adsorption constant and the results obtained confirmed that the adsorption process was feasible, less spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium amount adsorbed was found to be increased with increase of solution pH from 2.0 to 6.0 indicating electrostatic interaction between cationic CV with anionic surface of UBTL dominated at higher pH due to the low zero point charge of pH of UBTL.

  7. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  8. Equilibrium adsorption of rhodamine B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carcinogenic dye like rhodamine B (Rh-B in textile wastewater affects the quality of water to consumers. The adsorption of Rh-B on used black tea leaves (UBTL was studied in batch process to investigate its removal efficiency. The effects of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH etc. on adsorption have been investigated. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of Rh-B at constant pH. The adsorption isotherms were constructed for different temperatures using acidic solution of pH 2.0. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Raduskevich (D-R equations were used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data. The experimental data follows Freundlich equation more precisely compare with the Langmuir one. The maximum amount adsorbed calculated from Langmuir equation is 72.5 mg/g at 30 oC which is increased with increasing temperature. Separation factor and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the process is favorable, spontaneous and endothermic nature. Possible mechanism of the process was elucidated from the effect of solution pH on amount adsorbed. The endothermic nature of the adsorption might be due to the fragmentation of Rh-B molecules during the adsorption process.

  9. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  10. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enh...

  11. Atividade das glicosidases na presença de chá verde e de chá preto Activity of glycosidases in the presence of green tea and black tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L.S. Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Várias plantas têm sido consideradas produtos terapêuticos, dentre elas destacam-se os chás verde e preto, popularmente utilizados para controle da hiperglicemia e obesidade. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o potencial inibitório sobre as enzimas α-amilase, α e β-glicosidases e o teor de compostos fenólicos do chá verde e do chá preto. O teor de compostos fenólicos encontrados foram de 80,8 ± 0,43 mg g-1 no chá preto e 32,0 ± 0,12 mg g-1 no chá verde. O chá verde e o chá preto, em condições de consumo, inibiram as enzimas em estudo, porém, após a simulação do fluido gástrico o inibidor presente no chá verde perdeu a ação. O chá preto deixou de inibir a α-amilase e apresentou inibição inalterada para α e β-glicosidases. Tais resultados sugerem que o chá preto pode ser auxiliar em dietas de restrição de carboidratos.Several plants have been considered therapeutic products, including green and black tea, popularly used to control hyperglycemia and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the enzymes α-amylase, α and β-glycosidases, as well as the content of phenolic compounds in green tea and black tea. The concentrations of phenolic compounds found were 80.8 ± 0.43 mg g-1 in black tea and 32.0 ± 0.12 mg g-1 in green tea. Under the tested conditions of use, green and black tea inhibited the enzyme under study. However, after simulation of the gastric fluid, the inhibitor present in green tea lost its action. Black tea no longer inhibited a-amylase and showed unaltered inhibition for α and β-glycosidases. These results suggest that black tea can be helpful in diets restricting carbohydrates.

  12. 葡萄多酚和茶多酚抗变异链球菌活性的比较%A comparison of the antimicrobial activity between grape polyphenol and tea polyphenol on Streptococcus mutans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晗; 张陶; 岳源; 乔梦婷; 李燕; 肖丽英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the antimicrobial activity of grape polyphenol (GP) and tea polyphenol (TP) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans). Methods The antimicrobial activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the diameter of inhibition zone which resulted from the standard susceptibility agar dilution technique and the filter paper disks test respectively. Results Both GP and TP had antimicrobial activity on the growth of S.mutans. The diameter of the inhibition zone was between 0.5~7.2 mm and increased with the concentration. The MIC of GP against S.mutans was 1 g·L-1, while the MIC of TP was 0.5g·L-1. Conclusion Both GP and TP could inhibit the growth of S.mutans. And the TP has a higher antimicrobial activity on the growth of S.mutans than GP, which could be applied in the development of oral health care products as a natural plant additiveto strengthen the effectiveness of caries prevention.%目的 比较葡萄多酚和茶多酚抗变异链球菌的活性.方法 采用滤纸片法和试管1/2稀释法,测定葡萄多酚和茶多酚对变异链球菌的抑菌圈和最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC).结果 葡萄多酚和茶多酚均对变异链球菌的生长有抑制作用,抑菌圈直径为0.5~7.2 mm,且随药物的MIC增大而增大.其MIC分别是1和0.5 g·L-1.结论 葡萄多酚和茶多酚均为良好的天然抗菌剂,对变异链球菌有较明显的抗菌活性,茶多酚的抑菌活性强于葡萄多酚,可添加于口腔保健用品中以增强防龋效果.

  13. Green tea polyphenols inhibit low-density lipoprotein-induced proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells%绿茶多酚抑制LDL诱导的血管平滑肌细胞增殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳平; 彭文烈; 赖文岩; 徐安龙

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the major mechanisms of intimal thickening in atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. Elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of green tea polyphenols on the proliferation and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in rat VSMCs simulated by native LDL. Rat aortic VSMCs were cultured and treated with LDL (100 μg/ml) in the absence or presence of green tea polyphenols, and the cell proliferation was subsequently quantified by non-radioactive MTS/PES assay and the cell cycle analyzed by flow cytometry. The p44/42 MAPK activity was evaluated by immunoblotting using anti-p44/42 phospho-MAPK antibody. Compared with the cells without polyphenol treatment, the proliferation of the VSMCs induced by LDL was dose-dependently inhibited by green tea polyphenols (P<0.05), with more numerous cells in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05) as shown by flow cytometry analysis. LDL significantly enhanced the p44/42 MAPK activity, an effect obviously inhibited by green tea polyphenols (at 100 μg/ml). These results suggest that green tea polyphenols can inhibit high levels of LDL-induced proliferation of phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK expression in rat VSMCs. Green tea polyphenols may, therefore,offer vascular protection by inhibiting VSMC growth in response to hypercholesterolemia.%观察绿茶多酚对低密度脂蛋白(LDL)刺激下离体大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞增殖和p44/42MAPK表达的影响.体外培养大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞,在LDL(100μg/ml)刺激时,应用不同剂量的绿茶多酚作用24 h后,采用MTS/PES法确定血管平滑肌细胞的增殖状态.应用流式细胞术测定细胞周期,p44/42磷酸化抗MAPK抗体的蛋白免疫印迹法测定MAPK蛋白表达.与未经LDL处理的平滑肌细胞相

  14. Effect of tea polyphenols in preservative coating on the storage quality of huanghua pear fruit%涂膜保鲜剂中添加茶多酚对黄花梨贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘开华; 邢淑婕

    2012-01-01

    The study was to explore the feasibility of using preservative coating mixed with natural antibacterial and antioxidant materials for fresh-keeping of Huanghua pear fruit. Chitosan blended with tea Polyphenols were used to preserve Huanghua pear fruit , respiratory intensity , activity of PPO , vitamin C content, hardness and decay rate of Huanghua pear were measured to study the fresh-keeping effects of different preservative coating on Huanghua pear fruit. The results showed that the changes of the measured indexes of composite of tea polyphenol and chitosan were superior to its monofacto-rial used, composite preservative coating could inhibit the activity of PPO, postpone occurrence time of respiratory peak , reduce the decay rate of the Huanghua pear fruit to a certain extent,delay the decline of the fruit's vitamin C. Meanwhile, it was found that 0. 3% Tea Polyphenols in the coating of chitosan exhibited the best fresh-keeping effect on the Huanghua pear fruit. Chitosan blended with tea Polyphenols could obviously lengthen the shelf life of Huanghua pear.%探讨壳聚糖与天然抑菌抗氧化物质茶多酚对黄花梨进行涂膜保鲜的可行性.用荼多酚和壳聚糖混合液处理黄花梨,结合PE保鲜袋包装贮藏,测定贮藏过程中果实呼吸强度、多酚氧化酶( polyphenol oxidase,PPO)活性、VC含量、果实硬度及腐烂率等各项指标的变化.结果表明,壳聚糖联合荼多酚对黄花梨的保鲜效果优于单一保鲜剂,涂膜剂中添加茶多酚可明显抑制多酚氧化酶活性、延缓果实呼吸高峰出现的时间、降低黄花梨的烂果率,VC的保存率高于对照组.涂膜保鲜剂中添加茶多酚量为0.3%时保鲜效果最佳.壳聚糖中添加茶多酚能够明显延长黄花梨的保鲜期.

  15. Role of dietary polyphenols in attenuating brain edema and cell swelling in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are enriched in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. Recent interest...

  16. On the Response Surface Optimization of the Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Process to Shiqian Moss Tea Polyphenol%石阡苔茶茶多酚超声波辅助提取工艺的响应面优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田夫

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨石阡苔茶茶多酚提取的最佳工艺条件,以石阡苔茶为原料,蒸馏水为提取溶剂,采用四因素三水平的响应面分析法,建立了料液比、超声波提取时间、提取温度和超声波功率四因子与茶多酚提取率的回归方程模型。结果表明:超声提取温度为75℃,超声波提取时间为34min,超声功率为348W,液料比为22:1V/W时,茶多酚提取率达到29.0557%,与最佳值(29.0592%)基本吻合。经优化的石阡苔茶茶多酚的提取工艺具有提取时间短、提取率高与毒性小等优点。%This article, with a view to exploring the optimal extraction condition of Shiqian Moss Tea polyphenol, using Shiqian Moss Tea as raw materials and distilled water as extraction solvents and adopting three-level-four-factor response surface analytical approach, establishes the feed liquid ratio, ultrasonic extraction time and temperature as well as the regression equation model based on the four-factor ultrasonic power and the tea polyphenol extraction rate. The result shows that the temperature is 75℃, the time is 38 mins, the power is 348w and the ratio is 22:1 V/W. The tea polyphenol extraction efficiency reaches 29.0557%, which is nearly consistent with the optimum value (29.0592%). After being optimized, the extraction condition of Shiqian Moss Tea polyphenol bears such merits as short extraction time, high extraction efficiency and small toxicity.

  17. LOGIKA FUZZY DAN JARINGAN SYARAT TIRUAN UNTUK PENINGKATAN MUTU TEH HITAM [Fuzzy Logic an Artificial Neural Network for Quality Improvement of Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatulloh 1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed quality improvement of black tea using fuzzy approach on quality functions deployment and the development of backpropagation neural the software NWP II plus. The research was conducted at PTPN VIII tea industry, Goalpara plantation. Result of the study showed that, parameter first priority based on customer evaluation was tea flavour. The Important process parameter of black tea based on result of fuzzy relationship matrix was the withering process. Based on the test of “trial and error” of network training process, the best network architecture for withering process monitoring [3-15-1] was obtained, that is 3 neurons in input layer, 15 neurons in hidden layer and 1 neuron in output layer. Three inputs and output consist of time, flow, temperature and moisture content. The result sugges that development of backpropagation neural network can be used for process evaluation of withering processes.

  18. Research Advances of Processing Technology of Congou Black Tea%工夫红茶加工新工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常笑君; 周子维; 朱晨; 王仲; 赵姗姗; 郭玉琼

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous innovation of processing technology of Congou black tea, the quality of Congou black tea has been improved, which gives more flavor choices for consumers.In this research, we summarized and discussed the process crafts and their impacts on the qual-ity of Congou black tea, and described the emerging on the production means of Congou black tea.This article aimed to providing a theoretical basis and reference for technology advances and researches on quality of Congou black tea.%工夫红茶加工工艺不断创新,品质不断提高,给消费者带来更多风味品质的选择。就工夫红茶的加工工艺及其对品质的影响展开归纳和探讨,并阐述了工夫红茶生产上的新兴技术手段,旨在为工夫红茶工艺进展和品质研究提供理论依据和参考。

  19. 葡聚糖凝胶LH-20分离制备生物碱、无咖啡碱茶多酚和茶色素工艺研究%Study on the method of separation and preparation purine alkaloids,noncaffeine tea polyphenols and tea pigments in one-step by sephadex LH-20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭和平; 李怀平; 许洋; 管驰; 冉莉萍; 唐祥凯; 宋航

    2013-01-01

    本研究建立了一种环保高效同时分离制备生物碱、无咖啡碱茶多酚和茶色素的葡聚糖凝胶LH-20柱层析方法.第一步使用蒸馏水分离茶色素和生物碱;第二步采用60%(v/v)乙醇溶液反向洗脱得到无咖啡碱茶多酚产品.经定量分析,生物碱得率3.14%,其中含93.87%咖啡碱和6.08%可可碱.茶多酚的得率为12.27%,纯度为98.13%,其中儿茶素含量高达90.28%,抗氧化活性最强的EGCG含量达61.17%,咖啡碱未检出.柱层析对生物碱和茶多酚的回收率分别为98.14%和86.36%.副产的茶色素主要含有一些多酚氧化物以及黄酮苷类混合物,可作为天然色素利用.%A simple and clean method of separation and preparation purine alkaloids,noncaffeine tea polyphenols and tea pigments from green tea by sephadex LH-20 column chromatography was developed.Distilled water was used as the eluting agent for purine alkaloids and tea pigments in the first stepwise elution,and tea polyphenols was eluted with 60%(v/v) ethanol solution by using reversed flow in the second stepwise elution.The yield of purine alkaloids was 3.14% with the 93.87% caffeine and 6.08% theobromine.The yield of tea polyphenols was 12.27% with the purity about 98.13% and the content of catechins was 90.28%.The content of EGCG which had the strongest antioxidant activity was 61.17%,and the content of caffeine in tea polyphenols had not been detected by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The recovery of tea polyphenols and purine alkaloids by column chromatography were 98.14% and 86.36% respectively.The byproduct of tea pigment containing polyphenol oxides and flavonoid glycosides mixture,can be used as natural pigments.

  20. 茶汤中抗氧化物活性对比研究%Comparison of the Antioxidant Activity among Different Tea Soups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文霞

    2016-01-01

    Several typical green tea(including Biluochun and High mountain green tea), oolong tea(including Tieguanyin, Rougui and Shuixian) and black tea(including Zhengshanxiaozhong and Tanyanggongfu) were used as the samples for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. The tea polyphenol content in tea powder extrac-tion was compared with that of tea soup. Then, the radical scavenging activity (ABTS+·and DPPH·scavenging activity) and reducing activity (FRAP assay for reducing ability to ferric iron) of tea soup were measured. The results indicated that green tea powder extraction and soup had the highest tea polyphenols content, followed by oolong tea and black tea, except for Tieguanyin. The radical scavenging activity and reducing activity of green tea soup were the highest, while the antioxidant activity of oolong tea soup was lower than green tea but higher than black tea, except for Tieguanyin. Through correlation analysis, it was found that the antioxidant activity of tea soup was highly correlated to its tea polyphenol content, which may relate to the degree of fermentation of tea during process. Due to the unique kneading process, Tieguanyin had the highest compaction degree, which makes the tea soup had the lowest tea polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. In addition, tea polyphenol content of tea soup was less than tea powder extraction, but still had a strong antioxidant activity. It will play a guiding role in the study of tea soup for human health.%随机选取市售几种典型绿茶(碧螺春、高山绿茶)、乌龙茶(铁观音、肉桂、水仙)及红茶(正山小种、坦洋工夫)作为研究对象,比较各茶种茶粉的水浸提液与沸水冲泡茶叶而得的茶汤中的茶多酚含量;并测定茶汤的自由基清除活性(人工合成自由基DPPH·与ABTS+·的清除活性)和体外还原活性(FRAP法测定其对三价铁的还原力)。试验结果表明,绿茶的茶粉浸提液与冲泡茶汤的茶多酚含

  1. Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tangney, Christy; Rasmussen, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and ...

  2. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver.

  3. Effect of tea polyphenols and astaxanthin on antioxide of fish oil of Nan-Wan sand gurnard%虾青素联合茶多酚对南湾鳙鱼油抗氧化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢淑婕; 刘开华

    2012-01-01

    Objective; The study was to explore the feasibility of using astaxanthin and tea polyphenols in fresh - keeping of Nan - Wan Sand Gurnard fish. Method; The fish oil were extracted from fish flake by chloroform - ethanol method , staxanthin blended with tea polyphenols were added fish oil stored at 60℃. The changes of acid value and peroxide value of fish oil at a certain period of time were measured. Fish oil oxidization and antioxidation were tested and compared by five kinds of antioxidants: astaxanthin, tea polyphenols, tert - butyl hydroquinone ( TBHQ) , butyl-hydroxyanisd (BHA) and VE Result; Antioxidants significantly inhibited the increase of acid value and peroxide value of fish oil, each antioxidant had different activities to fish oil; TBHQ was bitter than astaxanthin, followed by tea polyphenols, BHA and vitamin E. Antioxidant compound had the same anti -oxidation effect on fish oil as TBHQ. The optimum combination of antioxidant compound was tea polyphenol 0. 02% and astaxanthin 0. 02%. It prolonged the storage time from 20d to 120d. Conclusion; Compared with the control test, antioxidant compound with 0.02% tea polyphenols and 0. 02% astaxanthin exhibited the best antioxidation effect on Nan - Wan Sand Gurnard fish oil.%目的:分析虾青素联合茶多酚对南湾鳙鱼进行保鲜的可行性.方法:三氯甲烷-乙醇法从南湾鳙鱼肉糜中提取鱼油,将虾青素和油溶性茶多酚的混合物添加到在烘箱强化保存条件下(60℃~65℃)的鱼油中,定时测定鱼油酸价、过氧化值等指标的变化,并和虾青素、茶多酚、叔丁基对苯二酚(TBHQ)、丁基羟基茴香醚(BHA)、维生素E五种单一抗氧化剂对鱼油的抗氧化作用进行比较,考查虾青素和茶多酚联合作用对南湾鳙鱼油抗氧化性能的影响.结果:鱼油中添加抗氧化剂可明显抑制酸价和过氧化值的上升,单一抗氧化剂对南湾鳙鱼油的抗氧化性能表现为:TBHQ>虾青素>油溶性

  4. Root canal filling material added with tea polyphenols inhibits the generation of Candida albicans biofilm%根管充填材料加入茶多酚抑制白色念珠菌生物膜的生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖; 吕庆; 康梁; 张慧明

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Candida albicans biofilms can influence the prognosis of root canal fil ing, and tea polyphenols can in vitro inhibit the Candida albicans biofilm, while the antibacterial mechanism may play the role through influencing or interfering the expression of resistance gene. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of root canal fil ing material added with tea polyphenols on Candida albicans biofilm. METHODS: Constant broth dilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of tea polyphenols in vitro inhibited Candida albicans biofilms, in order to identify the inhibitory effect. Then the expressions of Candida albicans resistance genes CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 were detected with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction after inhibited with tea polyphenols. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The minimum inhibitory concentration of tea polyphenols used to inhibit Candida albicans biofilm was 11.5 mg/mL. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results showed that expressions of related resistance genes CDR1 and CDR2 were decreased with the gradient increasing of drug concentration, and when the concentration reached to 25 mg/mL or above, the mRNA expression level was completely inhibited, while the concentration of the resistance drug has less effect on the expression of resistance drug MDR1. Tea polyphenols has inhibitory effect on Candida albicans biofilm, and has significant inhibitory effect on the expressions of experimental selected resistance genes CDR1 and CDR2.%  背景:白色念珠菌生物膜是根管充填治疗预后的影响因素,茶多酚体外可能对白色念珠菌生物膜有抑菌作用,其抑菌机制可能通过影响或干扰相关耐药基因的表达而实现。目的:探讨根管充填材料加入茶多酚对白色念珠菌生物膜的抑制作用。方法:采用常量肉汤稀释法确定茶多酚体外对白色念珠菌生物膜的最小抑菌浓度,以此判断抑菌效果,然后用

  5. Research and application of antioxidant properties of Lipid-soluble tea polyphenols%脂溶性茶多酚抗氧化性能的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应乐; 蒋晓翠; 姚波; 王岳飞; 杨贤强

    2012-01-01

    Producing good quality Lipid - soluble Tea Polyphenols (LTP) was the research focus at home and abroad. Tea polyphenols, modification by solvent, emulsion and molecular modification were reviewed in this paper. And the advantages and disadvantages among these three methods were compared. The antioxidant properties of liphophilic tea polyphenols and its mechanism were introduced. Its antioxidant properties in different antioxidant systems were compared. At same time, the experiments of LTP products which were manufactured by Puremedie Biotechnology ( HangZhou ) Co, Ltd indicated the applications in the edible - oil, meat, various bakery, various condiments, pet food industries etc.%利用溶剂法、乳化法和分子修饰法等技术对茶多酚进行改性,以制备具有较好脂溶性的改性茶多酚一直是国内外研究的热点之一.本文就目前用于茶多酚改性的三种方法及其优缺点,以及改性后的脂溶性茶多酚的抗氧化性能与机理进行综述和总结,并例举普丽美地生物科技(杭州)有限公司生产的脂溶性茶多酚在油脂、烘培食品、肉制品、调味品、宠物食品等领域的应用.

  6. 商洛绿茶茶多酚制备工艺优化及其抗氧化活性研究%Prepa rait on Te chno logy Optimization and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol from Shangluo Green Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何念武; 田珍珍; 王新军

    2015-01-01

    采用正交试验法对商洛绿茶茶多酚的制备工艺进行了优化,并从DPPH自由基、羟基自由基、超氧阴离子、ABTS自由基和总还原力方面分别检测了商洛绿茶茶多酚的体外抗氧化活性。研究表明:商洛绿茶茶多酚的最佳提取工艺条件为液料比20∶1、浸提温度60℃、乙醇浓度50%、浸提时间30 min;商洛绿茶茶多酚具有较强的抗氧化活性,并且呈现出良好的量-效关系。%The preparation technology of polyphenol from Shangluo green tea was optimized through orthogonal test, and its an-tioxidant activity in vitro was determined from the aspects of DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, ABTS free radi-cal and total reducing power.The optimum extraction process conditions for Shangluo green tea polyphenol were acquired as follows:liquid-material ratio 20∶1, extraction temperature 60 ℃, ethanol concentration 50%, and extraction time 30 min.The Shangluo green tea polyphenol had a strong antioxidant activity, which showed a good dose-response relationship.

  7. Pharmacokinetic and Chemoprevention Studies on Tea in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, H-H Sherry; Hakim, Iman A

    2011-01-01

    Green tea and its major polyphenols constituents, tea catechins, have been shown to have many health benefits including cancer prevention. Tea catechins and tea catechin metabolites/catabolites are bioavailable in the systemic circulation after oral intake of green tea or green tea catechins. The metabolites/catabolites identified in humans include glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, methylated tea catechin conjugates, and microflora-mediated ring fission products and phenolic acid catabolites. P...

  8. The Processing Technology of Mulberry Black Tea Beverage%桑葚红茶饮料制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明明; 葛丹丹; 马泉来; 殷丹婷; 李艾黎; 李洪羽

    2012-01-01

    With mulberry and black tea as the main raw materials to make mulberry black beverage, the optimal technological conditions were determined, the extraction pH of black tea was controlled at about 4.5, extraction time was 3 h, the ratio of tea to water was 1:50, the ratio of mulberry to black tea juice was 2:8, the addition of VC was 0.03%, sterilization temperature was 105 ℃. The product showed fresh tea aroma and rich fruit aroma, and had a sweet and sour taste.%以桑葚和红茶为主要原料研制桑葚红茶饮料,确定最佳制作工艺条件为:红茶浸提pH控制在4.5左右,浸提时间3h,茶水比为1∶50,桑葚汁液:红茶汤为2∶8,VC添加量为0.03%,灭菌温度为105℃,所制得的产品茶香清新,果香浓郁,酸甜可口.

  9. Thirteen-week oral dose toxicity study of Oligonol containing oligomerized polyphenols extracted from lychee and green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadate, Kentaro; Homma, Kohei; Roberts, Ashley; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    Oligonol is a functional food containing catechin-type monomers and proanthocyanidin oligomer converted from polymer forms via a novel manufacturing process. The catechin component of green tea extract has been associated with nasal toxicity in rats following subchronic exposure. To assess the potential for Oligonol to induce nasal toxicity a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity study was conducted in rats using doses of 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg/d. Clinical signs and mortality were not affected by Oligonol treatment. Compound-colored stools and an increase in food consumption were observed in some treated groups; however, there were no treatment-related differences in terminal body weights or with respect to the results of the gross postmortem examinations. Histopathological evaluation of the nasal cavity tissues revealed no treatment-related lesions. The results from this toxicity study indicate that Oligonol does not induce nasal toxicity and further supports the results of previous studies demonstrating the safety of Oligonol for human consumption.

  10. Effect of the antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols and vitamin C to olive oil%茶多酚和维生素C对橄榄油抗氧化性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春利; 李京东

    2012-01-01

    研究了TP和VC对橄榄油抗氧化作用的影响,结果表明TP对橄榄油的抗氧化作用优于VC,当茶多酚的浓度为0.05%~ 0.06%时,对增强橄榄油的抗氧化性效果最好,且TP中添加VC有明显的抗氧化增效作用.%The article studied the effects of the antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols and vitamin C to olive oil,the results showed that TP antioxidant effects to olive oil was better than VC, when the concertration of polyphenols is from 0.05% to 0.06% .effect of improving the antioxidant activity of olive oil is best,and TP in adding Vc have significant antioxidant synergistic effect.

  11. 茶多酚对新鲜原果汁保鲜效果的影响%Preservation Effects of Tea Polyphenols in Fresh Crude Juices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟艳梅; 李耀斌

    2011-01-01

    将茶多酚添加到苹果汁、橙子汁和雪梨汁这三种常见果汁中,与山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠比较研究其对新鲜原果汁的保鲜效果.结果表明,100mg/kg的茶多酚与500mg/kg的山梨酸钾防腐效果相当,对酵母菌、大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌均有明显抑制作用,能有效保持果汁原有风味并延长保鲜期7~10d.三种果汁中,茶多酚对苹果汁的保鲜效果最好,其次是橙子汁,对雪梨汁的保鲜效果则不明显.%Tea polyphenols (TP) was added to three types ofjuices of apple, orangeade and pear and its preservative effect on the juice was compared with potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. Results showed that 100 mg/kg TP had similar presevative effect to 500 mg/kg potassium sorbate. The flavors of the juices could be held and their shelf-life were lengthened to 7~10 days. In addition, TP had obvious inhibition effect on yeast, E. coli and Staphylococci. In those juices, TP showed the highest preservative effects on the apple juices, followed by orangeade juices, and pear juices.

  12. Effects of long-term tea polyphenols consumption on hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes and liver function in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao-Tao Liu; Ning-Sheng Liang; Yan Li; Fan Yang; Yi Lu; Zi-Qing Meng; Li-Sheng Zhang,

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of long-term tea polyphenols (TPs) consumption on hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes and liver function in rats.METHODS: TPs were administered intragastrically to rats at the doses of 833 mg.kg-1.d-1 (n=20) and 83.3 mg.kg-1@d-1 (n=20) respectively for six months. Controlled group (n=20)was given same volume of saline solution. Then the contents of cytochrome P450, bS, enzyme activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase (ADM), glutathione S-trasferase (GST) and the biochemical liver function of serum were determined.RESULTS: The contents of cytochrome P450 and b5 in the livers of male rats in high dose groups (respectively 2.66±0.55,10.43±2.78 nmol.mg MS pro-1) were significantly increased compared with the control group (1.08±1.04, 5.51±2.98nmol.mg MS pro-1; P<0.01, respectively). The enzymatic activities of ADM in the livers of female rats in high dose groups (0.91±0.08 mmol@mg MS pro-1min-1) were increased compared with the control group (0.82±0.08 mmol.mg MS pro-1.min-1; P<0.05). The GST activity was unchanged in all treated groups, and the function of liver was not obviously changed.CONCLUSION: The antidotal capability of rats' livers can be significantly improved after long-term consumption of TPs.There are differences in changes of drug-metabolizing enzymes between the sexes induced by TPs and normal condition.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITE BEVERAGE OF ROSE AND BLACK TEA%玫瑰红茶复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞芸; 贾媛

    2011-01-01

    The composite beverage of rose and black tea was processed with rose, black tea and sugar as the main materials. The optimum extraction formula of rose was: adding 0.4% rose powder and extracting at 80 ℃ for 15 minutes. The optimum extraction formula of black tea was: adding 0.4% black tea powder and extracting at 60 ℃ for 20 minutes. The optimum formula of the composite beverage was: adding 2.0% sugar in the mixed solution( the extracting solution of rose: black tea = 2:3 ) . The product had rose flavor and black tea aromas which soluble solid level was 4%.%以玫瑰、红茶、白砂糖为主要原料,研制玫瑰红茶复合饮料.通过试验分别确定了玫瑰、红茶的最佳浸提工艺及复合饮料的最佳配方.结果表明,玫瑰的最佳浸提工艺为:玫瑰粉加量0.4%,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间15min;红茶的最佳浸提工艺为:红茶粉加量0.4%,浸提温度60℃,浸提时间20min.玫瑰红茶复合饮料的最佳配方为:玫瑰与红茶提取液体积比2∶3,白砂糖2.0%.该产品可溶性固形物含量为4%,具有玫瑰花的清香和红茶浓郁的香味,酸甜可口,色泽鲜亮.

  14. 茶多酚对运动大鼠抗疲劳作用的实验研究%The experimental study about anti-fatigue effect of the tea polyphenol on the movement of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜云

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过实验观察补充茶多酚提取物对SD大鼠运动疲劳的作用.方法 将50只雄性SD大鼠随机分为5组:安静组和模型组不给药,每天蒸馏水灌胃;高、中、低剂量组分别给予300,150,50 mg/kg的茶多酚提取物.30 d后,检测大鼠跑台力竭时间、运动后血乳酸水平、乳酸脱氢酶活力和血清尿素氮水平.结果 茶多酚提取物可增加大鼠力竭时间,提高运动后大鼠血乳酸脱氢酶活力,同时降低大鼠运动后血乳酸及尿素氮水平,尤以300 mg/kg剂量的效果最明显.结论 实验结果说明茶多酚提取物对运动大鼠有明显的抗疲劳作用.%Aim To experimentally observe the effect of the tea polyphenol extract on SD rats in terms of the sports fatigue. Methods 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: quiet group and model group daily tap water lavage; high, medium, low dose groups were given 300,150, 50 mg/kg tea polyphenol extract. After 30 days, the rats' treadmill exhaustive time, blood lactic acid after exercise level, lactic acid dehydrogenase activity and serum urea nitrogen level were detected. Results Tea polyphenol extracts can increase rats' exhaustive time, improve the blood lactate dehydrogenase activity, while reducing the rats after-exercise blood lactic acid and blood urea nitrogen levels, especially in the 300 mg/kg dose group, the effect is the most obvious. Conclusion The ex-periment results show that tea polyphenol extract has obvious anti-fatigue effect.

  15. 茶多酚的功效特性及其在军用食品中的开发应用%Functions of Tea Polyphenol and Its Applications in Military Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晨琛; 程鹏

    2011-01-01

    茶多酚具有抑菌、抗病毒、免疫调节、抗氧化等诸多功能,可在军用食品中开发保健食品、抗氧化剂、防腐剂、食用色素及稳定剂等,应用前景广阔.%Tea polyphenol has many functions such as bacteriostasic activity, anti-viral effect, immunoregulative effect and oxidation resistance. Its applications in military food were introduced, including health food, antioxidant, antiseptic, edible pigment and color stability.

  16. Effects of Tea Polyphenol on Calcification and Reactive Oxygen Metabolism of Chestnuts%茶多酚对板栗"石灰化"及活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖豪; 顾采琴; 张倩; 朱冬雪; 郑志茂; 邱浩纯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨抗氧化剂茶多酚对板栗"石灰化"及活性氧代谢的影响.[方法]以新鲜板栗为试材,经2%、4%、6%茶多酚溶液处理后进行常温贮藏,测定贮藏过程中"石灰化"指数、超氧阴离子(O2)产生速率、过氧化氢(H202)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的变化以及膜脂过氧化产物(丙二醛,MDA)含量的变化.[结果]经2%茶多酚溶液处理的板栗"石灰化"指数受到显著抑制.进一步研究表明,2%茶多酚溶液处理能使板栗的SOD和CAT活性高于对照,而O2产生速率和H202积累量低于对照,减少MDA积累,从而抑制板栗过氧化作用.[结论]适宜浓度的茶多酚处理可降低板栗贮藏过程中的活性氧产生,抑制"石灰化"发生.%[Objective] The effects of antioxidant tea polyphenol on calcification and reactive oxygen species of fresh chestnuts were investigated. [Method] Fresh chestnuts treated with 2%, 4%, or 6% tea polyphenol solutions were stored under room temperature, and then calcification indexes, O2- production rate, H2O2 content, SOD and CAT activities and content of MDA(malondialdehyde) (a membrane lipid peroxidation product of chestnuts) during storage were detected. [Result] The calcification indexes of chestnuts were significantly inhibited the calcification index of chestnuts. Furthermore, SOD and CAT activities of chestnuts treated with 2% tea polyphenol were higher, while O2- production rate and H2O2 accumulation were lower as compared with chestnuts of control, indicating an inhibition of peroxidation with a lower MDA accumulation. [Conclusion]Treatment with tea polyphenol solution at a suitable concentration reduced active oxygen production and thus inhibited the calcification occurrence of chestnuts during storage.

  17. 茶多酚、鞣酸抗细菌生长、粘附能力的研究%Effects of tea polyphenol and tennic acid on the bacteria growth and adhensive abilities oral medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚敏; 梁景平; 朱彩莲

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨茶多酚、鞣酸对致龋菌生长、粘附能力的影响。方法 参照已有的茶多酚、鞣酸溶液MIC,观察不同浓度药液中变链菌Ing、6715和粘放菌ATCC19246的生长、粘附情况。结果 茶多酚对变链菌Ing的生长有较强的抑制能力,而鞣酸对三种受试菌的生长均有较强抑制能力。二药对变链菌Ing、6715有轻微的抗粘附活性,对粘放菌19246则无作用。结论 茶多酚、鞣酸具有一定的抑制细菌生长能力,并对变链菌Ing、6715有轻微的抗粘附活性。%Objective.To study the effects of teap olyphenol and tennic acid on the growth and adherence abilities of the cariogenic bacteria.Methods.Solution of tea polyphenol and tennic acid were made up with different concentration on the known MIC.The growth and a dherence amount of S.mutans Ing,S.sobrinus 6715 and A.v ATCC19246 in the solution were observed.Results.The growth ability of S.mutans Ing could be inhibited by tea polyphenol,whereas the growth abilities of all the bacteria could be inhibited by tennic acid.The adherence abilities of S.mutans Ing and S.sobrinus 6715 were midly inhibited by tea polyphenol and tennic acid,A.v ATCC19246 was not effected by the medicals.Conclusion.Tea polyphenol and tennic acid have some abilities to inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria,and the adherence abilities of S.mutans Ing and S.sobrinus 6715 could be mildly inhibited.

  18. Determination of the total polyphenol in Anhua dark-tea by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry%Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定安化黑茶中茶多酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗堃; 何群; 葛云鹏; 谭琥; 邹龙; 彭思源; 刘朝勇

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立安化黑茶中茶多酚含量的测定方法,以控制安化黑茶及其加工品质量.方法 依据GB/T8313-2008,采用Folin-Ciocaheu (FC)试剂和没食子酸对照品,运用分光光度法测定黑茶中茶多酚的含量.测定条件为:0.2 mol/L的FC试剂5 mL,7.5%Na2CO3溶液4 mL,25℃反应1h后于765 nm处测定吸光度.结果 没食子酸浓度在0.49~4.9 μg/mL范围内与吸光度的线性关系良好,平均回收率为98.0%,RSD为1.4%.测得3批安化黑茶茶多酚的平均含量为2.49%,RSD为1.3%.结论 建立的方法准确、可靠,可用于测定安化黑茶及其加工品中的茶多酚含量.%Objective To establish a method for determination of the content of total polyphenols in Anhua dark-tea.Methods According to GB/T 8313-2008,the total polyphenol content in Anhua dark-tea was analyzed by spectrophotometry with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and Gallic acid used as standards.The optimal determination conditions could be calculated according to the absorption at 765 nm by reacting 5 mL 0.2 mol/L Folin-Ciocalteu with 4 mL 7.5% Na2CO3 for an hour at 25 ℃.Results In this method,the concentration of Gallic acid showed a good linearity with absorbance at the range of 0.49 to 4.9 μg/mL,the average recovery was 98.0%,and RSD was 1.4%.The to