WorldWideScience

Sample records for black tea extract

  1. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  2. Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D; Prabhu, Saileta; Meng, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Maliakal, Pius; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S

    2004-01-01

    Catechins and theaflavins, polyphenolic compounds derived from tea (Camellia sinensis, fam. Theaceae), have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities including prevention of tooth decay and oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness of green tea leaves and black tea extract for the delivery of catechins and theaflavins to the oral cavity. After holding either green tea leaves (2 g) or brewed black tea (2 g of black tea leaves in 100 ml) in the mouth for 2-5 min and thoroughly rinsing the mouth, high concentrations of catechins (C(max) = 131.0-2.2 micro M) and theaflavins (C(max) = 1.8-0.6 micro M) were observed in saliva in the 1st hour. Whereas there was significant interindividual variation in the peak levels of catechins and theaflavins, the overall kinetic profile was similar, with t(1/2) = 25-44 min and 49-76 min for catechins and theaflavins, respectively (average coefficient of variation in t(1/2) was 23.4%). In addition to the parent catechin and theaflavin peaks, five unidentified peaks were also observed in saliva after black tea treatment. Hydrolysis of theaflavin gallates, apparently by salivary esterases, was observed in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that tea leaves can be used as a convenient, slow-release source of catechins and theaflavins and provide information for the possible use of tea in the prevention of oral cancer and dental caries. PMID:14744744

  3. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion. Also, people who drink black tea or other ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide ( ...

  4. Anti-melanogenic effects of black, green, and white tea extracts on immortalized melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Chul; Choi, So Young; Park, Eun Ye

    2015-01-01

    Tea contains polyphenols and is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Because most tyrosinase inhibitors that regulate melanogenesis are phenol/catechol derivatives, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Camellia sinensis water extracts (CSWEs), including black tea, green tea, and white tea extracts, on melanogenesis using immortalized melanocytes. CSWEs inhibited melanin accumulation and melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were superior to those of arbutin, a well-known depigmenting agent. The anti-melanogenic activity of black (fermented) tea was higher than that of a predominant tea catecholamine, epigallocatechin gallate. CSWEs, especially black tea extract, decreased tyrosinase protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-melanogenic effect of CSWEs is mediated by a decrease in both tyrosinase activity and protein expression, and may be augmented by fermentation. Thus, CSWEs could be useful skin-whitening agents in the cosmetic industry. PMID:25643794

  5. Anti-melanogenic effects of black, green, and white tea extracts on immortalized melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Chul; Choi, So Young; Park, Eun Ye

    2015-01-01

    Tea contains polyphenols and is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Because most tyrosinase inhibitors that regulate melanogenesis are phenol/catechol derivatives, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Camellia sinensis water extracts (CSWEs), including black tea, green tea, and white tea extracts, on melanogenesis using immortalized melanocytes. CSWEs inhibited melanin accumulation and melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were superior to those of arbutin, a well-known depigmenting agent. The anti-melanogenic activity of black (fermented) tea was higher than that of a predominant tea catecholamine, epigallocatechin gallate. CSWEs, especially black tea extract, decreased tyrosinase protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-melanogenic effect of CSWEs is mediated by a decrease in both tyrosinase activity and protein expression, and may be augmented by fermentation. Thus, CSWEs could be useful skin-whitening agents in the cosmetic industry.

  6. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  7. Effect of different doses of un-fractionated green and black tea extracts on thyroid physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; De, Neela; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy

    2011-08-01

    Tea is a rich source of polyphenolic flavonoids including catechins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of it. Flavonoids have been reported to have antithyroid and goitrogenic effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of green and black tea have a harmful effect on thyroid physiology. Un-fractionated green and black tea extracts were administered orally to male rats for 30 days at doses of 1.25 g%, 2.5 g% and 5.0 g%. The results showed that green tea extract at 2.5 g% and 5.0 g% doses and black tea extract only at 5.0 g% dose have the potential to alter the thyroid gland physiology and architecture, that is, enlargement of thyroid gland as well as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and inhibition of the activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5(')-deiodinase I with elevated thyroidal Na+, K+-ATPase activity along with significant decrease in serum T3 and T4, and a parallel increase in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study concludes that goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of un-fractionated green tea extract is much more than black tea extract because of the differences in catechin contents in the tea extracts.

  8. Black tea extract: a supplementary antioxidant in radiation-induced damage to DNA and normal lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debjani; Pal, Sandip; Saha, Chabita; Chakrabarti, Amit Kumar; Datta, Salil C; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Myriad research has contributed significantly toward the understanding and identification of health benefits stemming from tea polyphenols and many other naturally occurring flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. These flavonoids are known to mitigate reactive oxygen species-induced damage by scavenging them. In this study, hot-water black tea extract rich in flavonoids is evaluated as a supplementary antioxidant. The antioxidant efficacy of black tea extract was investigated by evaluating radioprotection conferred to pBR322 DNA, calf thymus DNA, and normal lymphocytes during gamma irradiation. The protection was measured by gel electrophoresis, fluorimetric study, cell viability assay, cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei assay, and comet assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability of the tea extract used increased in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 182.45 µg/mL). Positive correlation of radioprotection with antioxidant activity of black tea extract was observed in all systems. Maximum protection against radiation-induced damage was observed in pBR322 DNA and calf thymus DNA at ≥200 µg/mL of black tea extract. At a dose of black tea extract as low as 5 µg/mL, efficient radioprotection was observed in normal lymphocytes, which is encouraging and can be tested in the future as a natural antioxidant supplement during radiotherapy.

  9. New ethanol extraction improves the anti-obesity effects of black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bongju; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Bonggyeong; Kim, Ingyum; Baek, Namjoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Seok-Yong; Son, Miwon; Park, Hyunsung

    2016-03-01

    Black tea has been reported to have anti-obesity effects in both rodents and humans. Gallic acid, an active component of black tea, decomposes quickly into pyrogallol in high-temperature solutions. This study introduced a new, aqueous ethanol extraction of black tea, which resulted in extracts with higher concentrations of gallic acid than conventional black tea extracts prepared by hot-water extraction or hot-ethanol extraction. We confirmed that, compared with the hot-water extract of black tea, the cold-ethanol extract of black tea (CE-BTE) had greater effects on reducing body weight and body fat, improving fatty liver, regulating blood glucose, and reducing blood cholesterol in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Nonetheless, although CE-BTE significantly reduced fat content, it did not reduce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) protein in epididymal fat tissue of HFD mice. We also showed that CE-BTE did not inhibit the function of PPARγ protein to drive adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Considering that PPARγ is a master transcription factor not only for adipocyte differentiation, but also for adipose tissue function, such as glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, these results suggest that CE-BTE reduced fat mass and body weight without dampening fat cell homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

  10. Extraction of polyphenols from black tea--conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Simon; Chemat, Farid; Strube, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Products from plant raw materials gain increasing importance in food-, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. By way of contrast, due to lack of detailed physico-chemical fundamentals, existing production processes are economically not optimal designed. This leads to a need for deeper understanding of the processes and furthermore a systematic process and equipment design for the potentially applicable extraction techniques. Using the example of polyphenol extraction from black tea (Kenya), the conventional and ultrasound assisted extractions are investigated. Here, the state of the art as well as a comparison between the two techniques is in focus. Especially, resulting quasi-equilibria and mass transport kinetics serves as a criteria. The physico-chemical background is discussed taking particle size distributions and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements into account. Conclusively, process alternatives are projected and discussed. Hence, the present study makes influences of ultrasound technique on physico-chemical characteristics during extraction a subject of discussion.

  11. Effect of types of extractions on antioxidant activity of varieties of black teas from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeeza Khanum

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tea sample (silver cloud dust was extracted with water by traditional extraction method (TEM at variable material: solvent ratio (1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, temperature (50, 60, 70, 80, 90˚C and time (10, 20, 30, 40 mins. Extracts prepared were analysed for antioxidant activity (AA and total polyphenol content (TPP. The extract of 1:50, 80˚C, 30 mins showed higher yield , TPP and RSA compared to other extracts. Extraction (1:50, 80˚C for 10,20,30,40 mins was also carried by using magnetic stirring and sonicator. TEM showed higher AA and TPP. Therefore different samples of tea dust and leaf were extracted by TEM. All black tea leaf showed higher caffeine content than dust. Darjeeling leaf exhibited higher yield, RSA, TPP and caffeine. TF ranged between 0.1-0.2 % while TR content was 3.8-6% for varieties of tea extracts. Nilgiri dust extract showed higher colour. Darjeeling leaf showed highest caffeine content (12%.

  12. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  13. Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Benjakul, Soottawat; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with A294, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% ZnCl2 or 0.2% CaCl2 up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and A294 of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (ppickling and ageing irrespective of tea and cations used. However, pidan treated without Chinese black tea extract showed significantly lower free amino group and sugar during the ageing of 6 wk (p<0.05). Thus, Chinese black tea extract had an inhibitory effect on the Maillard reaction during ageing of pidan white. PMID:26761277

  14. Black tea leaf extract derived Ag nanoparticle-PVA composite film: Structural and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md Jamal [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chaudhuri, Biswadeep; Pramanik, Krishna [Department of Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Orisa (India); Middya, Tapas Ranjan [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chaudhuri, Bijaykrishna, E-mail: sspbkc@rediffmail.com [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Black tea leaf extracts-PVA/silver nanocomposite (EPSNP) films have been prepared by biogenic synthesis approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results demonstrated a remarkable enhancement of dielectric permittivity ({approx}900) with low loss ({approx}0.14). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical conductivity as high as 5.98 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} S/m for15 EPSNP composite film at 1 kHz and room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such nanocomposite film might be important for technological applications. - Abstract: Biosynthesized metal (Ag) nanoparticles have been used to prepare high dielectric polymer composite film of technological importance. Different amounts of the tea leaf extract (E) (mother leaker prepared by soaking 2 g tea leaf in 100 ml boiled water for 3 min) were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles from 10{sup -3} M AgNO{sub 3} solution. Such a resultant solution containing Ag nanoparticles was mixed with 20 ml PVA solution (5 g PVA in 100 ml water) was used to make anhydrous Ag/PVA composite film where spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of average diameter 10 nm are well dispersed in the composite. The Ag particle size in the composite was found to enhance with the increase of E content in PVA. XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA and DSC studies are made to characterize the nanoparticles. Detailed frequency and E concentration dependent electrical and dielectric properties of the nanocomposites have been made showing low loss ({approx}0.14) and high dielectric property of these films. Maximum value of dielectric permittivity ({approx}900 which is almost 170 times higher than that of pure PVA {approx} 5.2) have been observed for 15 ml E-AgNPs/PVA nanocomposite film at 1 kHz and room temperature. Present study establishes the importance of the biosynthesized metal nanoparticles for industrial applications as in capacitors.

  15. Therapeutic Response of Black Tea Extract on Maintenance Pancreas and Intestine of Gamma-irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To protect animals health from hazards caused by acute exposure to environmental hazardous viz., ionising-radiation (γ-rays), it is recommended that antioxidants could be taken regularly in nutrition. Black tea (Camellia sinensis) has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants. Possible ameliorative actions of black tea extracts (BTE) were examined at the pancreas and intestinal levels, which are sensitive targets for radiation damage following whole body γ-irradiation. Plasma antioxidant status measured as ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), intestine marker enzyme activity: Xanthine oxidase system (XO), serum and pancreatic damage markers viz., lipase and amylase, oxidative stress marker in pancreas and intestine viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), pancreatic and intestinal total glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT). All above parameters were measured in four different groups of rats, namely control, tea-rats, irradiated-rats, irradiated-tea rats. Results of irradiated rats showed that, plasma level of FRAP was decreased significantly but, serum lipase and amylase activities were increased. Pancreatic lipase, amylase, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased significantly. However, TBARS was increased. Intestinal XO and TBARS levels were significantly increased but GSH and antioxidant enzymes levels were decreased. Drinking BTE prevents largely the changes occurred in all measured parameters investigated in plasma, serum, pancreas and intestine. These findings suggest that BTE modulate pancreatitis and intestine damages caused by acute 7 Gy γ- rays toxicity presumably by enhancing antioxidant status and inhibiting oxidative stress. Conclusion: BTE could normalise γ-rays-induced suppression of activities of pancreatic and intestinal tissues

  16. Extraction Kinetics of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity during black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2015-01-01

    Background Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world which is second only to water. Tea contains a broad spectrum of active ingredients which are responsible for its health benefits. The composition of constituents extracted to the tea brew depends on the method of preparation for its consumption. The objective of this study was to investigate the extraction kinetics of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, caffeine and catechins and the variation of antioxidant activity with time after tea b...

  17. Effect of Extraction Conditions on Measured Total Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Black Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Gokce Polat; Ferda Sari; Y Sedat Velioglu; Nihal Turkmen

    2007-01-01

    Black tea was extracted for 2, 8 and 18 h with absolute acetone, N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF), ethanol and methanol and their 50% aqueous solutions. The extracts were screened for total polyphenol contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The polyphenol content of the extracts was found to be in the range of 0.44-114.01 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight tea, depending on the solvent used and the length of the extraction process. In general, aqueous acetone or DMF extract...

  18. The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the ethanol extract pf black tea and its tannin free fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research the ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction used for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. All the extracts were used separately for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the reduction of aqueous AuCl4-. Transmission electron microscopy and visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of gold ions to gold nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free ethanol extract produced gold nanoparticles in the size ranges of 2.5-27.5 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm with an average size of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The prepared colloid gold nanoparticles, using the ethanol extract of black tea, did not show the appropriate stability during storage time (24 hours) at 4degC. In contrast, gold colloids, which were synthesized by a tannin free fraction showed no particle aggregation during short and long storage times at the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction.

  19. A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, Jaouad; El Hassouni, Mohammed; Ouardaoui, Abdelkrim; Sendide, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)).

  20. Black Tea Extract and Its Theaflavin Derivatives Inhibit the Growth of Periodontopathogens and Modulate Interleukin-8 and β-Defensin Secretion in Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo Bedran, Telma Blanca; Morin, Marie-Pierre; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, several studies have brought evidence suggesting that tea polyphenols, mostly from green tea, may have oral health benefits. Since few data are available concerning the beneficial properties of black tea and its theaflavin derivatives against periodontal disease, the objective of this study was to investigate their antibacterial activity as well as their ability to modulate interleukin-8 and human β-defensin (hBD) secretion in oral epithelial cells. Among the periodontopathogenic bacteria tested, Porphyromonas gingivalis was found to be highly susceptible to the black tea extract and theaflavins. Moreover, our data indicated that the black tea extract, theaflavin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate can potentiate the antibacterial effect of metronidazole and tetracycline against P. gingivalis. Using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells, the black tea extract (100 μg/ml), as well as theaflavin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (50 μg/ml) reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by 85%, 79%, and 86%, respectively, thus suggesting an anti-inflammatory property. The ability of the black tea extract and its theaflavin derivatives to induce the secretion of the antimicrobial peptides hBD-1, hBD-2 and hBD-4 by oral epithelial cells was then evaluated. Our results showed that the black tea extract as well as theaflavin-3,3'-digallate were able to increase the secretion of the three hBDs. In conclusion, the ability of a black tea extract and theaflavins to exert antibacterial activity against major periodontopathogens, to attenuate the secretion of IL-8, and to induce hBD secretion in oral epithelial cells suggest that these components may have a beneficial effect against periodontal disease.

  1. Efficacy of methanolic extract of green and black teas against extended-spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherpour, Arezou; Hashemi, Ali; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Taki, Elahe

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major bacteria causing acute infections. β-Lactamase production is the principal defense mechanism in gram-negative bacteria. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Methanolic Extracts of Green and Black Teas on P. aeruginosa Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamases (ESBLs) production. This research was carried out on burn wounds of 245 hospitalized patients in Kerman, Iran. P. aeruginosa ESBLs and MBL producing strains were detected by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT) and Epsilometer test (E-test) strips, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured for Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Imipenem, Aztreonam, Cefotaxime and methanollic extracts of Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea). From 245 patients in the burn ward, 120 cases were infected with P. aeruginosa. 41 isolates contained ESBL while MBL was not detected. P. aeruginosa were resistant to Cefotaxime, Aztreonam, Ceftazidime, Meropenem and Imipenem, 72 (60%), 50 (41.66%), 79 (65.83%), 33 (27.5%) and 24 (20%), respectively. Green tea extract had the highest anti-bacterial effect on standard and P. aeruginosa strains in 1.25mg/ml concentration. This study determined that the methanolic extract of green tea has a higher effect against ESBL producing P. aeruginosa than Cefotaxime, Aztreonam and Ceftazidime. PMID:27393439

  2. Protective Role of Black Tea Extract against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Induced Skeletal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper aimed to examine the chemoprotective actions of aqueous black tea extract (BTE against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis- (NASH- induced skeletal changes in rats. Material. Wistar rats (body wt. 155–175 g of both sexes, aged 4–5 months, were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Group A (control, Group B (60% high-fat diet; HFD, and Group C (HFD + 2.5% BTE. Methods. Several urinary (calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and calcium-to-creatinine ratio serum (alkaline phosphatase and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and molecular markers of bone turnover (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and estrogen were tested. Also, several bone parameters (bone density, bone tensile strength, bone mineral content, and bone histology and calcium homeostasis were checked. Results. Results indicated that HFD-induced alterations in urinary, serum, and bone parameters as well as calcium homeostasis, all could be significantly ameliorated by BTE supplementation. Conclusion. Results suggest a potential role of BTE as a protective agent against NASH-induced changes in bone metabolism in rats.

  3. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska; Marzenna Hęś; Józef Korczak

    2008-01-01

    Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L.) extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts c...

  4. Polyphenols extracted from black tea (Camellia sinensis) residue by hot-compressed water and their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Suzuki, Manabu; Asano, Yuzo; Ochi, Hiroshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-12-01

    Polyphenols, retained in black tea wastes following the commercial production of tea beverages, represent an underutilized resource. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential use of hot-compressed water (HCW) for the extraction of pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea residues. Black tea residues were treated with HCW at 10 °C intervals, from 100 to 200 °C. The resulting extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed to determine their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Four theaflavins (TF), 5 catechins, 2 quercetin glycosides, quinic acid, gallic acid, and caffeine were identified. The total polyphenol content of extracts increased with increasing temperature but lipase inhibitors (TF, theaflavin 3-O-gallate, theaflavin 3'-O-gallate, theaflavin 3,3'-O-gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate) decreased over 150 °C. All extracts inhibited pancreatic lipase but extracts obtained at 100 to 140 °C showed the greatest lipase inhibition (IC(50) s of 0.9 to 1.3 μg/mL), consistent with the optimal extraction of TFs and catechins except catechin by HCW between 130 and 150 °C. HCW can be used to extract pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea waste. These extracts have potential uses, as dietary supplements and medications, for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  5. Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Benjakul, Soottawat; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with A294, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% ZnCl2 or 0.2% CaCl2 up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and A294 of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (p

  6. Effect of Black Tea and Black Tea Pomace Polyphenols on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibition, Relevant to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Striegel, Lisa; Kang, Bouhee; Pilkenton, Sarah J; Rychlik, Michael; Apostolidis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT) and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT) were 5.77 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was sub...

  7. Extraction Efficiency of Elements in Chinese Tea Infusions

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, Takeshi; KURUMANO, Kosuke; KAMEYAMA, Shuhei; YOSHIDA, Mai

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] The concentrations of elements in Chinese tea infusions after both one-minute and overnight extractions were measured and the contents were compared with those of tea leaves. Leaves from 13 Chinese tea plants in ten provinces in China were collected; seven were green tea, four were oolong tea, and two were black tea. When seven major elements, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn, were measured, the contents in tea leaves did not differ, except for Zn. Ca content in one-minute infusion of g...

  8. Ameliorating effect of black tea extract on cadmium chloride-induced alteration of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Venkappa S; Somannavarib, Manjunath S; Yendigeri, Saeed; Das, Kusal K; Goudar, Shivaprasad S

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is one among the most environmental pollutants that affects many organs like kidney, liver and testis. The present study was aimed to assess the simultaneous effects of black tea extracts (BTE) on cadmium chloride induced alterations in lipid profile and liver histology. Adult rats were divided into four groups (n=6/group), group I (normal saline), group II (CdCl2, 1.0 mg/kg, b.wt; i.p), group III (black tea extract, 2.5 gm tea leaf/dl of water that is 2.5% of aqueous BTE) and group IV (cadmium chloride + BTE). Cadmium chloride intoxicated rats showed significant increase in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and there is a significant decrease in the serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In the liver, cadmium chloride showed changes in normal architecture, swollen hepatocytes, kupffer cells hyperplasia, dilation and congestion of central vein. Oral administration of black tea extracts with cadmium chloride significantly improves lipid profile and liver architecture as compared to the cadmium chloride group. The results indicate that BTE is beneficial in preventing cadmium-induced lipid alterations and hepatocellular damage.

  9. Sonme Factors that Affect the Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Tea Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Some factors that affect the free radical-scavenging activety of two tea extracts were studied in vitro. It was found that concentration of tea extract or heating tea extract or treating with activated carbon and diatomite all had obvious effect on the scavenging activety of green tea extract ,but heating or treating with diaomite had less effect on the scavenging activity of black tea extract. Ascorbic acid, for having synergic effect with tea extracts, could enhance the scavenging activity of tea extracts markedly, and the contrary was cupric ion. Reducing sugars such as fructose and glucose also had some syncrgic effect to tea extracts.

  10. Induction of Apoptosis and Cytotoxic Activities of Iranian Orthodox Black Tea Extract (BTE Using in vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirala Aghbali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Plant-derivate therapeutic agents can perform cancer chemotherapeutic activity through triggering apoptotic cell death. Our aim was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of Iranian orthodox black tea extracts (BTEs and hydro methanolic purified fractions (40, 60, 80 and 100% in KB cells (oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: In order to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the BTEs, MTT (3-(4, 5- dimetylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Trypan-blue assays were performed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB. Furthermore, the apoptosis inducing action of the extracts was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death detection analysis. Results: Dichloromethane BTE and hydro methanol fractions (40 and 60% extract showed no cytotoxic effects; however, hydro methanol crude and hydro methanol fractions of BTE (80 and 100% significantly inhibited cell growth and viability in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, Cell death assay, TUNEL, and DNA fragmentation indicated induction of apoptosis by hydro methanol 80 and 100% fractions of BTE in KB cells. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by Duncan test and p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Conclusion: The results from the present study suggests that the hydro methanol crude and hydro methanol fractions of BTE (80 and 100% are significant source of compounds with the anti proliferative and cytotoxic activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemo preventive substances.

  11. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  12. Phytoestrogenic effects of black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) in an oophorectomized rat (Rattus norvegicus) model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Chandan

    2005-10-28

    The adverse side effects of currently available anti-osteoporotic agents warrant the search for compounds with less toxic effects. In this study, we assessed the phytoestrogenic potentiality of whole aqueous extract of black tea (BTE) in a bilaterally oophorectomized rat model (2.5%, 1 ml/100 g body weight/day for 28 days). Although the supplementation was given for 28 days but, sign of revival of copulation period (estrous stage) from non-receptive diestrous stage was first noticed after 21 days of BTE supplementation in bilaterally oophorectomized rats. This was accompanied by a significant increase in serum estradiol level. To test whether this increase in serum estradiol level could have an influence upon the oophorectomy-induced damage of bone, we assessed marker parameters of bone resorption and osteoclastic activity (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), collagen degradation (urinary hydroxyproline), bone loss (bone ash mineral content) and bone breaking strength (bone density). Results indicated that increase in serum estradiol level after BTE supplementation could significantly diminish oophorectomy-induced decaying changes in bone. This study proposes that aqueous BTE may be assessed as a phytoestrogenic compound for prevention against estrogen deficiency-related osteoporotic damages.

  13. DFT/TDDFT and Experimental Studies of Natural Pigments Extracted from Black Tea Waste for DSSC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. R. N. Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results of combined experimental and theoretical studies of black tea waste extract (BTE as a potential sensitizer for TiO2-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. UV-vis absorption data revealed that BTE contains theaflavin. DSSC sensitized with pigment complexes of BTE showed a photon-energy conversion efficiency of %, while a significant increase (% is observed when pH of the pigment solution was lowered. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels were calculated using experimental data of UV-vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry. These calculations revealed a reduction of the band gap by 0.17 eV and more negativity of HOMO level of acidified pigment, compared to that of original pigment. Combined effect of these developments caused the enhanced efficiency of DSSC. Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT computational calculations were carried out to study the four theaflavin analogues which are responsible for the dark colour of BTE. According to the calculations, two theaflavin analogues, theaflavin and theaflavin digallate, are the most probable sensitizers in this dye-sensitized solar cell system.

  14. Time-dependent extraction kinetics of infused components of different Indian black tea types using UV spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Gani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent aqueous extraction of six tea types was carried out with leaf–water–ratio of 0.5 g/100 ml, temperature of extraction 90°C and time of extraction ranging from 1 to 10 min. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis in the range varying from 220 to 900 nm of the aqueous tea extracts showed a prominent peak at 273 nm in the ultraviolet region which can be associated with n → π* electronic transition of caffeine molecules. Parabolic diffusion, Power law, hyperbolic, Weibull’s and Elovich’s models were fitted to represent the aqueous soluble component extraction behaviour for time-dependent extraction of aqueous extractables. Parabolic diffusion model, Power law and Elovich’s model were a close fit to the experimental data for all the selected tea types with correlation coefficients (R2 ranging 0.8029–0.9953, whereas hyperbolic and Weibull’s models showed poor fitness to represent the extraction behaviour of fanning and AO leaf, LD, fanning and dust, respectively, with R2 < 0.8, for time-dependent aqueous soluble component extraction.

  15. Evidence for a prospective anti-osteoporosis effect of black tea (Camellia Sinensis) extract in a bilaterally ovariectomized rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Asankur Sekhuar; Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Mitra, Chandan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole aqueous black tea extract (BTE) prevents bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency. Eighteen 95-100 days old female albino rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups [sham -operated control (sham); bilaterally ovariectomized (ovx) and ovx + aqueous black tea extract (BTE) ] and sacrificed after 28 days. All animals were fed a standard laboratory diet with free access to deionized water except on days of urinary parameter studies when animals were given only calcium free deionized water during the entire 24 h period of urine collection. Body weight study revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher final body weight than rats in the sham group. This higher final body weight was not observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher abdominal fat mass and liver weight and significantly lower uterus, right kidney and left kidney weights than in other two groups. All these organ weight changes in ovx group also were not observed in animals receiving BTE. Results of urinary studies revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), phosphate, creatinine (Cr), calcium to creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratio (P< 0.001) and hydroxyproline (HPr) (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group. Significant recovery of all these parameters were observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher (P< 0.001) serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity than rats in the other two groups. These changes could not be seen in animals receiving BTE. Also, identical changes were seen in bone density experiments. Rats in the ovx group had significantly lower densities of the right femur (P<0.001), eighth thoracic rib (P< 0.001), eighth thoracic vertebra (P< 0.05), and fourth lumbar vertebra (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group; and significant improvement in densities of these

  16. Mineral Analysis the Infusion of Black Tea Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiji N.; Tadayon F.; Tamiji F.; Lahiji A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Tea infusion is one of the most popular drinks around the world. Since tea infusion is known to contain several essential nutrients, it is considered a healthy beverage. In this study eight different Iranian brands of tea infusion and eleven brands imported tea infusion samples from another country for Cu, Zn, Mn and Al were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion. The results of analysis showed that the extraction rates of minerals from dry black tea to infusio...

  17. In vivo evaluation of black and green tea dermal products against UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, M; Uğurlu, T; Gedik, G; Yılmaz, A M; Süha Yalçin, A

    2010-10-01

    Aqueous extracts of black and green tea (Camellia sinensis) were obtained by freeze-drying for this study. The extracts were evaluated based on tea quality control tests, UV, IR scans, and in vitro antioxidant capacity tests. Dermal products from the tea extracts were designed and manufactured. Black and green tea gels were tested in vivo in the forearms of six subjects using an artifical UV (200-400 nm) source. The tested formulations were green tea gel, black tea gel, 0.3% caffeine gel, carbomer gel base, and a control. Depending on tea quality, the samples resulted in water soluble fractions of 24.5-39.5%. UV and IR scans specifically showed peaks for alkaloids like caffeine, catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate, and polyphenols with dimeric and polymeric structures such as theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigins (TRs). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of black and green tea samples were found to be high and comparable; activity levels for black tea, green tea, high quality black tea, and L-ascorbic acid were 0.48, 0.50, 0.82, and 1.32 mM TR/mg, respectively. No UV-induced erythema was observed at the black and green tea gel sites in any of the subjects. UV-induced erythema was consistently present in various grades at caffeine gel, carbomer gel, and control sites. Results led to the conclusion that freeze-dried black and green tea extracts had strong UV absorbance. Formulating those extracts into dermal gels protected the skin against UV-induced erythema. Therefore, tea extracts were found to be promising candidates for their ability to protect against the harmful effects of UV radiation, such as erythema and premature aging of the skin.

  18. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  19. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  20. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  1. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB.

  2. 不同浸提、干燥方式对GABA速溶红茶中GABA含量的影响%Effects of Optimum Extraction and Drying Process on GABA Content of GABA Instant Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赟; 赵文芳; 马忠华; 葛亚中; 黄亚辉

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同浸提、干燥等工艺条件对优化GABA速溶红茶制备的问题,以‘金萱’品种的GABA红茶为原料,蒸馏水作为提取溶剂,以GABA含量为主要评价指标,采用正交试验优化GABA速溶红茶浸提参数,研究提取温度、提取时间和茶水比对GABA速溶红茶粉中GABA含量等的影响;在确定最佳浸提工艺条件基础上,分析喷雾干燥和冷冻干燥工艺对GABA含量的的影响,并确定制备GABA速溶红茶茶粉的最佳制备工艺条件.结果表明,在GABA速溶红茶浸提过程中,浸提温度对提取效果的影响最大,浸提温度与总固形物提取率具有极显著关系(P<0.01).经正交试验确定最佳提取工艺条件为:提取温度90℃,提取时间15 min,茶水比1∶15,在此最佳浸提工艺条件下,经冷冻干燥后获得GABA含量高达10.11 mg/g的GABA速溶红茶.%To investigate the extracting conditions and drying process of GABA instant tea,taking GABA black tea of ‘Jinxuan’ variety as raw material and distilled water as extraction solvent,orthogonal array design was used to optimize the extraction parameters of GABA instant black tea.On the basis of the optimum extraction process conditions,the effects of spray drying and freeze-drying on GABA instant black tea was investigated.Taking GABA content as the main evaluation index,the optimum technological condition for GABA instant black tea was as follows:90℃ as extraction temperature,extraction of tea for 15 min,1 to 15 as ratio of tea to water,freeze-drying.GABA instant black tea with 10.11 mg/g GABA was achieved under this condition.With high yield of GABA,this process could be helpful to the efficient producing of GABA instant-tea in industry.

  3. Application of enzymes in the production of RTD black tea beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandini S; Subramanian, R; Rao, L Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) tea is a popular beverage in many countries. Instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is the common problem faced in the production of RTD black tea beverages. Thus decreaming is an important step in the process to meet the cold stability requirements of the product. Enzymatic decreaming approaches overcome some of the disadvantages associated with other conventional decreaming methods such as cold water extraction, chill decreaming, chemical stabilization, and chemical solubilization. Enzyme treatments have been attempted at three stages of black tea processing, namely, enzymatic treatment to green tea and conversion to black tea, enzymatic treatment to black tea followed by extraction, and enzymatic clarification of extract. Tannase is the most commonly employed enzyme (tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20) aiming at improving cold water extractability/solubility and decreasing tea cream formation as well as improving the clarity. The major enzymatic methods proposed for processing black tea having a direct or indirect bearing on RTD tea production, have been discussed along with their relative advantages and limitations.

  4. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  5. The use of polyphenolic compounds from Black tea for the solid phase extraction and determination of trace iron in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Ramin [Departmant of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran); Research Department of Chromatography, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Urmia Branch, Urmia (Iran); Nikkhahi, Yousef [Research Department of Chromatography, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Urmia Branch, Urmia (Iran); Farhadi, Khalil

    2009-11-15

    A simple and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the trace analysis of iron(III) in water samples has been developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated alumina, modified with polyphenolic compounds (extracted from black tea) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of iron(III) from water samples before determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Due to the complexation reaction between iron(III) and polyphenol compounds, iron(III) was quantitatively extracted on the proposed sorbent and then eluted by 2.0 mL of HCl (1.0 mol/L). The effects of extraction parameters, such as pH and volume of sample solution, amount of polyphenolic compounds, type of eluting agent and the effect of interfering ions on the extraction of iron(III), were investigated. It was found that the proposed method had a good linear range (15.0-100.0 {mu}g/L) and a low detection limit (10.0 {mu}g/L). The procedure was successfully applied for iron determination in drinking water samples. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Effect of Black Tea and Black Tea Pomace Polyphenols on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibition, Relevant to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, Lisa; Kang, Bouhee; Pilkenton, Sarah J; Rychlik, Michael; Apostolidis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT) and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT) were 5.77 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the resulting hydrophobic fraction (HBBT) was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW) and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW). The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 8.97 μg/mL) followed by HBBT fraction (IC50 = 14.83 μg/mL). However, the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50 = 0.049 mg/mL). The black tea pomace (AOBT) had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 14.72 μg/mL) but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.21 mg/mL). The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  7. Black tea extract and its thearubigins relieve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice: a possible role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hussam A S; Abdallah, Hossam M

    2014-11-01

    In this study we hypothesize that a standardized black tea aqueous extract (BTE) and thearubigins, its main polyphenolic pigments, will improve sildenafil-induced delay in gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit (SIT) in mice. Twenty groups of mice (n = 8) were given a phenol red meal, and three sets of experiments were performed. In the first and second sets, effects of different concentrations of BTE, thearubigins (TRs), and sildenafil (SLD), alone and in combinations, on GE and SIT were measured. In the third set, influence of nω -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) pretreatment on effects of these treatments was tested. Black tea extract (3% and 4.5%) and thearubigins (50 and 60 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased GE and SIT, whereas BTE 6% and thearubigins 70 mg/kg did not affect them. Sildenafil dose-dependently reduced both GE and SIT. Combination of metoclopramide, BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, or l-NAME with sildenafil (5 mg/kg) reversed its motility-delaying effects. Pretreatment with l-NAME followed by BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, BTE 4.5% + sildenafil 5, or thearubigins 60 + sildenafil 5 only partially affected the accelerating effects of BTE 4.5% and thearubigins 60. In conclusion, a standardized BTE and its thearubigins improve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice. This improvement was partially blocked by l-NAME suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide. Thus, BTE 4.5% or TRs 60 mg/kg solution could be considered a reliever therapy for the sildenafil-induced dyspepsia.

  8. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  9. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  10. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans : An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kharazi Fard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries is a common infectious disease.Streptococcus mutans is the prevalent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type.Materials and Methods: The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. The methanolic extract of green and black tea were examined on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC3566. Five different concentrations (50mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 200mg/ml, 300mg/ml and 400 mg/ml of tea extracts were tested using the well assay method. The agar dilution method recommended by the NCCLS standards (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards was used. Theminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of extract inhibiting visible growth of the organism on the agar media plate. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was detected from MIC.Results: The Iranian green and black tea had an antibacterial effect on 100 to 400 mg/ml concentrations. The minimum inhibitory concentration of green and black tea was 150 and 50 mg/ml, respectively. The mean diameter of inhibition zone were 9.5 mm and 10.9 mm for methanolic extract of green and black tea, respectively.Conclusion: Both Iranian non fermented (green tea and fermented (black tea have anti Streptococcus mutans activity in vitro. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of black tea appears on a lower concentration than green tea.

  12. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases. PMID:26593607

  13. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases.

  14. Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M S; Imran, A; Sharif, M K; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Xiao, Hang; Imran, M; Rsool, H A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment.

  15. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  16. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  17. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  18. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea. PMID:26613545

  19. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  20. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, C; Birch, M R; Dacombe, C; Humphrey, P G; Martin, P T

    2001-11-01

    The effects of product and preparation variables on the in-cup chemical composition of tea extracts is of interest because the appearance and taste characteristics and the possible health effects of a tea liquor arise from the chemical components extracted from the leaf during tea preparation. A comprehensive study was therefore undertaken to determine the contributions of product and preparation variables on the total soluble solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of tea extracts. The results of this study show that the variety, growing environment, manufacturing conditions, and grade (particle size) of the tea leaves each influence the tea leaf and final infusion compositions. In addition, the composition of the tea infusion was shown to be influenced by whether the tea was contained in a teabag and, if so, the size and material of construction of the bag. Finally, the preparation method, including the amounts of tea and water used, infusion time, and amount of agitation, was shown to be a major determinant of the component concentrations of tea beverages as consumed. An illustration of the variation introduced by these product and preparation factors is provided by comparing solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of green and black tea infusions when commercial products are prepared according to the instructions given on their packaging. PMID:11714326

  1. Oxidative deamination of benzylamine and lysine residue in bovine serum albumin by green tea, black tea, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Shigemitsu, Tomoko; Suyama, Kyozo

    2005-10-01

    Oxidative deamination by various polyphenolic compounds is presumed to be due to the oxidative conversion of polyphenols to the corresponding quinones through autoxidation. Here we examined the oxidative deamination by the polyphenol-rich beverages green tea, black tea, and coffee at a physiological pH and temperature. Green tea, black tea, and coffee extracts oxidatively deaminated benzylamine and the lysine residues of bovine serum albumin to benzaldehyde and alpha-aminoadipic delta-semialdehyde residues, respectively, in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C in both the presence and absence of Cu2+, indicating the occurrence of an amine (lysyl) oxidase-like reaction. We also examined the effects of pH and metal ions on the reaction. The possible biological effects of drinking polyphenol-rich beverages on human are also discussed.

  2. PCL assay application in superoxide anion-radical scavenging capacity of tea Camellia sinensis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plant polyphenols are known for their limiting of adverse effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS in biological systems. The photochemiluminescence (PCL assay allows to evaluate the antiradical activity of a compound in the presence of a superoxide anion-radical (O •-, which is one of the ROS directly associated with the human body. In this work, determination of the superoxide anion radical scavenging ac- tivity of different tea extracts using the PCL assay was performed. Material and methods. Investigations were conducted on different tea leaves extracts. The study included five kinds of tea leaves subjected to aqueous and ethanol extraction procedure. Catechins content was evalu- ated using HPLC. Antiradical activity of the samples was conducted with use of Photochem assay. Results. Analysis of total catechins content in tea aqueous extracts enabled them to be arranged as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black, while for ethanol extracts it was: yellow = green > white > red > black. The examined tea extracts were ranked from highest to lowest water-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACW values as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black. The results of lipid-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACL values for aqueous extracts were similar; however, were approximately 50% lower than those pre- sented as ACW. The second examined group were ethanol extracts, which ranked for ACW values: yellow > green = red = white > black, while ACL values ranked as follows: yellow > white = black = red > green. PCL assay results were correlated with total catechin content in aqueous extracts. Conclusions. Antiradical activity of different tea leaves extracts in PCL assay, showed that the highest activ- ity was found in extracts of yellow tea; the lowest, however, was identified in black tea extracts.

  3. Simultaneous determination of polyphenols and major purine alkaloids in Greek Sideritis species, herbal extracts, green tea, black tea, and coffee by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Tsagiannidis, Anastasios; Sarakatsianos, Ioannis

    2012-02-01

    Herein, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic antioxidants: flavan-3-ols, (-)-epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-gallocatechin, a phenolic acid (gallic acid), a hydroxycinnamic acid (chlorogenic acid), flavones (apigenin), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin), and purine alkaloids (caffeine theophylline, theobromine) in different herb extracts, tea, and coffee varieties. The developed method was validated and successfully applied in order to determine the polyphenolic content to estimate the antioxidant activity of the Sideritis species commonly known as Greek mountain tea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantitative determination of catechins and other polyphenols in Greek mountain tea. Acidic hydrolysis was necessary for the simultaneous determination of the aglycones of the target analytes. According to our results, chlorogenic acid, myricetin, apigenin, catechin, and epicatechin gallate are found in the Sideritis species.

  4. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  5. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  6. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice.

  7. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  8. Determination of volatile components of green, black, oolong and white tea by optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, Hassan; Samadi, Soheila; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was used for extraction and preconcentration of volatile constituents of six tea plants. The preconcentrated compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Totally, 42 compounds were identified and caffeine was quantitatively determined. The main parameters (factors) of the extraction process were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD). Methanol and chloroform were selected as the extraction solvent and preconcentration solvent, respectively .The optimal conditions were obtained as 21 in for sonication time; 32°C for temperature; 27 L for volume of extraction solvent and 7.4% for salt concentration (NaCl/H(2)O). The determination coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9988. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) was 4.8 (n=5), and the enhancement factors (EFs) were 4.0-42.6. PMID:23375769

  9. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  10. Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heyuan; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Thräne, Claudia; Maiwald, Beate; Stark, Janina

    2015-09-15

    An UHPLC method for the determination of flavonol glycosides (FOG) from green and oolong tea vs. black tea has been developed for the first time. Sample clean-up method by means of polyamide column chromatography was optimized with multiple-step elution. Using UHPLC and HPLC with gradient elution and photodiode array detection, eighteen FOG compounds were determined with the aid of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. These FOG compounds were qualified on both UHPLC and HPLC, and this UHPLC method successfully separated rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and K-grg (kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoglucoside) while conventional HPLC method did not. The total amounts of FOG compounds in the tea samples were 2.32-5.67g/kg dry weight (calculated as aglycones), and there is no significant difference for the total FOG content among green tea, oolong tea and black tea. However, kaempferol glycosides are more abundant in green teas, while oolong tea has more quercetin and myricetin glycosides. In black tea quercetin glycosides were most abundant.

  11. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  12. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies. PMID:26471269

  13. Electronic Nose for Black Tea Quality Evaluation Using Kernel Based Clustering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ashis Tripathy; Mohanty, A.K.(Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India); Mihir Narayan Mohanty

    2012-01-01

    Black Tea is conventionally tested by human sensory panel called “Tea Tasters”, who assign quality scores to different teas. In this paper electronic nose based evaluation of black tea samples have been described. One of the principal problems encountered in the above studies is collection of tea samples. These tea industries in India are spread over dispersed locations and quality of tea varies considerably on agroclimatic condition, type of plantation, season of flush and method of manufact...

  14. 绿茶和红茶提取物抑制中波紫外线诱导HaCaT细胞氧化损伤和凋亡的比较%Comparation the inbibitional effects between extracts of green tea and black tea on oxidative damage and apoptosis of HaCaT cells induced by UVB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蕊; 刘仲华; 黄建安; 林勇; 陈金华; 钟源

    2013-01-01

    To compare the photo-protective effect of green and black tea extracts on HaCaT cells damaged from ultraviolet radiation B.Sub-confluent HaCaT cells were incubated for 6 h with different doses of extracts from green tea and black tea,and then irradiated with 60 mJ/cm2 doses of UVB.The change of the cell viability,the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) of supernatant were compared.The content of ROS was measured with the fluorescence method.Annexin V/PI double staining was performed to evaluate the change of apoptosis using flow cytometry.In addition,the contents of tea polyphenols and catechins from extracts of green and black tea were also tested.The results were as follows:Compared with control group,the UVB irradiation could seriously harm HaCaT cell and gave rise to 21.61% cell viability decline.Extracts form green and black tea could enhance cell viability,SOD and GSH-Px activity in supernatant under UVB irradiation,and decrease LDH activity,the content of MDA and the content of ROS in cells in dose-dependent manner (P <0.01).Compared with UVB-irradiated model group,the apoptosis rate of HaCaT cell in other groups was decreased by 6.94% and 3.68% respectively.Moreover,the photo-protective effect of green tea extracts was better than that of black tea extracts,which were consistent with the content of tea polyphenols and catechins their contained.Green and black tea extracts could relieve UVB-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis of HaCaT cells,which might be the reason that they raised the oxidase activity and cleared the oxy-radicals in cells.Moreover,the photo-protective effect of green tea extracts against oxidative damage and apoptosis of HaCaT cells from UVB irradiation was better than that of black tea extracts.%为比较绿茶、红茶提取物对中波紫外线(UVB)诱导角质形成细胞光损伤的抑制作用,用不同浓度的绿茶、

  15. Detection of Radiation-Induced Hydrocarbons in Green, Black and Oolong Teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbons induced by gamma-irradiation of green, black, and oolong teas were analyzed to determine whether the hydrocarbons can be used as markers for detecting post-irradiation of these teas. The samples were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. Detection was attempted by extracting fat from the teas, separation of hydrocarbons with florisil column chromatography, and identification of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Concentration of hydrocarbons increased with the irradiation dose

  16. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-02-03

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared with traditional sodium acetate media due in part to its acidophilic pH and its higher organics content. Although high internal resistance remains a big concern, this simple, curiosity-driven experiment gave us the preliminary results to say that energy could be extracted from the reuse of waste resources such the collection of our afternoon-tea\\'s leftovers.

  17. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  18. GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Black Tea Extract and its Application in Cigarette%红茶提取物挥发性成分GC/MS分析及在卷烟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢清桃; 王坤波; 董颖; 姚瑞; 谢春桥; 李建军; 董德华

    2012-01-01

    为开发和丰富烟用天然香精香料,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取正山小种红茶提取物挥发性成分,用GC/MS法对挥发性成分进行了分离鉴定,共鉴定出35种挥发性成分,主要有苯乙醛、香叶醇、芳樟醇及氧化物、苯乙醇、苯甲酸苄酯、棕榈酸乙酯、植醇、亚油酸乙酯、亚麻酸乙酯等。将该提取物用于卷烟加香,能够明显丰富烟香,减小刺激性和改善卷烟余味。%In order to develop a new natural cigarette flavor, the volatile oil from the Lapsang Souchong black tea ex-tract was extracted by SDE and analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that 35 volatile constituents were identified in the oil and the major components were benzeneacetaldehyde, (E) - geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, phytol, linoleic acid ethyl ester and linolenic acid ethyl ester. The black tea extract was added into cigarettes as tobacco flavoring and evaluated by panelists, and the results indicated that the ex-tract could enrich the tobacco flavor, reduce the irritancy of smoke, and improve taste obviously.

  19. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT, oolong tea (OT, green tea (GT, spent black tea (SBT, spent oolong tea (SOT and spent green tea (SGT. Theextraction experiment were carried out by the conventional solid-liquid method, using boiling water (100ºC and 50% ethanol concentration, with extraction period of 5 minutes. The influence of these extraction methods on the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated. Flavanoid, gallic acid, caffeine and four catechins (catechin (C, gallocatechin (GCG, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin (EGC were found in all of the extracts and were quantified by utilizing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis tool. GT extraction using 50% ethanol concentration was found to be the most suitable method to produce an extract with high content of phenolic compounds ( 186.83 mg GAE/100 g tea and high antioxidant activities (FRAP of 3814.29 μmol Fe(II/g, simultaneously. The results shown that GT had higher total flavanoids value at 347.67 mg CEQ/g followed by OT (295.00 mg CEQ/g and than the BT (187.33 mg CEQ/g. The analytical HPLC results obtained also indicated that GT contained higher amount of catechins than OT, BT, SGT, SOT and SBT due to fermentation process during the tea manufacturing, which reduces the levels of catechin significantly. All four catechins were detected in GT. However, epicatechin, and gallocatecin gallate are the major catechin present in SGT.

  20. Effect of Black Tea Extract on Pork Quality and Biochemical Indicators%红茶提取物对猪肉品质及生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究红茶提取物对猪肉品质及生化指标的影响.[方法]选60头50 kg左右的杜长大肥育猪,随机分为时照组和试验组,分别饲喂基础日粮和基础日粮+2 g/kg红茶提取物.至猪体重达100 kg左右时,测猪肉的各项指标.[结果]试验组猪的屠宰性能提高,屠宰率显著提高(P<0.05);猪肉品质得到显著改善,肉色显著改善(P<0.05),肌肉丰度极显著提高(P<0.01);生化指标得到改善,肌苷酸显著提高(P<0.05),胆固醇显著下降(P<0.05),铁、锌含量显著提高(P<0.05).[结论]饲料中添加2 g/kg红茶提取物可改善猪肉品质.%[ Objective ] To study the effect of black tea extract on pork quality and biochemical indicators. [ Method ] 60 DLY pigs weighed about 50 kg were selected and divided randomly into control group and experimental group. The control group was fed by basal diet, and the experimental group was fed by basal diet plus 2 g/kg black tea extract. Each indicators of the pork were detected when the pigs grew into 100 kg (s) weight. [ Result ] Slaughter performance of pigs in experimental group was improved, the slaughter rate increased significandy ( P < 0. 05 );The pork quality was improved significantly, pork color improved ( P < 0.05 ) , muscle abundance increased significantly ( P < 0. 01 ); Biochemical Indicators were improved, IMP increased significantly (P < 0. 05 ), cholesterol decreased significantly( P < 0. 05 ),iron and zinc content increased significantly(P <0.05). [ Conclusion] Diet added 2 g/kg black tea extract could improve pork quality.

  1. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  2. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP.We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, Chemical Abstracts and EMBASE databases through July 2013. For inclusion, studies had to meet the following pre-defined criteria: 1 placebo controlled design in human adults, 2 minimum of 1 week black tea consumption as the sole intervention, 3 reported effects on systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP or both. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled overall effect of black tea on BP.Eleven studies (12 intervention arms, 378 subjects, dose of 4-5 cups of tea met our inclusion criteria. The pooled mean effect of regular tea ingestion was -1.8 mmHg (95% CI: -2.8, -0.7; P = 0.0013 for SBP and -1.3 mmHg (95% CI: -1.8, -0.8; P<0.0001 for DBP. In covariate analyses, we found that the method of tea preparation (tea extract powders versus leaf tea, baseline SBP and DBP, and the quality score of the study affected the effect size of the tea intervention (all P<0.05. No evidence of publication bias could be detected.Our meta-analysis indicates that regular consumption of black tea can reduce BP. Although the effect is small, such effects could be important for cardiovascular health at population level.

  3. Synergistic effect of black tea and curcumin in improving the hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A; Mona, Mohamed H; Shati, Ali A; El-Mekkawy, Haitham I

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found as a contaminant in human food. It is carcinogenic due its potential in inducing the oxidative stress and distortion of the most antioxidant enzymes. Since black tea possesses strong antioxidant activity, it protects cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Curcumin (CMN), a naturally occurring agent, has a combination of biological and pharmacological properties that include antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the possible role of separate and mixed supplementation of black tea extract and CMN in the hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 in rats. A total of 48: adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups with six rats in each group. Group 1 (normal control) includes rats that received no treatment. Groups 2, 3, and 4 (positive control) include rats that received olive oil, black tea extract, and CMN, respectively. Group 5 includes rats that received AFB1 at a dose of 750 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) dissolved in olive oil. Groups 6, 7, and 8 include rats that received AFB1 along with 2% black tea extract, CMN at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., and both black tea extract and CMN at the same previous doses, respectively. After 90 days, biochemical and histopathological examination was carried out for the blood samples and liver tissues. A significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes and a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide in the rats treated with AFB1 were observed. Moreover, there were dramatic changes in the liver function biomarkers, lipid profile, and liver architecture. Supplementation of black tea extract or CMN showed an efficient role in repairing the distortion of the biochemical and histological changes induced by AFB1 in liver. This improvement was more pronounced when both CMN and black tea were used together.

  4. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  5. Correlation between catechin content and NF-κB inhibition by infusions of green and black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dos Santos, Ariana; Uberti, Francesca; Moro, Enzo; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates whether infusions of green and black tea inhibit the NF-κB driven transcription in human epithelial gastric AGS cells. Water extracts were prepared from different brands of green and black tea available on the Italian market. Teas with or without caffeine were studied. An industrially prepared freeze-dried water extract of green tea was also tested. Catechin and caffeine contents were measured by HPLC analysis. The decrease in phenol and catechin content three months after the expiry date was also investigated. The NF-κB driven transcription and the free radical scavenger activity were inhibited, and this effect was related to catechin levels. The potency of epigallocatechin 3-gallate in inhibiting NF-κB driven transcription is so great that tea extracts low in epigallocatechin 3-gallate are still highly active. In one decaffeinated sample of green tea, the phenol and catechin content was very low, probably as a consequence of caffeine removal. The decrease in catechin levels after 3 months did not reduce the inhibition of NF-κB driven transcription by tea infusions. This is the first paper reporting the inhibitory effect of NF-κB of commercial green and black infusions at the gastric level, evaluating their stability as well.

  6. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat.

  7. Kinetics Study on Black Tea Infusion: Effects of Super-comminuting Process and Temperature on the Extraction Rate of the Soluble Solid Contents%红茶汤动力学研究:超微粉碎工艺和温度对茶汤可溶性固形物成分萃取率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彦祥; 杨文雄

    2005-01-01

    本文研究了红茶叶和超微茶粉可溶性固形物含量的萃取动力学过程.不同温度(40~80℃)下茶汤的Brixs通过数字折射计测量,实验结果通过一级稳态模型加以解释,等级常数由Brixs随时间的增加率决定.结果表明:茶汤可溶性固形物含量随萃取温度的升高而增加,超微茶粉的等级常数是红茶叶的1.22~2.22倍.%The kinetics of extracting the soluble solid contents from black tea leaves in super-comminuted tea powder was studied.The Brixs of infusion was measured by digital refractometer at different temperatures from 40 to 80 ℃.The first order rate constant was determined from the rate of increase of the Brixs concentration in the tea infusion time and the result was interpreted by using a steady state model. The results showed that the first order rate constant of the super-comminuted tea powder was 1.27~2.22 times as large as that of black tea leaves, and that the Brixs increased when the extraction temperature increased.

  8. Study of the protection of polysaccharide and polyphenols of black tea,green tea and Oolong tea on DNA%红茶、绿茶和乌龙茶多糖及多酚对DNA的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金娥; 张海容

    2011-01-01

    The protection action of tea polysaccharide and polyphenols on DNA are investigated using EB as a fluorescent probe in the work. The fluoresence integral intensity of DNA and EB mixture are determined in the presence of polysaccharide and polyphenols in extracts of 8 Chinese teas, such as Longjing tea, Puer tea and Oolong tea etc. D is defined as the interaction constant of different teas with DNA. According to the size of D, the impaction of protection action of tea polysaccharide and polyphenols on DNA was discussed. The result shown that the 8 kinds of teas can interact with DNA,but the degree of interaction is different.The bigger the D was,the stronger the interaction of teas and DNA was. The order of protection action of tae polysaccharide was Qimen black tea > Green tea (An-hui) > Puer tea > Oolong tea > Black tea of Fujian Zhenghe > Shouning green tea > Xinyang needle tea > Longjing tea.The order of protection action of tea polyphenols was Qimen black tea > Black tea of Fujian Zhenghe > Shouning green tea > Longjing tea > Oolong tea > Green tea ( Anhui) > Xinyang needle tea > Puer tea.%用溴化乙锭(EB)作为荧光探针研究了各种茶叶多糖、多酚类化合物对DNA的保护作用.测定了龙井、普耳茶、乌龙茶等8种茶叶中多糖和多酚类提取物存在下DNA与EB混合液的荧光积分强度,并把不同茶叶与DNA相互作用的常数定义为结合常数D,根据D的大小讨论了多糖及多酚类化合物的存在DNA保护作用的影响.结果表明,8种茶叶与DNA有较好的作用,但作用程度不同.D值越大,茶叶对DNA的保护作用越好.多糖保护作用顺序如下:祁门红茶>绿茶(安徽)>普尔茶>乌龙茶>福建政和红茶>寿宁绿茶>信阳毛尖>龙井;多酚保护作用顺序如下:祁门红茶>福建政和红茶>寿宁绿茶>龙井>乌龙茶>绿茶(安徽)>信阳毛尖>普尔茶.

  9. Extraction of Catechins from Green Tea Using Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiwai, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Recently, hazardous properties of synthetic substances contained in foods and medicines have been observed. Therefore, the pharmacological actions of natural substances became the focus of attention. Catechins, which are polyphenols, are abundant in green tea. To extract green tea catechins, there are two types of method: extraction using hot water and organic solvents. In the extraction using hot water, green tea quality deteriorates and catechins are destroyed due to the heat applied. Accordingly, the extraction of catechins at low temperatures is appropriate, although the efficiency is low. Therefore, we attempted to increase the amount of catechins extracted with ultrasonic irradiation.

  10. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  11. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  12. Exploring the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from black, green and white tea infusions - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian C; Daglia, Maria; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Black, green, and white teas are the main commercial teas obtained from buds and leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.). The postharvest processing treatments, together with genotype and growing techniques, may strongly affect the chemical composition of the tea infusion and, thereby, its potential effects on health. Catechins constituted up to 30% of tea leaves dry weight. During fermentation, polyphenols undergo enzymatic oxidation, leading to the formation of condensed polymeric compounds regarded as responsible for the typical organoleptic properties of black tea leaves and related infusions. Scientific studies has been recently focusing on the possibility that tea polyphenols, particularly those of black and green tea, may lead to healthy properties in individuals affected by diseases correlated to metabolic syndrome. In vivo experiments reveal that green and black tea polyphenols may be able to reduce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Other works suggest that black tea polymeric products may be effective in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and hypertriacylglycerolemia. To this regard, very few data about white tea, being the rarest and the least handled tea, are available so far. It has been reported that white tea could show higher antioxidative capacity than green tea and to exert in vitro lipolytic activity. Considering the increasing interest towards healthy potential through diet and natural medicaments, the aim of the present review was to overview the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from tea after various degrees of fermentation.

  13. Black tea increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Gui; Huang, Jian-An; Li, Juan; Yu, Peng-Hui; Xiong, Zhe; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Hua

    2014-11-19

    The present study examined the effects of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts (BTE) in Caenorhabditis elegans under various abiotic stressors. Results showed BTE increased nematode resistance to osmosis, heat, and UV irradiation treatments. However, BTE could not increase nematodes' lifespan under normal culture conditions and MnCl2-induced toxicity at concentrations we used. Further studies showed that BTE decreased reactive oxygen species and up-regulated some antioxidant enzymes, including GSH-PX, and genes, such as gsh-px and sod-3. However, only a slight extension in mev-1 mutants mean lifespan was observed without significance. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of BTE might be necessary but not sufficient to protect against aging to C. elegans. Moreover, BTE increased the mRNA level of stress-response genes such as sir-2.1 and sek-1. Our finding demonstrated BTE might increase heat and UV stress resistance in a sir.2.1-dependent manner. Taken together, BTE enhanced stress resistance with multiple mechanisms in C. elegans.

  14. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A....... niger. A part of the calmodulin gene in 17 isolates were sequenced, and these 17 isolates were all identified as Aspergillus acidus (=A. foetidus var. acidus). The rest of the 47 isolates were also identified as A. acidus from their metabolite profile. Neither production of ochratoxin A nor fumonisins B...

  15. Ameliorative effect of black tea on nicotine induced cardiovascular pathogenesis in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Joukar, Farzin; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Shahouzehi, Beydolah

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular complications of smoking, we investigated whether black tea has a modulatory effect on cardiovascular pathogenesis of nicotine in rat. Animals were randomized to control, tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups. Test groups received black tea brewed (adding 400 ml boiling water to 10 g Lipton black tea for 5 min) orally alone or with nicotine 2 mg/kg/day, s.c. separately or combined for four weeks. On 28th day, lipids p...

  16. SPME-GC-MS Analysis of Aromatic Components in Sichuan Black Tea, Yunnan Black Tea and Qimen Black Tea%SPME-GC-MS联用分析川红、滇红和祁红香气成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗学平; 李丽霞

    2016-01-01

    The aromatic components in Sichuan black tea, Yunnan black tea and Qimen black tea were analyzed with the method of SPME-GC-MS. The results show that 150 aromatic components are detected in these black teas. There exist 79 aromatic components in Sichuan black tea and Yunnan black tea respectively and 89 aromatic components in Qimen black tea. And 33 aromatic components including linalool and its oxides, geraniol, methyl salicylate, phenylethyl alcohol, nerolidol and benzene acetaldehyde are common components in these teas. There exist 18 main aromatic components in⁃cluding geraniol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, linalool oxide II, methyl salicylate and delta-cadinene in Sichuan black tea, 16 aromatic components including linalool, methyl salicylate, geraniol, linalool oxide II, geraniol, linalool oxide IV and phenylethyl alcohol in Yunnan black tea, 26 aromatic components including geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide II, phenylethyl alcohol and methyl salicylate in Qimen black tea. The floral and fruity scent in Sichuan black tea and Qimen black tea is probably caused by the high content of geraniol, linalool and methyl salicylate. The terpene index of Sichuan black tea, Yunnan black tea and Qimen black tea is 0.47, 0.72 and 0.40, respectively, therefore, Sichuan black tea and Qimen black tea have high aroma, that accords with the results of sensory evaluation.%采用固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法对川红、滇红和祁红香气成分进行分析.结果表明:共检测到150种香气化合物,其中川红和滇红均为79种,祁红为89种,共有芳樟醇及其氧化物、香叶醇、水杨酸甲酯、苯乙醇、橙花叔醇、苯乙醛等33种成分是三个红茶中的共有成分.在主体香气成分方面,川红中检出香叶醇、芳樟醇、苯乙醇、芳樟醇氧化物Ⅱ、水杨酸甲酯、δ-杜松萜烯等18种,滇红中检出芳樟醇、水杨酸甲酯、香叶醇、芳樟醇氧化物Ⅱ、芳

  17. An essential role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in vasorelaxations induced by black tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Green tea has received much attention as protective agent against cardiovascular disease and cancer, the two primary targets of preventive medicine. Since our first demonstration in 1999 of the involvement of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the acute vasodilator effect of green tea polyphenols, several new vascular protective effects of green tea catechins have been identified. Theaflavins are another class of polyphenol pigments found in black tea, however, little is known about their bioactivity in the vascular system. We have recently demonstrated that black tea and its theaflavins cause relaxations of rat aortas via endothelial nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms and the tea polyphenols are very effective in protecting endothelial function agonist oxidative stress. The present results support the vascular benefit of consumption of black tea, which is equal to that of drinking green tea in terms of their endothelial cell protection and antioxidant capacity.

  18. A method for producing superfine black tea powder with enhanced infusion and dispersion property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weihua; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Chongxin; Han, Lujia

    2017-01-01

    Tea is rich in healthy components including polyphenols, caffeine, gallic acids, and others. Current technology of tea infusion and extraction leads to more than 40% soluble solids wasted in spent leaf. To increase the bioaccessibility of black tea, we report a method of pulverization treatments including general and superfine grinding to reduce the particle size. In comparison with coarsely ground black tea powders (BTPs), the superfine ground BTP with medium diameter 6.9μm resulted in significant higher infusion yield of total polyphenols (TPP), caffeine, and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). The total water-soluble solids (WSS) of superfine BTP infusion increased markedly by twice due to the accelerated diffusion and enhanced solubility. High correlation between particle size and sedimentation ratio suggested improved dispersion stability of superfine BTP. The optimal dispersion of 0.1% superfine BTP in water was obtained by combination of homogenization and 0.08% CMC-Na formulation with 27.05% centrifugal sedimentation ratio. PMID:27507472

  19. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: Comparative study of the reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  20. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  1. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed toward

  2. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  3. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  4. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  5. The Making of Transparent Soap from Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuty Anggraini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determined the effect of green tea extract on the characteristics of transparent soap and antioxidant activity as well as to determine the best concentration of the addition of green tea extract. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD consisting of 5 treatments and 3 repetitions. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA followed by Duncan's test New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT at 5%. Treatment in this research were the addition of green tea extract  0%; 0.5%; 1%; 1.5%; and 2%. The analysis on the transparent soap product were sensory evaluation test, irritation test,  antimicrobial test, antioxidant activity, and chemical properties that include water content, pH, the amount of fatty acid, the saponified fraction, alkali-free / free fatty acids, and insoluble part in alcohol . The results showed that the difference in the concentration of green tea extract in a transparent soap significantly affect insoluble part in alcohol, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial, but did not significantly affect to moisture content, the level of fatty acid ,  unsaponified fraction, free fatty acids, pH, hardness , and degree of foam. Effect of green tea extracts in the manufacture of transparent soap in treatment E (Addition of green tea extract 2% is the best product, the value for color was 25%, aroma was 50%, 20% transparency, hardness 35%, and degree of foam was 70while the hardness was 2,90 N / cm2; degree of foam 48.95%; the water content of 35.35%; 29.78% the amount of fatty acids; unsaponified fraction was 12.87%; free fatty acids 0,23%; pH was  9.78; Insoluble parts in alcohol 2.08%; irritation value 0; antioxidant activity of 15.21% and a diameter anti-microbial of 42 mm. A transparent soap with the addition of green tea extract deserves to be developed.

  6. Research and development of black tea-jujube wine%红茶红枣复合酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁昕; 胡长玉; 汪春霞

    2011-01-01

    The production processing of black tea-jujube wine was studied. The extraction technology of black tea and fermentation conditions were further investigated. The optimal fermentation conditions were obtained. In details, the extraction steps of black tea were firstly extracted in cold water for 30min and then in 90℃ hot water. The jujube juice should be soften firstly and then treated by 0.02% pectinase before filtration. The black tea juice and jujube juice were mixed and fermented at 25℃ for 8d~10d, followed by aging for 3months. The complex tea wine was clear and brilliant with a pure, elegant and soft taste and a deliciously lingering finish. It is a nutritional and healthy complex tea wine.%研究了以红茶、红枣为原料进行发酵酿得保健酒的生产工艺流程,并对生产工艺中红茶的浸提和发酵工艺条件进行了深入研究.实验得出最佳发酵工艺条件为:茶叶先用冷水浸提30min后,用90℃热水恒温浸提,红枣原汁软化后,用0.02%的果胶酶处理过滤,然后将红茶汁与红枣汁混合后于25℃恒温发酵8d~10d,陈酿3个月,最后酿制的复合茶酒色泽晶莹透亮,香味纯净优雅、口感柔和,回味绵长,是一种营养丰富、有多种保健功效的复合茶酒.

  7. Rheology study of supercritically extracted tea-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张党权; 陈胜铭; 彭万喜; 刘其梅; 谷振军; 樊绍刚; 邓顺阳

    2008-01-01

    The rheological analysis on dynamic shear rate-viscosity relationship of tea-oil extracted from tea-oil tree seeds by supercritical extraction method was carried out at gradient temperatures and constant shear rate,respectively.The results show that at 20,40,60 and 80 ℃,once the shear rate increases gradually,the torque enlarges correspondingly,while the viscosity shows little difference.However,at the constant shear rate,the rising temperature results in a steady downtrend on tea-oil viscosity.This results reveal that tea-oil viscosity is not closely correlated with shear rate at constant temperature,yet negatively correlated with temperature at constant shear rate.

  8. Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a pleasant, popular and safe beverage. Tea provides a dietary source of bioactive components to help humans reduce a wide variety of cancer risks and chronic diseases. The antioxidative activity of green tea-derived polypbenols known as catchins has been extensively studied. The reducfive effect is a synergistic action between EGCG,EGC, ECG, EC, pheophytins a and b, and other components in tealeaves, which are more bioavailable for human body.Green tea has a higher content of catechins than black tea. Green tea extract with hot water has high potential and more efficiencytoreducecancerriskthananyotherteaproductsorpureEGCG. Protein, iron, andotherfoodcomponentsmay interfere with the bioavailability of tea polyphenols. Drinkinggreentea (orpolyphenol-rich tea extract ) also enhances the cancer-preventive activity of some cancer-fighting medication such as Sulindac and Tamoxifen. Further studies are required to determine the bioavailability of green tea and cancer-preventive functionality.

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown were made and tested in vitro (concentration: 300 µg/disc against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 (S. aureus and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778 (B. cereus, and two Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 (E. coli, using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10 µg/disc was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted against S. aureus and B. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further low MIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 > BOPF > OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, and OP pocess in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteria P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  10. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectio...

  11. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlan

  12. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, David; Zhang, Yanjun; Yang, Jieping; Ma, Janice E; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-09-01

    Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol

  13. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  14. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  15. Spatial variability of theaflavins and thearubigins fractions and their impact on black tea quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Borah, Paban; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of theaflavin and thearubigin fractions and their impact on black tea quality were investigated using multivariate and geostatistics techniques. Black tea samples were collected from tea gardens of six geographical regions of Assam and West Bengal, India. Total theaflavin (TF) and its four fractions of upper Assam, south bank and North Bank teas were higher than the other regions. Simple theaflavin showed highest significant correlation with tasters' quality. Low molecular weight thearubigins of south bank and North Bank were significantly higher than other regions. Total thearubigin (TR) and its fractions revealed significant positive correlation with tasters' organoleptic valuations. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The semivariogram for quality parameters were best represented by gaussian models. The nugget/sill ratio indicated a strong/moderate spatial dependence of the studied parameters. Spatial variation of tea quality parameters may be used for quality assessment in the tea growing areas of India. PMID:26604370

  16. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  17. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    .0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC......In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  18. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  19. [Aging Process of Puer Black Tea Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Curve-Fitting Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-yu; Shi, You-ming; Yi, Shi Lai

    2015-07-01

    For better determination of the chemical components in the Puer black tea, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of Puer black tea at different aging time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that the chemical components had change in Puer black tea at different aging time. The leaf of Puer black tea was a complex system, its Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a total overlap of each absorption spectrum of various components. Each band represented an overall overlap of some characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups in the Puer black tea. In order to explore the change of characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups with aging time, the prediction positions and the number of second peaks in the range of 1900-900 cm(-1) were determined by Fourier self-deconvolution at first, and later the curve fitting analysis was performed in this overlap band. At different aging time of Puer black tea, the wave number of second peaks of amide II, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides at overlap band were assigned by curve fitting analysis. The second peak at 1520 cm(-1) was characteristic absorption band of amide II, the second peaks of tea polyphenol and pectin appeared at 1278 and 1103 cm(-1) respectively. Two second peaks at 1063 and 1037 cm(-1), corresponds mainly to glucomannan and arabinan. The relative area of these second peaks could be indicated the content of protein, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides in the Puer black tea. The results of curve fitting analysis showed that the relative area of amide II was increasing first and then decreasing, it indicated the change of protein in Puer black tea. At the same time, the content of tea polyphenol and pectin were decreased with the increase of aging time, but the glucomannan and arabinan were increased in reverse. It explained that the bitter taste was become weak and a sweet taste appeared in the tea with the increase of

  20. Compositional, nutritional, and functional characteristics of instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Pelvan, Ebru; Ozdemir, Kübra Sultan; Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Paslı, Ayça Ayfer; Ozcan, Nihat; Ozçelik, Beraat; Gökmen, Vural

    2013-08-01

    Two types of instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas were examined for their proximate composition, dietary fiber, minerals, water-soluble vitamins, total phenolic content, various antioxidant assays, phenolics (flavanols, condensed phenolics, and phenolic acids), alkaloids, and carotenoids as well as taste-active compounds (sugars, organic acids, and free amino acids). Some variations, albeit to different extents, were observed (p fiber and fat were also present in both instant teas. Thirteen minerals, four water-soluble vitamins, six flavanols, two alkaloids, three condensed phenolics, one phenolic acid, and one carotenoid were identified. Total phenolic content varied between 17.35 and 17.82 g of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g instant tea. With regard to antioxidant activities, three different assays such as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were measured. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in total phenolic, ORAC, TEAC, and CUPRAC contents between low- and high-quality instant teas were observed. With regard to taste-active compounds, 3 sugars, 5 organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. The present work suggests that despite some differences, instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas should not be distinguished on the basis of their compositional, nutritional, and functional characteristics as well as taste-active compounds. PMID:23837397

  1. Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Bashiri, Hamideh; Dabiri, Shahriar; Ghotbi, Payam; Sarveazad, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Joukar, Farzin; Abbaszadeh, Mahsa

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. Animal groups were control, black tea, nicotine and black tea plus nicotine. Test groups received nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and black tea brewed (p.o.) each alone and in combination for 4 weeks. On the 28th day, myocardial damage was induced by isoproterenol (50 mg/kg i.p.), and blood samples were taken. On day 29, after hemodynamic parameters recording, hearts were removed for histopathological evaluation. Tea or nicotine consumption had no significant effects on hemodynamic indices of animals without heart damage. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

  2. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de R.C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and c

  3. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITE BEVERAGE OF ROSE AND BLACK TEA%玫瑰红茶复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞芸; 贾媛

    2011-01-01

    The composite beverage of rose and black tea was processed with rose, black tea and sugar as the main materials. The optimum extraction formula of rose was: adding 0.4% rose powder and extracting at 80 ℃ for 15 minutes. The optimum extraction formula of black tea was: adding 0.4% black tea powder and extracting at 60 ℃ for 20 minutes. The optimum formula of the composite beverage was: adding 2.0% sugar in the mixed solution( the extracting solution of rose: black tea = 2:3 ) . The product had rose flavor and black tea aromas which soluble solid level was 4%.%以玫瑰、红茶、白砂糖为主要原料,研制玫瑰红茶复合饮料.通过试验分别确定了玫瑰、红茶的最佳浸提工艺及复合饮料的最佳配方.结果表明,玫瑰的最佳浸提工艺为:玫瑰粉加量0.4%,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间15min;红茶的最佳浸提工艺为:红茶粉加量0.4%,浸提温度60℃,浸提时间20min.玫瑰红茶复合饮料的最佳配方为:玫瑰与红茶提取液体积比2∶3,白砂糖2.0%.该产品可溶性固形物含量为4%,具有玫瑰花的清香和红茶浓郁的香味,酸甜可口,色泽鲜亮.

  5. Nutritional and functional characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpen, Arda; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Yavuz, Havvana Tuba; Gökmen, Vural; Özcan, Nihat; Özçelik, Beraat

    2012-08-01

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were examined for their proximate composition, dietary fiber, minerals, and water-soluble vitamins as well as total phenolic content, various antioxidant assays, phenolics (flavanols, alkoloids, condensed phenolics, and phenolic acids), chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Some variations, albeit to different extents, were observed (p black tea. With respect to proximate composition, dietary fiber was the predominant compound (ranging from 49.68 to 54.31 g/100 g), followed by protein, carbohydrate, and, to a lesser extent, ash, moisture, and fat. Thirteen minerals, four water-soluble vitamins, six flavanols, two alkoloids, three condensed phenolics, one phenolic acid, two chlorophylls, and two carotenoids were identified in the seven grades of black tea. Total phenol content ranged from 7.52 to 8.29 g of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g, being lowest in grade 6 and highest in grade 1. With regard to antioxidant activities, a large variation in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values was observed among all grades of black tea (ranging from 777 μmol of trolox equivalents (TE)/g in grade 7 to 1210 μmol of TE/g in grade 3). The present work suggests that high- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished on the basis of their nutritional and functional characteristics. The combination of nutritional compounds together with functional characteristics renders combination effects that provide the characteristic quality of each grade of black tea.

  6. Energy Extraction from Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In this lecture I give an introduction to the rotational energy extraction of black holes by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek process and the generation of relativistic jets. After some basic material on the electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres, we derive the most important results of Blandford and Znajek by making use of Kerr-Schild coordinates, which are regular on the horizon. In a final part we briefly describe results of recent numerical simulations of accretion flows on rota...

  7. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  8. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  9. Compositional variation among black tea across geographies and their potential influence on endothelial nitric oxide and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paul Mark; Changarath, Jayashree; Damodaran, Anita; Joshi, Manoj Kumar

    2014-07-16

    Black tea (C. sinensis) consumption is well associated with enhanced endothelial function (EF) and reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk. This clinical end benefit is endorsed to flavonoids in tea. The black tea flavonoid composition varies across geographies and may impact its health benefits. Moreover, the underlying functional species and a precise working mechanism responsible for the observed health benefit also remain to be investigated. In this Article, we investigated the effect of black teas from various geographies (WoBTs) on different working mechanisms (antioxidant potential and endothelial function) proposed to influence certain risk factors of CVH, in vitro. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant benefits are fairly influenced by majority of tea actives such as catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and phenolic acids, while NO potentiating effects are mainly regulated by catechins in black tea. The data also suggest that the net vascular function benefit of black tea is majorly influenced by NO enhancement, while mildly contributed by its antioxidant benefit. PMID:24990074

  10. Compositional variation among black tea across geographies and their potential influence on endothelial nitric oxide and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paul Mark; Changarath, Jayashree; Damodaran, Anita; Joshi, Manoj Kumar

    2014-07-16

    Black tea (C. sinensis) consumption is well associated with enhanced endothelial function (EF) and reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk. This clinical end benefit is endorsed to flavonoids in tea. The black tea flavonoid composition varies across geographies and may impact its health benefits. Moreover, the underlying functional species and a precise working mechanism responsible for the observed health benefit also remain to be investigated. In this Article, we investigated the effect of black teas from various geographies (WoBTs) on different working mechanisms (antioxidant potential and endothelial function) proposed to influence certain risk factors of CVH, in vitro. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant benefits are fairly influenced by majority of tea actives such as catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and phenolic acids, while NO potentiating effects are mainly regulated by catechins in black tea. The data also suggest that the net vascular function benefit of black tea is majorly influenced by NO enhancement, while mildly contributed by its antioxidant benefit.

  11. Protective effect of black tea on integral membrane proteins in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szachowicz-Petelska, Barbara; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta; Figaszewski, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol intoxication is accompanied by oxidative stress formation. Consequently, it leads to disturbances in cellular metabolism that can alter the structure and function of cell membrane components. Black tea displays antioxidant properties, protects membrane phospholipids and may protect integral membrane proteins. In the present study, we examined whether black tea induces changes in the liver integral membrane proteins of 12-months old rats chronically intoxicated with ethanol. To estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the levels of the liver integral membrane proteins, the proteins were selectively hydrolyzed by trypsin, the obtained peptides were resolved by HPLC and the levels of specific amino acids within the individual peptides were determined. All of the obtained peptides contained phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and lysine (Lys). Compared to the control group, rats in the ethanol intoxication group showed decreased liver levels of integral membrane proteins as well as fewer trypsin-hydrolyzed peptides and amino acids in the hydrolyzed peptides. Administration of black tea to ethanol-intoxicated rats partially protected proteins against the structural changes caused by ethanol. Black tea prevented decreases in the levels of cysteine (in about 90% of cases), lysine (in about 60% of cases), phenylalanine (in about 70% of cases) and examined peptides (in about 60% of cases). The liver protein level was higher (by about 18%) in rats who received black tea and ethanol than in those who received ethanol alone. In conclusion, black tea partially protects the composition and level of rat liver cell integral membrane proteins against changes caused by ethanol intoxication.

  12. An exposure and risk assessment for fluoride and trace metals in black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofuoglu, Sait C. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Research Center, Guelbahce, Urla 35430 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: cemilsofuoglu@iyte.edu.tr; Kavcar, Pinar [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Research Center, Guelbahce, Urla 35430 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: pinarkavcar@iyte.edu.tr

    2008-10-30

    Exposure and associated health risks for fluoride and trace metals in black tea were estimated. Fifty participants were randomly recruited to supply samples from the tea that they drink, and self-administer a questionnaire that inquired about personal characteristics and daily tea intake. Analyzed trace metals included aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and zinc. Fluoride and four metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Ni) were detected in all samples while barium was detected only in one sample. The remaining metals were detected in >60% of the samples. Fluoride and aluminum levels in instant tea bag samples were greater than in loose tea samples (p < 0.05) while the differences in elemental concentrations of loose and pot bag tea samples were not significant. Median and 90th percentile daily tea intake rates were estimated as 0.35 and 1.1 l/day, respectively. Neither fluoride nor aluminum levels in black tea were found to associate with considerable risks of fluorosis and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 1.0 x 10{sup -6} even at the median level. According to sensitivity analysis, daily tea intake was the most influencing variable to the risk except for arsenic for which the concentration distribution was of more importance.

  13. Meta-analysis of black tea consumption and breast cancer risk: update 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Dao-Song; Bai, Yang; Xia, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Black tea is a commonly consumed beverage in the world, comprising approximately 80% of all tea consumed. We sought to examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of breast cancer, using all available epidemiologic evidence to date. PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, and China Biological Medicine Database were used to search for citations using the MeSH terms as "breast neoplasm" AND "black tea." Then we performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer risk published between 1985 and 2013 by using RevMan 5.0 software. The results showed that no association between black tea consumption and breast cancer risk in overall [odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89-1.05]. We further performed a stratified analysis according to region (United States/Europe). Black tea consumption did not decrease breast cancer risk in the United States (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) and in Europe (OR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.93-1.06). In addition, the summary OR from all cohort studies (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18) or all case-control studies (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88-1.02) showed black tea intake has no effects on breast cancer risk. However, the association between black tea consumption and breast cancer incidence remains unclear based on the current evidence. Further well-designed large studies are needed to confirm our result.

  14. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Sri Lankan Dust grade Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the antidiarrhoeal potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis in mice using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 tea. Different concentrations of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ ml (equivalent to 1.5 cups, 167 mg/ ml (equivalent to 3 cups, 501 mg/ ml (equivalent to 9 cups or 1336 mg/ ml (equivalent to 24 cups], or a high concentration (equivalent to 9 cups of green tea brew (GTB of Chinese and Japanese types or reference drug, toperamide (10 mg/ kg were orally administered to different groups of mice (N = 9-12/group and were subjected to two antidiarrhoeal tests: normal defecation test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. The results show that BTB of Sri Lankan Dust grade tea dose-dependently and markedly decreased the number of faecal boluses produced in the normal defecation test and improved the severity of the diarroheal condition in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. However, the antidiarrhoeal effect of BTB was superior to Japanese type of GTB and inferior to loperamide. BTB also prolonged the gastrointestinal transit time, impaired intestinal fluid secretion, increased intestinal fluid absorption and reduced in vitro nitric oxide production. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea possesses marked antidiarrhoeal activity supporting the folkloric claim that Sri Lankan black tea is a good remedy for acute non specific diarrhoea.

  15. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea < red tea < green tea < white tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively. PMID:21365858

  16. The Processing Technology of Mulberry Black Tea Beverage%桑葚红茶饮料制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明明; 葛丹丹; 马泉来; 殷丹婷; 李艾黎; 李洪羽

    2012-01-01

    With mulberry and black tea as the main raw materials to make mulberry black beverage, the optimal technological conditions were determined, the extraction pH of black tea was controlled at about 4.5, extraction time was 3 h, the ratio of tea to water was 1:50, the ratio of mulberry to black tea juice was 2:8, the addition of VC was 0.03%, sterilization temperature was 105 ℃. The product showed fresh tea aroma and rich fruit aroma, and had a sweet and sour taste.%以桑葚和红茶为主要原料研制桑葚红茶饮料,确定最佳制作工艺条件为:红茶浸提pH控制在4.5左右,浸提时间3h,茶水比为1∶50,桑葚汁液:红茶汤为2∶8,VC添加量为0.03%,灭菌温度为105℃,所制得的产品茶香清新,果香浓郁,酸甜可口.

  17. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  18. Age-dependent changes in the proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance after alcohol and black tea consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, A; Bylińska, A; Skrzydlewska, E

    2011-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes in the redox balance that is additionally modified by alcohol. Ethanol metabolism is connected with generation of free radicals which can damage cell components especially when antioxidant mechanisms are not able to neutralize them. In connection with the necessity of prevention against oxidative consequences, natural antioxidants are looked for. A natural and commonly used component of the diets with antioxidant properties are teas, especially the black tea. This study provides evidence of the role of black tea in the protection of rat plasma proteins and lipids against oxidative stress caused by aging and ethanol intoxication. For 5 weeks, the rats (2-, 12-, and 24-months old) used for the experiment received a black tea beverage (3 g/l) without or with alcohol (given for 4 weeks). The decrease in antioxidant abilities determined as total antioxidant status during aging and ethanol intoxication resulted in enhanced lipid and protein oxidation (determined as malondialdehyde, carbonyl groups, dityrosine, tryptophan and sulfhydryl groups level). In consequence the decrease in anti-proteases (alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin) activity and the increase in proteases (elastase and cathepsin G) activity were observed. Black tea protected the plasma antioxidants and prevented oxidative modifications of lipid and protein observed during aging as well as ethanol intoxication. The results indicate that a shift into plasma proteolytic activity results from a decrease in antioxidant abilities, so the use of black tea appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress caused by ethanol and/or aging.

  19. Black Tea Consumption and Risk of Skin Cancer: An 11-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Arovah, Novita Intan; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Tea consumption has been shown to protect against skin carcinogenesis in laboratory-based studies; however, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This prospective study examined the association between black tea consumption and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Usual black tea consumption was estimated from food frequency questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 by 1,325 Australian adults. All histologically confirmed skin cancers diagnosed in participants from 1997 to 2007 were recorded. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using generalized linear models with Poisson and negative binomial distributions and adjusted for confounding factors including skin phenotype and sun exposure. Compared with never drinking black tea, drinking ≥4 cups/day was not associated with BCC (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.70-1.53; P-trend = 0.74) or SCC (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.71-2.19; P-trend = 0.29) in person-based analyses. Stratification by previous history of skin cancer as well as tumor-based analyses also showed no significant associations between black tea intake and incidence of BCC or SCC tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that high black tea consumption reduces risk of skin cancer, including in people with a previous history of skin cancer.

  20. Study on Adaptability of Three Tea Cultivars in Wuyi Mingcong For Summer Black Tea%三种武夷名丛夏暑红茶适制性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兰馨; 冯花; 罗盛财; 吴玉琼; 郑瑜丹; 王飞权

    2013-01-01

    为充分利用武夷山夏暑茶资源和开发武夷名丛红茶,以向天梅、金毛猴、玉井流香三种武夷名丛夏暑茶鲜叶为原料,参照传统工夫红茶初制工艺,研究了其适制性及品质特征。结果表明:制得的红茶各生化成分以玉井流香红茶最丰富,向天梅红茶最少,其中氨基酸、黄酮类含量差异显著,而水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱含量差异达到极显著水平;感观审评综合得分由高到低依次为:向天梅(83.85)>金毛猴(79.5)>玉井流香(77.8)。武夷名丛向天梅夏暑红茶综合表现较好,较适宜加工夏暑红茶,其香气甜浓,滋味甜醇,具备较好的红茶品质。%In order to make full use of summer tea resources in Wuyi mountain and develop the Wuyi Mingcong black tea ,taking the three of Wuyi Mingcong summer fresh tea leaves of Xiangtianmei ,Jinmaohou and Yujingli-uxiang as raw material ,traditional processing technology of Gongfu black tea ,the adaptability and quality char-acteristics were studied .The results indicated that the biochemical components of them were rich ,and the Yu-jingliuxiang black tea had the most biochemical components and the Xiangtianmei black tea had the least .The differences of the amino acids and the flavonoid contents were obvious ,and the contents difference of aqueous extracts ,polyphenols and caffeine were reached significant level .The composite scores of the three kinds black tea for sensory evaluation were that Xiangtianmei (83 .85)>Jinmaohou (79 .5) >Yujingliuxiang (77 .8) .Com-pared with three kinds of Wuyi Mingcong black tea ,Xiangtianmei was generally supposed to be the best one which is suitable for processing black tea in summer with rich fragrance ,sweet taste and excellent quality .

  1. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period.

  2. Diuretic effect of four tea water extracts%4种茶叶水提物的利尿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 张琳; 王启隆; 余自云; 鹿野美弘; 袁丹

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较研究绿茶、乌龙茶、红茶和普洱茶水提物的利尿作用.方法 分别灌胃给予生理盐水负荷大鼠0.5 g·kg-1和1.0 g·kg-1剂量的4种茶叶水提物,测定大鼠4h尿量及尿液中Na+、K+排泄量.结果 与模型对照组比较,4种茶叶水提物均能使大鼠4h尿量及尿液中Na+排泄量显著增加,但对尿液中K+排泄量的影响则有所不同,其中乌龙茶和红茶水提物均能使大鼠尿液中K+排泄量显著增加,而绿茶和普洱茶水提物对尿液中K+排泄量无显著性影响.结论 4种茶叶水提物均有明显的利尿作用,其中普洱茶的利尿作用与氢氯噻嗪相当,但对尿液中K+排泄量无显著性影响,可避免噻嗪类利尿药常见副作用一低钾血症的发生,是一种具有较好利尿功能的健康茶饮.%Objective To comparatively study the diuretic effect of the water extracts of green tea, oolong tea,black tea and Pu'er tea. Methods Four teas water extracts at the doses of 0. 5 g·kg-1 and 1.0 g·kg-1 were orally administered to saline-loaded rats, the urinary volume during four hours and the excretion of sodium and potassium in the urine were measured. Results Four tea water extracts resulted in a significant increase in urine volume of four hours and urinary sodium excretion. And they were different in urinary potassium excretion,the water extracts of oolong and black tea resulted in a significant increase in urinary potassium excretion,but the water extracts of green tea and pu'er tea had no significant influence on urinary potassium excretion compared with model group. Conclusions Four tea water extracts show significant diuretic effects. Among them,the diuretic effect of pu'er tea is equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide,but without significant influence on the urinary potassium excretion. Thus, drinking of pu'er tea could avoid the occurrence of low postassemia that is a common side effect of thiazide diuretic agents. As a result,pu'er tea is a

  3. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  4. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  5. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C. PMID:27472310

  6. Black tea prevents cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis and lung damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Dhrubajyoti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung damage. One prominent deleterious effect of cigarette smoke is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptosis and lung injury. Since black tea has antioxidant property, we examined the preventive effect of black tea on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury in a guinea pig model. Methods Guinea pigs were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure from five cigarettes (two puffs/cigarette per guinea pig/day for seven days and given water or black tea to drink. Sham control guinea pigs were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Lung damage, as evidenced by inflammation and increased air space, was assessed by histology and morphometric analysis. Protein oxidation was measured through oxyblot analysis of dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the protein carbonyls of the oxidized proteins. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, phosphorylation of p53 as well as over-expression of Bax by immunoblot analyses. Results Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model caused lung damage. It appeared that oxidative stress was the initial event, which was followed by inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury. All these pathophysiological events were prevented when the cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs were given black tea infusion as the drink instead of water. Conclusion Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model causes oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury that are prevented by supplementation of black tea.

  7. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Verhage, Bas A J; Arts, Ilja C W; van Schooten, Frederik J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2013-06-15

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort study, which includes 58,279 men who provided detailed baseline information on several cancer risk factors. From 1986 to 2003, 3,362 prostate cancers were identified, including 1,164 advanced (stage III/IV) cancers. Cox proportional hazards regression using the case-cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intake of total catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and myricetin and consumption of black tea were associated with a decreased risk of stage III/IV or stage IV prostate cancer. Hazard ratios of stage III/IV and stage IV prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest category of black tea consumption (≥5 versus ≤1 cups/day) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97) and 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.91), respectively. No associations were observed for overall and nonadvanced prostate cancer. In conclusion, dietary flavonoid intake and black tea consumption were associated with a decreased risk of advanced stage prostate cancer.

  8. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  9. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver.

  10. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p tea consumption (p tea ingestion improves BA FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  11. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  12. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  13. Honey and green/black tea consumption may reduce the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Vladimirov, Borislav; Nikolov, Rossen; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dietary and demographic factors and some habits on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in 150 dyspeptic patients examined endoscopically and by the urea breath test. Positivity rate was lower (50.6%) in patients consuming honey ≥1 day weekly compared with the remainder (70.8%) and in those consuming green/black tea ≥1 day weekly (45.2%) compared with the other patients (64.8%). Logistic regression confirmed that the factors associated with significantly lower H. pylori positivity rate were the consumption of honey (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.78) and green/black tea (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95). In conclusion, honey and green/black tea intake is associated with reduced prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  14. Black and green tea--how to make a perfect crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancirova, Martina

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant properties of the black and green tea are well known. The latent bloodstains are detectable by luminol. The bloodstains also can be cover up by drinks and foods containing the antioxidants; thus their presence can cause a decrease of the luminol light emission (false-negative results). The aim of this study was to quantify the light emission decrease of the chemiluminescent mixture prepared according to Weber (containing NaOH) and the chemiluminescent mixture of pH 7.4 (for the determination of the total antioxidant capacity) for the open air-dried sample. The black and green teas and white wine were used as the antioxidant's samples (high and low total antioxidant capacity). The significant decrease of the luminol chemiluminescent emission caused by the presence of the black and green teas (and comparable for both of them) was observed in comparison with the presence of white wine.

  15. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  16. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  17. Interaction mechanism between green tea extract and human α-amylase for reducing starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Huan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xingfeng

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of the green tea extract on human pancreatic α-amylase activity and its molecular mechanism. The green tea extract was composed of epicatechin (59.2%), epigallocatechin gallate (14.6%) and epicatechin gallate (26.2%) as determined by HPLC analysis. Enzyme activity measurement showed that % inhibition and IC50 of the green tea extract (10%, based on starch) were 63.5% and 2.07 mg/ml, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant remained unchanged but the maximal velocity decreased from 0.43 (control) to 0.07 mg/(ml × min) (4 mg/ml of the green tea extract), indicating that the green tea extract was an effective inhibitor against α-amylase with a non-competitive mode. The fluorescence data revealed that the green tea extract bound with α-amylase to form a new complex with static quenching mechanism. Docking study showed the epicatechin gallate in the green tea extract presented stronger affinity than epigallocatechin gallate, with more number of amino acid residues involved in amylase binding with hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Thus, the green tea extract could be used to manipulate starch digestion for potential health benefits.

  18. Candida albicans adherence on acrylic resin plates immersed in black tea steeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soebagio Soebagio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black tea or Cournelia sinensis is one of known tea varieties in Indonesia. Actually, black tea is consumed daily as beverage that can function as antiseptics and fungicides. Black tea containing antibacterial and fungicide properties can reduce the number of Candida albicans (C. albicans colony attachment on the surface of acrylic resin plates. Purpose: This study was done to determine the effective concentration of black tea steeping used as the immersion material of acrylic resin plates towards the number of Candida albicans colonies. Methods: In this study, acrylic resin plates with the size of 10 × 20 × 1 mm were immersed in black tea steeping with the following concentrations, 3.33%, 6.66%, and 13.33%, for one hour. The growth of C. albicans colonies were then detected by counting the number of colonies growing on Sabouraud’s dextrose medium. Data was analyzed by using both One-Way ANOVA with the significance level of 5%, and Tuckey’s multiple comparison tests (Tuckey’s HSD test. Results: There were significant differences in the number of C. albicans colonies in acrylic resin plates immersed in black tea with the concentration of 3.33%, 6.66%, and 13.33%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the higher concentration of black tea (13.33% used to immerse acrylic resin plates, the greater the decreased number of C. albicans colonies.Latar belakang: Teh hitam atau Cournelia sinensis adalah salah satu macam teh yang dikenal di Indonesia. Teh hitam seringkali dipakai sebagai minuman sehari- hari dan berkhasiat sebagai antiseptik maupun fungisid. Teh hitam yang mengandung sifat antibakteri dan fungisid dapat menurunkan jumlah koloni Candida albicans (C. albicans yang melekat pada permukaan lempeng resin akrilik. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui konsentrasi efektif seduhan teh hitam sebagai bahan perendam lempeng resin akrilik terhadap jumlah koloni C. albicans. Metode: Pada penelitian ini lempeng resin akrilik ukuran 10 × 20 × 1 mm

  19. Consumption of coffee, but not black tea, is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Julie A; Beehler, Gregory P; Sawant, Abhishek C; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; McCann, Susan E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2006-01-01

    Caffeine has been suggested as a possible risk factor for breast cancer, potentially through its effect of facilitating the development of benign breast disease. However, coffee and tea also contain polyphenols, which exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and black tea in breast cancer etiology. Study participants included 1932 cases with primary, incident breast cancer and 1895 hospital controls with nonneoplastic conditions. All participants completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Among premenopausal women, consumption of regular coffee was associated with linear declines in breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.03); consumers of >or=4 cups/d experienced a 40% risk reduction (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). No clear associations between intake of black tea or decaffeinated coffee and breast cancer risk were noted among premenopausal women, although black tea was associated with a protective effect unique to a subsample of cases with lobular histology. Among postmenopausal women, breast cancer risk was not associated with consumption of coffee, tea, or decaffeinated coffee. Results among postmenopausal women did not differ by histologic subtype. Our findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on premenopausal, but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:16365077

  20. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-02-15

    The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8-99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2-15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels.

  1. Adsorption of Pb(II on Spent Leaves of Green and Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zuorro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years much attention has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Spent tea leaves, an abundantly available material that is currently disposed of as a solid waste, are potentially suitable for such applications. Approach: To provide some information on the adsorption properties of tea waste, we evaluated the removal efficiency of lead ions by spent leaves of green and black tea. Batch adsorption experiments were made at 25 and 40°C at initial lead-ion concentrations between 0.01 and 2 g L-1. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir equation to evaluate the maximum adsorption capacity and the equilibrium constant. The adsorption characteristics of the two materials were also compared with those of coffee grounds, activated carbon and Fullers earth. Results: Experimental data showed that removal efficiencies up to 98-99% can be achieved when using spent tea leaves as lead adsorbent. The results were only marginally affected by the type of tea waste. At low lead loading, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by the Langmuir equation, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 83-130 mg g-1 and an equilibrium constant ranging from 0.112-0.245 L mg-1. A comparison with other adsorbents provided the following order for lead removal efficiency: Black tea, coffee grounds > green tea > Fullers earth > activated carbon. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that using spent tea leaves as an adsorbent may be an efficient and economical means for removing lead and, presumably, other heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  2. Extraction Efficiency of Different Solvents and LC-UV Determination of Biogenic Amines in Tea Leaves and Infusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzirri, U. Gianfranco; Picci, Nevio

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs), that is, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, and serotonin, have been determined in several samples of tea leaves, tea infusions, and tea drinks by LC-UV method after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Different extraction solvents have been tested and TCA 5% showed better analytical performances in terms of linearity, recovery percentages, LOD, LOQ, and repeatability than HCl 0.1 M and HClO4 0.1 M and was finally exploited for the quantitative determination of BAs in all samples. In tea leaves total BAs concentration ranged from 2.23 μg g−1 to 11.24 μg g−1 and PUT (1.05–2.25 μg g−1) and SPD (1.01–1.95 μg g−1) were always present, while SER (nd–1.56 μg g−1), HIS (nd–2.44 μg g−1), and SPM (nd–1.64 μg g−1) were detected more rarely. CAD and PHE were determined in few samples at much lower concentrations while none of the samples contained TYR. Tea infusions showed the same trend with total BAs concentrations never exceeding 80.7 μg L−1. Black teas showed higher amounts of BAs than green teas and organic and decaffeinated samples always contained much lower BAs levels than their conventional counterparts. PMID:27555979

  3. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Peiró; Michael H. Gordon; Mónica Blanco; Francisca Pérez-Llamas; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols w...

  4. Interaction between green tea extract and 99mTc-pertechnetate on in vivo distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People drink various types of tea without knowing the side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions. In current study, it is aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract in different extraction solvents on the radiolabeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in male Wistar Albino rats. The extraction of green tea was performed in different solvents. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with green tea extract in different extraction solvents or saline (0.9 % NaCl) as a control group for 7 days. The radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with SnCl2 and 99mTc. According to experimental results, radiolabeling blood components with 99mTc were not modified in the usage of the different extraction solvents for green tea extraction, but a significant alteration (P 99mTcO4 was observed after treatment with green tea extract in distilled water. Although there is no considerable effect on radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially with green tea extract in distilled water. The identified change monitored in this study may cause to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or avoid the repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine. (author)

  5. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  6. Gas chromatographic method for the determination of hexaconazole residues in black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnachamy KARTHIKA; Paul James SACHIN

    2008-01-01

    A highly reliable, quantitative and sensitive analytical method for determining the residues of the fungicide, hexaconazole in black tea is described. The proposed method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatographic determination, using nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) for the identification and quantitation of hexaconazole. The most was cleaned up by adsorption column chromatography using activated florisil. Performance of the method was assessed by evaluating quality parameters such as recovery value, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. When the method was assessed for repeatability, the percentage of recovery ranged between 86% and 96% while the relative standard deviation was between 0.30% and 2.35%. In studies on reproducibility the recovery ranged from 81% to 85% and relative standard deviation from 1.68% to 5.13%, implying that the method was reliable. A field trial was conducted to verify the application of this method with real samples. Results prove that the validated method was suitable for extracting hexaconazole residues.

  7. Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Robin B

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in tea drinking habits and/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin. Moreover, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of citrus peel and black tea in the development of SCC. Results Hot and iced teas were consumed by 30.7% and 51.8% of the subjects, respectively. Peel consumption was reported by 34.5% of subjects. Controls were more likely than were cases to report citrus peel use (odds ratio (OR = 0.67 and hot tea intake (OR = 0.79. After adjustment for hot and iced tea intake, the ORs associated with citrus peel use were 0.55 and 0.69, respectively, whereas the corresponding adjusted ORs for hot and iced tea intake after adjustment for citrus peel use were 0.87 and 1.22 respectively. Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were 0.60 and 0.30, respectively. Subjects who reported consumption of both hot black tea and citrus peel had a significant marked decrease (OR= 0.22; 95% CI = 0.10 – 0.51 risk of skin SCC. Conclusion These results indicate that both citrus peel use and strong (hot black tea have independent potential protective effects in relation to skin SCC.

  8. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  9. Removal of caffeine from green tea by microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Er, Chaojuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Sun, Juntao

    2012-02-24

    In order to selectively remove caffeine from green tea, a microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction (MVIE) method was proposed. The effects of MVIE variables including extraction time, microwave power, and solvent to solid radio on the removal yield of caffeine and the loss of total phenolics (TP) from green tea were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: solvent (mL) to solid (g) ratio was 10:1, microwave extraction time was 6 min, microwave power was 350 W and 2.5 h of vacuum ice water extraction. The removal yield of caffeine by MVIE was 87.6%, which was significantly higher than that by hot water extraction, indicating a significant improvement of removal efficiency. Moreover, the loss of TP of green tea in the proposed method was much lower than that in the hot water extraction. After decaffeination by MVIE, the removal yield of TP tea was 36.2%, and the content of TP in green tea was still higher than 170 mg g(-1). Therefore, the proposed microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction was selective, more efficient for the removal of caffeine. The main phenolic compounds of green tea were also determined, and the results indicated that the contents of several catechins were almost not changed in MVIE. This study suggests that MVIE is a new and good alternative for the removal of caffeine from green tea, with a great potential for industrial application.

  10. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya; Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera; Chatura Tissa Dayendra Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was u...

  11. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun, M.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable c...

  12. White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre-adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenck Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes we investigated White Tea extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. In vitro studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of White Tea extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To characterize White Tea extract solution-mediated effects on a molecular level, we analyzed gene expression of essential adipogenesis-related transcription factors by qRT-PCR and determined the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c on the protein level utilizing immunofluorescence analysis. Results Our data show that incubation of preadipocytes with White Tea extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner (n = 10 without affecting cell viability (n = 10. These effects were, at least in part, mediated by EGCG (n = 10, 50 μM. In addition, White Tea extract solution also stimulated lipolytic activity in adipocytes (n = 7. Differentiating preadipocytes cultivated in the presence of 0.5% White Tea extract solution showed a decrease in PPARγ, ADD1/SREBP-1c, C/EBPα and C/EBPδ mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c was not only decreased on the mRNA but also on the protein level. Conclusion White Tea extract is a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis-activity. Therefore, it can be utilized to

  13. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffe...

  14. The Effect of Black Tea on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Arno Greyling; Rouyanne T Ras; Peter L Zock; Mario Lorenz; Hopman, Maria T.; Thijssen, Dick H. J.; Richard Draijer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP) have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, ...

  15. Design and in vivo evaluation of emulgel formulations including green tea extract and rose oil

    OpenAIRE

    YAPAR, EVREN ALGIN; İNAL, Özge; ERDAL, M. SEDEF

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of skin aging and its treatment is an emerging field for development of new formulations in cosmetics. Accordingly, plant extracts with antioxidant properties are beneficial cosmetic ingredients for this purpose. This study was aimed at developing a stable and easily manufactured emulgel including green tea extract and rose oil that is effective on the barrier function and hydration of skin. An emulgel formulation containing 20 % green tea extract and 5 % rose oil was designed as a...

  16. Antioxidant Properties of a Dihydromyricetin-Rich Extract from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) in Menhaden Oil

    OpenAIRE

    N Baek AP; Nielson WN Eigel; SF O'Keefe

    2015-01-01

    Preventing oxidative deterioration of fish oil is a significant challenge for the food industry. Natural antioxidants are widely incorporated into foods to prevent oxidation and extend shelf life. Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract has been shown to have antioxidant activity in vegetable oils, but the efficacy in fish oil is unknown. The goal of our study was to test the antioxidant activity of vine tea extract (VTE) and compare it with other natural antioxidants (rosemary extract - ...

  17. Diuretic activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.. This was assessed in rats using high grown Dust grade No: 1 tea, which is consumed widely by the tea drinkers worldwide. Different doses of hot black tea brew (BTB (84, 167, 501 or 1336 mg/ml respectively equivalent to 1.5, 3, 9 and 24 cups were made and orally administered to previously starved (24 h but subsequently hydrated (with 15 ml of isotonic saline rats and their urinary output was monitored cumulatively at hourly intervals for 6h. The reference drug used was frusemide (13 mg/kg. The results showed that BTB induced significant (P < 0.05, mild to moderate and dose- dependent diuresis (starting from 167 mg/ml. This diuretic activity had a fairly rapid onset (within 2 h and relatively short duration of action (3 h. BTB also significantly (P < 0.05 increased the overall urinary frequency. Further, the diuretic activity of BTB was less potent to frusemide (by 45%. Decaffeination of black tea almost completely abolished the diuresis. The diuresis of the BTB was solely due to increased (by 55 % urinary Na + excretion (with no urinary K + loss. Further, the chronic daily administration of the BTB did not develop tolerance or induce toxicity (general, renal and hepatic. It is concluded that BTB made from Sri Lankan high grown Dust grade No :1 tea has safe, mild to moderate diuretic activity with rapid onset and relatively short duration of action. Further, this study supports the claim made by Sri Lankan indigenous physicians that it is a diuretic.

  18. Short-term effects of polyphenol-rich black tea on blood pressure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo; Fuchs, Dagmar; Croft, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that black tea polyphenols contribute to vascular health. We have recently shown that regular ingestion of polyphenol-rich black tea over 6 months results in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, the time course of these effects remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to determine if short-term effects of tea on blood pressure could contribute to longer-term benefits of regular tea consumption on blood pressure. Men and women (n = 111) were recruited to a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind parallel designed trial. During a 4-week run-in, all participants consumed 3 cups per day of black tea. Participants then consumed 3 cups over 1 day of either powdered black tea solids containing 429 mg of polyphenols (tea), or a control product matched in flavour and caffeine content but containing no tea solids. The 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate was measured at the end of the 4-week run-in (baseline) and again during the 24 h intervention period. The 24 h day-time and night-time blood pressures were not significantly different between tea and control (P > 0.05). Baseline-adjusted net effects on mean 24 h ambulatory blood pressure for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were -0.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.5 to 1.0), P = 0.72, and 0.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.0 to 0.9), P = 0.95, respectively. Heart rate was significantly lower for tea compared to control during the night-time and early-morning periods (-2.0 (95% CI, -3.2, -0.8) bpm, and -1.9 (95% CI, -3.7, -0.2) bpm, respectively; P black tea on blood pressure are unlikely to be due to short-term changes.

  19. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  20. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF.

  1. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greyling, A.; Ras, R.T.; Zock, P.L.; Lorenz, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Draijer, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP) have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to co

  2. Oolong, black and pu-erh tea suppresses adiposity in mice via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoko; Wang, Liuqing; Wang, Lihua; Tanaka, Yuki; Zhang, Tianshun; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that tea has a variety of beneficial impacts on human health, including anti-obesity effects. It is well documented that green tea and its constituent catechins suppress obesity, but the effects of other types of tea on obesity and the potential mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the suppression of adiposity by oolong, black and pu-erh tea and characterized the underlying molecular mechanism in vivo. We found that the consumption of oolong, black or pu-erh tea for a period of one week significantly decreased visceral fat without affecting body weight in male ICR mice. On a mechanistic level, the consumption of tea enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in white adipose tissue (WAT). This was accompanied by the induction of WAT protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1. Our results indicate that oolong, black and pu-erh tea, and in particular, black tea, suppresses adiposity via phosphorylation of the key metabolic regulator AMPK and increases browning of WAT.

  3. Effects of aqueous extracts of raw pu-erh tea and ripened pu-erh tea on proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen-Hui; Yang, Hui; He, Zhan-Long; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Gu, Da-Hai; Jia, Jun-Jing; Ge, Chang-Rong; Lin, Qiu-Ye

    2013-08-01

    Pu-erh tea has shown anti-obesity effects but little is known about its effect on proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes. This study investigated the effects of the aqueous extracts of raw pu-erh tea and ripened pu-erh tea on proliferation and differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadiopocytes. We examined dose and time effects of both aqueous extracts on proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The contents of triglycerides in cytoplasm and the mRNA expression of critical transcriptional factors involved in differentiation were determined. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis rate of preadipocytes by pu-erh tea extracts treatment were test for toxic and pro-apoptotic effects. Both aqueous extracts of pu-erh tea inhibited the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at the selected time points. At lower concentration of raw pu-erh tea extracts (less than 300 µg/ml) and ripened pu-erh tea extracts (less than 350 µg/ml), no significant cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic were observed. Ripened pu-erh tea was more effective with lower IC50 than raw pu-erh tea. Both extracts suppressed the differentiation and down-regulated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-α. Therefore, these results indicate that both aqueous extracts of pu-erh tea can inhibit proliferation and differentiation with ripened pu-erh tea more potent. Polyphenol rich in both extracts may play a role in the inhibition of proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

  4. Black tea lowers blood pressure and wave reflections in fasted and postprandial conditions in hypertensive patients: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Draijer, Richard; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mulder, Theo; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-02-04

    Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP) and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids) or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period). Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (ptea consumption (pBlack tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (-3.2 mmHg, pBlack tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  5. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of CTC black tea of North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Baruah, Binoti Devi; Bordoloi, Cinmoy; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2013-12-15

    Sixty black tea samples from different agro climatic zones of northeast India were assessed for biochemical constituents that determine quality and also influence organoleptic perception. The antioxidant activities such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, nitrite scavenging and super oxide scavenging, of the collected samples were analysed. Out of the four antioxidant activities, the super oxide scavenging activity was lowest and nitrite scavenging activity was highest. Theaflavin was significantly and positively correlated with nitrite scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. Thearubigins showed a significant positive correlation only with nitrite scavenging activity. Correlations between relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) and TF, TR and tasters' quality were positive and significant. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. Principal component analysis showed that Upper Assam, North Bank and South Bank produced better quality tea than other regions with respect to TF, TR, RACI and tasters' quality. PMID:23993544

  6. Model system-based mechanistic studies of black tea thearubigin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Koek, Jan H; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-08-01

    Thearubigins are the most abundant pigments found in black tea, comprising polyphenolic oxidation products, whose composition and chemical nature have remained unresolved until recently. In the course of studying the mechanism of thearubigin formation from green tea flavan-3-ols, a model system, based on electrochemical oxidation of one of the main tea flavan-3-ol substrates, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was employed. Reaction intermediates and products were subsequently analysed using mass spectrometry techniques, allowing for the identification of key intermediates and products. The results provided, for the first time, spectroscopic evidence for the structures of primary oxidation products, and led to the conclusion that oxidation is mainly taking place on the B-ring and the galloyl group, where the oxidized components undergo oxidative coupling for the formation of theaflavins, theasinensins and polyhydroxylated flavan-3-ols, all precursors for thearubigin formation. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to support key findings.

  7. 特种“紫娟”红茶与滇红茶香气成分的比较%Comparison of Aroma Components Between Special "Zijuan" Black Tea and Dianhong Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕世懂; 姜东华; 刘川; 黄伟; 孟庆雄

    2013-01-01

    为了探明紫娟茶的适制性,采用全自动顶空固相微萃取结合气质联用法对紫娟红茶的香气成分进行了定性定量分析,并与滇红茶的香气成分进行比较.结果从紫娟红茶中鉴定出香气成分83种,从滇红茶中鉴定出香气成分82种,它们的香气成分均以醇类化合物为主,分别占提取物总量的44.42%和44.99%;紫娟红茶的香气成分主要为芳樟醇、芳樟醇氧化物、植醇、咖啡因、6,10,14-三-甲基-2-十五烷酮、十六烷酸、香叶醇等;而滇红茶的香气成分主要为芳樟醇、十六烷酸、芳樟醇氧化物、植醇、香叶醇、咖啡因、水杨酸甲酯等.研究发现,紫娟红茶和滇红茶在香气组成上较接近,共有香气成分77种;紫娟红茶除醛类、酯类和酸类含量低于滇红茶外,其余成分含量均高于滇红茶.%In order to explore the manufacturing suitability for Zijuan tea,the aroma components of Zijuan black tea were extracted by fully automated HS-SPME,and were identified by GC-MS.Then comparison of the aromatic components and contents between Dianhong tea was made.The results showed that 83 kinds of aroma components were identified in Zijuan black tea and 82 kinds in Dianhong tea,alcohol was the major aromatic components in these two kinds of tea,representing 44.42% and 44.99% of the total peak area respectively.The major aromatic compounds of Zijuan black tea were linalool,linalool oxide,phytol,caffeine,6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone,hexadecanoic acid and geraniol,respectively,while the major aromatic compounds of Dianhong tea were linalool,hexadecanoic acid,linalool oxide,phytol,geraniol,caffeine and methyl salicylate.The aromatic components in these two kinds of tea were found very similar and 77 of them were identical,the contents of aldehydes,esters and acids compounds in Zijuan black tea were lower than that in Dianhong tea,but the contents of other compounds are higher than Dianhong tea.

  8. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit. PMID:17696743

  9. Efficacy of Black Tea as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent for MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Jalali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Evaluation of the use of black tea as negative oral contrast agent in MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP."nPatients and Methods: Thirty-five patients (mean age, 50.3±19.2 years, who were referred for MRCP, entered in this study. MRCP was performed before, after 5 minutes and after 15 minutes following consumption of 300 ml of black tea. Depiction of the gall bladder, cystic duct, proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD, intra hepatic ducts, ampula of Vater, main pancreatic duct (MPD and signal loss of the stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Lickert scores."nResults: Regarding visibility of seven different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree (gall bladder, cystic duct, CBD, common hepatic duct, intrahepatic duct, ampula of Vater and MPD, the post procedure images were better visualized only in the distal part of CBD, ampula of vater and MPD both in Lickert and VAS scoring (all Ps≤0.001."nThere was no significant difference between the images 5 and 15 minutes after tea consumption. Regarding the obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post tea images of the mentioned parts showed significant disappearance of high signal in Lickert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps≤0.001. "nConclusion: Black tea is an affordable, cheap, available, safe, and efficient oral negative contrast agent for MRCP which reduces the signal intensity of fluids in the gastrointestinal tract and is also efficient for better depiction of MPD, distal part of CBD and ampula.

  10. 3种茶叶对非酒精性脂肪肝细胞中IGF-I基因表达的影响研究%Effects of Fermented Pu-erh Tea, Tieguanyin Tea and Black Tea on Expression of Hepatocyte IGF-1 in Rats with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家奇; 邵宛芳; 王蕊; 黄业伟; 赵宝权; 侯艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨普洱茶(熟茶)、铁观音、红茶对高脂饮食诱发的大鼠非酒精性脂肪肝中胰岛素样生长因子-I (insulinlike growth factor I,IGF-I)表达的影响.方法 将Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、高脂模型组、药物组及低、中、高剂量普洱茶(熟茶)、铁观音、红茶组(0.5,1.0,2.0 g/kg·bw).试验大鼠灌胃授试茶样水浸提物35 d后采血处死,分离血清测定总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、丙氨酸氨基转氨酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基转氨酶(AST)的活性;用RT-PCR法检测试验大鼠肝脏细胞中IGF-I基因的表达量.结果 与高脂模型组相比,药物对照组,中、高剂量普洱茶组,低、中剂量铁观音组,低、中剂量红茶组TC水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);药物对照组,低、中、高剂量普洱茶组,低、中剂量铁观音组,低、中、高剂量红茶组TG水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);低、中、高剂量普洱茶组,低、中剂量铁观音组和高剂量红茶组AST水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);低、中、高剂量普洱茶组和低、高剂量红茶组ALT水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);高剂量普洱茶、中剂量铁观音组IGF-I基因表达较高.结论 普洱茶(熟茶)、铁观音、红茶对IGF-I在非酒精性脂肪肝中的基因表达具有不同程度的积极作用,普洱茶(熟茶)的作用更好.%Objective To approach the effects of the fermented Pu-erh tea,Tieguanyin tea and Black tea on the expression of hepatocyte IGF-I in rats with non-alcoholic steatosis induced by high fat diet.Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group,hyperlipidemia model group,medicinal group,and low,medium and high dose groups(0.5,1.0,2.0 g/kg·bw) of fermented Pu-erh tea,Tieguanyin tea and Black tea individually.All rats were sacrificed after 35 days' intragastric administration with the aqueous extracts of tested teas.The serum levels of TC and TG and the activities of ALT and AST were determined

  11. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Zahedifar; Javad Baharara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, ...

  12. White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre)-adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wenck Horst; Gallinat Stefan; Schepky Andreas; Grönniger Elke; Siegner Ralf; Holtzmann Ursula; Knott Anja; Söhle Jörn; Stäb Franz; Winnefeld Marc

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human pr...

  13. The Design and Implementation of Black Tea Traceability System Based on UHF RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Caijin; Liu, Jinxin; Wu, Jiayao; Wang, Qiushuang; Liu, Shumei; Chen, Haiqiang; Zhao, Chaoyi

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the whole process of consumer-producer bidirectional traceability and distinguish the true from the false, according to Yinghong 9, planting, processing and circulation situation, we introduce UHF RFID and Network information technology, to design and develop the UHF RFID black tea traceability system. The system adopts .NET technology, uses Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 + VB.NET, Microsoft SQL SERVER 2005, T-SQL language for development and design, and uses the network arc...

  14. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto Used Black Tea Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abul Hossain; Md T. al-Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the kinetic and thermodynamic investigation of the adsorption of crystal violet (CV) on used black tea leaves (UBTL) from aqueous solution to evaluate the feasibility of the process. The effects of concentration, solution pH and temperature on adsorption kinetics were carried out in batch process. Kinetic studies have shown that the adsorption data partially follow simple first order, second order and pseudo second order kinetic equations for different initial concentrati...

  15. Honey as a potentiator in the bioactivity of lemon flavoured black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Silva, Alexandra; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Honey plays an important role in human health by combating damage caused by oxidizing agents, namely reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, and inflammatory processes, among others. The antioxidant activity of honey has been extensively reported and attributed to the anti oxidants present that include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic substances (Ferreira et al., 2009). The same properties have been attributed to black tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon (C...

  16. Radioprotective Effect Of Green Tea Extract On GAMMA Irradiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible radioprotective role of green tea extract (GTE) in mice exposed to gamma radiation. Eighty male mice were divided into four groups; group (A) was considered the control, group (B) received 1.5% GTE for 14 days, group (C) exposed to 4 Gy gamma radiation and group (D) received GTE and exposed to 4 Gy gamma radiation. Blood and liver tissue were collected from these groups 24 hours, 3 days and 5 days post-irradiation to measure the levels of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), Hb concentration, RBCs, WBCs and platelets counts, in addition to ultra-structure examination of the liver. The results revealed that GTE supplementation prior to irradiation significantly decreased hepatic MDA, increased hepatic antioxidant enzyme (SOD) and decreased serum ALT and AST compared to irradiated mice. Also, supplementation of mice with GTE led to regeneration and protection of hepatocytes and the levels of the hematological parameters were significantly increased in the GTE pre-treated group as compared to irradiated animals. It could be conclude that the GTE may be a good agent to attenuate radiation-induced damage to the liver and hematopoietic system.

  17. The Latest Advance in the Research of Black Tea in China%我国红茶最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 龚淑英; 李淦成; 张俊; 解静

    2012-01-01

    Quality formation of black tea is closely related to tea varieties,the ecological environment in tea garden and tea processing technology.The latest research progress of domestic black tea is elaborated and the black tea development is also prospected,which could provide theoretical basis for production of black tea.%红茶品质的形成与茶树品种原料、茶园生态环境和茶叶加工工艺等紧密相关。本文阐述了国内红茶最新研究进展,并对红茶发展前景进行了展望,为红茶生产提供理论依据。

  18. Analysis of Volatile Compounds of Four Kinds of Black Tea from China%我国4种红茶的挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉明; 吕世懂; 吴远双; 周降生; 王晨; 孟庆雄

    2015-01-01

    为了解我国4种名优红茶挥发性成分的异同,采用全自动顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱分析,对滇红、祁红、正山小种和金骏眉的挥发性成分进行了研究。结果表明,4种红茶中共鉴定出挥发性成分90种,滇红茶中主要是芳樟醇、香叶醇、芳樟醇氧化物、水杨酸甲酯、2-戊基呋喃和橙花叔醇,祁红中主要是十六碳酸、植酮、香叶醇、芳樟醇氧化物、β-紫罗酮、植醇和蒽等,正山小种中主要是植酮、香叶醇、β-紫罗酮、二氢猕猴桃内酯、咖啡因和芳樟醇氧化物,而金骏眉中主要是香叶醇、咖啡因、芳樟醇氧化物、β-紫罗酮、苯乙醇、橙花叔醇和植醇;他们共同成分有苯甲醛、苯乙醛、芳樟醇氧化物、芳樟醇、香叶醇、α-紫罗酮、β-紫罗酮、植醇等。4种红茶在挥发性组成及含量上差异较大,共有成分仅32种;醇类化合物含量均较高,其中滇红茶中醇类化合物含量高达69.08%;而祁红、正山小种和金骏眉中酮类化合物含量较高。不同化合物之间比例和阈值的不同,形成了4种红茶各自独特的香气特征。%In order to explore the volatile components in four kinds of black tea from China, including Dianhong, Qihong, Zhengshanxiaozhong and Jinjunmei, their volatile components were extracted by fully automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resultsshowedthattotal90volatileconstituentswere identiifed from four kinds of black tea. The major volatile components in Dianhong tea were linalool, geraniol, linalool oxides, methyl salicylate, 2-pentylfuran, and nerolidol; which in Qihong tea were hexadecanoic acid, phytone, geraniol, linalool oxides, β-ionone, phytol, and anthracene; phytone, geraniol, β-ionone, dihydroactinidiolide, caffeine, and linalool oxides in Zhengshanxiaozhong black tea; and geraniol, caffeine

  19. In Vitro Color Change of Three Dental Veneering Resins in Tea, Coffee and Tamarind Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muttagi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the in vitro color changes of three dental resin veneering materials when immersed in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts.Materials and Methods: The color changes of heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (Stellondetrey, B, F14, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai, auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (DPI, B, QV5, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai andlight polymerized resin composite (Herculite XRV, Enamel A2, part no. 22860, lot no. 910437, Kerr Corporation, West Collins Avenue, Orange, CA, USA when immersed in water extracts of tea (Tata Tea Ltd. Bangalore, India, coffee (Tata Coffee Ltd. Coorg, Indiaand tamarind were evaluated using computer vision systems. The color images were recorded in R (red, G (green and B (blue form and converted into H (hue, S (saturationand V (value.Results: Significant color change occurred for auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tamarind extract, for heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tea extract andfor light polymerized resin composite in coffee extract. Auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin samples showed an overall higher color change. However, for all the material samples coffee extract produced more color change.Conclusion: These results suggest that the color stability of the resins is influenced by the presence of secondary metabolites such as tartaric acid, tannins, caffeine, saponins and phenols in tamarind, tea and coffee extracts.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.) FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xu; Jinsong Bao; Junjie Gao; Tao Zhou; Yuefei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel) was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°...

  1. Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2013-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ≥60 mg/kg flour.

  2. Antagonistic effects of black tea against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage to normal lymphocytes in comparison with cancerous K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debjani; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Chabita

    2014-11-01

    The potential of naturally occurring antioxidants to reduce the cellular oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied for more than a decade for their pharmacological application during cancer treatment. It is already known that radioprotective efficacy of phytochemicals might influence various end points of radiation damage. Flavonoids are well-known natural radioprotectors, and their biological effects depend upon their chemical structure. In the present study, radioprotective effect of black tea rich in flavonoids was evaluated against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage on normal lymphocytes and compared with erythroleukemic K562 cells. Pre-treatment with black tea extract (BTE) significantly reduced radiation-induced loss of cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis in normal lymphocytes compared to K562 cells. BTE also regulates the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The changes in the mRNA expression of bax, bcl2, p53 and Nrf2 were also followed to evaluate regulation of radiation-induced apoptosis by BTE. These findings suggest that black tea may have the potential of a natural radioprotective agent which can be used as adjunct with radiation during cancer treatment.

  3. Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yu-Jing; Li, Duo

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies regarding the associations of tea and coffee consumption with esophageal cancer (EC) risk are still inconsistent and this meta-analysis was conducted to examine these associations. PubMed, ISI -Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese VIP database up to October 2011 were searched and manual search for reference lists of relevant studies were conducted. Random effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (OR). Twenty-four case-control and cohort studies with 7376 EC cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR of EC was 0.77 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.57, 1.04] for highest vs. non/lowest green tea consumption; but it was statistically significant for case-control studies (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96) and for studies conducted in China (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.95). No significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption against EC risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.86, 2.11). A borderline significantly inverse association of highest vs. non/lowest coffee consumption against EC risk was found (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.01). In conclusion, our data showed that both green tea and coffee consumption, but not black tea consumption, have protective effects on EC.

  4. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  5. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  6. 不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分比较分析%Comparative analysis of aroma compositions in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰; 张劲松

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Major aroma compositions of different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea were comparatively analyzed and their quality was assayed in order to provide guidance for enhancing Congou black tea production. [Method] Aroma substance was enriched using same distillation extract method and aroma compositions were analyzed using SDE/ GC-MS in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea samples comparatively. [ Result ]The results showed that different-grade Yunnan Congou black tea had nearly the same aroma compositions, but their contents varied a lot. The linalool, linalool oxide, α-Terpineol and geraniol contents were higher in superior Yunnan Congou black tea compared to those presenting in inferior one. However, inferior Yunnan black tea had higher leafaldehyde, benzaldehyde and benzeneac-etaldehyde content. [Conclusion] Higher-graded Yunnan Congou black tea had good fragrance quality and all different-graded Congou black teas presented strong fragrance, and high aroma and strong taste characteristics of Diangong time tea.%[目的]分析云南工夫红茶香气主要化学物质组成,比较不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分的差异,为提高云南红茶品质和指导生产实践提供理论依据.[方法]采用同时蒸馏萃取法富集云南工夫红茶香气物质,利用气相色谱—质谱法(GC-MS)对不同级别的云南红茶样品进行香气成分对比分析.[结果]不同级别的云南工夫红茶香气成分组成大致相同,但含量差异较大.其中,芳樟醇、芳樟醇氧化物、α-松油醇和香叶醇等在高级别红茶中的含量较低级别红茶的高;而青叶醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛等则在低级别红茶中含量较高.[结论]级别越高的云南工夫红茶其香气品质越好,但不同级别的云南工夫红茶均具有滇红工夫茶香气馥郁、香高味浓的风格特征.

  7. Effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of the studies that have investigated the effects of black tea on blood cholesterol are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the effects of black tea on cholesterol concentrations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library (through to July 2014 were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to investigate the effect of black tea on blood cholesterol concentrations. The study quality was assessed by the Jadad scoring criteria. Pooled effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol concentrations was evaluated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate dose effects of black tea polyphenols on concentrations of blood cholesterol. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the potential source of heterogeneity. RESULTS: The consumption of black tea did not significantly lower TC concentrations either in healthy subjects or patients with coronary artery diseases based on both fixed-effects and random-effects analysis. No significant change was observed in HDL-C concentrations in healthy participants or in subjects with coronary artery disease supplemented with black tea when compared with control participants. The pooled net change of LDL-C in healthy participants was -5.57 mg/dL (95% CI, -9.49 to -1.66 mg/dL; P = 0.005 in fixed-effects analysis and -4.56 (95% CI, -10.30 to 1.17 mg/dL; P = 0.12 in random-effects analysis. No significant net change was observed in LDL-C concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease. Subgroup and sensitivity did not significantly influence the overall outcomes of this meta-analysis. No significant dose effects of black tea polyphenols on blood cholesterol concentrations were detected in meta-regression analyses. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis suggests that the consumption of black tea might not have beneficial effects on concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and

  8. 论安化黑茶的绿色包装%Talk about the Green Packaging of Anhua Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞野营

    2011-01-01

    通过对绿色包装的内涵及原则的论述,结合安化黑茶包装材料的发展现状,分析了绿色包装材料在安化黑茶包装设计中的重要性。在此基础上,进一步提出了安化黑茶包装材料基于地域资源、地域文化之上的绿色发展方向,提高了安化黑茶包装与社会、自然相互协调、共生互补的境界,确保绿色设计思想在黑茶包装中的可行性。%Through discussion of the connotation and principle of green packaging, combined with the development situation of Anhua black tea packaging materials, it analyzed the importance of green packaging materials in packaging design of Anhua black tea. Based on this, it further proposed the green development orientation of packaging materials of Anhua black tea based on region resources and culture. Finally, it enhanced the anhua black tea packaging to achieve sustainable development with the society and nature, which guaranteed the feasibility of green design ideas in the black tea packaging.

  9. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed.

  10. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lan-Sook Lee; Namhyouck Lee; Young Ho Kim; Chang-Ho Lee; Sang Pil Hong; Yeo-Won Jeon; Young-Eon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  11. 红茶品质化学的研究进展%Research Progresses on Quality and Chemical Components of Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盛美; 李晓霞; 夏丽飞; 陈玫; 唐一春

    2013-01-01

    红茶是世界生产和消费的主要茶类,红茶的品质与化学成分紧密相关.综述了国内外红茶品质化学的研究进展,并对今后红茶品质化学研究进行了展望.%Black tea is the principal tea product in the world' s tea production and consumption, the quality of black tea is closely related to its chemical compositions. The research achievements on quality and chemical composition of black tea were reviewed. The research emphases for quality and chemical composition of black tea in the future were forecasted.

  12. Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.

  13. Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Intracellular Cytokines, Regulatory T Cells and Metabolic Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Dashti, Ali

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of black tea intake on inflammatory cytokines and metabolic biomarkers in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty patients with T2DM were randomly assigned either to a High Intake (HI) group, consuming three cups (600 mL) of black tea per day; and a Low Intake (LI) group, administered 1 cup (200 mL) per day, each during a 12-week period. Intracellular cytokine expression, regulatory T cells (Treg), glycemic and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and following the tea intake period. Tea consumption correlated with major effects measured in peripheral blood of subjects that included significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, along with increased regulatory T cells CD3+ CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3, CD3+ CD4+ IL-10+ cells (an immunosuppressive phenotype), reduced (pro-inflammatory) CD3+ CD4+ IL-17+ cells and reduced Th1-associated CD3+ CD4+ IFN-Υ+ cells. Tea consumption was also observed to abolish the significance of an inverse correlation between total serum cholesterol and representation of CD4+ IL-4+ T cells, which may reflect protection against atopy-related oxidative stress. Outcomes of this study describe both advantages and limitations to consumption of black tea as an aid to sustained health maintenance by persons at-risk for TD2M and related obesity-associated metabolic syndromes.

  14. Extraction and removal of caffeine from green tea by ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-Qiang; Li, Di-Cai; Lv, Yang-Xiao; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2010-05-01

    Low-caffeine or caffeine-removed tea and its products are widely welcomed on market in recent years. In the present study, we adopt ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction process to remove caffeine from green tea. An orthogonal experiment (L16 (4(5))) was applied to optimize the best removal conditions. Extraction pressure, extraction time, power of ultrasound, moisture content, and temperature were the main factors to influence the removal rate of caffeine from green tea. The 5 factors chosen for the present investigation were based on the results of a single-factor test. The optimum removal conditions were determined as follows: extraction pressure of 30 MPa, temperature at 55 degrees C, time of 4 h, 30% moisture content, and ultrasound power of 100 W. Chromatogram and ultraviolet analysis of raw material and decaffeinates suggests that under optimized conditions, the caffeine of green tea was effectively removed and minished without damaging the structure of active ingredients in green tea. PMID:20546396

  15. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  16. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  17. Hypoglycaemic effects of tea extracts and ent-kaurenoic acid from Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Dennis D; Alimboyoguen, Agnes B; del Fierro, Ramon S; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2010-11-01

    Hypoglycaemic activity was observed in normoglycaemic mice orally administered with the aqueous Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf tea extract, alloxan-induced diabetic mice orally administered with ent-kaurenoic acid (1), and normoglycaemic mice intraperitoneally administered with 1 from S. sonchifolius leaves. A single dose administration of 50 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract demonstrated immediate but relatively short hypoglycaemic activity, with significant effects observed during 1-2 h. Similarly, administration with 100 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract obtained by heavy stirring in hot water demonstrated a more potent activity compared to the positive control at 1.5-2.0 h. Oral administration of 1 did not affect the blood glucose level of the alloxan-induced diabetic mice, but a single intraperitonial injection of 10 mg kg(-1) BW in normoglycaemic mice had consistent percent blood glucose reduction persisting from 1 to 2 h observation periods. PMID:20981618

  18. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  19. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB) was used as the sample in this study. Anti-glycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  20. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Black Tea-Derived Catechins and Theaflavins in Tissues of Tea Consuming Animals Using Ultra-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Souradipta; G., Taposh Kumar; Mantha, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of the major tea polyphenols, catechins and theaflavins as well as their gallated derivatives are yet to be precisely elucidated on a single identification platform for assessment of their relative bioefficacy in vivo. This is primarily due to the lack of suitable analytical tools for their simultaneous determination especially in an in vivo setting, which continues to constrain the evaluation of their relative health beneficiary potential and therefore prospective therapeutic application. Herein, we report a rapid and sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the simultaneous determination of the major catechins and theaflavins in black tea infusions as well as in different vital tissues and body fluids of tea-consuming guinea pigs. This method allowed efficient separation of all polyphenols within seven minutes of chromatographic run and had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of ~5 ng/ml. Using this method, almost all bioactive catechins and theaflavins could be simultaneously detected in the plasma of guinea pigs orally administered 5% black tea for 14 days. Our method could further detect the majority of these polyphenols in the lung and kidney as well as identify the major catechin metabolites in the urine of the tea-consuming animals. Overall, our study presents a novel tool for simultaneous detection and quantitation of both catechins and theaflavins in a single detection platform that could potentially enable precise elucidation of their relative bioavailability and bioefficacy as well as true health beneficiary potential in vivo. Such information would ultimately facilitate the accurate designing of therapeutic strategies utilizing high efficacy formulations of tea polyphenols for effective mitigation of oxidative damage and inflammation in humans as well as prevention of associated diseases. PMID:27695123

  2. The relativity analysis between the main components of congou black tea and its quality%工夫红茶主要内含成分与品质的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌辉; 杜晓; 齐桂年

    2011-01-01

    通过对11种工夫红茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱、氨基酸、茶黄素、茶红素和茶褐素的含量的测定,并作了感官审评,比较了这些对品质影响较大的内含成分含量与品质之间的相关关系。结果表明,工夫红茶的水浸出物含量与工夫红茶香气得分呈极显著正相关,与汤色呈极显著正相关,与总得分呈极显著正相关;茶褐素含量与茶汤色得分呈极显著负相关,与滋味呈显著性负相关,与茶汤总得分呈显著性负相关;茶红素与茶黄素的比值和茶汤汤色得分呈二次曲线关系;氨基酸的含量与茶汤滋味品质有极显著正相关关系,与香气得分呈显著性正相关。%Determined 11 kinds of congou black tea ‘s aqueous extract, tea polyphenols, the coffeine, the amino acid, the theaflavin, the Congo red element and the dark brown element, and has made the feeling view appraisal. Compared with the realations between the main components of congou black tea and its quality. The result indicated that the free time black tea the water oozes the content and the free time black tea fragrance score assumes is extremely remarkable is being related, is extremely remarkable with tea soup color is being related, with always scores points assumes is extremely remarkable is being related. The dark brown element content and the tea soup color score assume the extremely remarkable inverse correlation, assumes the significance inverse correlation with the taste, always scores points with the tea soup assumes the significance inverse correlation. The Congo red element and tea flavine’s ratio and the tea soup color score assumes the conic section relations. The amino acid content and the tea soup taste quality have the extremely remarkable correlational dependence, assumes the significance with the fragrance score to be related.

  3. A randomized double blind study of a green and black tea agent, AssuriTEA®, in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Capodice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green and black teas have known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 3 doses of a water-extracted green and black tea agent (AssuriTEA® [AT]. Methods: Subjects who met inclusion criteria were randomized to one of four groups: 1000, 500, or 250 mg AT or placebo for 28 days. At baseline (BL and day 28, serum antioxidant capacity, quality of life and safety were assessed. Results: Of the 55 subjects screened, 43 were considered evaluable. Age was 56.77 ± 2.83 years (mean ± SEM. Evaluable subjects demonstrated improved antioxidant status, as measured by ferric iron reducing antioxidant power at all doses over the placebo (p < 0.05. There was significant improvement in cellular antioxidant protection in the 1000 mg AT group versus the placebo (p=0.032. Glucose levels were higher in the placebo group versus the 250 mg AT group (p=0.023 and there was a significant improvement in systolic blood pressure in the 250 mg AT group at day 28 versus BL (p=0.048. In the 1000 mg AT group, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure at day 28 versus BL (p=0.017. There was a significant improvement in the vitality category in the 1000 mg AT group (p=0.029. Overall, AT was safe and well tolerated with no differences in adverse events or serum chemistries between groups. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the administration of AT resulted in improvement of serum antioxidant status, vitality level, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure in test subjects.

  4. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, Mousumi [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Central Calcutta Polytechnic, Kolkata 700014 (India); Tudu, Bipan, E-mail: bt@iee.jusl.ac.in [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nabarun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Jana, Arun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chatterjee, Anutosh [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700107 (India)

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  5. Equilibrium adsorption of rhodamine B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abul Hossain; M. Atiqur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The presence of carcinogenic dye like rhodamine B (Rh-B) in textile wastewater affects the quality of water to consumers. The adsorption of Rh-B on used black tea leaves (UBTL) was studied in batch process to investigate its removal efficiency. The effects of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH etc. on adsorption have been investigated. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of Rh-B at constant pH. The adsorption isotherms were constructed for differ...

  6. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  7. Technological Study on Preparation of Low Caffeine Instant Black Tea with Fresh Tea Leaves%用鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展; 刘伟; 龚正礼

    2015-01-01

    This article is oriented in studying the process technology of low caffeine instant black tea by or‐thogonal test with fresh tea leaves as raw material .By means of comprehensive assessment ,the most ap‐propriate proportion of added fresh tea leavesis 7∶3 ,i .e .decaffeinated fresh leaves per 70 g by adding 30 g chopped fresh leaves ,working as a source of enzyme fermentation for making out the best quality de‐caffeinated tea embryo .Four factors affecting theaflavins extraction from primary to secondary are stated as follows :pH ,temperature ,solid‐liquid ratio ,time .However ,the factors affecting thearubigins extrac‐tion from primary to secondary are solid‐liquid ratio ,pH ,temperature ,time .The optimal process parame‐ter for extraction of processing low caffeine instant black tea is at the temperature of 95℃ ,for the duration of 30 min extraction time ,with a solid‐liquid ratio 1∶15 and pH5 .5 .Through organoleptic evaluation ,it has been found that the better quality low caffeine instant black tea is made of fresh leaves and that the yield is also coming to 21 .4% .Besides ,there is not much difference in comparison of tradition process technique .T hus ,this process can be applied to the industrialized production of instant black tea .%以茶鲜叶为原料,采用正交试验,研究了低咖啡因速溶红茶的加工工艺.通过综合评估,鲜叶添加比例以7∶3最为合适,即每70 g脱咖啡因鲜叶中添加30 g切碎的鲜叶作为酶源发酵制成的脱咖啡因红茶胚品质最佳.4个因素对茶黄素浸提影响的主次关系为pH值,温度,固液比,时间,对茶红素浸提影响的主次关系则为固液比,时间,pH值,温度.鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶浸提的最优工艺参数为温度95℃,浸提时间30 min ,固液比1∶15, pH值为5.5.通过感官审评,发现用鲜叶制的低咖啡因速溶红茶品质更佳,且其得率也达到了21.4%,与传统加

  8. Technological Study on Preparation of Low Caffeine Instant Black Tea with Fresh Tea Leaves%用鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展; 刘伟; 龚正礼

    2015-01-01

    以茶鲜叶为原料,采用正交试验,研究了低咖啡因速溶红茶的加工工艺.通过综合评估,鲜叶添加比例以7∶3最为合适,即每70 g脱咖啡因鲜叶中添加30 g切碎的鲜叶作为酶源发酵制成的脱咖啡因红茶胚品质最佳.4个因素对茶黄素浸提影响的主次关系为pH值,温度,固液比,时间,对茶红素浸提影响的主次关系则为固液比,时间,pH值,温度.鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶浸提的最优工艺参数为温度95℃,浸提时间30 min ,固液比1∶15, pH值为5.5.通过感官审评,发现用鲜叶制的低咖啡因速溶红茶品质更佳,且其得率也达到了21.4%,与传统加工方法相比差异也不大,故此工艺可以应用到产业化生产速溶红茶中.%This article is oriented in studying the process technology of low caffeine instant black tea by or‐thogonal test with fresh tea leaves as raw material .By means of comprehensive assessment ,the most ap‐propriate proportion of added fresh tea leavesis 7∶3 ,i .e .decaffeinated fresh leaves per 70 g by adding 30 g chopped fresh leaves ,working as a source of enzyme fermentation for making out the best quality de‐caffeinated tea embryo .Four factors affecting theaflavins extraction from primary to secondary are stated as follows :pH ,temperature ,solid‐liquid ratio ,time .However ,the factors affecting thearubigins extrac‐tion from primary to secondary are solid‐liquid ratio ,pH ,temperature ,time .The optimal process parame‐ter for extraction of processing low caffeine instant black tea is at the temperature of 95℃ ,for the duration of 30 min extraction time ,with a solid‐liquid ratio 1∶15 and pH5 .5 .Through organoleptic evaluation ,it has been found that the better quality low caffeine instant black tea is made of fresh leaves and that the yield is also coming to 21 .4% .Besides ,there is not much difference in comparison of tradition process technique

  9. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  10. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L. FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°C, and 33 min given by using response surface methodology (RSM. A high correlation (R2 = 0.929, p < 0.01 between TPC and FRAP value was identified by linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gallocatechin (GC and epigallocatechin (EGC were found to be the major individual catechins in the extracts from tea fruit peel. Ethanol/aqueous extraction has been presented as an effective method for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants from tea fruit peel.

  12. 武夷名丛“向天梅”夏暑红茶适制性研究%Adaptability of Processing into Black Tea by Wuyi Mingcong“Xian Tianmei”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞权; 冯花; 罗盛财; 洪永聪; 吴玉琼; 钟兰馨; 张见明

    2013-01-01

      以武夷名丛“向天梅”夏暑茶鲜叶为原料,参照传统工夫红茶初制工艺,研究了“向天梅”夏暑茶鲜叶红茶的适制性,结合感官审评、生化成分和香气成分的测定和分析得知:武夷名丛“向天梅”夏暑茶鲜叶较适宜加工红茶。制得的夏暑红茶,水浸出物、氨基酸和茶红素含量分别为30.99%、1.31%和5.10%,香气含量占提取物总量的87.76%,其中共鉴定出9类160种化合物,香气甜浓,滋味甜醇,具备较好的红茶品质。%With summer fresh tea leaves of Wuyi Mingcong"Xian Tianmei", traditional processing technology of Gongfu black tea was refered, adaptability of processing into black tea by Wuyi Mingcong"Xian Tianmei"was studied. Combining sensory evaluation with chemical and aromatic components measurement and analysis. The conclusion was got: the summer fresh tea leaves of Wuyi Mingcong "Xian Tianmei" was suitable for processing of black tea. The summer black tea was then gained with better quality that the content of water extracts, amino acids and thearubigins were 30.99%, 1.31%and 5.10%, the content of aromatic components occupied 87.76%of the total content of extracts , about 9 classes of 160 different compounds were isolated and identified, the aroma was sweet and thick, the taste was sweet and pure.

  13. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  14. Construction Technology of Ecological Tea Plantation in Mindong Black-green Tea Area%闽东红绿茶产区生态茶园建设技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨如兴; 张磊; 陈芝芝; 吴志丹

    2014-01-01

    阐述了闽东生态茶园建设措施和目标,总结出适合闽东红绿茶生产的新垦茶园、茶林嵌合型和纯茶种植老茶园生态建设技术。%In this paper, construction measures and objectives of ecological tea plantation in Mindong area were elaborated, and thus construction technology of ecological tea plantation was suggested for the newly-reclaimed young tea plantation, mosaic type plantation of tea and woods, and ageing single-tea plantation, to be proper for the production of black tea and green tea in Mindong area.

  15. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  16. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  17. The Design and Implementation of Black Tea Traceability System Based on UHF RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caijin; LING; Jinxin; LIU; Jiayao; WU; Qiushuang; WANG; Shumei; LIU; Haiqiang; CHEN; Chaoyi; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the whole process of consumer- producer bidirectional traceability and distinguish the true from the false,according to Yinghong 9,planting,processing and circulation situation,we introduce UHF RFID and Network information technology,to design and develop the UHF RFID black tea traceability system.The system adopts.NET technology,uses Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 + VB.NET,Microsoft SQL SERVER 2005,T-SQL language for development and design,and uses the network architecture of C /S combined with B /S,to randomly generate ID with 20 bit code and label,thereby forming the only corresponding relation and pointing to the corresponding batch and product types.The technology mode using three-layer structure for development realizes the functions of data collection,tracing,sharing and query.The data and business processing are concentrated on the server,simplifying the development,use and maintenance of system.We build and implement Yinghong 9 black tea traceability system,to the needs of government,the public and the producers for Yinghong 9 brand protection,product quality tracking and market regulation.

  18. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Thea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  19. Chemical Composition and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Houttuynia cordata Tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.; Shi, X.L.; Yu, L.H.; Zhu, J.; Ma, R.; Yang, X.B.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect, and phenolic composition of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from Houttuynia cordata tea. EAF was shown to exhibit strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity against DPPH

  20. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  1. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xungang Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  2. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture. PMID:26035225

  3. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture.

  4. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. M. Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability. It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract in aqueous and ethanolic extract of rosemary and green tea leaves respectively. The ethanolic extract shows high content of phenolic compounds and in turn highly antioxidative activiy for both rosemary and green tea leaves as compared with aqueous extract.The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves show high reducing power ability comparing with their abilities as chelating agents. Although, the phenolic compounds of green tea leave almost about 3-fold as compared with rosemary leave in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, their extracts show extremely the same mode of action in both methods of determination (the reducing power and chelating ability. Therefore, we are fully recommended the rosemary leave extracts as a potent food preservative.

  5. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  6. ESR detection of free radicals in polyphenolic extracts from wine grapes, olives and green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Polyphenols are widespread in vegetables and fruits and they play an important role in human diet and health: these compounds act mainly as antioxidants and radical scavengers. In this work we have detected free radicals in the following natural polyphenols: Endotelon, an anthocyanic grapeskin extract; malvidin 3,5-O-diglucosides (malvin); oleuropein, an olive polyphenol; a commercial green tea extract, and pure epigallocatechingallate EGCG. The investigation was performed using a Varian E-12 ESR Spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All except the green tea extract gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10 gauss linewidth. The tea extract signal showed 3 lines, one ∼ 20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼ 2-3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals About 50% of the extract is represented by epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). Using the pure sample EGCG it was possible to assign the appropriate radical, which corresponded with the broadest and strongest 'single' signal (∼20g wide). The presence of the free radicals in the solid extracts shows that the appropriate molecules can act as radical scavengers by forming stable radicals

  7. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: a diet-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Rasa; Hayes, Jennifer H; Raatz, Susan K; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Khaliq, Waseem; Jacobs, David R; Key, Nigel S; Morawski, Bozena M; Kaiser, Daniel; Bank, Alan J; Gross, Myron

    2015-02-01

    Habitual intake of black tea has been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trial results evaluating the effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have been inconsistent. Several factors could explain these mixed results, in particular, uncontrolled confounding caused by lifestyle factors (eg, diet). This diet-controlled clinical trial estimates the effect of black tea flavonoid consumption on cholesterol concentrations in 57 borderline hypercholesterolemic individuals (total cholesterol concentrations between 190 and 260 mg/dL [4.9 and 6.7 mmol/L]). A double-blind, randomized crossover trial was conducted in Minneapolis, MN, from April 2002 through April 2004 in which key conditions were tightly controlled to minimize possible confounding. Participants consumed a controlled low-flavonoid diet plus 5 cups per day of black tea or tea-like placebo during two 4-week treatment periods. The flavonoid-free caffeinated placebo matched the tea in color and taste. Differences in cholesterol concentrations at the end of each treatment period were evaluated via linear mixed models. Differences among those treated with tea vs placebo were 3.43 mg/dL (0.09 mmol/L) (95% CI -7.08 to 13.94) for total cholesterol, -1.02 mg/dL (-0.03 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.34 to 9.30) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.58 mg/dL (0.02 mmol/L) (95% CI -2.98 to 4.14) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 15.22 mg/dL (0.17 mmol/L) (95% CI -40.91 to 71.35) for triglycerides, and -0.39 mg/dL (-0.01 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.16 to 10.38) for low-density lipoprotein plus high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by -0.1 units (95% CI -0.41 to 0.21). No results were statistically or clinically significant. The intake of 5 cups of black tea per day did not alter the lipid profile of borderline hypercholesterolemic subjects

  8. Extraction of light filth from tea: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F F; Barnett, J; Bright, A; Chaput, M P; Cox, C; Floyd, D M; Gentry, J; Thrasher, J; Washbon, E C

    1981-03-01

    The present AOAC method for determining insect and rodent filth in tea is time-consuming because it produced filter papers which are heavy in plant residue and therefore required long paper-reading times. A new method for the analysis of light filth in tea was developed to remedy existing problems and to improve recoveries. The method consists of the following steps: sample preparation, wet sieving, dilution with 40% isopropanol, flotation with mineral oil-heptane, and trapping off in a Wildman trap flask. In an interlaboratory collaborative study, analysts reported combined insect fragment recoveries of 99.2% for the proposed method and 93.0% for the AOAC method; the same analysts recorded combined rodent hair recoveries of 92.2% for the proposed method and 47.6% for the official method. Average times for reading individual subsamples were 9 min for the proposed method and 27 min for AOAC method. the proposed method has been adopted official first action. PMID:7228825

  9. Green Tea Extract Improves the Post Prandial Overproduction of Intestinal Apolipoprotein B-containing Lipoproteins in Fructose Fed Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea has putative medicinal properties that may be useful in preventing the metabolic syndrome. However, little is known of the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on postprandial apoB-48 containing lipoproteins and its molecular mechanisms. In a three-hour olive oil loading study, acute GTE ora...

  10. Green Tea Extract Improves the Postprandial Overproduction of Intestinal Apolipoprotein B-containing Lipoproteins in Fructose-Fed Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea has putative medicinal properties that may be useful in preventing the metabolic syndrome since increased consumption of green tea extract (GTE) is associated with improved lipid and glucose homeostasis in human and animals. The acute effect of GTE on postprandial intestinal apoB48 product...

  11. Effect of Green Tea Extract on the Treatment of Dentin Erosion: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirkarimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of green tea on dentin erosion.Materials and Methods: Twelve extracted sound human premolars were immersed in Coca Cola with a pH of 2.8 for 5 minutes. The surface microhardness was measured with a Knoop diamond under a load of 50gr/10s. The teeth were immersed in green tea (Camellia sinensis solution for one minute. The microhardness values were measured again and compared with pretreatment values by the Wilcoxon test. Three eroded teeth, which were treated with green tea, were evaluated under scanning electron microscope.Results: The mean ± SD of microhardness values before and after immersion in green tea were 46.5±2.79 and 54.5±4.4, respectively with statistically significant differences between the two measurements (P<0.01. In SEM evaluation there was an improvement in eroded dentin appearance and there were deposits on the dentin surface.Conclusion: Green tea (Camellia sinensis increased the microhardness of eroded dentin and improved the eroded texture.

  12. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  13. Identification of novel homologous series of polyhydroxylated theasinensins and theanaphthoquinones in the SII fraction of black tea thearubigins using ESI/HPLC tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Koek, Jan H; Jayaraman, Sujatha; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-10-01

    Thearubigins are the most abundant phenolic pigments found in black tea, produced by enzymatic oxidation of green tea flavan-3-ols in tea fermentation of until recently unknown composition. In this study electrospray ionization tandem LC-MS(n) experiments have been applied for the characterization of crude thearubigins isolated from black tea not exceeding 1000 Da. The aim of this study is to confirm the oxidative cascade hypothesis of tea fermentation. The data revealed the presence of two novel classes of compounds in thearubigin fractions. The first class of compounds revealed the presence of polyhydroxylated dimers of the theanaphthaquinone and theasinensin C structures, which were consistent with the polyhydroxylation hypothesis previously formulated. Furthermore, new classes of peroxo-/epoxy- compounds in the series of theasinensin A were identified, thus indicating the presence of H2O2 and its important contribution as a nucleophile in the tea fermentation process.

  14. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Hara, Y

    1999-01-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage, consumed by over two thirds of the world's population. Tea is processed differently in different parts of the world to give green (20%), black (78%) or oolong tea (2%). Green tea is consumed mostly in Japan and China. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea are extensively examined. The chemical components of green and black tea are polyphenols, which include EC, ECG, EGC, EGCG and TFs. This article reviews the epidemiological and experimental studies on the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity of tea extracts and tea polyphenols. In Japan, an epidemiological study showed an inverse relationship between habitual green tea drinking and the standardized mortality rates for cancer. Some cohort studies on Chanoyu (Japanese tea ceremony) women teachers also showed that their mortality ratio including deaths caused by malignant neoplasms were surprisingly low. The antimutagenic activity against various mutagens of tea extracts and polyphenols including ECG and EGCG has been demonstrated in microbial systems (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), mammalian cell systems and in vivo animal tests. The anticarcinogenic activity of tea phenols has been shown in experimental animals such as rats and mice, in transplantable tumors, carcinogen-induced tumors in digestive organs, mammary glands, hepatocarcinomas, lung cancers, skin tumors, leukemia, tumor promotion and metastasis. The mechanisms of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis of tea polyphenols suggest that the inhibition of tumors may be due to both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms including the modulation of metabolism, blocking or suppression, modulation of DNA replication and repair effects, promotion, inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and induction of novel mechanisms. PMID:9878691

  15. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Hara, Y

    1999-01-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage, consumed by over two thirds of the world's population. Tea is processed differently in different parts of the world to give green (20%), black (78%) or oolong tea (2%). Green tea is consumed mostly in Japan and China. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea are extensively examined. The chemical components of green and black tea are polyphenols, which include EC, ECG, EGC, EGCG and TFs. This article reviews the epidemiological and experimental studies on the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity of tea extracts and tea polyphenols. In Japan, an epidemiological study showed an inverse relationship between habitual green tea drinking and the standardized mortality rates for cancer. Some cohort studies on Chanoyu (Japanese tea ceremony) women teachers also showed that their mortality ratio including deaths caused by malignant neoplasms were surprisingly low. The antimutagenic activity against various mutagens of tea extracts and polyphenols including ECG and EGCG has been demonstrated in microbial systems (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), mammalian cell systems and in vivo animal tests. The anticarcinogenic activity of tea phenols has been shown in experimental animals such as rats and mice, in transplantable tumors, carcinogen-induced tumors in digestive organs, mammary glands, hepatocarcinomas, lung cancers, skin tumors, leukemia, tumor promotion and metastasis. The mechanisms of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis of tea polyphenols suggest that the inhibition of tumors may be due to both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms including the modulation of metabolism, blocking or suppression, modulation of DNA replication and repair effects, promotion, inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and induction of novel mechanisms.

  16. Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebouyeh, Farzaneh; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Ziarati, Parisa; Heshmati, Masoomeh; Qomi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (≤ 1-1.6) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.

  17. LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS characterization of phenolic constituents in Turkish black tea: Effect of infusion time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim

    2016-08-01

    The influence of different infusion times and temperatures on phenolic, antioxidant, and color properties of black teas (Camellia sinensis L.) was investigated in the present study. The teas were prepared using infusion times of 3, 6, and 10min at 80 and 100°C. Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS), whereby the two purine alkaloids were detected using positive ESI, and the other 33 phenolic compounds were detected using negative ESI. A total of 35 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the tea infusions, with the most abundant being gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin-gallate, 4-p-coumaroylquinic acid, quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside, theaflavin, and theobromine. The antioxidant capacity of the tea infusions was determined using two different methods: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. DPPH and the ABTS values varied largely among the tea preparations. The increment in infusion times and temperature led to increase in the tea's antioxidant capacities. PMID:26988497

  18. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink.

  19. Design and in vivo evaluation of emulgel formulations including green tea extract and rose oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapar, Evren Algin; Ynal, Ozge; Erdal, M Sedef

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of skin aging and its treatment is an emerging field for development of new formulations in cosmetics. Accordingly, plant extracts with antioxidant properties are beneficial cosmetic ingredients for this purpose. This study was aimed at developing a stable and easily manufactured emulgel including green tea extract and rose oil that is effective on the barrier function and hydration of the skin. An emulgel formulation containing 20 % green tea extract and 5 % rose oil was designed as a result of pre-formulation studies. Physicochemical characterization, in vitro stability studies, in vivo water content of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss studies were carried out afterwards. In vivo studies on ten female subjects were evaluated by using non-invasive skin bioengineering techniques. Finally, a cosmetically acceptable, stable and effective emulgel formulation for skin barrier function with good hydrating properties was obtained for skin hydration, protection and anti-aging purposes. PMID:24451077

  20. Batch fermentation of black tea by kombucha: A contribution to scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local domestic Kombucha was used in fermentation of 1.5 g L-1 of black tea (Indian tea, " Vitamin ", Horgoš, Serbia and Montenegro, sweetened with approximately 70 g L'1 of sucrose. Inoculation was performed either with 10% or 15% (v/v of fermentation broth from previous process. The fermentation was conducted in geometrically similar vessels with 0.4 L, 0.8 L, 4 L and 8 L of substrate, at 22±1 °C for 28 days. The samples were analyzed after 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days, so that their pH values, content of total acids sucrose, glucose and fructose contents, as well as contents of ethanol and vitamin C were determined. Based on the experiment design, the response surface for the product pH, as a function of time, beverage volume and inoculum concentration, was defined in the form of a second-order polynomial. From the obtained response surface, a formula for scaling-up of the process was derived.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of a Dihydromyricetin-Rich Extract from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata in Menhaden Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Baek AP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preventing oxidative deterioration of fish oil is a significant challenge for the food industry. Natural antioxidants are widely incorporated into foods to prevent oxidation and extend shelf life. Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata extract has been shown to have antioxidant activity in vegetable oils, but the efficacy in fish oil is unknown. The goal of our study was to test the antioxidant activity of vine tea extract (VTE and compare it with other natural antioxidants (rosemary extract - RME, green tea extract - GTE, grape seed extract - GSE, ascorbyl palmitate - AP, and citric acid - CA in tocopherol stabilized menhaden oil. Baseline levels of alpha, gamma, and delta tocopherols were 0.18mg/g, 0.37mg/g, and 0.14mg/g, respectively. VTE delayed menhaden oil oxidation when stored at 40°C for eight days as determined by primary and secondary oxidation products. Mixtures of VTE and RME and their combinations with AP and CA more effectively improved stability of menhaden oil containing tocopherols than VTE alone. Our results show that VTE is an effective natural antioxidant in menhaden oil, especially in combination with RME.

  2. The inhibition of the mammalian DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a by dietary black tea and coffee polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeltsch Albert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea is, second only to water, the most consumed beverage globally. Previously, the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 was shown by dietary polyphenols and epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, and 5-caffeoyl quinic acid, the main phenolic constituent of the green coffee bean. Results We studied the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3a by a series of dietary polyphenols from black tea such as theaflavins and thearubigins and chlorogenic acid derivatives from coffee. For theaflavin 3,3 digallate and thearubigins IC50 values in the lower micro molar range were observed, which when compared to pharmacokinetic data available, suggest an effect of physiological relevance. Conclusions Since Dnnmt3a has been associated with development, cancer and brain function, these data suggest a biochemical mechanism for the beneficial health effect of black tea and coffee and a possible molecular mechanism for the improvement of brain performance and mental health by dietary polyphenols.

  3. Preparation of a Black Tea Jelly%红茶果冻的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志铭; 汤兴福; 吴云辉; 简文杰

    2011-01-01

    In this research, konjac powder, carrageenan and black tea powder were used as main raw materials to produce a new black tea jelly by the orthogonal experiment method The results indicated that, the best ratio of carrageenan to konjac glue, the total dosages of the mixture of carrageenan and konjac glue, sugar, black tea powder and citric acid were 7:3, 0.8%, 14%, 0.2% and 0.12%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the hazel jelly can be prepared after water bath for 15 minutes. It tasted mild and crisp, with rich tea aroma.%本文以魔芋粉、卡拉胶、红茶粉为主要原料,采用正交试验方法探讨红茶果冻的最佳制作工艺.实验结果表明:卡拉胶和魔芋胶两者的配比为7∶3,总胶粉的添加量为0.8%,白砂糖添加量为14%,红茶粉添加量为0.2%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.12%,水浴15min得到浅褐色果冻,口感软滑爽脆,酸甜可口,且具有浓郁茶香味.

  4. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang

    2015-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  5. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang

    2015-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  6. Effect of green tea extracts on oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common side effect of oxaliplatin is peripheral neurotoxicity. Oxidative stress to dorsal root ganglion (DRG may be one of important pathogenic mechanisms. Green tea contains four polyphenol catechins, which are known to be potent antioxidants. The present work is aimed to determine whether green tea extracts have neuroproective or palliative effects on neurotoxicity symptoms induced by oxaliplatin. Methods We conducted behavioral tests including sensory and thermal thresholds, an electrophysiological study, and TUNEL staining to assess neurotoxicity during the experimental period using animal models. Results A total of 14 adult rats were randomly allocated into two groups. Oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg with or without green tea (300 mg/kg orally once daily was administered intraperitoneally twice per week for 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks after oxaliplatin administration, sensory threshold values were significantly decreased and at 6 weeks after oxaliplatin administration, thermal threshold values were significantly increased in oxaliplatin-treated rats compared with those in rat treated with oxaliplatin and green tea extracts. The electrophysiological assessment, including sensory nerve conduction and H-reflex-related sensory nerve conduction velocity, revealed no significant changes in the two groups. TUNEL staining showed no significant difference in the number of apoptotic-featured cells between the two experimental groups in the DRG or peripheral nerves, but the number of apoptotic-featured cells in DRG was higher than that in sciatic nerves within each group. Conclusions Green tea extracts may be a useful adjuvant to alleviate sensory symptoms after oxaliplatin administration, such as allodynia, but did not prevent morphometric or electrophysiological alterations induced by oxaliplatin.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bang-Tian Chen; Wei-Xi Li; Rong-Rong He; Yi-Fang Li; Bun Tsoi; Yu-Jia Zhai; Hiroshi Kurihara

    2012-01-01

    While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes ...

  8. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  9. Binding Inhibition Between Igf1r and Igf1 by Catechin of Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Firdausi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural compound of black tea is used as an alternative of obesity therapies in the world; particularly, the catechin family in tea leaves which has bioactive compounds such as EC, EGC and EGCG. Their bioactivity contributes to inhibit the ligand of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Receptor (Igf-1r binding-region to Igf-1 protein. To elucidate the inhibiton of Igf-1 expression and proliferating of Rattus norvegicus strain wistar adipose cell using black tea solution. The research used Rattus norvegicus strain wistar. After a 90-day treatment, the adipose tissues were picked up from the viscera of each experimental animal, and then the adipose tissues were embedded by paraffin. The paraffin sections were determined through immunohistochemistry with anti-Igf-1 antiserum, and were also analyzed through hematoxylin-eosin. A protein sequence of Igf-1, Igf-1r, and 3D structure of EC, EGC and EGCG from Gene Bank sites were used during in silico analysis. The sequences were aligned by BLAST program to identify the conserve and variable domain of IGF-1 protein isoforms. The 3D structures of IGF-1 and IGF-1R were constructed using Phyre program. The ligand among the 3D structures of IGF-1, IGF-1R and catechin compounds were analyzed using Hex 5.1 docking program. The data showed that the Igf-1 expression of adipose cells was reduced at 0,03 g/ml BTS and 0,045 g/ml BTS treatments. The result of BLAST analysis showed that IGF-1 (a, b, c, and d isoforms conserved a domain from amino acid no 22 until 134; and this region was a variable region. The EGCG bound L1 domain of IGF-1R with E-total -235.3 KJ/mol which was lower than EC (-208,4 KJ/mol and EGC (-142 KJ/mol. The total energy of IGF-1 (a, b, c, but not d isoform which interacted with EGCG was around -223.7 KJ/mol, EC is -205.6 KJ/mol and EGC was -191.7 KJ/mol. However, EC, EGC and EGCG was only able to prevent the interaction between the L1 of IGF-1R with IGF-1 protein, but not the opposite.

  10. Volatile composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) commercial teas through solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, L G; Abi-Zaid, I E; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles from aqueous extract of peppermint commercial sachets were investigated through gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). Samples were prepared under similar conditions as in homemade tea. Volatiles were isolated using solid phase extraction method (SPE) with Porapak Q trap followed by desorption with acetone. Estimated mean values for short and medium chain carboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ketones lay in the range of 50-64 microg kg(-1) whilst aliphatic alcohols and acyclic hydrocarbons had values lower than 6 microg kg(-1). The major volatiles were terpenes (275-382 microg kg(-1)) that reached 89 % of the total composition. A total of 16 compounds, among them dodecane, acetoin, acetol, citral, geraniol and octanoic acid have been described by the first time in peppermint tea. These findings could be attributed to the different analytical approach employed, mainly to the use of different extraction/pre-concentration techniques. Given the apparently lower proportion of terpenes in the aqueous extract it may be that the chemical properties of the peppermint essential oil are not entirely reproduced with homemade tea. PMID:24020260

  11. Volatile composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) commercial teas through solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, L G; Abi-Zaid, I E; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles from aqueous extract of peppermint commercial sachets were investigated through gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). Samples were prepared under similar conditions as in homemade tea. Volatiles were isolated using solid phase extraction method (SPE) with Porapak Q trap followed by desorption with acetone. Estimated mean values for short and medium chain carboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ketones lay in the range of 50-64 microg kg(-1) whilst aliphatic alcohols and acyclic hydrocarbons had values lower than 6 microg kg(-1). The major volatiles were terpenes (275-382 microg kg(-1)) that reached 89 % of the total composition. A total of 16 compounds, among them dodecane, acetoin, acetol, citral, geraniol and octanoic acid have been described by the first time in peppermint tea. These findings could be attributed to the different analytical approach employed, mainly to the use of different extraction/pre-concentration techniques. Given the apparently lower proportion of terpenes in the aqueous extract it may be that the chemical properties of the peppermint essential oil are not entirely reproduced with homemade tea.

  12. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  13. 中国红茶产销现状与发展前景%Production and Marketing Status and Development Prospects of Black Tea in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江用文; 张建勇; 江和源; 叶阳; 袁海波

    2012-01-01

    回顾了我国和世界其它国家红茶产销情况,分析了我国红茶产销的优劣势,并对我国红茶产业发展前景予以展望,提出了我国红茶产业的发展对策。%The production and marketing of black tea in world and China were reviewed. The production and marketing status and the advantage and deficiency of black tea in China were analyzed. The development prospect of black tea industry in China was looked forward, and the development countermeasures of black tea industry in China were put forward.

  14. Epigallocatechin gallate content change of the fresh tea leaf homogenates ex-tracted by different methods in extraction and preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; GAO Yan-hua; ZU Yuan-gang; LIU Xiao-na; WANG Lei; ZU Shu-chong

    2006-01-01

    The fresh leaves of China green tea, Camellia sinensis, were collected from Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China, in April. The tea polyphenols was extracted by four different methods (homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 0.3% citric acid (w/v) at room temperature, 5- min boiling and homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 85℃ distilled water), and after preserving at room temperature, the change of the Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contents of the extracts was investigated. Results indicated that the EGCG content of homogenate extracted with 85℃ distilled water was the highest before the extract was preserved, followed by that of the extract homogenized with 0.3% citric acid at room temperature. During preservation, EGCG content changed obviously. The EGCG contents of homogenates extracted with distilled water at room temperature and 85℃ distilled water declined quickly and separately reduced to 21.52% and 54.6% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. The EGCG contents extracted by 0.3% citric acid (w/v) solvent at room temperature and 5- min boiling/homogenized with distilled water at room temperature declined relatively slowly ,and separately reduced to 76.9% and 85.16% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. It was also found that the citric acid can prevent the degradation of EGCG and the extract solution color is light green

  15. Ameliorated Effects of Green Tea Extract on Lead Induced Kidney Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ait Hamadouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea (GTE against renal oxidative damage induced by lead was undertaken. Adult males rats were divided into 4 groups: Control group receives distilled water as sole drinking source. GTE group received green tea extract (6.6% w/v.Pb group received Pb at dose of 0.4 % w/v in distilled water. Pb + GTE group received mixture of Pb and GTE as sole drinking source. Renal oxidative damage was observed in Pb-treated rats as evidenced via augmentation in kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as depletion in kidney antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Histopathological analysis revealed degeneration in the endothelium of glomerular tuft and the epithelium of lining tubules. In conclusion, GTE appeared to be beneficial to rats, to a great extent by attenuating and restoring the damage sustained by lead exposure.

  16. Research on Fermented Black Tea Beverage Processing Technology%发酵型红茶饮料加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫刚; 熊昌云

    2014-01-01

    以云南CTC红茶为主要原料,经乳酸菌、酵母菌共生发酵,研究发酵型红茶饮料的加工工艺。%Taking Yunnan CTC black tea as the main raw material, after symbiotic fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, this paper studied the fermented black tea beverage process.

  17. Utilization of natural antioxidants: Green tea extract and Thymbra spicata oil in Turkish dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2006-07-01

    Effect of natural (green tea extract, Thymbra spicata oil) and synthetic antioxidants (buthylatedhydroxytoluene, BHT) on the safety (biogenic amine and TBARS values) and quality (pH, colour and sensory attributes) of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage) were investigated during the ripening periods. Addition of antioxidants decreased (Pgreen tea extract-T. spicata oil>T. spicata oil>BHT, and their mean values were 70.45, 76.05, 83.13, and 95.97mg/kg, respectively. The highest tyramine concentration was observed in control sucuk prepared without any antioxidants, while the lowest was in the recipe with green tea extract as their mean values were about 99.42 and 64.31mg/kg, respectively. The pH, L, b, and overall sensory quality were not significantly different (P>0.05) with the addition of green tea extract, T. spicata oil, green tea extract-T. spicata oil. These results indicated that the most effective antioxidant was found to be green tea extract. This study pointed out that natural antioxidants were more effective than synthetic antioxidants, so they could be easily utilized in sucuk to enhance quality and provide safer products.

  18. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Essam Ezzeldin; Asiri, Yousif A.; Muzaffar Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE) on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4) was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg) or saline (control) by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapin...

  19. 茉莉酸甲酯诱导茶鲜叶制成的红茶中香气成分变化%Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang SHI; Li WANG; Cheng-ying MA; Hai-peng LV; Zong-mao CHEN; Zhi LIN

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of poly-phenol oxidase andβ-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time po-lymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase andβ-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P  创新要点:首次将茉莉酸甲酯应用于诱导茶叶香气品质提高,初步验证了茶叶香气品质提高的本质原因:相关酶活性提高,基因表达上调。  研究方法:采用顶空固相微萃取法(HS-SPME)对红茶香气进行富集,气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)进行解吸附分析,实时定量多聚酶链式反应(qRT-PCR)分析茶鲜叶中香气相关酶基因表达。  重要结论:茉莉酸甲酯诱导后的茶鲜叶中多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性上升,β-葡萄糖苷酶活性下降;PPO和β-樱草糖苷酶基因表达上调,β-葡萄糖苷酶基因表达下调。茉莉酸甲酯诱导后的茶鲜叶能明显提高由其制成的红茶香气品质,且萜烯醇类和萜烯类含量明显提高。

  20. Effect of black tea on enteral feeding tolerance in ICU patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mojdeh, Soheila; Shahin, Samire; Khalili, Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tea consumption has been known mostly as a well-drink after water in the world. Tea drink can affect balance of fluids and renal function. In addition, it can cause loss of many viruses in the stomach and can increase or decrease gastrointestinal movements. This research was done to determine the effect of tea on increasing enteral feeding tolerance in ICU patients in Alzahra Hospital. METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 45 patients were enrolled in two groups, tea consumption ...

  1. Effect of green tea or rosemary extract on protein oxidation in Bologna type sausages prepared from oxidatively stressed pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Gunvig, Annemarie; Skibsted, Leif H; Lund, Marianne N

    2013-03-01

    Bologna type sausages were prepared from oxidatively stressed pork (UV-irradiation, 48 h, 5 °C) using a traditional recipe (control) or the same recipe but added green tea extract (500 ppm total phenolic compounds) or rosemary extract (400 ppm total phenolic compounds). Green tea and rosemary extracts protected against formation of TBARS and protein carbonyls. On the contrary, increased thiol loss and a distinct loss of myosin heavy chain and actin due to polymerization by reducible bonds as determined by SDS-page were found by addition of green tea extract. The enhanced protein polymerization was ascribed to the reaction between quinone compounds from the plant extracts and protein thiol groups to yield phenol-mediated protein polymerization. Analysis by ESR spectroscopy revealed increased radical intensities in sausages added plant extracts, which was ascribed to originate from protein-bound phenoxyl radicals, which may protect against other oxidatively induced protein modifications. PMID:23273462

  2. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb) and bovine testicular hyaluronidase. Results: The results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose dependent (r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r2=0.93, P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB. Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  3. 遂昌细嫩红茶加工技术%Processing Technology of Suichang Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伟忠

    2015-01-01

    Suichang tea industry is one of the pillar industries of agriculture in Lishui, which makes it one of the eight major Mee Tea export counties in the country. The development of Black Tea processing technology can optimize the tea area structure, improve the market competitiveness of tea products and increase the economic benefits of tea production. The main processing technology of Suichang Black Tea was withering-rolling-fermentation-drying-fragrance treatment. After hot air withering for 8~12 h in the withering trough tunnels with the temperature of 33~34 ℃, the leaves were rolled in order of light-heavy-light for about 2~4 h. Fermentation was in a basket for 2.5~3 h, turning once. Then the leaves were dried with hot air ( 110~120 ℃) for 1.5 h. At last, dried with the temperature 80~90 ℃ for 8~9 h as a fragrance treatment. The final product should be curl, black bloom, highly flavored, orange red liquid color with soft, fine and tender securinega.%遂昌是全国八大眉茶出口县之一,茶产业是丽水的农业支柱产业之一. 细嫩红茶加工技术的研制是优化地区茶类结构,提高茶产品市场竞争力的有效手段,有助于提高茶叶生产的经济效益. 其主要工艺技术为萎凋,把鲜叶放在热风萎凋槽,33~34 ℃热鼓风萎凋8~12 h;揉捻,掌握轻重轻原则,切勿重压,时间控制在2~4 h;发酵,发酵篮发酵2.5~3 h,中间翻动一次;毛火干燥,热风温度110~120 ℃,时间1.5 h;提香,80~90 ℃慢烘8~9h. 制得细嫩红茶紧细乌润、香高味醇,回甘持久,汤色橙红明亮、叶底细而柔软.

  4. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    *N. M. Tariq; S. U. Wisam; H. M. Faik; T. H. Mayson

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability). It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds) were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract i...

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Pariyani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS Benth (Lamiaceae leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight.

  6. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  7. Thrombolytic Potential of Aqueous and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ajmal Shah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thrombolytic activityof crude extracts ofCamellia sinensis (Green tea using in-vitrothrombolytic model which is very simple, rapid and easy to do method. Both aqueous crude and methanolic extracts were studied however; the results of methanolic extract were more promising which exhibited maximum 95. 24% clot lysis as compared to aqueous one i.e. 90.34% at 800 μg/ml concentration in 72 hrs of incubation. Various concentrations of leaf extract i.e. 200μg/ml, 400μg/ml, 600ug/ml and 800μg/ml were tested at different time intervals including; 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs duration of incubation at 370 C for observing maximum clot lysis. The result indicated that concentrations of leaf extract enhanced the percentage of clot lysis in dose dependent manner. On the other hand, Streptokinase SK, a reference standard and water were used as a positive and negative control showed clot lysis maximum 96.63% and 41.32% in 72 hrs of incubation respectively. From results, it can be concluded that if further studies reveals the exact molecule from green tea diverse composition, an effective thromolytic candidate can be achieved for the improvement of the patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.

  8. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  9. Study on the ability of bile salt-binding among different tea extracts in vitro%不同茶浸提液对胆酸盐的结合及其降血脂机理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 黄惠华

    2011-01-01

    The binding capacity of the extracts from green tea,Oolong tea,Puer tea,dark tea and black tea to bile salts were compared as well as the correlation between tea polyphenol and the bile salts binding capability in vitro under the conditions of the simulated human digestive environment.The results showed that the rate of bile salts-binding was fast and there was a significant correlation between the bile salts binding capacity and tea polyphenol content.Relative to cholestyrammine,green tea extract showed the 38.4% binding capacity for sodium taurocholate,46.5% for glycocholate and 42.0% for sodium cholate,exhibiting the maximum binding capability,followed by the semi-fermented(e.g.Oolong tea)and fully fermented teas(e.g.Puer tea,black tea and dark tea).%在体外模拟人体消化环境,研究绿茶浸提液对胆酸盐的等温吸附性质,比较不同茶浸提液对胆酸盐的结合能力,同时探讨了茶多酚含量与茶浸提液结合胆酸盐的相关关系。结果表明,茶浸提液对胆酸盐结合速度较快,Freundilich等温式、Langmiur等温式均能良好地反映绿茶浸提液对胆酸盐的结合;绿茶浸提液结合胆酸盐的能力最强,其结合牛磺胆酸钠、甘氨胆酸钠、胆酸钠的量分别是考来烯胺的38.4%、46.5%和42.0%;其次是半发酵茶(铁观音,35.2%、41.7%和42.6%)、发酵茶(普洱茶、滇红茶和六堡茶)。不同茶浸

  10. Comparative Analysis on Tea Polyphenols Extraction Rates of Four Kinds of Green Teas in Tongren%铜仁市四种绿茶茶多酚提取率的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁道旺; 鲁连芳; 罗磊

    2012-01-01

    To provide a scientific basis for tea quality and components in Tongren city, the experiment applied ferrous tartrate colorimetric method to compare the tea polyphenols extraction rates of four different green teas in Tongren city: Fanjing Mountain green tea from Yinjiang, ecological green tea from Songtao, Tai green tea from Shiqian, and the cloud green tea from Yanhe, which were picked in the same season and also in the same grade. The tea polyphenols extraction rates of Songtao ecological green teas from the same origin but in different picking seasons were also compared. The results showed that Tai green tea from Shiqian extracted the most, ecological green tea from Songtao, the cloud green tea from Yanhe, Fanjing Mountain green tea from Yinjiang progressively declinded. Meanwhile, among the Songtao ecological green teas in different picking seasons, the tea in Qingming season extracted the most, the tea before Qingming follows, then the tea in Guyu, the tea after Qingming the lest.%为对铜仁市茶叶品质成分提供科学依据,用酒石酸亚铁比色法对铜仁市的印江梵净山绿茶、松桃生态绿茶、石阡苔茶、沿河云雾绿茶四县同一季节同一等级茶叶中茶多酚提取率进行比较研究,同时对松桃生态绿茶同一产地不同采收时节茶叶中茶多酚的提取率进行比较研究。结果表明:茶多酚的提取率含量较高的是石阡苔茶,其次是松桃生态绿茶、沿河云雾绿茶、印江梵净山绿茶;松桃县云雾绿茶不同采收时节的茶叶中茶多酚提取率含量较高的是清明茶,其次是清明前茶、谷雨茶、清明后茶。

  11. 中国名优红茶香气成分的比较研究%Study on the Aroma Components in Chinese Famous Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2013-01-01

    为了研究中国名优红茶挥发性香气物质并确定主要呈香特征,采用顶空固相微萃取方法(HS-SPME)提取红茶样品中的挥发性物质,用气相色谱/质谱联用技术(GC-MS)结合挥发性物质的保留指数(RI)鉴定红茶样品中香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献.结果表明,鉴定出约60种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类和烯类、烷烃类等,其中醇类是国内名优红茶香气中最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类.香气化合物中芳樟醇、橙花醇、水杨酸甲酯、氧化芳樟醇是最主要的呈香物质,平均含量分别占总香气的39.48%、17.5%、8.21%、4.74%.所体现的花香、甜香、果香是中国红茶的香气特征.%With the aim to study the volatile aroma component of native black tea and determine the main aroma characters, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method was adopted to extract the volatiles and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) coupled with retention index(RI) of the volatiles were used to determine the volatiles variety in black tea samples and their contribution to the total aroma. The result showed that more than fifty aroma compounds were determined including alcohol, ester, aldehyde, azulene ketones and terpenes, hydrocarbon and etc., among which the alcohol was the most important compounds and ester and aldehyde were next to it. Li nalool, ger-ariol, methl salcylate, linalool oxide were the most important compounds, representing 39.48%, 17.5%, 8.21% and 4.74% of the total aroma respectively. Flower-like, fruit-like, refreshing fragrance and sweet aroma were the main character of native black tea.

  12. Utilizing a novel sorbent in the solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Feifei; Tang, Hua; Wu, Xue; Chen, Dazhou; Zhao, Tan; Liu, Pei; Li, Lei

    2016-06-15

    Pesticide residues exceeding standard in green tea is a widespread problem of the world's attention, containing organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroids. In this research, three dimensionally honeycomb Mg-Al layered double oxide (TDH-Mg-Al-LDO) combined with graphitized carbon black (GCB), packed as a column, was used as a novel solid phase extraction sorbent, applying in simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea coupled with GC-MS. Compared with different type of SPE column, it showed that TDH-Mg-Al-LDO exhibited great advantages in the extraction of 15 pesticide residues from green tea, which was seldom reported before. Different experiment conditions, such as combination order of Mg-Al-LDO and GCB, dosage of sorbents, type and volume of eluting solvent were thoroughly studied and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) of 15 pesticides ranged from 0.9 to 24.2ng/g and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) were ranging from 3.0 to 80.0ng/g. The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (10, 100 and 500ng/g for Fenthion, P,P'-DDE, O,P'-DDT, P,P'-DDD and Bifenthrin, 100, 500 and 2000ng/g for the others) range from 71.1 to 119.0%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was from 0.1 to 7.6% in all case. The result indicated that the proposed analytical method had been successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in commercial green tea. PMID:27183089

  13. Prophylactic Role of Echinacea, Green Tea and Boswellia Extracts in Pyloric Ligation-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souty M. Sharkawi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. Herbs and medicinal plants are considered to be a potential source to combat various diseases including gastric ulcer. The present study was conducted to evaluate the gastro protective effects of Echinacea extract, Green tea extract and Boswellia extract on a pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Six groups of rats were intraperitoneally pre-treated with saline as normal group, saline as ulcer group, 20 mg/kg of ranitidine as positive group, Echinacea extract (25 mg/kg, I.P, Green tea extract (25 mg/kg, I.P and Boswellia extract (200 mg/kg, I.P for 15 consecutive days before pyloric ligation. Gastric acidity, ulcer index and histology were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for Malondialdehyde (MDA content, Glutathione (GSH content in addition to blood Superoxide Dismutase (SOD activity. Pyloric ligation elevated gastric acidity, ulcer index and malondialdehyde content, while glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly decreased. Prior administration of extracts mitigated the injurious effects of pyloric ligation. Echinacea, Green tea and Boswellia extracts separately ameliorated all the altered biochemical parameters. These results were confirmed histologically. These data suggested that Green tea, Echinacea or Boswellia extract could have a protective role in gastric ulcer probably via regulation of oxidant/antioxidant balance.

  14. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  15. Equilibrium adsorption of rhodamine B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carcinogenic dye like rhodamine B (Rh-B in textile wastewater affects the quality of water to consumers. The adsorption of Rh-B on used black tea leaves (UBTL was studied in batch process to investigate its removal efficiency. The effects of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH etc. on adsorption have been investigated. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of Rh-B at constant pH. The adsorption isotherms were constructed for different temperatures using acidic solution of pH 2.0. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Raduskevich (D-R equations were used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data. The experimental data follows Freundlich equation more precisely compare with the Langmuir one. The maximum amount adsorbed calculated from Langmuir equation is 72.5 mg/g at 30 oC which is increased with increasing temperature. Separation factor and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the process is favorable, spontaneous and endothermic nature. Possible mechanism of the process was elucidated from the effect of solution pH on amount adsorbed. The endothermic nature of the adsorption might be due to the fragmentation of Rh-B molecules during the adsorption process.

  16. Black Tea May Be a Prospective Adjunct for Calcium Supplementation to Prevent Early Menopausal Bone Loss in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankur Sekhar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the ability of black tea extract (BTE as a suitable alternative of adjunct for calcium supplementation in treating an ovariectomized rat model of early osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats weighing 140–150 g were divided into four groups consisting of six animals in each group: (A sham-operated control; (B bilaterally ovariectomized; (C bilaterally ovariectomized + BTE; (D bilaterally ovariectomized + 17β-estradiol. Results suggest that BTE could promote intestinal absorption of calcium significantly (P0.05. A comparative study with 17β-estradiol, a well-known adjunct for calcium supplementation, indicated that efficacy of BTE in maintaining skeletal health is close to that of 17β-estradiol. This study suggests that simultaneous use of BTE is promising as a prospective candidate for adjunctive therapies for calcium supplementation in the early stage of menopausal bone changes.

  17. Black tea may be a prospective adjunct for calcium supplementation to prevent early menopausal bone loss in a rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Asankur Sekhar; Banerjee, Maitrayee; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the ability of black tea extract (BTE) as a suitable alternative of adjunct for calcium supplementation in treating an ovariectomized rat model of early osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-150 g were divided into four groups consisting of six animals in each group: (A) sham-operated control; (B) bilaterally ovariectomized; (C) bilaterally ovariectomized + BTE; (D) bilaterally ovariectomized + 17 β -estradiol. Results suggest that BTE could promote intestinal absorption of calcium significantly (P 0.05). A comparative study with 17 β -estradiol, a well-known adjunct for calcium supplementation, indicated that efficacy of BTE in maintaining skeletal health is close to that of 17 β -estradiol. This study suggests that simultaneous use of BTE is promising as a prospective candidate for adjunctive therapies for calcium supplementation in the early stage of menopausal bone changes.

  18. Determination of the inhibitory effect of green tea extract on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase based on multilayer capillary enzyme microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Mohamed Amara; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yujia; Yang, Jiqing; Yang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Natural herbal medicines are an important source of enzyme inhibitors for the discovery of new drugs. A number of natural extracts such as green tea have been used in prevention and treatment of diseases due to their low-cost, low toxicity and good performance. The present study reports an online assay of the activity and inhibition of the green tea extract of the Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme using multilayer capillary electrophoresis based immobilized enzyme microreactors (CE-IMERs). The multilayer CE-IMERs were produced with layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly, which can easily enhance the enzyme loading capacity of the microreactor. The activity of the G6PDH enzyme was determined and the enzyme inhibition by the inhibitors from green tea extract was investigated using online assay of the multilayer CE-IMERs. The Michaelis constant (Km ) of the enzyme, the IC50 and Ki values of the inhibitors were achieved and found to agree with those obtained using offline assays. The results show a competitive inhibition of green tea extract on the G6PDH enzyme. The present study provides an efficient and easy-to-operate approach for determining G6PDH enzyme reaction and the inhibition of green tea extract, which may be beneficial in research and the development of natural herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26659432

  19. Determination of the inhibitory effect of green tea extract on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase based on multilayer capillary enzyme microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Mohamed Amara; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yujia; Yang, Jiqing; Yang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Natural herbal medicines are an important source of enzyme inhibitors for the discovery of new drugs. A number of natural extracts such as green tea have been used in prevention and treatment of diseases due to their low-cost, low toxicity and good performance. The present study reports an online assay of the activity and inhibition of the green tea extract of the Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme using multilayer capillary electrophoresis based immobilized enzyme microreactors (CE-IMERs). The multilayer CE-IMERs were produced with layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly, which can easily enhance the enzyme loading capacity of the microreactor. The activity of the G6PDH enzyme was determined and the enzyme inhibition by the inhibitors from green tea extract was investigated using online assay of the multilayer CE-IMERs. The Michaelis constant (Km ) of the enzyme, the IC50 and Ki values of the inhibitors were achieved and found to agree with those obtained using offline assays. The results show a competitive inhibition of green tea extract on the G6PDH enzyme. The present study provides an efficient and easy-to-operate approach for determining G6PDH enzyme reaction and the inhibition of green tea extract, which may be beneficial in research and the development of natural herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives, sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1, and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2. The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage. The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage.

  1. Atividade das glicosidases na presença de chá verde e de chá preto Activity of glycosidases in the presence of green tea and black tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L.S. Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Várias plantas têm sido consideradas produtos terapêuticos, dentre elas destacam-se os chás verde e preto, popularmente utilizados para controle da hiperglicemia e obesidade. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o potencial inibitório sobre as enzimas α-amilase, α e β-glicosidases e o teor de compostos fenólicos do chá verde e do chá preto. O teor de compostos fenólicos encontrados foram de 80,8 ± 0,43 mg g-1 no chá preto e 32,0 ± 0,12 mg g-1 no chá verde. O chá verde e o chá preto, em condições de consumo, inibiram as enzimas em estudo, porém, após a simulação do fluido gástrico o inibidor presente no chá verde perdeu a ação. O chá preto deixou de inibir a α-amilase e apresentou inibição inalterada para α e β-glicosidases. Tais resultados sugerem que o chá preto pode ser auxiliar em dietas de restrição de carboidratos.Several plants have been considered therapeutic products, including green and black tea, popularly used to control hyperglycemia and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the enzymes α-amylase, α and β-glycosidases, as well as the content of phenolic compounds in green tea and black tea. The concentrations of phenolic compounds found were 80.8 ± 0.43 mg g-1 in black tea and 32.0 ± 0.12 mg g-1 in green tea. Under the tested conditions of use, green and black tea inhibited the enzyme under study. However, after simulation of the gastric fluid, the inhibitor present in green tea lost its action. Black tea no longer inhibited a-amylase and showed unaltered inhibition for α and β-glycosidases. These results suggest that black tea can be helpful in diets restricting carbohydrates.

  2. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  3. Investigation and Comparison of the Aroma Components in Guangdong Black Tea%广东红茶香气成分的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2012-01-01

    为了研究广东地方红茶香气物质并确定主要呈香特征,本研究采用顶空固相微萃取方法结合气质联用技术准确地鉴定了红茶样品中香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献.结果表明,研究鉴定了50多种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类和烯类、烷烃类等,其中醇类是最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类.所体现的花香、甜香、果香是广东红茶的香气特征.香气化合物中芳樟醇、橙花醇、水杨酸甲酯、氧化芳樟醇、壬醛是五种最主要的呈香物质,平均含量分别占总香气的37.55%、11.90%、8.89%、5.4%和5.21%.英德系列红茶中醇类物质最多;白毛系列红茶中醛类、酮类物质最多;烯类物质以单丛和福建系列红茶含量较高.%For the purpose of studying the volatile aroma components in Guangdong black tea and determine the main aroma components, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine the aroma compounds in black tea samples and their contribution to the total aroma. Results showed that more than 50 aroma compounds were identified including alcohol, ester, aldehyde, ketone, terpene, hydrocarbon etc., among which the alcohol was the most important compounds and ester and aldehyde were next to flower-like, fruit-like, refreshing and sweet aroma were the main character of Guangdong black tea. Linalool, gerariol, methyl salicylate, linalool oxide and nonanal were the five most important compounds, representing 37.55%, 11.90%, 8.89%, 5.4% and 5.21% of the total aroma respectively. The alcohol was the most important compounds in Yingde tea population, the contents of aldehyde and ketone were more in Baimao tea population. Dancong and Fujian tea plant contained more terpene compounds.

  4. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further impr

  5. 广东仁化白毛红茶香气组成的比较研究%Research and comparison of the aroma components in Guangdong renhua Baimao black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the volatile aroma component in black tea processed with Guangdong native tea variety-Renhua Baimao tea as material and determining the main aroma components,the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine the aroma compounds of 3 black tea products and their contribution to the total aroma. The results showed that more than 50 aroma compounds were identified including alcohol, ester,aldehyde, ketones,terpene, hydrocarbon and etc,among which the alcohol was the most important compound,ester and aldehyde were next to it. Predominant components in Renhua Baimao tea variety- black tea were linalool, methl salcylate, nonanal, Neroli and linalool oxide,representing 27.78% ,9.85% ,7.99% ,7.42% and 6.84% of the total aroma respectively. Baimao black tea contained more flower fruit-like(eg, linalool,nonanal, Neroli and etc). than Sri Lanka Wuwa black tea(CK3) and less than Yinghong 9(CK1). However,the fragrant oil compounds in Baimao black tea were less than CK3 and higher than CK1. It might be the reason that in sensory Baimao black tea had fresh and thick sweet aroma liked CK1 as well as persistent fine sharp aroma liked CK3.%为了探明以广东地方特色茶树品种-“仁化白毛茶”为原料加工而成的红茶之主要香气物质并确定其呈香特征.本研究采用顶空固相微萃取方法结合气质联用技术研究鉴定了3个红茶产品的香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献。结果表明,研究鉴定出50多种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类、烯类和烷烃类等,其中醇类是最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类。仁化白毛茶树品种红茶的“主导香气成分”是芳樟醇、水杨酸甲酯、壬醛、橙花醇、氧化芳樟醇.平均含量分别占总香气的27.78%、9.85%、7.99%、7.42%和6.84%。仁化白毛红茶的

  6. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-01-01

    Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and se...

  7. Chlorhexidine and green tea extract reduce dentin erosion and abrasion in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, A C; Wiegand, A.; Rios, D.; Hannas, A; Attin, T.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This in situ/ex vivo study aimed to analyse the impact of possible MMP-inhibitors (chlorhexidine and green tea extract) on dentin wear induced by erosion or erosion plus abrasion. METHODS: Twelve volunteers took part in this cross-over and double-blind study performed in 4 phases of each 5 days. Bovine dentin samples were worn in palatal appliances and subjected to extraoral erosion (4 times/day, Coca-Cola, 5 min) or erosion plus abrasion (2 times/day, fluoride-free toothpaste and...

  8. LOGIKA FUZZY DAN JARINGAN SYARAT TIRUAN UNTUK PENINGKATAN MUTU TEH HITAM [Fuzzy Logic an Artificial Neural Network for Quality Improvement of Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatulloh 1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed quality improvement of black tea using fuzzy approach on quality functions deployment and the development of backpropagation neural the software NWP II plus. The research was conducted at PTPN VIII tea industry, Goalpara plantation. Result of the study showed that, parameter first priority based on customer evaluation was tea flavour. The Important process parameter of black tea based on result of fuzzy relationship matrix was the withering process. Based on the test of “trial and error” of network training process, the best network architecture for withering process monitoring [3-15-1] was obtained, that is 3 neurons in input layer, 15 neurons in hidden layer and 1 neuron in output layer. Three inputs and output consist of time, flow, temperature and moisture content. The result sugges that development of backpropagation neural network can be used for process evaluation of withering processes.

  9. Multivariate data reduction and discrimination of black and green teas due to the physical fractionation pattern of selected metals determined in their infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Stelmach, Ewelina; Welna, Maja

    2016-11-01

    An analytical scheme for the physical fractionation of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn in black and green teas infusions was proposed. It was based on the ultrafiltration/centrifugation through five membranes having molecular weight cut-offs of 100, 50, 30, 10 and 5kDa. The concentrations of the studied metals in the highest and the lowest molecular weight fractions were found to classify and discriminate the analyzed teas infusions much better than the total metals concentrations. The differences in the physical fractionation patterns of these metals assessed for both tea varieties was profound and let to simply classify the infusions of different black and green teas by principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:27591619

  10. Inhibition of salivary amylase by black tea in high-caries and low-caries index children: A comparative in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental caries is a universal disease. Dietary modification is important in reducing the occurrence of dental caries. Tea which is so frequently consumed with cariogenic starch rich food is proposed to have anticariogenic potential. The various mechanism has been proposed for same and one being inhibition of salivary amylase activity. Aim: To determine the effect of 1.5% black tea decoction on salivary amylase activity in children with high caries and no caries. Materials and Met...

  11. The microbiota is essential for the generation of black tea theaflavins-derived metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G, theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF3'G, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG, are the most important bioactive polyphenols in black tea. Because of their poor systemic bioavailability, it is still unclear how these compounds can exert their biological functions. The objective of this study is to identify the microbial metabolites of theaflavins in mice and in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study, we gavaged specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ free (GF mice with 200 mg/kg TFDG and identified TF, TF3G, TF3'G, and gallic acid as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in SPF mice. These metabolites were absent in TFDG- gavaged GF mice. The microbial bioconversion of TFDG, TF3G, and TF3'G was also investigated in vitro using fecal slurries collected from three healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that TFDG is metabolized to TF, TF3G, TF3'G, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Moreover, both TF3G and TF3'G are metabolized to TF, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Importantly, we observed interindividual differences on the metabolism rate of gallic acid to pyrogallol among the three human subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis have the capacity to metabolize TFDG. CONCLUSIONS: The microbiota is important for the metabolism of theaflavins in both mice and humans. The in vivo functional impact of microbiota-generated theaflavins-derived metabolites is worthwhile of further study.

  12. Metabolomics evaluation of the effects of green tea extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yihong; Sun, Jinchun; Petrova, Katya; Yang, Xi; Greenhaw, James; Salminen, William F; Beger, Richard D; Schnackenberg, Laura K

    2013-12-01

    Green tea has been purported to have beneficial health effects including protective effects against oxidative stress. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic drug that can cause acute liver injury in overdose situations. These studies explored the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in liver tissue extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mice were orally administered GTE, APAP or GTE and APAP under three scenarios. APAP alone caused a high degree of hepatocyte necrosis associated with increases in serum transaminases and alterations in multiple metabolic pathways. The time of GTE oral administration relative to APAP either protected against or potentiated the APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Dose dependent decreases in histopathology scores and serum transaminases were noted when GTE was administered prior to APAP; whereas, the opposite occurred when GTE was administered after APAP. Similarly, metabolites altered by APAP alone were less changed when GTE was given prior to APAP. Significantly altered pathways included fatty acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and energy pathways. These studies demonstrate the complex interaction between GTE and APAP and the need to employ novel analytical strategies to understand the effects of dietary supplements on pharmaceutical compounds.

  13. A gradient based facile HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of antioxidants extracted from tea powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjegowda, Shankara H; Papanna, Manasa G; Achar, Raghu Ram; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Mallu, Puttaswamappa; Swamy, Shivananju Nanjunda

    2016-05-01

    A new simple, rapid and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the extraction and quantitative estimation of caffeine (C), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (+)-catechin(Ct), (-)-epicatechin(EC), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) (collectively named as Tea Powder Bioactives TPBAs) extracted from tea powder using different ratios of ethanol: water. The simultaneous determination of TPBAs was performed using the UV spectrophotometric method which employs the absorbance at 205 nm (λmax of caffeine and polyphenols). This method is a gradient based HPLC method with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min using Inertsil ODS 100 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm column with methanol and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (pH-2.8) as mobile phase. The method was validated in terms of specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), and limit of detection (LOD). The linearity of the proposed method was investigated for concentration ranging between 0.5-60 μg/mL with regression co-efficient, R(2) = 0.999-1.0. This method estimates all the TPBAs simultaneously with enhanced precision and linearity as per the ICH guidelines. Also, to confirm the individual TPBA, the antioxidant property of the each TPBA was analyzed which was commensurate with that of the previous reports. PMID:27407191

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND TYPE OF SOLVENT ON EFFICIENCY OF THE EXTRACTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM GREEN TEA AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OBTAINED EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Drużyńska; Agnieszka Stępniewska; Rafał Wołosiak

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the type of solvent and time on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant properties extracts obtained from green tea. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: water and 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and 80% acetone (water solutions, v/v) at 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Extracts were analysed for contents of polyphenols and catechins. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two methods: scaven...

  15. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  16. ESR analysis of free radicals in a (solid) green tea phenolic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A solid extract of procyanidins from green tea was studied by ESR, using a Varian E-12 (X-band: ∼9.1 GHz) spectrometer, at room temperature, and liquid N2 temperature. The spectrum consisted of three unstructured lines, one ∼20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals. About 50% of the extract is epogallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Using a pure sample of EGCG, it was possible to assign the broadest and strongest 'single' signal to EGCG. It has not been possible yet to assign the other lines to other molecular species

  17. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

  18. Dual extraction based on solid phase extraction and solidified floating organic drop microextraction for speciation of arsenic and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion by electrothermal vaporization ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shizhong; Li, Jianfen; Lu, Dengbo; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-15

    A dual extraction based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) was developed for As species in tea leaves and tea infusion by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, including total, suspended, soluble, organic and inorganic As as well as As(III) and As(V). In SPE step, titanium dioxide nanotubes were used for preconcentration of analytes and removal of sample matrix. Elution solution from SPE was employed for further preconcentration and separation of analytes with SFODME. Under optimal conditions, detection limits of this method were 0.046 and 0.072pgmL(-1) with relative standard deviations of 6.3% and 5.8% for As(III) and As(V) (n=9, c=1.0ngmL(-1)), respectively. A preconcentration factor of 500-fold was achieved for As(III) and As(V). This method was successfully applied for analysis of speciation of arsenic and its distribution in tea leaves, tea infusion and certified reference material of tea leaves. PMID:27283691

  19. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Green Tea Extract and Low Doses of Irradiation on Diabetic Nephropathy of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafy N.A. and Hanaa F. Waer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent and serious complications of diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of green tea (GT extract and low doses of 0.5 Gy -radiation (R on diabetic nephropathy (DN of rats. Materials and methods: Male Swiss albino rats were used in this study. DN was induced in rats using streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into five groups DN, DN+R, DN+GT, DN+GT+R and a sham treatment control group. Throughout the experimental period (3and 6 weeks animals body weight, glucose and insulin levels were evaluated. Kidney functions assay (serum urea and creatinin were recorded. Histopathological observations in kidney tissue, DNA and glycogen intensity were also detected. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, increase in blood glucose level and decrease in serum insulin levels. Increase in serum urea and creatinin levels. Diabetic kidney showed a moderate renal damage, multifocal clarifications and vacuolations. Carbohydrates intensity showed a significant increase and DNA intensity showed many alterations. Improvements in glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were demonstrated in the diabetic rat group exposed to low doses of -radiation or supplemented by green tea either alone or combined in addition to amelioration in glucose, insulin urea and creatinin levels. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the efficacy of low doses of - radiation and in reducing diabetes-induced functional and histological alterations in the kidneys. The longterm control of blood glucose levels using low doses of -radiation or green tea either alone or combined could prevent the progression of diabetes mellitus, and therefore, nephropathy could be prevented.

  1. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  2. The association of 137Cs with various components of tea leaves fermented from Chernobyl contaminated green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of137Cs among various components of fermented tea leaves harvested after the Chernobyl accident was investigated by applying a sequential extraction procedure. An association of the radioisotope with the phenolic moiety of a phenylglucoside was detected in black tea infusate using permeation chromatography as well as UV and NMR spectroscopy. The chemical structure of a 137Cs containing compound also isolated from an artificially 137Cs labelled aqueous extract of green leaves was compared to that of fermented tea leaves. The implications of the findings on the chemical forms of the radionuclide are discussed

  3. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  4. The potential protective effect of green, black, red and white tea infusions against adverse effect of cadmium and lead during chronic exposure - A rat model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The protective effect of green (GT), black (BT), red (RT) and white (WT) tea infusions on the lungs, brains, hearts, livers and kidneys of adult Wistar rats exposed to Cd (7 mg/kg) and Pb (50 m/kg) was studied. The degree of reduction in the absorption of Cd and Pb in the organs compared to control group and the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx as well as GSH level was evaluated. It was determined that tea significant reduced the accumulation of Cd in the tissues. A significant reduction in the accumulation of Pb was recorded in the brain (WT), liver (GT, WT) and kidneys (BT, GT, RT, WT). A significant increase was observed in the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx in the organs of all rats from tea groups. It was found that the results obtained in rats receiving black, red and white tea were overall not worse than those recorded for rats receiving green tea. The obtained results suggest that drinking tea could be an effective method of reducing the adverse effect of environmental Cd and Pb pollution on the human body.

  5. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.;

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...

  6. Extraction of green tea and drying with a high pressure spray process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meterc Darja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a beverage widely consumed throughout the world and is produced from non-fermented leaves of Camellia Sinensis. Traditionally, green tea leaves are extracted with water. To form solid products, these aqueous products have to be dried. The main focus of the investigation is how to avoid antioxidant degradation during solvent removal. The work was separated in two major sections, firstly investigation of the extraction process secondly, optimizing of the drying process. In the first experiments extractions with different solvents (H2O, EtOH and MeOH, at different temperatures (20, 40, 60 and 80 °C and extraction times (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min were preformed to obtain optimum conditions for further processing. For further work extracts obtained with water extraction at 80°C for 15 min were used. In the PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions drying process, extracts with up to 98 wt % water are mixed with preheated carbon dioxide in a static mixer in order to obtain a homogenous mixture. The mixture is led via a single path nozzle into a spray tower. Driven by the expansion of the gas, fine droplets are formed and the heated gas evaporates the solvent, which is exhausted together with CO^ by a blower. Fine powder is formed and collected in the spray tower. The amount of solvent which is to be removed and the residual humidity obtained in the product depend strongly on flow rate and temperature of the gas. From obtained results it can be seen, that high pre-expansion temperatures Tp (145 °C cause degradation of polyphenols (1.05 wt %. Maintaining Tp at approximately 130 °C and lower gave satisfying results; total amount of polyphenols in the obtained powders was between 4.97 and 8.77 wt %. Temperature in spray tower ranging from 33 to 65 °C has no significant effect on the amount of total polyphenols, but higher temperature results in lower water residue in the sample.

  7. 发酵程度对红茶品质的影响%Effects of fermentation degree on the quality of black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开华; 陈贞纯; 屠幼英

    2012-01-01

    随着越来越多的消费者对红茶健康功能的认识,近五年国内红茶生产和销售增加非常迅速。红茶的发酵程度极大地影响红茶的品质,发酵是形成红茶品质特征的主要工序。本文从红茶发酵程度的把控和界定为切入点,详细探讨了原料、发酵温度、发酵湿度、发酵时间、发酵通氧量、发酵叶堆积厚度等因素对红茶品质的影响,以及应如何控制这些因素以生产品质优越的红茶。旨在为红茶生产企业以及科研人员提供实际指导意见。%In the last five years, production and sales of black tea developed very rapidly in China attracting more and more tea comsumers. Fermentation is a very important step in processing of black tea, and fermentation degree affected the quality of black tea. This paper discussed the effect of lectors including raw material, fermenting humidity, fermenting time, oxygen and leaf thickness on the black tea quality. Optical factors for producing a high quality black tea were suggested.

  8. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  9. Research and Development of Floral Type Congou Black Tea%花香型工夫红茶的开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄怀生; 谭正初; 银霞; 粟本文; 郑红发; 赵熙; 梁国强

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary study of variety choice and processing technology was utilized to develop floral type congou black tea. Four varieties and resources of floral type congou black tea were screened as the improved variety from nine hunan local resources and other varieties. Experimental results showed that floral type congou black tea was processed by infrared withering, but the scent had poor durability. Tea materials with one bud two leaves were effectively used to improve qulity of tea products.%为开发花香型工夫红茶,对品种选择和加工工艺进行初步研究。试验从9个湖南地方资源及部分外省品种中筛选出4个适制花香型工夫红茶的茶树品种和单株。在加工过程中,萎凋时用红外灯光照射,制得的工夫红茶带有花香,但花香持久性欠佳;原料选用具有一定成熟度的1芽2叶,有利于产品品质和香气的形成。

  10. Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Activity by Tea and Grape Seed Extracts and their Constituent Catechins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M.; Michels, Alexander J.; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, glucosidases required for starch digestion. The abundant flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) in these extracts were also tested for their inhibitory potential and evaluated against the pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. To evaluate relative potency of these extracts and catechins, the concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess an inhibitor’s relative efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. While tea extracts and individual catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Our data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase, and suggest that procyanidins found in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

  11. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ortsäter Henrik; Grankvist Nina; Wolfram Swen; Kuehn Nicolas; Sjöholm Åke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™) with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old) db/db mice were randomized a...

  12. 不同极性色谱柱在滇红香气成分分析中的对比研究%A Comparative Study of Different Polarity Chromatographic Column in Analysis of Aroma Components in Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔阳; 杜丽平; 肖冬光

    2016-01-01

    The aroma components in black tea were extracted and analyzed by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two different polarity chromatographic columns were used for the separation of the aroma components in black tea. The result of semi-standard non-polar chromatographic column HP-5MS and standard polar chromatographic column CP-Wax were compared by analysis. The results indicated that the separation effect of two different polarity chromatographic column are satisfactory, and there are some differences between the analysis results. Therefore, in the analysis of different aroma components in black tea, we should select suitable chromatographic columns according to the various analytes.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)对滇红的香气成分进行富集,分别使用两种不同极性的色谱柱进行色谱分离,气质联用(GC-MS)检测分析,比较了非极性色谱柱 HP-5MS 和极性色谱柱 CP-Wax 对红茶香气成分分离效果的差异。结果表明,两种不同极性色谱柱对红茶香气成分的分离效果均表现良好,但分析结果存在一定的差异。因此在对红茶中不同的香气成分进行研究分析时,应根据分析目标的不同选择合适的色谱柱。

  13. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span. PMID:23432089

  14. Synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles using oolong tea extract for the degradation of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles (OT-FeNP) were synthesized using oolong tea extracts. Their morphology, structure and size were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Formation of FeNP results in mostly spherical particles with diameters ranging from 40 to 50 nm. Degradation of malachite green (MG) using OT-FeNP demonstrated that kinetics fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction by removing 75.5% of MG (50 mg/L). This indicated that OT-FeNP has the potential to serve as a green nanomaterial for environmental remediation.

  15. Chemical composition and hepatoprotective effects of polyphenol-rich extract from Houttuynia cordata tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lingmin; Shi, Xiaolong; Yu, Linhong; Zhu, Jiao; Ma, Rui; Yang, Xingbin

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect, and phenolic composition of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from Houttuynia cordata tea. EAF was shown to exhibit strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity against DPPH radical in vitro, and the antioxidant effects were further verified by suppressing CCl₄-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver at three tested doses of EAF (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bw). Pretreatment with EAF (1000 mg/kg bw) prior to CCl₄ administration significantly (p EAF were quercitrin (111.7 μg/mg), quercetin (43.8 μg/mg), and hyperoside (29.1 μg/mg). These results combined with liver histopathology indicate that EAF possesses a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl₄, which may be due to the strong antioxidant activity of phenolic components.

  16. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: avoidance of artifacts and analysis of caffeine-precipitated SII thearubigins from 15 commercial black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drynan, J Warren; Clifford, Michael N; Obuchowicz, Jacek; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-05-01

    Thearubigins are the quantitatively major phenolic compounds in black tea, accounting for some 60-70% of the solids in a typical black tea infusion. MALDI-TOF mass spectra for caffeine-precipitated SII thearubigins (SII CTRs) from 15 different commercial teas support previous conclusions that SII CTRs are polyhydroxylated oligomers (rather than polymers) of catechins and catechin gallates in redox equilibrium with their quinone counterparts. Some 4500 peaks were revealed in a mass range from m/z 500 to 2100. Polyphenols are redox-susceptible and readily generate artifacts during MALDI-TOF analysis when the matrix is also redox-susceptible. Of the nine matrices evaluated, 3',4',5'-trihydroxyacetophenone (F) provided the best compromise between signal intensity and redox artifact formation.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity of isolated fractions from water extract of Qingzhuan tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Cai, Shengbao; Ni, Dejiang; Wang, Ruojun; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Chen, Yuqiong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, Qingzhuan tea, a unique dark tea produced by post-fermentation technology, was selected to investigate its antioxidant and pancreatic α-amylase inhibiting activities. Water extract of Qingzhuan tea was successively isolated by solvent partitioning procedures to obtain chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, sediment and residual aqua fractions. Of different fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction (QEF) had the highest total polyphenols and catechins contents, demonstrated the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity and exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity in vitro. Further separation of QEF by a Sephadex LH-20 column generated eight subfractions (QEF1-QEF8), with QEF8 being the most active subfraction based on the assays above mentioned. The major active components in QEF8 were identified as catechins EGCG and ECG by LC-MS analysis, with contents of 22.29 % and 11.11 % respectively. Inhibitory effects of catechin standards EGCG and ECG on porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity were also observed. In conclusion, Qingzhuan tea or its water extract could be potentially used as complementary therapy ingredients for diabetes treatment through lowering postprandial blood glucose, and catechins EGCG and ECG may be the most efficient components in the water extract. PMID:25694702

  18. Green tea extract decreases oxidative stress and improves insulin sensitivity in an animal model of insulin resistance, the fructose- fed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased oxidative stress. Tea polyphenols, as both insulin potentiating factors and antioxidants, might act in preventing the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to determine the effects of green tea extract consumption on oxida...

  19. 祁门红茶超微粉碎技术研究%STUDY ON THE PULVERIZING TECHNOLOGY OF ULTRAFINE KEEMUN BLACK TEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 廖万有; 周坚

    2009-01-01

    Mainly studied the processing technology of ultrafine Keemun black tea and the necessary equipments. Took the granular Keemun black tea as the raw materials, used processing technology of plant powders, followed processing principle of Keemun black tea, controled low temperature and low damp of gas source, suppression chemical changes induced by mechanical power. Through analysing result of organoleptic evaluation, determination of biochemical components and uhrafine powders on tea samples, tea powders assumes the red-yellow, delicate and lustrous, D97 was in 33.77 μm, Dstokes was in 9.31 μm, and maintained biochemical components of Keemun black tea.%主要研究祁门红茶的超微粉碎工艺及气流粉碎技术,以祁红颗粒茶为原料,应用植物粉体加工技术,与"祁红"制茶原理有机结合,控制气流粉碎中气源的低温、低湿,抑制机械力诱导的化学作用.通过分析试验茶样的感官审评、理化检测及粉体检测结果,超微红茶外观呈红黄色匀净粉末、粒体细腻润泽,D97(97%的粉末粒径)在33.77 μm内,Dstokes(粉末平均粒径)在9.31μm内,并较好地保持祁门红茶品质特征的生化成分.

  20. Identification of Green, Oolong and Black Teas in China via Wavelet Packet Entropy and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop an automatic tea-category identification system with a high recall rate, we proposed a computer-vision and machine-learning based system, which did not require expensive signal acquiring devices and time-consuming procedures. We captured 300 tea images using a 3-CCD digital camera, and then extracted 64 color histogram features and 16 wavelet packet entropy (WPE features to obtain color information and texture information, respectively. Principal component analysis was used to reduce features, which were fed into a fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM. Winner-take-all (WTA was introduced to help the classifier deal with this 3-class problem. The 10 × 10-fold stratified cross-validation results show that the proposed FSVM + WTA method yields an overall recall rate of 97.77%, higher than 5 existing methods. In addition, the number of reduced features is only five, less than or equal to existing methods. The proposed method is effective for tea identification.

  1. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE: a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmöller Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. Methods/Design We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. Discussion The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good

  2. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  3. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo YY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuet Ying Loo,1 Buong Woei Chieng,2 Mitsuaki Nishibuchi,3 Son Radu11Centre of Excellent for Food Safety Research, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Center for South East Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine.Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, green synthesis, leaf extract, transmission electron microscopy, nanotechnology

  4. Quality Improvement of Instant Black Tea Processed from Coarse Tea Materials%利用粗老原料加工速溶红茶的品质改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乾刚

    2001-01-01

    The improvement in taste, colour and aroma of instant black tea processed from coarse tea materials is discussed about the chemical nature of coarse tea materials, the substance support for black tea flavour, the conversion of quality-related components during manufacture, and the solutions to the quality defects resulted from the above-mentioned factors.%利用粗老原料加工速溶红茶可降低成本,充分利用茶叶资源.然而,其品质普遍存在茶叶香味淡薄、风味不显等缺陷.本文就红茶风味形成的物质基础,加工过程的物质转换,粗老原料的成分状况进行了讨论,并针对上述品质问题提出了一些具体的方法和思路,涉及风味成分的添加、乌龙茶原料和工艺的引入等.

  5. Aroma Stability of Lemon-Flavored Hard Iced Tea Assessed by Chirality and Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; He, Fei; Qian, Yanping; Zheng, Jia; Qian, Michael C

    2016-07-20

    The aroma of fresh and aged lemon-flavored hard tea was investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantitative comparison, and two-dimensional chirality analysis. Aroma extract dilution analysis of fresh hard tea samples showed 3-methylbutanal, isoamyl alcohol, β-damascenone, β-ionone, 2-phenylethanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and vanillin could be the most important aroma contributors to the hard tea due to their high FD values. The analysis of the aged hard tea samples did not reveal new compound formation during storage; however, compared with fresh samples, the flavor dilution value changed substantially in the aged samples. Both AEDA and quantitative analysis demonstrated that β-damascenone increased substantially in aged samples, whereas terpene aldehydes decreased substantially after storage. In addition, the FD value of linalool decreased dramatically in aged samples. Two-dimensional GC-MS chirality analysis revealed the FD value decrease of linalool in aged samples was largely due to the transformation of (R)-linalool to (S)-linalool, which has a higher sensory threshold. PMID:27319225

  6. 茶叶提取物在牙膏中的应用%Toothpaste application of tea extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南占东; 农国富

    2012-01-01

    茶叶中含有茶多酚、生物碱、糖类、氨基酸、茶色素、皂苷、氟以及维生素等多种功能成分,茶叶提取物具有抑菌抗炎、清热解毒、回甘生津、防龋抗蛀、抗过敏质和祛除烟毒等功效,已广泛应用于医药、化妆品、保健品和食品添加剂等领域。含茶叶提取物的牙膏具有抗菌消炎、预防龋齿、生津回甘和分解烟毒等作用。%Tea contains a variety of functional components, for example, polyphenols, amino acids, sugar, alkaloid, saponin, tea pigment, fluorine and vitamin. The tea extract has many antibacterial and anti-inflammatory functions, such as heat-clearing, detoxifying, back to Gan fluid, caries and borers resistant, anti-allergic effect, elimination of smoke and other effects; and has been widely used in medicine, cosmetics, health products, food additives and other fields. The toothpaste containing the tea extract has good effects of anti-bacterium and diminishing inflammation, prevention of caries, helps in production of saliva and sweet after taste, decomposition of poisonous smoking deposition on teeth and

  7. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p≤0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries. - Highlights: ► Teas were investigated for the changes during storage on irradiation and fumigation. ► The effect on amino acid contents was more prominent on irradiation than fumigation. ► The sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents increased on gamma irradiation. ► Fumigation and storage did not affect the sugar contents in the teas. ► Irradiation could be an effective alternative for fumigants

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenols-rich extract from tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers in acute and chronic mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Tian; Li, Wei-Xi; He, Rong-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances) plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-α and interleukin-(IL-) 1β mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food. PMID:22900128

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia sinensis Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Tian Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS- induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-α and interleukin-(IL- 1β mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food.

  10. Determination and quality evaluation of green tea extracts through qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhu, Ming; Shao, Yun-Dong; Shen, Zhe; Weng, Chen-Chen; Yan, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-15

    The quality of tea is mainly attributed to tea polyphenols and caffeine. In this paper, a new strategy for quality evaluation of green tea extracts was explored and verified through qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS). Taguchi Design was introduced to evaluate the fluctuations of the relative conversion factors (fx) of tea catechins, gallic acid and caffeine to epigallocatechin gallate. The regression model (Sig.=0.000) and the deviations (R(2)>0.999) between QAMS and normal external standard method proved the consistency of the two methods. Hierarchical cluster analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were employed to classify 26 batches of commercial Longjing green tea extracts (LJGTEs) collected from different producers. The results showed a significant difference in component profile between the samples from different origins. The QAMS method was verified to be an alternative and promising method to comprehensively and effectively control the quality of LJGTEs from different origins.

  11. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  12. Chemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity in vitro of Polysaccharides Extracted from Lower Grade Green Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Chen; Yongjun Zhang; Liyun Zhu; Hui Jin; Gaofan Zhang; Dongyang Su; Jia Li

    2013-01-01

    Tea is a well-known and important agricultural product in the world. The Crude Polysaccharides from tea leaves (CP) probably have good antioxidant activities. However, whether or not the antioxidant abilities of CP depend on tea polyphenols in the CP is not understanded. In this study, four CP fractions (TPF30, TPF50, TPF70 and TPF90) were isolated from CP and their antioxidant activities were compared. Meanwhile, Chemical and physical characteristics of CP and four CP fractions were investig...

  13. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs. The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample, and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  14. The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Campos, Patricia M B G Maia

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief.

  15. The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Campos, Patricia M B G Maia

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief. PMID:23742288

  16. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins Perazzo

    Full Text Available There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%, which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05, was detected in products packed in film formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  17. Skin penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and quercetin from green tea and Ginkgo biloba extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dal Belo, S E; Gaspar, L R; Maia Campos, P M B G; Marty, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and Ginkgo biloba extracts in cosmetic formulations have been suggested to protect the skin against UV-induced damage and skin ageing. Thus, it is very important to assess the human skin penetration of their major flavonoids to verify if they penetrate and remain in the skin to exert their proposed effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human skin penetration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and quercetin from green tea and G. biloba extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations. This study was conducted with fresh dermatomed human Caucasian skin from abdominal surgery mounted on static Franz diffusion cells. Skin samples were mounted between two diffusion half-cells and 10 mg/cm(2) of formulations supplemented with 6% of green tea or G. biloba extract were applied on the skin surface. The receptor fluid was removed after 6 and 24 h and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the quantification of the flavonoids. The stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping and immersed in methanol and the epidermis was mechanically separated from the dermis and triturated in methanol to extract EGCG and quercetin. The results showed that the flavonoids under study penetrated into the skin, without reaching the receptor fluid. The majority of EGCG was quantified in the stratum corneum (0.87 microg/cm(2)), which was statistically higher than the EGCG concentrations found in viable epidermis (0.54 microg/cm(2)) and in the dermis (0.38 microg/cm(2)). The majority of quercetin was quantified in the viable epidermis (0.23 microg/cm(2)), which was statistically higher than the EGCG concentration found in the stratum corneum layer (0.17 microg/cm(2)). Finally, it can be concluded that EGCG and quercetin from green tea and G. biloba extracts vehiculated in cosmetic formulations presented good skin penetration and retention, which can favor their skin effects. PMID:19786823

  18. Antioxidant efficacy of crude methanol extract of ashitaba green tea against radiation induced oxidative stress in E.coli K12 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of ashitaba green tea (G). The DPPH scavenging assay was evaluated for green tea extract to determine its radical scavenging capacity. The bacteria was pretreated with ashitaba green tea extract, quercetin (Q) and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate (E) at below MIC level. Oxidative stress was induced at 0.4 Gy using gamma radiation. The antioxidant efficacy of ashitaba green tea was evaluated through enzyme antioxidant studies like SOD (Superoxidedismutase) and CAT (Catalase). The oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) was also evaluated. Further the protective efficacy of the(G) was confirmed by colony forming units (CFU) study. Among the tested compounds the crude extract of ashitaba (G) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in comparison with quercetin and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate. (abstract)

  19. Research Progress of High Aroma Black Tea Processing%高香红茶加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银霞; 郑红发; 黄怀生; 赵熙; 粟本文

    2012-01-01

    Most of Chinese Black teas' aroma is not high, which influences their competitiveness in international market. This article summarized the processing technologies and research progress of China black tea in recent 15 years and provided theoretical instruction for the producing of high aroma black tea.%我国大部分红茶香气品质不高,影响产品的市场竞争力。本文总结了近15年来红茶加工技术与香气品质关系的研究进展,为生产高香红茶提供理论依据。

  20. Synergistic effects of green tea and ginkgo biloba extracts on the improvement of skin barrier function and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Patricia M B G Maia; Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Gaspar, Lorena R

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing green tea (GT) and/or Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts by preclinical and clinical studies. For the preclinical study, histological analysis was performed after 5 day-period of formulations application on the dorsum of hairless mice. For the clinical study, the formulations were applied on the forearm skin of 48 volunteers, and assessed before and after 3 hours and after a 15 and 30 day-period of application. Histological analysis showed that the formulation with GT (FGT) and the association of GT and GB (FBlend) significantly enhanced viable epidermis thickness and the number of cell layers, suggesting a moisturizing effect in skin deeper layers and increased cell renewal. The clinical efficacy studies showed that the extracts had a moisturizing effect and improved skin microrelief. In addition they synergistically acted on the skin elasticity and skin barrier function. In conclusion, the formulation containing a combination of green tea and Ginkgo biloba extracts effectively improved skin conditions and the effect of formulation FBlend on the improvement of skin elasticity was more pronounced. Finally, the results of the present study revealed other important clinical benefits of Ginkgo biloba and green tea extracts on the skin besides their already known antioxidant action.

  1. Synergistic effects of green tea and ginkgo biloba extracts on the improvement of skin barrier function and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Patricia M B G Maia; Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Gaspar, Lorena R

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing green tea (GT) and/or Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts by preclinical and clinical studies. For the preclinical study, histological analysis was performed after 5 day-period of formulations application on the dorsum of hairless mice. For the clinical study, the formulations were applied on the forearm skin of 48 volunteers, and assessed before and after 3 hours and after a 15 and 30 day-period of application. Histological analysis showed that the formulation with GT (FGT) and the association of GT and GB (FBlend) significantly enhanced viable epidermis thickness and the number of cell layers, suggesting a moisturizing effect in skin deeper layers and increased cell renewal. The clinical efficacy studies showed that the extracts had a moisturizing effect and improved skin microrelief. In addition they synergistically acted on the skin elasticity and skin barrier function. In conclusion, the formulation containing a combination of green tea and Ginkgo biloba extracts effectively improved skin conditions and the effect of formulation FBlend on the improvement of skin elasticity was more pronounced. Finally, the results of the present study revealed other important clinical benefits of Ginkgo biloba and green tea extracts on the skin besides their already known antioxidant action. PMID:25226010

  2. Study on effect of Baisha Green tea extract on blood pressure in treating spontaneous hypertension rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-rui Yu; Li-ping Ji; Yi-hong He; Jing Zhou; Chang-yan Wu; Qi-bing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect and Mechanisms of Baisha Greentea extract on blood pressure in treating spontaneous hypertension rats.Methods:The 60 primary hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into hypertension of control group, amlodipine besylate group and the high, medium and low dose group of green tea extract of five groups, with twelve rats in each group. All treatments were given through oral, and the control group with distilled water. Each measurement of rat blood pressure was detected in the morning every week. After 7 weeks treatment, blood was collected from the rat abdominal aorta for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and level of plasma angiotensin II. At the same time, heart tissue was embedded in 10% neutral buffered formaldehyde fixation, paraffin and sectioned, And then observe the changes of histopathological after HE staining. Results: Compared with the SHR control group, Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of essential hypertension in high dose group and middle dose group and Amlodipine group had significantly reduced. At the same time, the NO and SOD contents of Baisha Greentea extract in high dose group (200 mg•kg-1•d-1) and middle dose group (100 mg•kg-1•d-1) and Amlodipine group (0.5 mg•kg-1•d-1) had significantly increased.Conclusion:Long-term ingestion of Baisha Greentea extract could significantly elevated serum NO and SOD levels of SHR, reduce the level of plasma angiotensinⅡ to common level, while reversed the hypertensive rat myocardial remodeling effectively.

  3. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds ofCamellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB) was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations ofBTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results:The results showed thatBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r2 = 0.95) cholesterol micellization inhibitory activityin vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r2= 0.94) inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17%) on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption ofBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  4. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds of Camellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations of BTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0 µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results: The results showed that BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.95 cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity in vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.94 inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17% on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption of BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  5. Energy extraction from Kerr black holes by rigidly rotating strings

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a rigidly rotating string can extract the rotational energy from a rotating black hole. We consider Nambu-Goto strings stationary with respect to a co-rotating Killing vector with an uniform angular velocity $\\omega$ in the Kerr spacetime. We show that a necessary condition of the energy-extraction process is that an effective horizon on the string worldsheet, which corresponds to the inner light surface, is inside the ergosphere of the Kerr black hole and the angular velocity $\\omega$ is less than that of the black hole $\\Omega_\\mathrm{h}$. Furthermore, we discuss global configurations of such strings in both of a slow-rotation limit and the extremal Kerr case.

  6. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  7. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  8. Effect of green tea extract microencapsulation on hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular tissues in high fructose-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Moon Hee; Seong, Pil Nam; Kim, Myung Hwan; Myong, Na-Hye; Chang, Moon-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The application of polyphenols has attracted great interest in the field of functional foods and nutraceuticals due to their potential health benefits in humans. However, the effectiveness of polyphenols depends on their bioactivity and bioavailability. In the present study, the bioactive component from green tea extract (GTE) was administrated orally (50 mg/kg body weight/day) as free or in a microencapsulated form with maltodextrin in rats fed a high fructose diet. High fructose diet induce...

  9. Green tea extract supplement reduces D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by inhibition of apoptotic and proinflammatory signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Hsuan-Shu; Yu Chia-Jung; Chen Wang-Chuan; Lin Bor-Ru; Chang Huei-Min; Lee Yen-Chih; Chien Chiang-Ting; Chen Chau-Fong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress and inflammation contributed to the propagation of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study was undertaken to determine whether D-galactosamine (D-GalN) induces ALI via the mitochondrial apoptosis- and proinflammatory cytokine-signaling pathways, and possible mechanism(s) by which green tea (GT) extract modulates the apoptotic and proinflammatory signaling in rat. D-GalN induced hepatic hypoxia/hypoperfusion and triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production f...

  10. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Sarah E; Gimzewski, James K [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jin Yusheng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lu Qingyi [Department of Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rao Jianyu, E-mail: JRao@mednet.ucla.edu, E-mail: gim@chem.ucla.edu [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83; Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  11. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83; Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  12. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Lu, Qing-Yi; Rao, JianYu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2011-05-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83 Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  13. Effects of physiological levels of the green tea extract Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological concentrations of the green tea extract EGCG caused growth inhibition in oestrogen receptor α (ERα-positive MCF7 cells, that was associated with down-regulation of the ERα and reduced insulin-like growth factor (IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 abundance and increased protein abundance of the tumour suppressor genes p53/p21. In contrast to MCF7 cells that have wt p53, EGCG alone did not change cell proliferation or death significantly in another ERα-positive cell line T47D that possesses mutant p53. EGCG increased ERα protein levels and as a consequence, the cells responded significantly better to an ERα antagonist Tamoxifen (TAM in the presence of EGCG. EGCG significantly increased cell death in an ERα-negative cell line, MDA-MB-231 that also possesses mutant p53. EGCG significantly increased the ERα and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR levels and thereby enhanced the sensitivities of the cells to Tamoxifen and a blocking antibody targeting the IGF-1R (αIR3. In contrast to MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that exhibited significant changes in key molecules involved in breast growth and survival upon treatment with physiological levels of EGCG, the growth, survival and levels of these proteins in non-malignant breast epithelial cells, MCF10A cells, were not affected.

  14. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  15. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and its application for solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasanta Sutradhar; Mitali Saha

    2015-06-01

    We report the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and its composite with natural graphite (NG) powder for application in solar cell. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using green tea leaf extract as non-toxic and eco-friendly reducing material under microwave irradiation. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles was monitored by the colour changes during the reaction. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by particle size analyzer (dynamic light scattering), scanning electron microscope, UV–visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscope and fluorescence spectroscopy. The average particle size of the ZnO nanoparticles was found to be 26 nm. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were further used to prepare ZnO/NG composite material with commercially available NG powder. The current–voltage (–) characteristics of thin film of ZnO/NG nanocomposite were investigated. JSC (short-circuit photocurrent), VOC (open-circuit photovoltage), FF (fill factor) and (efficiency of the solar cell) were measured for ZnO/NG nanocomposite. Interestingly, the cell showed a good power conversion efficiency of 3.54% with high stability.

  16. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ezzeldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4 was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg or saline (control by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured up to 12 h after its administration by a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Pretreatment with GTE produced significant reductions in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of quetiapine by 45% and 35%, respectively, compared to quetiapine alone. However, GTE did not produce significant change in elimination half-life and oral clearance of quetiapine. This study concluded that GTE may decrease the bioavailability of quetiapine when coadministered.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT. PMID:26139926

  18. Edible Film from Jack Bean Flour for Use as an Antioxidative Packaging Incorporating Extract of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Lindriati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of green tea’s extract in edible film’s matrix will improve film’s functionality. The film will has antioxidant properties and can protect food from rancidity and discoloration. In this research film based component was jack bean flour which has high content of carbohydrate and protein. The film had good mechanical and physical characters. The aim of this research was studying effect of green tea’s extract addition on phenolic, tannin concentration and antioxidant  activity of edible film. Extract of green tea was prepared with variation of temperature (28oC, 50oC and 100oC. The result showed that increasing of extraction temperature would increase phenolic content, tannin concentration and antioxidant  activity. When green tea extracted at 100oC phenolic concentration was 144.179 mg/g, tannin  was 50.345 mg/g and antioksidant activity was 58.8% (DPPH inhibition. After the extract was incorporated in to edible film, total phenolic concentration of film was 113.544 mg/g, tannin was 41.842 mg/g and antioxidant activity was 45.22%. Edible film with green tea addition, showed ability in inhibiting rancidity of peanut oil whereas peroxide value and TBA (Thio Barbituric Acid number of peanut oil was 11.5 meq O2/kg and 0.13 ml/g after edible film immersion in 5 days. Peroxide value and TBA number of peanut oil without edible film immersion was 20.3 meq O2/kg and 0.32 ml/g.

  19. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves. PMID:25088347

  20. Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattayasai, Jintana; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Puapairoj, Prapawadee

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea (ME) on mouse behaviors (depression, anxiety, climbing activity and thermal response), muscle coordination and muscle strength were studied. Male IRC mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the ME, desipramine or diazepam. Thirty minutes after injection, the mice were tested in all experimental models. A significant antidepressant-like effect could be detected in the animals receiving either 100 or 200 mg/kg ME. The effect of 200 mg/kg ME in decreasing the immobility time was comparable to 10 mg/kg desipramine. With higher dose (1000 mg/kg), a significant increase in immobility time could be observed. In the elevated plus maze, no increase in time in the open arm could be observed in mice treated with ME at either 100 or 200 mg/kg. However, high doses of ME (500 or 1000 mg/kg) decreased both time in the open arm and the number of entries in the maze. No change in thermal response could be seen in mice treated with ME at doses up to 500 mg/kg, however, at 1000 mg/kg, the response time to heat was increased significantly. The ME at either 500 or 1000 mg/kg also decreased muscle coordination, strength and climbing activity significantly when compared with the control. This study suggests that ME possesses an antidepressant- without an anxiolytic-like effect, however, at high doses, the extract might show the sedative effect and alter other functions such as muscle strength, animal activity in the maze and pain response.

  1. Effect of oral administration of green tea extract in various dosage schemes on oxidative stress status of mice in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a favorite beverage and its extracts are popular components of dietary supplements. The aim of the present in vivo study was to obtain detailed information about the effect of a standard green tea extract (Polyphenon, P, at different doses, on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in murine blood, liver, small and large intestine. In all doses, P improved the oxidative stress status via an increased content of plasmatic SH-groups (by 21-67 %. Regarding antioxidant enzymes in tissues, the low dose of P had the best positive effect as it elevated the activity of NADPH quinone reductase in liver and small intestine, thioredoxin reductase in small intestine and hepatic superoxide dismutase. Based on these facts, consumption of green tea seems to be safe and beneficial, while consumption of dietary supplements containing high doses of catechins may disturb oxidative balance by lowering the activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase

  2. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Greyling, A.; Draijer, R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention

  3. Black hole energy extraction via stationary scalar clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Gerow, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    We study scalar field configurations around Kerr black holes with a time-independent energy-momentum tensor. These stationary `scalar clouds', confined near the black hole (BH) by their own mass or a mirror at fixed radius, exist at the threshold for energy extraction via superradiance. Motivated by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism, we explore whether scalar clouds could serve as a proxy for the force-free magnetosphere in the BZ process. We find that a stationary energy-extracting scalar cloud solution exists when the reflecting mirror is replaced by a semi-permeable surface which allows the cloud to radiate some energy to infinity while maintaining self-sustained superradiance. The radial energy flux displays the same behaviour for rapidly rotating holes as magnetohydrodynamic simulations predict for the BZ mechanism.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. PMID:26916211

  5. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol Stimulates Exercise Training-Induced Improvement of Endurance Capacity in Mouse via the Link between AMPK and GLUT4

    OpenAIRE

    EGUCHI, Tomoaki; Kumagai, Chiaki; Fujihara, Takashi; Takemasa, Thoru; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Numata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can promote “fast-to-slow transition” in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF) combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exerci...

  6. Preliminary technology of black tea trial with Leishan-leaf%雷山茶试制红茶工艺初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊峰; 王广铭

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the practice that the production of the black tea is with leishan-leaf as a raw material,this article analyzes the key technology factor that exists in the production.%以雷山茶为原料,试制红茶的实践,初步探讨出雷山茶加工生产红茶的关键技术因子。

  7. Aqueous extract of post-fermented tea reverts the hepatic steatosis of hyperlipidemia rat by regulating the lipogenic genes expression and hepatic fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Jingsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-fermented tea has been used for the prevention of metabolic syndrome in Western China. Present study reports the biochemical mechanism of lipid-lowering effects of Jing-wei fu tea (JWFT), a variety of post-fermented tea on high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in rats. Methods Aqueous extract of JWFT was prepared by putting them in boiling water, and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The major compounds of JWFT were determined by high performance liquid chrom...

  8. ANTIOXIDATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEVERAGES MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF LEMONGRASS EXTRACT AND GREEN TEA [Studi Karakteristik Antioksidan Minuman Campuran Ekstrak Serai dan Teh Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel Halim*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of lemongrass extract and green tea infusion is expected to produce functional beverage that has potential antioxidant activity as compared to individual materials. This research was aimed to investigate the appropriate solvent type and extraction methods to produce lemongrass extract with highest antioxidant activity and also to investigate the antioxidant characteristic of beverages prepared from a mixture of lemongrass extract and green tea. Lemongrass were subjected to extraction under reflux and maceration using three type of solvents (distilled water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. The resulting extracts were assessed for their total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. Extraction under reflux and using ethanol as solvent resulted in extract with best antioxidant activity (IC50=158.70±47.88 mg/L for reflux method and 103.73±8.03 mg/L for ethanol. This extract was combined with green tea with several ratios (lemongrass extract to green tea [w/w] = 1:3; 1:2; 1:1; 2:1; 3:1. Four level of stevia were used in the beverages (0, 200, 400, 600 ppm. Beverages made with lomogass: tea ratio of 1:3 and 1:1 (w/w and 600 ppm stevia turned out to be beverages with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=271.83±44.48 mg/L and 287.15±36.25 mg/L for ratio 1:3 and 1:1 [w/w] consecutively, 301.59±80.89 mg/L for stevia level 600 ppm. Hedonic testing on beverages revealed that beverage made from lemongrass: tea ratio 1:1 [w/w] ratio with addition of stevia at 600 ppm is the most preferred based on colour, aroma, and overall acceptance.

  9. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Mahmood; Naveed Akhtar; Barkat Ali Khan; Akhtar Rasul; Haji M. Shoaib Khan

    2013-01-01

    Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects l...

  10. The development of processing technology for black tea-salty sweet-biscuits%红茶咸香饼干加工工艺的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝敏; 温立香; 王淋靓; 任二芳; 罗小杰; 艾静汶; 叶雪英

    2015-01-01

    研究红茶咸香饼干加工工艺。分别通过单因素实验确定了红茶的制备工艺和红茶的冲泡工艺,红茶制备采用鲜叶→萎凋(室温)→机械揉捻→轻发酵(35℃×3h,湿度90%)→烘干的制备工艺方案;红茶的冲泡采用洗茶→纯水仪过滤水冲泡(95℃×5min)→茶叶与茶汤分离→出茶的冲泡方案。利用正交实验确定了红茶咸香饼干的最佳配方为:低筋面粉180g、盐2g、泡打粉1.5g、黄油45g、红茶汤45g、全蛋液30g。%We researched the processing technology of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits.The preparation and brewing process of black tea were determined by single factor experiment and the preparation process program was that, fresh leaves→withering (room temperature)→mechanical rolling→light fermentation (35℃×3h,humidity 90%)→drying.The brewing process was that washing tea→brewed by filtered water of pure water meter(95℃×5min)→separating the tea and tea soup.And then,the best formula of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits was confirmed by an orthogonal experiment, the best technical skill was that low-gluten flour 180g, salt 2g, baking powder 1.5g, butter 45g,black tea soup 45g, whole egg 30g.

  11. 碱提酸沉法提取茶叶蛋白质的研究%Extraction of Tea Protein using Alkali Extraction-acid Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晨; 张士康; 朱科学; 王彬; 周惠明

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of tea-protein from green tea by using alkali extraction and acid precipitation was investigated. Amino acid compositions of the tea protein ware also analyzed. The results showed that the optimum extraction parameters were NaOH 0.3 mol/L, green tes/water solution (m/V) 1:25, temperature50 ℃, stirring time 1 h and extraction times twice, under which the protein extraction efficiency was 85.50%. The best pI of the tea protein was 3.0, the protein concentration precipitation rate was 67.85% and the protein content was 47.76%. The tea protein contained 18 kinds of amino acid, in which essential amino acids were 40.68%. Amino acid score of tea protein was higher than soybean protein and close to those of breast milk und milk, which indicated that tea protein was one of high quality leaf proteins. This method is easy to operate, low-cost and highly efficient, thereby being suitable for the massive industrial production of tea protein.%以绿茶为原料,采用碱提酸沉的方法提取茶叶蛋白质,以料液比、碱液浓度、温度、时间为考查因素,研究茶叶蛋白质的最佳提取工艺条件,并对提得的茶叶蛋白质进行了氨基酸分析.结果表明:碱提酸沉法提取茶叶蛋白质的最佳工艺条件为料液比1∶25(m/V),碱液浓度03 mol/L,提取温度50℃,提取时间1 h,连续提取两次,茶叶蛋白质的提取率达到85.50%.茶叶蛋白质的最佳等电点为3.0,蛋白质沉淀率为67.85%,粗提取物中蛋白质质量分数为47.76%.氨基酸分析表明:茶叶蛋白质含有18种氨基酸,其中必需氨基酸含量占40.68%;氨基酸评分高于大豆,接近母乳和牛奶,是一种优质的叶蛋白质资源.综合考虑,此方法操作简单,生产成本低,提取效果好,适用于茶叶蛋白质的工业化生产.

  12. Commercial Honeybush (Cyclopia spp.) Tea Extract Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages-An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Amcois; Kasonga, Abe; Deepak, Vishwa; Moosa, Shaakirah; Marais, Sumari; Kruger, Marlena C; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-10-28

    Honeybush tea, a sweet tasting caffeine-free tea that is indigenous to South Africa, is rich in bioactive compounds that may have beneficial health effects. Bone remodeling is a physiological process that involves the synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts and resorption of bone by osteoclasts. When resorption exceeds formation, bone remodeling can be disrupted resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors of monocytic lineage. These precursors fuse and differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), produced by osteoblasts. In this study, the in vitro effects of an aqueous extract of fermented honeybush tea were examined on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We found that commercial honeybush tea extract inhibited osteoclast formation and TRAP activity which was accompanied by reduced bone resorption and disruption of characteristic cytoskeletal elements of mature osteoclasts without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, honeybush tea extract decreased expression of key osteoclast specific genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K. This study demonstrates for the first time that honeybush tea may have potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects and therefore should be further explored for its beneficial effects on bone.

  13. Commercial Honeybush (Cyclopia spp. Tea Extract Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages—An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amcois Visagie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Honeybush tea, a sweet tasting caffeine-free tea that is indigenous to South Africa, is rich in bioactive compounds that may have beneficial health effects. Bone remodeling is a physiological process that involves the synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts and resorption of bone by osteoclasts. When resorption exceeds formation, bone remodeling can be disrupted resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors of monocytic lineage. These precursors fuse and differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL, produced by osteoblasts. In this study, the in vitro effects of an aqueous extract of fermented honeybush tea were examined on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We found that commercial honeybush tea extract inhibited osteoclast formation and TRAP activity which was accompanied by reduced bone resorption and disruption of characteristic cytoskeletal elements of mature osteoclasts without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, honeybush tea extract decreased expression of key osteoclast specific genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and cathepsin K. This study demonstrates for the first time that honeybush tea may have potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects and therefore should be further explored for its beneficial effects on bone.

  14. RESEARCH ON THE EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF TEA SAPONIN%茶皂素提取与精制方法的改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坤国; 黄明泉

    2001-01-01

    Method on extraction and purification of tea saponin by using anhydrous alcohol as solvent and cholesterol as purifying agent was reported. Tea seed powder was treated with acetone to remove tea oil followed by extracting tea saponin with alcohol. The crude product was purified by Soxhlet extraction with cholesterol (cholesterol-tea saponin 0.75∶ 1) to obtain tea saponin of over 98.5% purity.%以无水乙醇为提取剂并采用改进的胆甾醇纯化法,得到了精制茶皂素。40.0g油茶籽粉经脱油处理后用300mL无水乙醇提取,所得粗品经索氏抽提除杂并制得皂素-胆甾醇复合物(投料质量比为胆甾醇∶皂素=0.75∶ 1)。以甲苯为溶剂再次索氏抽提分离该复合物,同时得到纯度为98.5%以上的茶皂素精品。

  15. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-06-10

    The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of nonactive polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of the sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides.

  16. Effect of Different Materials on the Physicochemical Property and Sensory Quality of Black Tea Cream%不同原料对红茶茶膏理化感官及色差的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭超; 刘华戎; 龚加顺; 张乃明

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore factors influencing the effects of different materials on the physicochemical property and sensory quality of black tea cream. Moreover, improve the black tea cream quality. The three kinds of tea cream (Keemun-Maofeng black tea, Sichuan-Mengding black tea, Fengqing-Dianhong black tea) was prepared by using enzyme treatment and vacuum concentration methods, and its major physicochemical property and active substance and sensory quality were analyzed. The results showed that the content of soluble protein, TF, caffeine, catechins, GC, EGC and EGCG of the Sichuan-Mengding black tea cream higher than other tea cream. The Fengqing-Dianhong black tea cream content of TR and soluble sugar was higher;the content of catechins content was relatively low. The content of nutrient and active substance on Keemun-Maofeng black tea cream were between Sichuan-Mengding and Fengqing-Dianhong black tea cream. Therefore, Sichuan-Mengding black tea was the most suitable for tea cream processing raw materials. The a value, b value, △E, Cab and Sab value correlation coefficient was higher by chromatic aberration. It can better reflect the liquor color and sensory score of black tea cream. It used as black tea cream quality measure.%  为了研究不同原料对红茶茶膏理化感官及色差品质的影响问题,提高红茶茶膏产品品质。将不同茶叶(祁红毛峰、四川蒙顶、凤庆滇红)利用酶解真空浓缩工艺制备工夫红茶茶膏,并对其理化、活性成分、色差及感官品质分析。结果表明:四川蒙顶茶膏蛋白含量,TF、咖啡碱、儿茶素、GC、EGC、EGCG较高。凤庆滇红茶膏茶红素、总糖含量较高,儿茶素含量相对较低。祁红毛峰营养素含量和活性成分均介于四川蒙顶和凤庆滇红之间。四川蒙顶红茶宜作为红茶茶膏加工原料。色差分析a值、b值、△E、Cab、Sab与汤色得分相关系数较高,能更好地反映茶

  17. Extracting black-hole's rotational energy: the generalized Penrose process

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, J -P; Abramowicz, M; Tchekhovskoy, A; Narayan, R

    2014-01-01

    In the case involving particles the necessary and sufficient condition for the Penrose process to extract energy from a rotating black hole is absorption of particles with negative energies and angular momenta. No torque at the black hole horizon occurs. In this article we consider the case of arbitrary fields or matter described by an unspecified, general energy-momentum tensor and show that the necessary and sufficient condition for extraction of black-hole's rotational energy is analogous to that in mechanical Penrose process: absorption of negative energy and negative angular momentum. We also show that a necessary condition for the Penrose process to occur is for the Noether current (the conserved energy-momentum density vector) to be spacelike or past-directed (timelike or null) on some part of the horizon. In the particle case our general criterion for the occurrence of a Penrose process reproduces the standard result. In the case of relativistic jet-producing "magnetically arrested disks" we show that...

  18. Black Ginseng Extract Counteracts Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Kim

    Full Text Available Black ginseng, a new type of processed ginseng that has a unique ginsenoside profile, has been shown to display potent pharmacological activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Although red ginseng is considered beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, the relationship between black ginseng and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of black ginseng extract (BGE in streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice, in comparison with red ginseng extract (RGE. HPLC analyses showed that BGE has a different ginsenoside composition to RGE; BGE contains Rg5 and compound k as the major ginsenosides. BGE at 200 mg/kg reduced hyperglycemia, increased the insulin/glucose ratio and improved islet architecture and β-cell function in STZ-treated mice. The inhibition of β-cell apoptosis by BGE was associated with suppression of the cytokine-induced nuclear factor-κB-mediated signaling pathway in the pancreas. Moreover, these anti-diabetic effects of BGE were more potent than those of RGE. Collectively, our data indicate that BGE, in part by suppressing cytokine-induced apoptotic signaling, protects β-cells from oxidative injury and counteracts diabetes in mice.

  19. Spacelike gravitational radiation extraction from rotating binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbiriba, Breno C. O.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce an alternate method for gravitational radiation extraction for binary black hole mergers where we do not use a single extraction radius at the intermediate field region but instead use a whole spherical shell of three-dimensional (3D) data and continue its evolution using the linearized (Teukolsky) evolution to a final distant radiation extraction radius. We implement this using the Hahndol code for the 3D evolution, and use the “Lazarus” procedure to convert the numerical data into the linearized data. The final waveform is compatible with the ones obtained from the full 3D evolutions with some minor variations that require further study. In the process, we tested the “Lazarus” method with our numerical 3D implementation and gauges showing that even with the advanced gauges suitable for 3D rotating binary evolutions, we recover the same type of limited results obtained in the original work.

  20. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  1. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  2. Tea bag filter paper as a novel protective membrane for micro-solid phase extraction of butachlor in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelden, Tshering; Thammaknet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    An innovative, cost-effective, simple, and environmental friendly tea bag filter paper protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique was developed for the first time with the aim to miniaturize and minimize the use of organic solvents for the extraction and determination of butachlor in aqueous samples. The μ-SPE device was produced by packing 3.0 mg of an easily synthesized new sorbent, hydroxyl-functionalized polypyrrole (OH-PPY), inside a small tea bag filter paper sachet (1.0 cm × 0.5 cm) that served as a protective envelope. Both the extraction and desorption procedures were facilitated by sonication. Due to the high porosity and the fast water absorption of the tea bag filter paper, the analyte could easily diffuse through and enhance the interaction with the sorbent. Under the optimized conditions for the GC-ECD and the μ-SPE, the limit of detection (S/N ≥ 3) was 2.0 μg L(-1) while the limit of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) was 10.0 μg L(-1). The recoveries of the butachlor spiked at 0.050, 0.10, and 0.50 μg mL(-1) ranged from 77.9 ± 3.0 to 112.5 ± 2.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of butachlor in water samples from paddy cultivation sites. The levels found were from non-detectable to 24.71 ± 0.37 μg L(-1).

  3. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal......The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  4. Ionizing radiation effects on volatiles formation in Camellia sinensis (L) teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white, green, oolong and black teas. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydro distillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results show that the volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. The white tea showed less influence of ionizing radiation, as 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all doses of radiation and formed 47.53% of new compounds after irradiation. The green tea was the tea that has the greatest influence of radiation effects, increasing 66.12% of volatiles identified in relation to the control sample and only 21.77% of volatiles found naturally were resistant to all doses of radiation. The oolong tea, despite suffering a partial enzymatic treatment, was the second tea that has least interference of radiation in increasing the formation of new volatile. >From this tea, was able to detect 49.59% of new compounds after irradiation and 30.08% of the compounds found naturally were also found after irradiation. The black tea has the second greatest influence of radiation on formation of new volatile (60.94%) and only 17.97% of all identified compounds were not degraded after radiation. (author)

  5. Determination of five pyrethroids in tea drinks by dispersive solid phase extraction with polyaniline-coated magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Ying; Gao, Yan; Xu, Bo; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2014-02-01

    The polyaniline-coated magnetic particles with bowl-shaped morphology (Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls) were successfully prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared microbowls were used as the magnetic adsorbent in dispersive solid phase extraction of five pyrethroids, including cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin and bifenthrin in plain tea drinks. The effects of experiment factors, including amount of Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls, pH value, ultrasound extraction time and desorption conditions, were investigated. The extraction recoveries obtained with 8 mg of magnetic microbowls were satisfactory, and the microbowls can be reused after easy washing. Thus, a simple, selective and effective method for the determination of the pyrethroids was established successfully. The results showed that the method had good linearity (r=0.9992-0.9998), and the limits of detections (LODs) were from 0.025 to 0.032 ng mL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.4-6.1% and 3.5-8.8%, respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the real tea drinks were in the range of 72.1-118.4%.

  6. Identification of the varietal origin of processed loose-leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanping Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an important cash crop, representing a $40 billion-a-year global market. Differentiation of the tea market has resulted in increasing demand for tea products that are sustainably and responsibly produced. Tea authentication is important because of growing concerns about fraud involving premium tea products. Analytical technologies are needed for protection and value enhancement of high-quality brands. For loose-leaf teas, the challenge is that the authentication needs to be established on the basis of a single leaf, so that the products can be traced back to the original varieties. A new generation of molecular markers offers an ideal solution for authentication of processed agricultural products. Using a nanofluidic array to identify variant SNP sequences, we tested genetic identities using DNA extracted from single leaves of 14 processed commercial tea products. Based on the profiles of 60 SNP markers, the genetic identity of each tea sample was unambiguously identified by multilocus matching and ordination analysis. Results for repeated samples of multiple tea leaves from the same products (using three independent DNA extractions showed 100% concordance, showing that the nanofluidic system is a reliable platform for generating tea DNA fingerprints with high accuracy. The method worked well on green, oolong, and black teas, and can handle a large number of samples in a short period of time. It is robust and cost-effective, thus showing high potential for practical application in the value chain of the tea industry.

  7. 花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的研究进展%Research Progress in the Formation of Congou Black Tea Quality with Flowery-fruity Flavour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一斌; 孙云

    2014-01-01

    近年来,以乌龙茶栽培品种为原料,传统红茶工艺结合乌龙茶晒青、做青技术生产的花果香型工夫红茶,深受广大消费者青睐。其品质突破传统红茶甜香甜醇,带馥郁花果香,滋味鲜爽。本文就栽培品种、加工原料、加工技术和季节性等方面对花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的影响进行总结,以期为今后生产香型独特的红茶产品提供理论依据。%In recent years, Congou black tea with flowery-fruity flavour has been favored by consumers in general, which was processed with Oolong tea cultivars in the way of drawing on the traditional technology of black tea, combined with the sunlight withering and rocking of Oolong tea. It made a breakthrough in strong flowery-fruity flavour and brisk taste, compared to sweet aroma and taste of traditional black tea. In this paper, influencing factors were summarized in the formation of flowery-fruity flavour, present in Congou black tea, including tea cultivars, processing materials, processing technology and seasonal characteristics, so as to provide theoretical basis for the further developments of black tea with outstanding aroma in future.

  8. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of α- and β-thujone in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Occhipinti, Andrea; Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2013-09-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important industrial plant used both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The terpene fraction of this plant is responsible for many of its therapeutic and culinary properties. We used different extraction methods Tenax TA® purge and trap, headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction, HS sorptive extraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction to analyze the terpene fraction extracted from sage tea by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, including α-, β-thujone, and several other oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, linalool, camphor, boneol, and bornyl acetate) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide, viridiflorol, humulene epoxide I, II, and III). Tenax TA® and HS sorptive extraction extracted a lower number of identified compounds, whereas HS solid-phase microextraction allowed the complete extraction of volatiles with particular reference to α- and β-thujone. The importance of the determination of thujones content in sage herbal tea is also discussed.

  9. A study of inoculation route and dosage levels on embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing tea mistlestoe (Scurrula oortiana extract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana has cytotoxic activity which is potential to be used in preventing viral induced-chicken tumor. The following study was designed to evaluate the effects of different inoculation routes, dosage levels, and strains of embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing the tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana antiviral activity. Proper inoculation route was examined by inoculation of the extract at dose level of 0,2 mg/egg into embryonated layer eggs via allantoic cavity, chorio-allantoic membrane, and yolk sac. Effect of dose level of tea mistlestoe extract on embryo development was examined in groups of embryonated broiler eggs inoculated with the extract at 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 mg/egg. Inoculation of tea mistlestoe extract into allantoic cavity was the safest procedure as indicated by the absence of embryos mortality, and faster embryo growth compared to those of chorio-allantoic membrane and yolk sac-inoculated eggs. The extract induced different growth effects when inoculated into embryonated layer or broiler eggs. Administration of the extract at dose levels between 0,02–200 mg/egg reduced significantly the weight of broiler embryoes, but not the relative weights of liver, heart and spleen. Administration of similar dosage in layer embryoes did not cause any significant difference in the embryoes weight. This study suggests that the study of antiviral activity of tea mistlestoe extract in embryonated chicken eggs should be carried out on embryonated eggs of layer breeds and the extract should be inoculated via allantoic cavity.

  10. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  11. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea(Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera; Daya; Ratnasooriya; Walimuni; Prabhashini; Kaushalya; Mendis; Abeysekera; Chatura; Tissa; Dayendra; Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe(OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation.Methods:Five concentrations(0.125,0.250,0.500,1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew(BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification.Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG) was used as the reference agent(concentrations tested:0.012,0.025,0.050,0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL).Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid(from rooster comb)and bovine testicular hyaluronidase.Results:The results revealed that BTB had moderate[IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL]and dose dependent(r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity.EGCG also exhibited dose dependent(r2=0.93,P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior[IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL]to BTB.Conclusions:Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP gradc black tca has promising antihyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical.In addition,it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy,some joint diseases and cnvenomation.

  12. Evaluation of edible polymer coatings enriched with green tea extract on quality of chicken nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathyusha Kristam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of chicken nuggets coated with sodium alginate (SA coatings at refrigerated (4±1°C and frozen (−18±1°C storage condition at regular periodic intervals. Materials and Methods: Chicken meat nuggets were separated into three groups: Uncoated control (C, coated with alginate coating (T1, and coated with alginate coating incorporated with 1% green tea extract (GTE (T2. The nuggets were analyzed at regular intervals of 5days for refrigerated storage and 15 days for frozen storage period in terms of pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, peroxide value (PV, total plate count (TPC, water loss, and sensory characteristics. Results: The results indicated that the nuggets coated with alginate-based coatings effectively reduced the spoilage as indicated by pH, TBA, and PVs. pH values of the formulations ranged from 6.15 to 6.34 at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C and 6.49-6.71 at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C. TBA value of the treatments ranged from 1.28 to 1.54 mg MDA/kg and 1.34 to 1.50 mg MDA/kg under refrigerated and frozen storage temperatures, respectively. Color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the nuggets differed significantly (p<0.05 with the coated nuggets. The coated nuggets were well acceptable upto 15 days at refrigerated storage temperature (4±1°C and upto 75 days at frozen storage temperature (−18±1°C. Nuggets coated with GTE incorporated coating solution had a lower TBA-reactive substances values, PVs, and TPCs when compared to the nuggets coated with SA and the control group. Conclusion: Study revealed that incorporation of edible coatings with antioxidants, namely, GTE at 1% level had a significant effect in reducing the fat oxidation. The samples recorded a shelf life of 15 days under refrigerated storage when compared to their controls with 10 days of storage period and 75

  13. Green tea extract reduces induction of p53 and apoptosis in UVB-irradiated human skin independent of transcriptional controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnich, Christian D; Hoek, Keith S; Virkki, Leila V; Farkas, Arpad; Dudli, Christa; Laine, Elisabeth; Urosevic, Mirjana; Dummer, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation plays a pivotal role in human skin carcinongenesis. Preclinically, systemically and topically applied green tea extract (GTE) has shown reduction of UV-induced (i) erythema, (ii) DNA damage, (iii) formation of radical oxygen species and (iv) downregulation of numerous factors related to apoptosis, inflammation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. In humans, topical GTE has so far only been tested in limited studies, with usually very high GTE concentrations and over short periods of time. Both chemical stability of GTE and staining properties of highly concentrated green tea polyphenols limit the usability of highly concentrated green tea extracts in cosmetic products. The present study tested the utility of stabilized low-dose GTE as photochemopreventive agents under everyday conditions. We irradiated with up to 100 mJ/cm(2) of UVB light skin patches which were pretreated with either OM24-containing lotion or a placebo lotion. Biopsies were taken from both irradiated and un-irradiated skin for both immunohistochemistry and DNA microarray analysis. We found that while OM24 treatment did not significantly affect UV-induced erythema and thymidine dimer formation, OM24 treatment significantly reduced UV-induced p53 expression in keratinocytes. We also found that OM24 treatment significantly reduced the number of apoptotic keratinocytes (sunburn cells and TUNEL-positive cells). Carefully controlled DNA microarray analyses showed that OM24 treatment does not induce off-target changes in gene expression, reducing the likelihood of unwanted side-effects. Topical GTE (OM24) reduces UVB-mediated epithelial damage already at low, cosmetically usable concentrations, without tachyphylaxis over 5 weeks, suggesting GTE as suitable everyday photochemopreventive agents.

  14. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Analysis of Tea Geometrid (Ectropis grisescens) Pheromone Gland Extracts Using GC-EAD and GC×GC/TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Xiao, Qiang; Yu, Yu-Geng; Wang, Cai; Zhu, Cheng-Qi; Sun, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Wen, Xiu-Jun

    2016-04-27

    The tea geometrid, Ectropis grisescens Warren, is one of the most severe defoliator insect pests in tea plantations, China. The use of insecticides, etc., is forbidden on organic tea plantations. No female-produced sex pheromones of E. grisescens had been previously identified. In the present study, female gland extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector (TOFMS). Two components, (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene (Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy) and (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-epoxyoctadecadiene (Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy), were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and their electrophysiological and behavioral activity evaluated. Under laboratory conditions, Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy elicited a stronger electrophysiological response than Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy. In the field, traps baited with Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy alone showed better results than traps baited with Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy, and the binary mixture of Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy and Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy in a ratio of 4:1 (approximate ratio of females emitting pheromone) caught more males than the single components or any other blends. This study showed that Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy and Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy are the sex pheromone components of E. grisescens and that they prove useful in developing alternative management tools for the pest. PMID:27040982

  16. Uranium extraction from aqueous solution using dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of U(VI) onto dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes was investigated. The adsorption properties of the materials were characterized by measuring uranium uptake as a function of solution pH, kinetics and adsorption isotherms. pH profile of uranium adsorption where UO22+ is expected to be the predominant species was measured between pH 0 and 4. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibria, and corresponding constants evaluated. Using the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of uranium by dried tea and coffee wastes was 59.5 and 34.8 mg/g, respectively at 291 K. Adsorption thermodynamic constants, ΔHdeg ΔSdeg and ΔGdeg were also calculated from adsorption data obtained at three different temperatures. Adsorption thermodynamics of uranyl ions on dried tea and coffee systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic processes. Additionally, a Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model was used to fit the kinetic experimental data for both adsorbents and the constants evaluated. Dried tea and coffee wastes proved to be effective adsorbents with high capacities and significant advantage of a very low cost. (author)

  17. Black tea polyphenols and polysaccharides improve body composition, increase fecal fatty acid, and regulate fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-18

    With the current changes in diet and living habits, obesity has become a global health problem. Thus, the weight-reducing function of tea has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and the mechanism of black tea (BT) polyphenols and polysaccharides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides reduced the body weight, Lee's index, visceral fat weight, and fat cell size but improved the biochemical profile and increased the fecal fatty acid content, thereby preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. A gene expression profile array was used to screen eight upregulated and five downregulated differentially expressed genes that affect fat metabolic pathways, such as glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, bile and pancreatic secretion, the insulin signaling pathway, and steroid hormone secretion. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides suppressed the formation and accumulation of fat and promoted its decomposition to prevent obesity. PMID:27161951

  18. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prawez Alam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. Methods:The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. Results:This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r2=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. Conclusions:The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  19. Evaluation of transfer rates of multiple pesticides from green tea into infusion using water as pressurized liquid extraction solvent and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide residues could be transferred from tea into its infusion and by-products, and subsequently consumed by humans. Extra extraction conditions may induce more pesticide leaching into the infusion and by-products of tea and cause greater damage to humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the infusion of multiple pesticides from green tea into hot water via pressurized liquid extraction. The results showed that pesticides in spiked samples generally have higher leaching (0.8-45.0%) than those in the positive samples. There was a marked rise of transfer rates when water solubility increased from 20mgL(-1) to 450mgL(-1) and LogKow decreased from 6 to 4. All pesticides had more leaching into hot water using pressurized liquid extraction than traditional tea brewing. This study helps in risk assessment of pesticide residues and in the formulation of maximum residue levels (MRLs) in tea and its by-products. PMID:27596385

  20. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B Esha; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with the following order of potency: BHT > "Natural" commercial green tea > "Black Label" commercial black tea > O. gratissimum > P. betle > O. tenuiflorum > M. koenigii. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay reflected a similar antioxidative order for BHT and "Natural" commercial green tea, with however P. betle, O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum exhibiting higher activities than "Black Label" commercial black tea and M. koenigii. Based on their potent antioxidant capacity, P. betle (0.2 % m/m) and O. tenuiflorum (0.2 % m/m) extracts, and green tea (0.1 % m/m) infusate were compared with BHT (0.02 % m/m) on their ability to retard lipid oxidation in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise during storage at 40 °C. P. betle and green tea were more effective than BHT in both food systems. Moreover, odour evaluation by a sensory panel showed that the plant extracts and green tea infusate effectively delayed the development of rancid odours in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise (p < 0.05). PMID:25694685

  1. Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine George

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary agents has received considerable importance because of their cost-effectiveness and wide safety margin. However, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP in suppressing two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. Resveratrol/BTP alone treatment decreased tumor incidence by ∼67% and ∼75%, while combination of both at low doses synergistically decreased tumor incidence even more significantly by ∼89% (p<0.01. This combination also significantly regressed tumor volume and number (p<0.01. Mechanistic studies revealed that this combinatorial inhibition was associated with decreased expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and increased in total p53 and phospho p53 (Ser 15 in skin tissue/tumor. Treatment with combinations of resveratrol and BTP also decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse skin tissues/tumors than their solitary treatments as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, histological and cell death analysis also confirmed that resveratrol and BTP treatment together inhibits cellular proliferation and markedly induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results for the first time lucidly illustrate that resveratrol and BTP in combination impart better suppressive activity than either of these agents alone and accentuate that development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention using dietary agents will be more beneficial against cancer. This promising combination should be examined in therapeutic trials of skin and possibly other cancers.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of green tea extract against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maksum Radji; Rafael Adi Agustama; Berna Elya; Conny Riana Tjampakasari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity of the Indonesian water soluble green tea extract,Camellia sinensis, against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA) and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-P. aeruginosa). Methods:Antimicrobial activity of green tea extract was determined by the disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the twofold serial broth dilutions method. The tested bacteria using in this study were the standard strains and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, obtained from Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. Results:The results showed that the inhibition zone diameter of green tea extracts for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and MRSA were (18.970±0.287) mm, and (19.130±0.250) mm respectively. While the inhibition zone diameter for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and MDR-P. aeruginosa were (17.550±0.393) mm and (17.670±0.398) mm respectively. The MIC of green tea extracts against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and MRSA were 400 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL, respectively, whereas the MIC for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and MDR-P. aeruginosa were 800 µg/mL, and 800 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Camellia sinensis leaves extract could be useful in combating emerging drug-resistance caused by MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

  3. What is under the hump? Mass spectrometry based analysis of complex mixtures in processed food--lessons from the characterisation of black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and caramel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Nikolai; Dairpoosh, Farnoosh; Yassin, Ghada; Golon, Agnieszka; Jaiswal, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution we review our work on the characterisation of processed food. We review novel methods and analysis strategies developed to account for the composition of extraordinarily complex materials such as black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and thermally treated carbohydrates. Our methods are mainly based on modern mass spectrometry and are introduced and critically discussed. A series of novel previously unpublished data interpretation strategies are presented as well. Finally an evaluation of the insight obtained in the composition of selected processed foods is given discussing potential consequences for assessing beneficial and adverse health effects of processed food.

  4. Preparation of partially decaffeinated instant green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Jin, Jing; Liang, Hue-Ling; Du, Ying-Ying; Lu, Jian-Liang; Ye, Qian; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-01

    The caffeine level of instant tea extracted from decaffeinated leaf tea with 4.0 mg g-1 caffeine is commonly above 10.0 mg g-1, the maximum limit of caffeine for decaffeinated instant tea. Further removal of caffeine by active carbon (AC) from the green tea extract was investigated. It showed that the removal of caffeine from the tea extract solutions depended on the treatment time and tea extract concentration while the ethanol concentration and pH had little effect on the removal of caffeine. According to the removal of caffeine and the ratio of total catechins to caffeine in the tested samples, the optimum decaffeination conditions were determined to be as follows: tea extract concentration 15-30 g L-1 for common tea extract but higher for partially decaffeinated tea leaf extract; ratio of tea solution to AC, 100 mL:4 g; treatment time, 4 h; and natural tea extract pH. Instant tea powder extracted from partially decaffeinated leaf tea with a caffeine level of 4.03 mg g-1 and further decaffeinated by AC had a caffeine level of 7.81 mg g-1, which was 31% lower than that without AC treatment.

  5. Pu-Erh Tea Extract Induces the Degradation of FET Family Proteins Involved in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available FET family proteins consist of fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS, Ewing's sarcoma (EWS, and TATA-binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15. Mutations in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, and FET family proteins are associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a fatal neurodegenerative disease. There is currently no cure for this disease and few effective treatments are available. Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of tea is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. The results of this study revealed that components of a pu-erh tea extract (PTE interacted with FET family proteins but not with TDP-43 or SOD1. PTE induced the degradation of FET family proteins but had no effects on TDP-43 or SOD1. The most frequently occurring ALS-linked FUS/TLS mutant protein, R521C FUS/TLS, was also degraded in the presence of PTE. Furthermore, ammonium chloride, a lysosome inhibitor, but not lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, reduced the degradation of FUS/TLS protein by PTE. PTE significantly reduced the incorporation of R521C FUS/TLS into stress granules under stress conditions. These findings suggest that PTE may have beneficial health effects, including preventing the onset of FET family protein-associated neurodegenerative diseases and delaying the progression of ALS by inhibiting the cytoplasmic aggregation of FET family proteins.

  6. Histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts on thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with dimethylnitrosamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts in thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with Dimethylnitrosamine. Methods 40 Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, 20 normal rats and 20 DMN intoxicated rats. Normal rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group A without treatment (controls, group B treated with green tea, group C treated with licorice, group D treated with green tea and licorice. DMN intoxicated rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group E treated with DMN, group F treated with DMN and green tea, group G treated with DMN and licorice, group H treated with DMN, green tea and licorice. The rats were permitted for free access to solubilized extracts of green tea and or licorice for 4 weeks. All rats in groups E, F, G, H were treated by intraperitoneal DMN (4 mg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled water/kg body weight seven times every 2 days in the first two weeks. Plasma total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase activity of liver was determined by spectrophotometeric method. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone was determined by chemiluminometric technique. Histopathological examination was conducted. Results Histopathologically thyroid gland of DMN intoxicated rats showed degeneration (DGand desquamation (DS of the lining epithelium and atrophy of many acini with hyperemia (H in the stromal capillaries and In comparison with control, the administration of DMN alone induced decrease in plasma levels of T3 and T4 while it induced increase in plasma levels of TSH and hepatic activity of Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase. Coadminstration of DMN and green tea attenuated the lowering effect of DMN on plasma levels of T3 and T4 and induced increase in these levels but values are still below normal ones while Co administration of DMN with licorice or mixture did not affect these

  7. The effects of green tea extract additive feeds on the growth performance and survival rate of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpimol, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE additive feeds on the growth performance in the giant freshwater prawn. Two separate trials were determined by using two different stages of prawn for initial stocking, one was the small post larva (PL10, the other was 5.6 g prawn. A Completely Randomized Design was applied in this study. The small post larva (PL10 were raised in cement tanks(1x1.5 m2. Three treatments with three replications each were performed applied as following: treatment 1 (control was the commercial pellet feed; treatment 2 and 3 were feeds with 1% and 2% green tea extract, respectively. This assay was run for 8 weeks. The prawns were randomly selected for weight determination every week. The result showed there was no significant difference in the specific growth rate and survival (P > 0.05 but the feed conversion ratio was reduced in prawn fed with green tea extracts (P 0.05. Therefore, green tea extract has potential as growth enhancer in giant freshwater prawn culture.

  8. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8–gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger–containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawez Alam

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8–gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8–gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger–containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  9. Extraction , identification and content analysis of Caffeine from tea%茶叶中咖啡因的提取、鉴定和含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿有梅; 张红岭; 周友红; 潘成学; 孟庆芳; 贾陆

    2000-01-01

    目的:从茶叶中提取咖啡因,并对咖啡因进行鉴定和含量分析。方法:茶叶经体积分数为30%的丙酮水溶液提取2次,后经正己烷萃取2次,再加入硫酸钠,用氯仿萃取2次,萃取液经浓缩干燥,制成咖啡因。结果:产物经红外光谱鉴定分析为咖啡因,经紫外分光光度计测出在茶叶中含量为3.4%。结论:从茶叶中提取咖啡因的新工艺切实可行。%Aim:To extract ,identify and analysis caffeine from tea. Methods:Tea was extracted by mixed solution , thenthe solution was extracted , and concentrated . The rough caffeine was prepared . Results: The production was identified by IR ,UV . Through UV the content of caffeine in tea was 3.4%. Conclusion:The technological route that caffeine and tea polyphenolwere extracted simultaneously is feasible.

  10. ‘桃源大叶’高香红茶应用加工技术研究%Application and processing techniques of high aroma black tea ‘Taoyuandaye’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚华春; 覃金保; 周艮平

    2015-01-01

    介绍‘桃源大叶’制作高香红茶的加工工艺技术,并与‘槠叶齐’、‘福鼎大白’进行对比,用‘桃源大叶’制作的高香红茶的品质特征优异。%In the paper, the processing techniques of high aroma black tea were introduced with ‘Taoyuandaye’ as the material. By contrast with ‘Zhuyeqi’ and ‘Fudingbaihao’, high aroma black tea ‘Taoyuandaye’ had superior quality.

  11. A biochemical study on ameliorative effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract against contrast media induced acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Hajian, Shabnam; Pour-Arian, Armita; Kohi, Golnoosh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be mediators of kidney injury and green tea polyphenols are potent-free radical scavengers.Objectives: In this study we sought to examine whether green tea was able to protect renal toxicity induced by contrast media or not. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups including: 1) control group 2) contrast media group 3) contrast media plus green tea 4) Green tea pretreatment and con...

  12. Phenolic Antioxidants Identified by ESI-MS from Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis and Green Tea (Camelia sinensis Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos N Eberlin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of green yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis and green tea (Camellia sinensis are good sources of phenolic antioxidants, as already described in the literature. The subject of this study were organic extracts from yerba maté, both green and roasted, and from green tea. Their phenolic profiles were characterized by direct infusion electrospray insertion mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and their free radical scavenging activity was determined by the DPPH assay. Organic extracts containing phenolic antioxidants might be used as natural antioxidants by the food industry, replacing the synthetic phenolic additives used nowadays. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from green yerba maté, roasted yerba maté and green tea showed excellent DPPH scavenging activity (>89%. The ether extracts from green and roasted yerba maté displayed a weak scavenging activity, different from the behavior observed for the green tea ether extract. The main phenolic compounds identified in green yerba maté water and ethanolic extracts were: caffeic acid, quinic acid, caffeoyl glucose, caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid and rutin. After the roasting process two new compounds were formed: caffeoylshikimic acid and dicaffeoylshikimic acid. The ethanolic extracts from yerba maté, both roasted and green, with lower content of phenolic compounds (3.80 and 2.83 mg/mL presented high antioxidant activity and even at very low phenolic concentrations, ether extract from GT (0.07 mg/mL inhibited DPPH over 90%.

  13. Green tea extract decreases starch digestion and absorption from a test meal in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Klaudia Lochocka; Joanna Bajerska; Aleksandra Glapa; Ewa Fidler-Witon; Jan K. Nowak; Tomasz Szczapa; Philip Grebowiec; Aleksandra Lisowska; Jaroslaw Walkowiak

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is known worldwide for its beneficial effects on human health. However, objective data evaluating this influence in humans is scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of green tea extract (GTE) on starch digestion and absorption. The study comprised of 28 healthy volunteers, aged 19 to 28 years. In all subjects, a starch 13C breath test was performed twice. Subjects randomly ingested naturally 13C-abundant cornflakes during the GTE test (GTE 4 g) or placebo test. The cu...

  14. Study on the Influence of Tea Extract on Probiotics in Skim Milk: From Probiotics Propagation to Metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gong, Guangyu; Ma, Chengjie; Liu, Zhenmin; Cai, Jie

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the influence of tea extract (TE) on the growth of probiotics in skim milk was examined. Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb02, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used in this study. The introduction of TE in milk significantly stimulated the propagation and acidification of L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM. The antioxidant capacities and the total free amino acid contents of all fermented milk products were enhanced by the addition of TE; however, there were different antioxidant properties and free amino acid contents of fermented milk samples fermented by different bacteria. With a 9% (w/w) level, the fermentation with L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM showed larger numbers of viable cells and faster acidifying rates, as well as excellent antioxidant capacity and abundant free amino acids.  The stimulative effects of TE on probiotics can be considered for industrial purposes and has practical implications for commercial applications. PMID:27384493

  15. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Fluoride in Commercial Teas and Estimation of Its Daily Intake through Tea Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuan-yi; Cai, Hui-mei; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Li, Da-xiang; Yang, Yun-qiu; Hou, Ru-yan; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of fluoride in commercial teas and to estimate the contribution of tea consumption to the fluoride recommended daily allowance. A total of 558 tea products in 6 categories, green tea, black tea, oolong tea, pu'er tea, white tea, and reprocessed tea, were collected in the period from 2010 to 2013. The levels of fluoride in infusions of these teas were determined by a fluoride-ion selective electrode. The mean fluoride level in all of the tea samples was 85.16 mg/kg. For each category of tea, the mean fluoride levels were 63.04, 99.74, 52.19, 101.67, 159.78, and 110.54 mg/kg for green tea, black tea, white tea, pu'er tea, oolong tea, and reprocessed tea, respectively. The fluoride content of tea from 4 tea zones in descending order were Southern tea zone (111.39 mg/kg) > Southwest tea zone (78.78 mg/kg) > Jiangnan tea zone (71.73 mg/kg) > Jiangbei tea zone (64.63 mg/kg). These areas produced teas with lower fluoride levels than available foreign-produced tea (161.11 mg/kg). The mean chronic daily intake (CDI) was 0.02 mg/(kg•day) or 1.27 mg/kg. Generally, consuming tea from these 6 categories does not result in the intake of excessive amounts of fluoride for the general population.

  16. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Glutathione and Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. on Thioacetamide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Adult Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids play significant role in the treatment of many diseases. Green tea (Camellia Sinensis L. is a common beverage all over the world with antioxidant and detoxification effects related to the presence of flavonoids and catchins. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 64 male Wistar rats were allocated to eight groups. The control group received a normal diet alone, sham group received normal saline, hepatotoxic group received thioacetamide (50 mg/kg thioacetamide for three days, other groups received a thioacetamide for three days and the alcoholic extract of bgreen tea, at minimum (50 mg/kg, moderate (100 mg/kg, and maximum (200 mg/kg doses, glutathione (250 mg/kg, green tea (200 mg/kg with glutathione (250 mg/kg for 21 days (i.p.. After that, blood samples were drawn and the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin, as liver injury indices, were measured. Results: The decrease of aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the receptors of different dosages of green tea and glutathione was significant compared with the group treated by thioacetamide. Also, a significant increase was observed in total protein and albumin of serum in green tea receptors compared with thioacetamide group. Conclusion: The study results show the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity which is likely caused by the antioxidant effect of polyphenol compounds controlling thioacetamide activity which in turn controls the cytochrome P450 activity and neutralization of free radicals.

  17. Effects of Baking Time for Improving Aroma on the Quality of Congou Black Tea%烘焙提香时间对工夫红茶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆娜; 张丽霞; 王小会; 向勤锃; 黄晓琴

    2012-01-01

    为提高工夫红茶的甜香度,本文以山东夏季鲜叶加工的工夫红茶初制品为原料,在70℃的烘温下进行不同时间的烘焙提香处理,并通过感官审评、生化成分和香气分析方法研究其对工夫红茶品质的影响,结果表明:烘焙时间的长短不仅影响工夫红茶的香型和高低,而且也影响汤色和滋味,在本试验条件下,烘焙时间以1.0~1.5h的感官品质较好;此外,烘焙时间对工夫红茶各生化成分的影响不同,但对品质有利的生化成分以烘焙1.0h的茶样含量最高;随着烘焙时间的延长,工夫红茶香气的种类、含量以及组分比值发生显著变化,从而可以解释不同烘焙时间工夫红茶香型存在差异的原因。%In order to improve the sweet flavor of congou black tea,the primary congou black tea,which was made from the summer fresh tea leaves picked in Shandong province,had been baked at 70℃ for different time.The effect of baking time on their quality was estimated by sensory evaluation,biochemical compositions determination and aroma analysis.The results showed that the baking time could affect the types and concentration of aroma as well as the liquor color,the taste of congou black tea.The sensory quality of congou black tea which was baked for 1.0 ~ 1.5 h at the temperature of 70℃,was better.There was different effect of baking time on different types of biochemical compounds.Baking 1h resulted in the high content of biochemical compounds which were beneficial to the quality of congou black tea.As the baking time increased,the types,contents and ratio of aroma compounds of congou black tea changed,which could the reason why the different baking time made different aroma of congou black tea.

  18. 水浸提绿茶有效成分的工艺优化研究%Optimization of Water Extraction Technology on Active Components from Tea Leave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡邦肖; 段玲靓

    2011-01-01

    The water extraction experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the extraction process on the active components from green tea leave. Based on the Box-Benhnken central composite design principles, the extraction conditions of tea polyphenols optimized by the response surface analysis after the single factor experiment were that the rate of tea leave and water was 1:54.9 (W/V), the temperature of extraction was 46.2%, the time of extraction was 9.6 min, and the extraction times was 2. The effect of extraction process on caffeine and amino acids were clearly explored by auxiliary analysis. The results could be provided significant basis for separation and concentration of efficacious substances in green tea leave by the combined process of water extraction and membranes.%以绿茶壮叶为原料,研究水浸提法对鲜茶叶中活性物质提取的影响.根据Box-Benhnken的中心组合设计原理.通过SAS统计软件中的响应面分析法,获得单因素水浸提鲜茶叶中茶多酚的优化工艺:茶水比1:54.9(W/V),温度46.2℃,浸提时间9.6 min,水浸提2次.辅助分析表明,浸提工艺对咖啡碱和氨基酸的提取有显著影响.本试验结果可为水浸提与膜法组合工艺分离并浓缩绿茶叶中的有效成分提供重要的试验依据.

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157 Bacteriophages by Using a Mixture of Ferrous Sulfate and Tea Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Meng, Ruiqiang; Wang, Jiaying; Niu, Yan D; Li, Jinquan; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-12-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) have been used for biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157 and other pathogenic bacteria in many different matrices and foods, but few studies have included inactivation of residual phages in culture medium before plating and enumeration of surviving host bacteria for the assessment of phage efficacy. This oversight may lead to overestimation of phage efficacy. The ability of virucidal solution containing a mixture of ferrous sulfate [iron(II) sulfate, FeSO4] and tea extract [Fe(II)T] to inactivate residual T5-like, T1-like, T4-like, and rV5-like phages was assessed using E. coli O157 as the host. At concentrations of ≥10 mM FeSO4, all phages were not detected after 20 min in a broth culture model. Compared with the virucidal solution-free samples (1 to 96% recovery), Fe(II)T (10 mM FeSO4 plus 15% tea extract) recovered a greater (P < 0.01) number of E. coli O157 from phage-treated broth culture (97 to 100% recovery) and beef samples (52 to 100% recovery). Moreover, with the addition of Fe(II)T, the number of bacteria surviving after exposure to T5-like or T4-like phages was greater (P < 0.01) than that after exposure to T1-like or rV5-like phages. Consequently, use of a virucide for phage inactivation is recommended to improve the accuracy of evaluations of phage efficacy for biocontrol of E. coli O157.

  20. A Technology Discussion on Making Black Tea with Meizhan(Camellia sinensis)%梅占品种加工红茶工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀英

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了以梅占品种加工红茶的工艺,以“重萎凋,偏轻发酵,文焙火”为宜。与黄棪、福云6号、菜茶采制的红茶进行对比,感官审评结果为紧细重实毫显,甜香、花香浓郁,汤色红亮,滋味浓爽带花香、甘香可口,叶底肥壮红亮,品质优异。%In this paper, we explored the processing technique of black tea made from Meizhan(Camellia sinensis)in Youxi County, and concluded the more suitable techniques, namely heavy wilting, bias light fermenting, and low-temperature and long roasting. Compared with the same type of products made from Huangdan(Camellia sinensis), Fuyun 6(Camellia sinensis) and Caicha (Camellia sinensis), sensory evaluation indicated that the black tea possessed the high quality of tight-heavy and tippy appearance outside, sweet and fragrance aroma, red and bright soup, heavy and brisk taste with flowery flavour, bold and bright securinega.

  1. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins. The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+-catechin equivalents.

  2. Effect of high latitude on tea quality of southern tea cultivated at northern area%南茶高纬度北引对茶叶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪曙晖; 汪东风; 李晓东; 彭正云; 姜星; 张续周

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究南茶高纬度北引后对茶类适制性及绿茶品质产生的影响。方法通过理化方法,分析同一品种茶树在高纬度北引后对其叶片厚度、鲜叶成分、不同茶类感官品质、绿茶成分及感官品质所产生的变化。结果随着纬度的增加,绿茶品质较好,而红茶品质较差;随着南茶高纬度北引,叶片厚度、氨基酸、水溶性糖、水浸出物和芳香物质(精油)总量等含量随纬度增大而增加;茶多酚含量则相反;对精油中各成分分析显示,北方茶烃类成分较多,醇类成分较少。结论本研究明确了南茶高纬度北引后茶叶品质特点及化学成分基础。%Objective To study the effect of high latitude on suitability for processing different teas and green tea quality of southern tea cultivated at northern area.Methods The tea fresh leaves from the tea plant, which was introduced from southern area and cultivated at high latitude of northern area, were made into black tea (full fermentation tea), oolong tea (semi-fermentation tea) and green tea (no fermentation tea). The main component content and quality of the tea fresh leaves and the teas were analyzed by the methods about physicochemical analysis. Results The sensory quality of green tea was the most one in the three teas with latitude increasing; the leaf thickness, amino acid, soluble sugar, water extract and total aromatic compounds (essential oils) content increased with latitude increasing, but tea polyphenol content showed the opposite. Analysis of each component of the essential oil showed that hydrocarbon constituents were much more and alcohol content was less in northern tea.Conclusion The above changes of tea functional components content are the basis of chemical composition of north tea quality characteristics from south tea cultivated at high north latitude.

  3. Poly(ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles as new adsorbent for extraction and enrichment of organophosphorus pesticides from tea drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; He, Lijun; Duan, Yajing; Jiang, Xiuming; Xiang, Guoqiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Zhang, Shusheng

    2014-09-01

    New poly(ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (PIL-MNPs) were synthesized via co-polymerization of 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium-based ionic liquid and vinyl-modified magnetic particles and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The PIL-MNPs were utilized as adsorbent phases in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The extraction and enrichment efficiency were evaluated by using four organophosphorus pesticides (parathion, fenthion, phoxim and temephos) as test analytes. Various parameters, such as amount of adsorbent, adsorption time, desorption solvent and time, and ionic strength were investigated. The proposed method showed good linearity for the analytes in the concentration range of 1-200μgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R)>0.9963. Low limit of detection of 0.01μgL(-1) and high enrichment factors ranging from 84 to 161 were achieved. The proposed method has been successfully used to determine organophosphorus pesticides from three tea drink samples with satisfactory recovery of 81.4-112.6% and RSDs of 4.5-11.3%. The PIL-MNP adsorbent can be reused for 20 times without a noticeable decrease in extraction efficiency. PMID:25022482

  4. 四川引进茶树品种茗科1号、铁观音、黄棪的红茶适制性与香气成分分析%Analysis of the suitability for making black tea and aroma components of black tea produced by Mingke1, Tieguan-yin, and Huangyan introduced to Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自琴; 唐茜; 陈玖琳; 郭湘; 许燕

    2015-01-01

    以从福建茶区引进四川茶区种植的茗科1号、铁观音、黄横3个高香乌龙茶良种为供试材料,四川主栽且主产红茶的品种福鼎大白茶为对照,测定3个引进品种春、夏梢所制红茶的主要生化成分、香气组分,并进行感官审评,以了解其红茶适制性及制茶品质,筛选适宜四川茶区推广种植的适制红茶的省外良种.结果表明:3个g进品种春、夏季所制红茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、儿茶素含量均高于对照福鼎大白茶,其中春、夏季红茶的水浸出物含量为34.62%~40.25%,茶多酚含量为10.19% ~ 15.07%,儿茶素总量为13.98 ~25.45 mg/g;茶红素、茶黄素含量均较高,且茶红素与茶黄素比值为10.96~14.86.3个引进品种春、夏季红茶的咖啡碱含量为3.07%~4.04%,铁观音和黄横显著高于对照,茗科1号则低于对照;但氨基酸含量为2.74%~3.86%,均低于对照.春季红茶中均检测出50种香气成分,以醇类物质最丰富,且3个引进品种的香叶醇含量显著高于对照,芳樟醇及氧化物含量则低于对照,属于香叶醇占优势的香气类型.感官审评结果表明,3个引进品种所制红茶香高味浓,花果香或蜜香明显,品质均优于对照.%In this experiment, the Mingke 1, Tie guan-yin and Huangyan three Oolong tea varieties with high aroma which introduced from Fujian province to Sichuan province were tested.Fudingdabaicha which was the dominant variety that usually used to make black tea in Sichuan province used as a control.The main biochemical components, aroma components and sensory quality of the black tea made by the spring shoots and summer shoots of the three varieties had been studied.The suitability? and tea quality were studied in order to select suitable one (s) for making black tea and then plant widely in Sichuan tea region.The results showed that the contents of tea polyphenols, catechins of black tea produced by the spring shoots and summer

  5. Elucidation of the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Catechin Monomers from Commercial Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrizal, S.; Rahim, Afidah A.; Saad, Bahruddin; Bothi Raja, P.; Shah, Affaizza M.; Yahya, S.

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitive action of commercial green tea extracts on mild steel (MS) in a 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed conclusively that of the eight catechin monomers and caffeine found in the original extracts, only four components were responsible for the inhibition of MS. The decreasing adsorption capacity of monomers on MS is related to the stereochemistry of molecules and the number of phenolic groups, and it is as follows: epigallocatechin gallate > epicatechin gallate > epigallocatechin > epicatechin. Adsorption of green tea extract constituent was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the calculated Gibb's free energy values indicated the physisorption of inhibitor over MS surface. Physisorption was supported well by the potential zero charge (PZC) and molecular surface energy-level calculations.

  6. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  7. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Asgari; Mahdi Ahmadi Moghaddam; Amirhossein Mahvi; Masoud Yonesian

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of A...

  8. The Automation and Apparatus for the Key Processing Stages for Keemun Black Tea%祁门红茶自动化加工关键技术与装备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建琴; 丁勇; 王昶

    2012-01-01

    通过对祁门红茶自动化加工关键技术与装备的研究,开发了自动萎凋机和发酵机等祁门红茶初制关键设备,并解决了生产线联接、自动控制等关键技术难题,建立起国内首条工夫红茶初制自动化生产线.使祁门红茶实现自动化、清洁化生产,提升了祁门红茶的品质与卫生质量安全。%The key techniques and equipments of automatic processing for Keemun black tea were studied. Automatic withering machine and fermenting machine were developed, and the key technical problems such as production line connection and automatic control were solved. The first domestic automatic processing line for Congou black tea was established. The automatic processing line could realize automatic and clean processing of Keemun black tea, and improve the quality and health safety of Keemun black tea.

  9. Cytochrome P450 expression and activities in human tongue cells and their modulation by green tea extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression, inducibility, and activities of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were investigated in a human tongue carcinoma cell model, CAL 27, and compared with the human liver model HepG2 cells. The modulation effects of green tea on various CYP isoforms in both cell lines were also examined. RT-PCR analysis of CAL 27 cells demonstrated constitutive expression of mRNA for CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 2C, 2E1, 2D6, and 4F3. The results were negative for CYP2A6, 2B6/7, 3A3/4, and 3A7. Both cell lines displayed identical expression and induction profiles for all of the isoforms examined in this study except 3A7 and 2B6/7, which were produced constitutively in HepG2 but not Cal-27 cells. CYP1A1 and 1A2 were both induced by treatment with β-napthoflavone as indicated by RT-PCR and Western blotting, while CYP2C mRNA was upregulated by all-trans retinoic acid and farnesol. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of CYP1A1 and 1A2 were induced by green tea extract (GTE), which also caused an increase in mRNA for CYP2E1, CYP2D6, and CYP2C isoforms. The four tea catechins, EGC, EC, EGCG and ECG, applied to either HepG2 or Cal-27 cells at the concentration found in GTE failed to induce CYP1A1 or CYP1A2, as determined by RT-PCR. Of the isoforms that were apparently induced by GTE, only 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (ECOD) activity could be detected in CAL 27 or HepG2 cells. Interestingly, mRNA and protein for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were detected in both cell lines, and although protein and mRNA levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were increased by GTE, the observed ECOD activity in both cell lines was decreased

  10. A porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of phthalate esters from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier (C-NH2 -MIL-125) was prepared and coated onto a stainless-steel wire through sol-gel technique. The coated fiber was used for the solid-phase microextraction of trace levels of phthalate esters (diallyl phthalate, di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexy) ortho-phthalate) from tea beverage samples before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis. Several experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity existed in the range of 0.05-30.00 μg/L for green jasmine tea beverage samples, and 0.10-30.00 μg/L for honey jasmine tea beverage samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9939 to 0.9981. The limits of detection of the analytes for the method were 2.0-3.0 ng/L for green jasmine tea beverage sample, and 4.0-5.0 ng/L for honey jasmine tea beverage sample, depending on the compounds. The recoveries of the analytes for the spiked samples were in the range of 82.0-106.0%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 11.1%.

  11. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  12. Green tea extract as a treatment for patients with wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aus dem Siepen F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabian aus dem Siepen,1 Ralf Bauer,1 Matthias Aurich,1 Sebastian J Buss,1 Henning Steen,1 Klaus Altland,2 Hugo A Katus,1 Arnt V Kristen1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology, and Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Institute of Human Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany Background: Causative treatment of patients with wild-type transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (wtATTR-CM is lacking. Recent reports indicate the potential use of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the most abundant catechin in green tea, to inhibit amyloid fibril formation. We sought to investigate changes of cardiac function and morphology in patients with wtATTR-CM after consumption of green tea extract (GTE. Methods: Twenty-five male patients (71 [64; 80] years with wtATTR-CM were submitted to clinical examination, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI (n=14, and laboratory testing before and after daily consumption of GTE capsules containing 600 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate for at least 12 months. Results: A significant decrease of left ventricular (LV myocardial mass by 6% (196 [100; 247] vs 180 [85; 237] g; P=0.03 by cMRI and total cholesterol by 8.4% (191 [118; 267] vs 173 [106; 287] mg/dL; P=0.006 was observed after a 1-year period of GTE consumption. LV ejection fraction by cMRI (53% [33%; 69%] vs 54% [28%; 71%]; P=0.75, LV wall thickness (17 [13; 21] vs 18 [14; 25] mm; P=0.1, and mitral annular plane systolic excursion (10 [5; 23] vs 8 [4; 13] mm; P=0.3 by echocardiography remained unchanged. Conclusion: This study supports LV mass stabilization in patients with wtATTR-CM consuming GTE potentially indicating amyloid fibril reduction. Keywords: wild-type ATTR, cardiomyopathy, polyphenol, EGCG

  13. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhang; Lin Li, Ping Liu; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Num...

  14. Prevention of coronary heart disease and cancer by tea, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Weisburger, John H

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical research has uncovered the mechanisms whereby tea promotes good health and lowers the risk of major chronic diseases, such as heart disease and many types of cancer. The active components in tea are polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate in green tea, theaflavins and thearubigins in black tea. Green and black tea and the polyphenols have similar beneficial effects. The mechanisms are categorized into 5 groups. 1) Tea polyphenols are powerful antioxidants. They decrease the oxidation...

  15. Development of a UFLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven tea catechins in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after administration of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yanshuang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Qing; Geng, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of seven green tea catechins including catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were firstly hydrolysed with the mixture of β-glucuronidase and sulfatase, which were then extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v). The analytes were separated on a Venusil MP C18 column (Venusil, China) with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was performed in negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. All the calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r>0.9943) with intra- and inter-day precisions of less than 14.3% and the accuracy deviations ranging from -8.8% to 7.5%. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and ethyl gallate (internal standard) were all more than 72%. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of seven catechins in rat plasma after oral administration of the green tea extract at different doses of 0.4, 1.2 and 2.0g/kg. PMID:27037979

  16. Protective effects of polyphenols-enriched extract from Huangshan Maofeng green tea against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanmang; Yang, Xingbin; Lu, Xinshan; Chen, Jinwen; Zhao, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The study was to characterize the polyphenolic composition, antioxidant properties, and hepatoprotective effects of a polyphenols-enriched extract (HMTP) from Huangshan Maofeng green tea. HPLC analysis showed that three predominantly polyphenolic compounds present in HMTP were epigallocatechin (271.2 μg/mg extract), rutin (239.3 μg/mg) and epicatechin (89.3 μg/mg). HMTP was shown to exhibit strong scavenging activities against DPPH, O2(-), and OH, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power in vitro. Administration of HMTP at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw in mice prior to CCl4 injury significantly decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum ALT, AST and ALP activities, and prevented an increase in hepatic MDA levels (p<0.05). Mice with HMTP pretreatment displayed a better profile of hepatosomatic index and the improved GSH-Px and SOD activities in the liver, relative to CCl4-intoxicated mice. Liver pathological observation also confirmed the protection on CCl4-caused histological alteration, suggesting that HMTP has potential to be explored as valuable hepatoprotective function food.

  17. Development and application of UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of phenolic compounds in Chamomile flowers and Chamomile tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Vildová, Anna; Mateus, Joana Patricia; Gonçalves, Tiago; Solich, Petr

    2010-09-15

    UHPLC-MS/MS method using BEH C18 analytical column was developed for the separation and quantitation of 12 phenolic compounds of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). The separation was accomplished using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of methanol and formic acid 0.1%. ESI in both positive and negative ion mode was optimized with the aim to reach high sensitivity and selectivity for quantitation using SRM experiment. ESI in negative ion mode was found to be more convenient for quantitative analysis of all phenolics except of chlorogenic acid and kaempherol, which demonstrated better results of linearity, accuracy and precision in ESI positive ion mode. The results of method validation confirmed, that developed UHPLC-MS/MS method was convenient and reliable for the determination of phenolic compounds in Chamomile extracts with linearity >0.9982, accuracy within 76.7-126.7% and precision within 2.2-12.7% at three spiked concentration levels. Method sensitivity expressed as LOQ was typically 5-20 nmol/l. Extracts of Chamomile flowers and Chamomile tea were subjected to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most abundant phenolic compounds in both Chamomile flowers and Chamomile tea extracts were chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone, apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside. In Chamomile tea extracts there was greater abundance of flavonoid glycosides such as rutin or quercitrin, while the aglycone apigenin and its glycoside were present in lower amount. PMID:20801328

  18. 祁门红茶烟用香料的制备%Study on the Preparation of Qimen Black Tea Flavor Used in Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德国; 冯黎; 奚安; 鲍辰卿; 邱家丹

    2014-01-01

    The black tea flavor used in cigarette was made from Qimen black tea leaf by a special technique,including using macroporous resins.The product possessed the characteristic sweet flower aroma of Qimen black tea. The volatile components of the flavor were determined by GC-MS,and it was found that the main compounds were trans-geraniol,linalool and its ox-ides,salicylic acid methyl ester,nerol,phenethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,nerolidol,trans-2-hexenal,etc.,which were also important ingredients in tobacco. The adsorption effects of several different macroporous resins were compared. The obtained products were added into cigarettes as tobacco flavorings and evaluated by panelists,the results indicated that they could enrich the tobacco flavor,increase the sweet feeling,reduce the irritancy of smoke and improve after taste obviously.%以祁门红茶为原料通过特殊工艺制得具有祁门红茶特征茶香、明显花香香韵的烟用香料,并以气相色谱-质谱联用分析方法对其挥发性成分进行鉴定,发现其中反式香叶醇、芳樟醇及其氧化物、水杨酸甲酯、橙花醇、苯乙醇、苯甲醇、橙花叔醇、反-2-己烯醛等是祁门红茶“祁门香”的特征香气成分。同时比较了几种常用的大孔树脂的吸附效果。所制备的祁门红茶烟用香料用于卷烟加香,能够明显丰富烟香,增加清甜香韵,减小刺激性和改善卷烟余味。

  19. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lipid Abnormalities: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Yu Liu; Chien-Jung Huang; Lin-Huang Huang; I-Ju Chen; Jung-Peng Chiu; Chung-Hua Hsu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of green tea extract on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities on glycemic and lipid profiles, and hormone peptides by a double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. This trial enrolled 92 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities randomized into 2 arms, each arm comprising 46 participants. Of the participants, 39 in therapeutic arm took 500 mg green tea extract, three times a ...

  20. 都匀红茶中金属元素含量的调查%Survey on the Content of Metal Elements in the Black Tea Produced in Duyun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿云光; 杨舒清; 罗在粉; 黎进堂

    2015-01-01

    近几年都匀毛尖茶产区内红茶的产量迅速增长,采用了都匀毛尖茶相同原料和金骏眉类似工艺生产的都匀红茶,其品质独树一帜。通过对10个主要茶叶产区生产的都匀红茶中的铜、锌、锰、铁、铝、镉、铅、砷、汞9种金属元素的含量进行检测,并对结果进行分析统计。表明都匀红茶中对人体有益的金属元素含量丰富,有害金属含量少,并具备了发展成有机茶的条件。%Recently in the producing area of Duyun Maojian tea, there has been a rapid increase in the production of the black tea, the quality of which is inimitable, adopting the same raw materials as Duyun Maojian and the similar technics to Jin Junmei. Testing and analyzing the content of 9 metal elements including copper, zincum, manganese, iron, aluminium, cadmium, plumbum, arsenic and hydragyrum in Duyun black tea produced in 10 main producing areas of tea, the results indicated that Duyun black tea was rich in metal elements which were good for health and low in harmful metal elements and that it had the necessary conditions of developing as organic tea.

  1. 福建大宗红茶市场现状分析与对策——以立顿成功经验为鉴%Countermeasure and Market Status Analysis on Staple Black Tea in Fujian -- Take the Successful Experiences of Lipton as Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红平; 刘艺蕾; 曾治浩

    2012-01-01

    Staple tea product caters to modern urbanite's consumption habits, and it will dominate the tea market in the future. This paper summarized the current situation and the existing problems of black tea market in Fujian, and analyzed the successful experiences on market development of Lipton black tea. Finally, the countermeasures to promote the development of staple black tea market in Fujina were put forward.%大宗茶产品符合现代都市人的消费习惯,在未来茶叶市场将占主导地位。该文总结了福建大宗红茶市场的现状及面临的问题,分析了立顿大宗红茶市场开发的成功经验,并据此提出促进福建大宗红茶市场发展的对策思路。

  2. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    1400. The custom of tea serving continues today, and the tea flower continues to be used according to the demand. After that, it seems that "FURICHA" (tea with bubbles) continued to be used for 640 years, until 1590 (AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA period) because MANCHARAZU was regarded as important in religion. Then, it is believed that the customs of "BOTEBOTECHA" and/or"BATABATACHA" succeeded traditionally. The culture of both tea drinking and cooking, each development course, existed respectively from the relations of tea and food. The state that was accompanied with neither tea nor cooking, such as "KISHUU-CHAGAYU (tea gruel)" and BOTEBOTECHA, continued for a while, but it was combined together as "ICHIJUU-ICHISSA (one soup one tea)" of "KAISEKIRYOURI (tea-ceremony dish)." It is noteworthy that the tea flower is used as preserved food seasoned with "MISO (fermented soybean paste)" and "TSUKUDANI (boiled food in sweetened soy sauce)." Even though old documents about the use of tea flowers as food in China were not found, according to literature in the past ten years, seven descriptions were found that the tea flower was used for food provided alone or with black tea, oolong tea or green tea. As for tea leaves and tea flowers being used as medicine, drink or food in Japan, as well as in neighboring countries which belong to the Lucidophyllous forest zone. The process that they were regarded as important with the time was investigated and reported here. PMID:19227653

  3. Effects of Three Kinds of Tea Extracts on Proliferation and Apoptosis of MCF-7 Cells and Their Relationship to Protein Kinase B%3种茶提取物对MCF-7细胞增殖、凋亡的影响及其与蛋白激酶B的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵航; 盛婧雪; 李全顺; 吕勇; 盛军; 施维

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of extracts from Black Tea, Green Tea and Pu-erh Tea on the proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as well as their relationship to protein kinase B (PKB).Methods MCF-7 cells were treated with the three kinds of tea extracts at various concentrations for various hours, then determined for proliferation level by MTT method, for apoptosis level by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and for transcription level of PKB mRNA by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.Results All the three kinds of tea extracts showed significantly inhibitory effect on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, in time- and dosage-dependent modes.The apoptosis rates at early stage of cells treated with the tea extracts were higher than those untreated.The expression level of PKB mRNA in the cells treated with tea extracts decreased significantly as compared with those in the cells untreated.Conclusion All the three kinds of tea extracts contained the natural components inhibiting the transcription activity of PKB and induced the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells, among which Green Tea extracts induced effectively as compared with the other two extracts.%目的 探讨红茶、绿茶及普洱茶提取物对人乳腺癌细胞MCF-7增殖、凋亡的影响及其与蛋白激酶B(Protein ki-nase B,PKB)的相关性.方法 用不同浓度的3种茶提取物处理MCF-7细胞不同时间,MTT法检测其对MCF-7细胞增殖的影响;Annexin V-FITC/PI双染流式细胞术检测其对细胞凋亡的影响;实时定量PCR检测细胞PKB基因mRNA的转录水平.结果 3种茶提取物对MCF-7细胞的增殖均具有明显的抑制作用,且呈时间、剂量依赖性;3种茶提取物处理的细胞早期凋亡率均高于未处理细胞,PKB基因mRNA的表达量明显降低.结论 3种茶提取物均含有可以抑制PKB转录活性的天然成分,并可诱导MCF-7细胞凋亡;其中绿茶诱导MCF-7细胞凋亡效果最明显.

  4. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Study on the optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions and green tea solution by multi-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu Yan-, Xiong; Yang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Peng; Shen, Xue-Ju; Jiang, Nan; Chen, Yan; Tang, Fang

    2008-09-01

    The optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions (CBS) and green tea solution were studied by using an 8 ns laser pulse at 532 nm. The optical limiting effects of the CBS and mixed liquid have been compared between 5 and 10 Hz repetition frequencies with nanosecond laser pulse. The experimental results indicate that the optical limiting threshold of the sample with the incidence laser at 10 Hz repetition frequency is lower than at 5 Hz repetition frequency. The possible reasons for the influence of the repetition frequency on the samples are discussed. And by observing the optical radiant distributions when the laser pulse passing through different samples, a possible mechanism for the observed effects is suggested. At the same time, the result shows that the optical limiting of CBS is the dominant factor to optical limiting of the mixed liquid.

  5. Study on the optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions and green tea solution by multi-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions (CBS) and green tea solution were studied by using an 8 ns laser pulse at 532 nm. The optical limiting effects of the CBS and mixed liquid have been compared between 5 and 10 Hz repetition frequencies with nanosecond laser pulse. The experimental results indicate that the optical limiting threshold of the sample with the incidence laser at 10 Hz repetition frequency is lower than at 5 Hz repetition frequency. The possible reasons for the influence of the repetition frequency on the samples are discussed. And by observing the optical radiant distributions when the laser pulse passing through different samples, a possible mechanism for the observed effects is suggested. At the same time, the result shows that the optical limiting of CBS is the dominant factor to optical limiting of the mixed liquid. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  6. Study on the optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions and green tea solution by multi-pulse laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Yan-Xiong; Yang Hai-Lin; Zhang Peng; Shen Xue-Ju; Jiang Nan; Chen Yan; Tang Fang

    2008-01-01

    The optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions(CBS)and green tea solution were studied by using an 8 ns laser pulse at 532nm.The optical limiting effects of the CBS and mixed liquid have been compared between 5 and 10 Hz repetition frequencies with nanosecond laser pulse.The experimental results indicate that the optical limiting threshold of the sample with the incidence laser at 10 Hz repetition frequency is lower than at 5 Hz repetition frequency.The possible reasons for the influence of the repetition frequency on the samples are discussed.And by observing the optical radiant distributions when the laser pulse passing through different samples,a possible mechanism for the observed effects is suggested.At the same time,the result shows that the optical limiting of CBS is the dominant factor to optical limiting ofthe mixed liquid.

  7. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  8. Biosynthesis, Detection and Extraction of Tea Chlorophyll%茶树叶绿素生物合成及其检测与提取研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王让剑

    2012-01-01

    Current status of the distribution, structure, property, biosynthesis, detection and extraction of chlorophyll in tea is reviewed. Possible biosynthesis mechanism and applications of the tea chlorophyll for chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries are presented. The discussion includes:①Research in the genetic mechanism and related functional genes of tea chlorophyll is still in the initial stage. Increased attention and efforts by the scientists will be required. Utilization of models in studying chlorophylls of other plants might be necessary for the study on tea as well. ②Understanding the relationship between the chlorophyll and the aroma and taste of tea would provide a guideline for effective tea breeding.③Chlorophyll extraction and value-added product development would improve the profit margins and warrant a sustainable and healthy tea industry for the nation for the years to come.%对茶树叶绿素的分布、结构、性质、生物合成及其检测方法、提取方法研究现状进行了概述,并对茶树叶绿素的生物合成机理及在化工、医药和食品领域中的应用前景进行了展望.提出3点建议:①茶树叶绿素遗传机制和相关功能基因研究尚不够深入,仍处在起步阶段,模式植物叶绿素相关研究可为茶树参考.②探索茶树叶绿素与茶叶香气、滋味品质之间的关系可为茶树品质育种提供依据.③提取茶树叶绿素及开发相关深加工产品是提高我国茶叶经济效益,保障茶产业可持续和健康发展的有效途径之一.

  9. Ionizing radiation effects on volatiles formation in Camellia sinensis (L) teas; Efeito da radiacao ionizante na formacao de volateis em chas da planta Camellia sinensis (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white, green, oolong and black teas. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydro distillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results show that the volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. The white tea showed less influence of ionizing radiation, as 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all doses of radiation and formed 47.53% of new compounds after irradiation. The green tea was the tea that has the greatest influence of radiation effects, increasing 66.12% of volatiles identified in relation to the control sample and only 21.77% of volatiles found naturally were resistant to all doses of radiation. The oolong tea, despite suffering a partial enzymatic treatment, was the second tea that has least interference of radiation in increasing the formation of new volatile. >From this tea, was able to detect 49.59% of new compounds after irradiation and 30.08% of the compounds found naturally were also found after irradiation. The black tea has the second greatest influence of radiation on formation of new volatile (60.94%) and only 17.97% of all identified compounds were not degraded after radiation. (author)

  10. The in Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Persian Green Tea Extract as an Intracanal Irrigant on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanali, Fatemeh; Samimi, Shiva; Kharazifard, Mohammadjavad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Persian green tea extract (GTE) and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as an intracanal irrigant. Methods and Materials: Thirty freshly extracted teeth were instrumented and sectioned into mesial and distal segments. The specimens were put into wells containing 2 mL of E. faecalis-containing medium. After 3 weeks, the specimens were removed and divided randomly into three groups (n=20). Each group was exposed to 3 mL of different irrigants for 3 min. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were irrigated with GTE, 2.5% NaOCl and normal saline, respectively. Biofilm formed in the middle third of the root canal was carved by sterile scalpel and cultured in Mueller-Hinton medium. Number of colony forming units (CFU) was counted on each plate. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the irrigants was evaluated by the agar disc diffusion test. The diameter of inhibition zone (IZ) around each irrigant was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests were used to analysis the data. Results: While in NaOCl group no bacterial colonies were observed, the mean number of E. faecalis in GTE and control groups were 275±74 CFU/mL (P<0.001) and 119×108±11×108 (P<0.001), respectively. The mean of IZ in NaOCl and GTE groups were 24.35±0.78 and 6.9±0.87 mm, in order of appearance (P<0.001). Zone of inhibition was not observed around the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: This research highlighted the potential role of plant extracts in antimicrobial root canal irrigation protocol.

  11. A Unified Model of Magnetic Extraction of Spin Energy from a Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 肖看; 雷卫华

    2002-01-01

    A unified model of magnetic extraction of spin energy from a black hole is discussed based on the theory of black hole magnetosphere. The magnetic extracting power is expressed by a unified formula, which is applicable to both the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process and the magnetic coupling (MC) process. The strength and characteristics of the BZ power and the MC power are compared in detail. In addition, the impedance matching condition for the BZ power is extended to the more general case.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Duarte; Cecília Baptista; Nuno Gil; Hélio Faustino

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in ter...

  13. Method and Technology of Caffeine Extraction from Tea%茶叶中咖啡因提取方法与工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凤英

    2012-01-01

    The extraction of caffeine from tea by various methods and technology were briefly introdueed, namely alcohol extraetion, water extraction, organic solvent extraction supercritical earbon dioxide extraction, sublimation method, microwave extraction and all the methods are compared. The study provided reference for the study of caffeine extraction method.%简要介绍了从茶叶中提取咖啡因的各种方法与工艺,即醇提法、水提法、有机溶剂提取法,超临界二氧化碳萃取法、升华法、微波提取法并对各种方法进行对比,以期为咖啡因提取方法的研究提供参考。

  14. Effect of chronic administration of green tea extract on chemically induced electrocardiographic and biochemical changes in rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals induce cell-specific cytotoxicity. Chemicals like doxorubicin induce oxidative stress leading to cardiotoxicity causing abnormalities in ECG and increase in the biomarkers indicating toxicity. Green tea extract (GTE, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae, is reported to exert antioxidant activity mainly by means of its polyphenolic constituent, catechins. Our study was aimed to find out the effect of GTE (25, 50, 100 mg/kg/day p.o. for 30 days on doxorubicin-induced (3 mg/kg/week, i.p. for 5 weeks electrocardiographic and biochemical changes in rat heart. It is observed that GTE administered rats were less susceptible to doxorubicin-induced electrocardiographic changes and changes in biochemical markers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, and glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT in serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and reduced glutathione (GSH, membrane bound enzymes like Na + K + ATPase, Ca 2+ ATPase, Mg 2+ ATPase and decreased lipid peroxidation (LP in heart tissue, indicating the protection afforded by GTE administration.

  15. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  16. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice Extrato de chá branco reduz extresse oxidativo e triacilglicerois em camundongos obesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.O chá branco é um chá não fermentando feito a partir de brotos jovens da Camellia sinensis protegidos da luz solar para evitar a degradação de polifenóis. Embora os níveis de catequinas sejam mais elevados que os do chá verde (mesma planta, nenhum estudo foi realizado sobre estresse oxidativo relacionado obesidade. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do chá verde na obesidade e suas complicações, usando um modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta. Quarenta camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica para indução da obesidade ou mesma dieta suplementada

  17. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on white tea volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.br; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2009-07-01

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  18. Effects of γ-radiation on white tea volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  19. Discussion on Green Extracting Methods of Caffeine from Tea%从茶叶中绿色提取咖啡因的方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴

    2011-01-01

    从茶叶中提取咖啡因的方法很多,但是主要存在产率低、耗时长等不足。笔者探讨改进从茶叶中提取咖啡因的一些途径和方法,采用了5种方法:水提法、醇提法,有机溶剂提取法、索氏抽提法和微波法。对这几种方法进行了比较,并对实验结果进行了探讨,认为微波法提取咖啡因产率较高、耗时较短,具有实用性。%Many ways to extract caffeine from tea,but these ways mainly had low yield and time-consuming,where we discussed and explored the improvement of extraction of caffeine from tea.The five kinds of methods that water extraction,ethanol extraction,organic solvent extraction,soxhlet extraction method and microwave method were discussed.The authors Compared these different kinds of methods and their results,considered the yield of caffeine by microwave method was higher,the time-consuming was shorter,and this method was practicable.

  20. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. PMID:22431070

  1. Spectroscopic fingerprint of tea varieties by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukgoz, Guluzar Gorkem; Soforoglu, Mehmet; Basaran Akgul, Nese; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-03-01

    The fingerprinting method is generally performed to determine specific molecules or the behavior of specific molecular bonds in the desired sample content. A novel, robust and simple method based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed to obtain the full spectrum of tea varieties for detection of the purity of the samples based on the type of processing and cultivation. For this purpose, the fingerprint of seven different varieties of tea samples (herbal tea (rose hip, chamomile, linden, green and sage tea), black tea and earl grey tea) combined with silver colloids was obtained by SERS in the range of 200-2000 cm(-1) with an analysis time of 20 s. Each of the thirty-nine tea samples tested showed its own specific SERS spectra. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to separate of each tea variety and different models developed for tea samples including three different models for the herbal teas and two different models for black and earl grey tea samples. Herbal tea samples were separated using mean centering, smoothing and median centering pre-processing steps while baselining and derivatisation pre-processing steps were applied to SERS data of black and earl grey tea. The novel spectroscopic fingerprinting technique combined with PCA is an accurate, rapid and simple methodology for the assessment of tea types based on the type of processing and cultivation differences. This method is proposed as an alternative tool in order to determine the characteristics of tea varieties. PMID:27570296

  2. Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas–insulin/glucagon cells, hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels, and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

  3. Comparison on Quality Compositions of Broken Black Tea between Elite Germplasm in Yunnan and Kenyan Cultivar 6/8%云南优质红碎茶资源与肯尼亚品种6/8的品质成分比较研究