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Sample records for black tea extract

  1. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  2. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  3. Comparative assessment of antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extract of commercially available black, green, and lemon tea: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, S. Dodamani; Minal, M. Kshirsagar; Karibasappa, G. N.; Prashanth, V. K.; Girija, A. Dodamani; Harish, C. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine and compare antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of black, green, and lemon tea of a commercially available brand. Materials and Methods: The well-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of commercially available black tea, green tea, and lemon tea at three different concentrations (1.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in appropriate culture med...

  4. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-06-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  5. The enhanced inhibition of water extract of black tea under baking treatment on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Da-Peng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studied the inhibition of water extract of natural or baked black tea on the activity of α-amylase and α- glucosidase. Baking treatment was found to be one effective way to enhance the inhibition of black tea on both α-amylase and α- glucosidase, and IC 50 of water extract of baked black tea (BBTWE) were 1.213mg/mL and 4.190mg/mL, respectively, while IC 50 of water extract of black tea (BTWE) were 1.723mg/mL and 6.056mg/mL, respectively. This study further studied the mechanism of the effect of water extract on α-amylase and α- glucosidase using HPLC, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence. HPLC analysis of tea polyphenols showed that the content of tea polyphenols with low polarity increased after baking. In addition, BBTWE had higer abilty on decreasing the hydrophobicity of tryptophan residues than BTWE for both α-amylase and α- glucosidase.The increase of α-helix proportion of α-amylase when treated with BBTWE was more obvious than that when treated with BTWE. In a word, thermal process of baked foods may be beneficial for tea polyphenols to reduce the rate of starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the ethanol extract pf black tea and its tannin free fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banoee, M.; Mokhtari, N.; Akhavan Sepahi, A.; Jafari Fesharaki, P.; Monsef-Esfahani, H. R.; Ehsanfar, Z.; Khoshayand, M. R.; Shahverdi, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this research the ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction used for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. All the extracts were used separately for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles through the reduction of aqueous AuCl 4 - . Transmission electron microscopy and visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of gold ions to gold nanoparticles. The ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free ethanol extract produced gold nanoparticles in the size ranges of 2.5-27.5 nm and 1.25-17.5 nm with an average size of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The prepared colloid gold nanoparticles, using the ethanol extract of black tea, did not show the appropriate stability during storage time (24 hours) at 4 d eg C . In contrast, gold colloids, which were synthesized by a tannin free fraction showed no particle aggregation during short and long storage times at the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanol extract of black tea and its tannin free fraction.

  7. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets.

  8. Formation of enriched black tea extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles via electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Samuel James

    Creating nanoparticles of beneficial nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals has had a large surge of research due to the enhancement of absorption and bioavailability by decreasing their size. One of these ways is by electrohydrodynamic atomization, also known as electrospraying. In general, this novel process is done by forcing a liquid through a capillary nozzle and which is subjected to an electrical field. While there are different ways to create nanoparticles, the novel method of electrospraying can be beneficial over other types of nanoparticle formation. Reasons include high control over particle size and distribution by altering electrospray parameters (voltage, flow rate, distance, and time), higher encapsulation efficiency than other methods, and also it is a one step process without exposure to extreme conditions (Gomez-Estaca et. al. 2012, Jaworek and Sobcyzk 2008). The current study aimed to create a chitosan encapsulated theaflavin-2 enriched black tea extract (BTE) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The first step of this process was to create the smallest chitosan nanoparticles possible by altering the electrospray parameters and the chitosan-acetic acid solution parameters. The solution properties altered include chitosan molecular weight, acetic acid concentration, and chitosan concentration. Specifically, the electrospray parameters such as voltage, flow rate and distance from syringe to collector are the most important in determining particle size. After creating the smallest chitosan particles, the TF-2 enriched black tea extract was added to the chitosan-acetic acid solution to be electrosprayed. The particles were assessed with the following procedures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology and size, and loading efficiency with ultraviolet--visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). Chitosan-BTE nanoparticles were successfully created in a one step process. Diameter of the particles on average

  9. A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, Jaouad; El Hassouni, Mohammed; Ouardaoui, Abdelkrim; Sendide, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural annotation and elucidation of conjugated phenolic compounds in black, green, and white tea extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Akermi, M.; Yelda Ünlü, F.; Mihaleva, V.; Gomez Roldan, V.; Bino, R.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced analytical approaches consisting of both LC-LTQ-Orbitrap Fourier transformed (FT)-MS and LC-time-of-flight-(TOF)-MS coupled to solid-phase extraction (SPE) NMR were used to obtain more insight into the complex phenolic composition of tea. On the basis of the combined structural information

  11. Synergistic Application of Black Tea Extracts and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Protecting Human Colonocytes against Oxidative Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-03-23

    In view of the potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to enhance the antioxidant activity of food products, this work explored the effectiveness of LAB fermented black tea samples in alleviating H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human colonocytes. The antioxidant capacity of tea samples was evaluated in terms of cyto-protectiveness, mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm)-stabilizing activity, ROS-inhibitory effect, and antioxidant enzyme-modulating activity. The effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair was studied in CCD 841 by comet assay. Results showed that the protective effect of tea pretreatment was more pronounced in normal cells (CCD 841) than in carcinomas (Caco-2), and fermented samples were invariably more effective. Higher cell viability and Δψm were maintained and ROS production was markedly inhibited with tea pretreatment. The fermented tea samples also remarkably stimulated DNA repair, resulting in fewer strand breaks and oxidative lesions. Our study implied that LAB fermentation may be an efficient way to enhance the antioxidative effectiveness of black tea flavonoid-enriched foods.

  12. Rapid and sustained systemic circulation of conjugated gut microbiol catabolites after single-dose black tea extract consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Foltz, M.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbial catabolites of black tea polyphenols (BTPs) have been proposed to exert beneficial cardiovascular bioactivity. This hypothesis is difficult to verify because the conjugation patterns and pharmacokinetics of these catabolites are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to

  13. Simplified recovery of enzymes and nutrients in sweet potato wastewater and preparing health black tea and theaflavins with scrap tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Rong; Luo, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Guang-Ying; Chen, Rui; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Min; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2018-04-15

    The industry discards generous organic wastewater in sweet potato starch factory and scrap tea in tea production. A simplified procedure to recover all biochemicals from the wastewater of sweet potato starch factory and use them to make health black tea and theaflavins from scrap green tea was developed. The sweet potato wastewater was sequentially treated by isoelectric precipitation, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to recover polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-amylase, and small molecular fractions, respectively. The PPO fraction can effectively transform green tea extracts into black tea with high content of theaflavins through the optimized fed-batch feeding fermentation. The PPO transformed black tea with sporamins can be used to make health black tea, or make theaflavins by fractionation with ethyl acetate. This work provides a resource- and environment-friendly approach for economically utilizing the sweet potato wastewater and the scrap tea, and making biochemical, nutrient and health products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DFT/TDDFT and Experimental Studies of Natural Pigments Extracted from Black Tea Waste for DSSC Application

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    N. T. R. N. Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results of combined experimental and theoretical studies of black tea waste extract (BTE as a potential sensitizer for TiO2-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. UV-vis absorption data revealed that BTE contains theaflavin. DSSC sensitized with pigment complexes of BTE showed a photon-energy conversion efficiency of %, while a significant increase (% is observed when pH of the pigment solution was lowered. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels were calculated using experimental data of UV-vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry. These calculations revealed a reduction of the band gap by 0.17 eV and more negativity of HOMO level of acidified pigment, compared to that of original pigment. Combined effect of these developments caused the enhanced efficiency of DSSC. Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT computational calculations were carried out to study the four theaflavin analogues which are responsible for the dark colour of BTE. According to the calculations, two theaflavin analogues, theaflavin and theaflavin digallate, are the most probable sensitizers in this dye-sensitized solar cell system.

  15. Time-dependent extraction kinetics of infused components of different Indian black tea types using UV spectroscopy

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    Asir Gani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent aqueous extraction of six tea types was carried out with leaf–water–ratio of 0.5 g/100 ml, temperature of extraction 90°C and time of extraction ranging from 1 to 10 min. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis in the range varying from 220 to 900 nm of the aqueous tea extracts showed a prominent peak at 273 nm in the ultraviolet region which can be associated with n → π* electronic transition of caffeine molecules. Parabolic diffusion, Power law, hyperbolic, Weibull’s and Elovich’s models were fitted to represent the aqueous soluble component extraction behaviour for time-dependent extraction of aqueous extractables. Parabolic diffusion model, Power law and Elovich’s model were a close fit to the experimental data for all the selected tea types with correlation coefficients (R2 ranging 0.8029–0.9953, whereas hyperbolic and Weibull’s models showed poor fitness to represent the extraction behaviour of fanning and AO leaf, LD, fanning and dust, respectively, with R2 < 0.8, for time-dependent aqueous soluble component extraction.

  16. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

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    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of fruit and flavoured black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękal, Anna; Dróżdż, Paulina; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2011-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of the water extracts of the commercial bagged fruit and flavoured black teas were evaluated and compared with typical black teas of C. sinensis. Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and DPPH radical method were used for these purposes. The content of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids was also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Flavoured black teas contain significantly higher level of catechins, quercetin, and rutin, while the content of chlorogenic and caffeic acids as well as naringin and hesperidin was higher in fruit teas. Supplementation with these flavonoids could reduce blood glucose. In FC and DPPH assays, the antioxidant properties of studied tea infusion increases in the order: fruit tea premium black tea, while in CUPRAC method, some aromatized teas exhibit the highest antioxidant properties. Tea infusions with nice smell of fruits would also support the human diet with some source of antioxidants.

  18. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  19. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

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    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  20. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

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    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  1. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

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    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  2. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

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    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Ptea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  3. The use of polyphenolic compounds from Black tea for the solid phase extraction and determination of trace iron in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Ramin [Departmant of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran); Research Department of Chromatography, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Urmia Branch, Urmia (Iran); Nikkhahi, Yousef [Research Department of Chromatography, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Urmia Branch, Urmia (Iran); Farhadi, Khalil

    2009-11-15

    A simple and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the trace analysis of iron(III) in water samples has been developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated alumina, modified with polyphenolic compounds (extracted from black tea) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of iron(III) from water samples before determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Due to the complexation reaction between iron(III) and polyphenol compounds, iron(III) was quantitatively extracted on the proposed sorbent and then eluted by 2.0 mL of HCl (1.0 mol/L). The effects of extraction parameters, such as pH and volume of sample solution, amount of polyphenolic compounds, type of eluting agent and the effect of interfering ions on the extraction of iron(III), were investigated. It was found that the proposed method had a good linear range (15.0-100.0 {mu}g/L) and a low detection limit (10.0 {mu}g/L). The procedure was successfully applied for iron determination in drinking water samples. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

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    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  5. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

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    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  6. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

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    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  7. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chung, Felicia F L; Lee, Sui M; Dykes, Gary A

    2013-04-11

    Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues.

  8. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Puerh tea is a unique Chinese fermented tea. Unlike other teas it is stored for a long period of time. Aspergillus niger is claimed to be the dominant microorganism in the Puerh tea manufacturing process and also to be common on tea in general. A. niger sensu stricto is known to produce...... the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A...

  9. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  10. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  11. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  12. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  13. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P sleeping rate induced by sodium pentobarbital at a sub-threshold dose (P sleeping latency period induced by sodium barbital was not significant (P > 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice.

  14. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  15. Mechanism of hydrolysis of native and cooked starches from different botanical sources in the presence of tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzar, Igor; Ragaee, Sanaa; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to highlight the mechanism of inhibition of hydrolysis and differences in hydrolysis among starches from different sources in the presence of green or black tea extract. The first experiment showed that black tea extract was more effective at reducing final viscosity for all starches. The second experiment showed that black tea was more effective at inhibiting starch hydrolysis compared to green tea when starch, tea extract, and pancreatin were added at the beginning of pasting. The third experiment, when starches were pretreated with tea extracts, showed that both treatments reduced starch hydrolysis. Analysis of supernatant free phenolic content and of soluble dextrins showed that amyloglucosidase activity was affected, with exceptions for potato starch. These observations suggest that starch hydrolysis is affected by interactions and also by the impact on specific enzymes based on starch structure. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Malbaša Radomir V.; Lončar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2006-01-01

    Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v) of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobi...

  17. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  18. Fluoride in black and green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) infusions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride contents in the infusions of 21 commercially available Ethiopian and imported black and green tea brands; in leaf and bag forms was determined by a fluoride ion-selective electrode method. Of the samples analyzed twelve were products from Ethiopia and the remaining nine were imported tea brands.

  19. Investigation of antiradical potential of different kinds of teas and extracts from these teas using antiradical activity units (TAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojciechowski

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Green, black and pu-erh teas are known to have strong antiradical properties in comparison to other plant raw materials.In this study fifteen different teas belonging to three types, green, black, and pu-erh tea (five of each kind, were investigated for their antiradical properties. Antiradical activity of extracts and raw materials was measured using DPPH and ABTS• radicals.Material/Methods:The antiradical potential of teas was measured using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS• (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt. The TAU515 and TAU734 (antiradical activity units were defined with the tests of DPPH and ABTS• , respectively, and the number of units was calculated per mg of extracts (TAU515/mg and TAU734/mg and g of raw materials (TAU515/g and TAU734/g.Results/Discussion:When the extracts were investigated, the highest number of antiradical units (TAU515/mg; TAU734/mg was found per mg of ethyl acetate extract obtained from green tea leaves assayed with DPPH and ABTS• : 57.7±0.8; 106±2.0, units respectively. When the number of antiradical units TAU515/g was calculated per g of raw material, the highest antiradical potential (7601±92 was observed for green tea leaves. The greatest TAU734/g value (14 303±354 was also calculated for green tea leaves. The lowest value of antiradical activity units TAU515/g (684±30 and TAU734/g (1870±180 was calculated for pu-erh tea leaves.A high positive correlation was found between the antiradical activity of the raw materials and the content of phenolic compounds in these raw materials.

  20. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-02-03

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared with traditional sodium acetate media due in part to its acidophilic pH and its higher organics content. Although high internal resistance remains a big concern, this simple, curiosity-driven experiment gave us the preliminary results to say that energy could be extracted from the reuse of waste resources such the collection of our afternoon-tea\\'s leftovers.

  1. Levels of metals in commercially available Ethiopian black teas and their infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd and Pb contents of commercially available Ethiopian black tea (Wushwush, Gumero, and Black Lion and their infusions were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. In black tea leaves the order of metal content was found to be: K (11503–13780 mg/kg > Ca (3821–4419 mg/kg > Mg (3219–3538 mg/kg > Mn (1242–1421 mg/kg > Fe (319–467 mg/kg > Zn (20.2–21.6 mg/kg > Cu (9.1–11.5 mg/kg. Co, Cd and Pb were too low to be detected by the method (FAAS. In tea infusion, prepared in a laboratory condition following Ethiopian tea making procedures, the range of metal contents was found as follows: K (110–124 mg/L > Mg (14.5–16.3 mg/L > Ca (10.0–10.7 mg/L > Mn (8.5–13.4 mg/L > Fe (0.98–1.56 mg/L > Zn (0.098–0.100 mg/L > Cu (0.038–0.063 mg/L. The metal contents of the black tea leaves were higher than those of tea infusions. The extraction was highest for K (47.1% and lowest for Ca (12.5%.

  2. Black tea and maintenance of normal endotheliumdependent vasodilation: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2018-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to black tea and maintenance of normal endotheliumdependent vasodilation. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed by the applicant as the subject of the health...... claim is black tea beverages, either freshly prepared or reconstituted from water extract powders of black tea, characterised by the content of flavanols (expressed as catechins plus theaflavins) of at least 30 mg per 200 mL serving. The Panel considers that black tea characterised by the content....... Of the five human intervention studies provided on the chronic effect of black tea consumption on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, two investigated the effect after regular consumption of black tea for a sufficiently long time period (i.e. at least 4 weeks). These two studies did not allow an effect...

  3. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Li, Hui; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Yuan; Wu, Tao; Ma, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have assessed the association between green and black tea consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and have yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically analyze the effect of green tea and black tea on EC risk. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Biological Medicine Database were searched through February 2, 2015 to identify studies that met pre-stated inclusion criteria. Overall relative risk (RR) was estimated based on the highest and lowest levels of green/black tea consumption. Dose-response relationships were evaluated with the data from categories of green/black tea intake in each study. For green tea, the summary RR indicated that the highest green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of EC (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.92). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of one cup per day was associated with an 11 % decreased risk of developing EC. (RR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.84-0.94). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed in the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.79-1.23; increment of one cup/day, RR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.94-1.03). The power of the estimate of green tea and black tea with risk of EC was 84.33 and 5.07 %, respectively. The quality of evidence for the association between green and black tea with EC risk was moderate and very low, respectively. The results from this meta-analysis indicate that green tea, but not black tea, may be related to a reduction of EC risk. Large population-based randomized controlled trials and large prospective cohort studies are required to obtain a definitive conclusion and determine the mechanisms underlying this association.

  4. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  5. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP.We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, Chemical Abstracts and EMBASE databases through July 2013. For inclusion, studies had to meet the following pre-defined criteria: 1 placebo controlled design in human adults, 2 minimum of 1 week black tea consumption as the sole intervention, 3 reported effects on systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP or both. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled overall effect of black tea on BP.Eleven studies (12 intervention arms, 378 subjects, dose of 4-5 cups of tea met our inclusion criteria. The pooled mean effect of regular tea ingestion was -1.8 mmHg (95% CI: -2.8, -0.7; P = 0.0013 for SBP and -1.3 mmHg (95% CI: -1.8, -0.8; P<0.0001 for DBP. In covariate analyses, we found that the method of tea preparation (tea extract powders versus leaf tea, baseline SBP and DBP, and the quality score of the study affected the effect size of the tea intervention (all P<0.05. No evidence of publication bias could be detected.Our meta-analysis indicates that regular consumption of black tea can reduce BP. Although the effect is small, such effects could be important for cardiovascular health at population level.

  6. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  7. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a 60 Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ana.paula.silveira@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  10. Effect of extraction methods on the chemical components and taste quality of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2018-05-15

    The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between tea extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herb-drug interaction between tea (Carmelia sinensis) extract and penicillin G (Pen G) was investigated against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus using pair combinations in an in vitro decimal assay for additivity test. Results showed that the interactions between penicillin G and tea extracts were mainly additive ...

  14. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is urgently necessary to develop strategies to protect the skin from UV-induced injuries. Tea extracts are gaining increasing attention as a supplement in skin care products. However, the factors contributing to the photoprotective effects of tea extracts have not been systematically defined and conflicting results about the ...

  15. Study of nutritional value of dried tea leaves and infusions of black, green and white teas from Chinese plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Maria; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Bajcar, Marcin; Saletnik, Bogdan; Puchalski, Czesław

    The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea. The purpose of the study was assessment of the nutritional value of black, green and white high-quality tea leaf from Chinese plantations based on the chemical composition of the dried leaves as well as minerals and caffeine content in tea infusions. The research material included 18 high-quality loose-leaf teas produced at Chinese plantations, imported to Poland, and purchased in an online store. The analyses included examination of the dried tea leaves for their chemical composition (contents of water, protein, volatile substances and ash) and assessment of selected minerals and caffeine contents in the tea infusions. High-quality Chinese green teas were found with the most valuable composition of minerals, i.e. the highest contents of Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Ca and Al and the highest contents of protein in comparison to the other products. Chinese black teas had the highest contents of total ash and caffeine and white teas were characterized with high content of volatile substances, similar to the black teas, and the highest content of water and the lowest content of total ash. The three types of tea brews examined in the present study, in particular green tea beverages, significantly enhance the organism’s mineral balance by providing valuable elements

  16. Kinetic evaluation of black tea color index and determination of factors, which influence its by UV/Vis spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikpour, A. R.; Bahmaei, H.; Samimei, H.; Sohrabi, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The tea is the most important product that is widely consumed in the world. Its color is one of the basic parameter. It is known that the best color of an infusion of black tea is a bright orange-red color. [1] Rates of color extraction and amount of its extract are also important in tea quality. Various methods have been reported for this purpose which are mainly time consumable. In this research, absorbance at 480 nm is used (instate of total spectrum) as a fast and convent color index. The experiments have shown that this proposed method have good results. Effects of various factors on the color of an infusion of black tea was investigated; including: leaf size, temperature, ph, total dissolved solid and water hardness. Finally, its kinetic diagrams were determined which give

  17. Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared according to the Turkish tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Kilic, Mehmet Akif; Roubal, Tomas; Grosse, Yann; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g -1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g -1 up to 56.7 ng g -1 . An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g -1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%. These data are important for the realisation of a 'Total Diet study' (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared 'as consumed' (tea infusions) and not 'as purchased' (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  19. The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golem Devon L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle soreness and decreased performance often follow a bout of high-intensity exercise. By reducing these effects, an athlete can train more frequently and increase long-term performance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a high-potency, black tea extract (BTE alters the delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cortisol (CORT responses to high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Methods College-age males (N = 18 with 1+ yrs of weight training experience completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects consumed the BTE (1,760 mg BTE·d-1 or placebo (PLA for 9 days. Each subject completed two testing sessions (T1 & T2, which occurred on day 7 of the intervention. T1 & T2 consisted of a 30 s Wingate Test plus eight 10 s intervals. Blood samples were obtained before, 0, 30 & 60 min following the interval sessions and were used to analyze the total to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG, 8-isoprostane (8-iso, CORT, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 secretion. DOMS was recorded at 24 & 48 h post-test using a visual analog scale while BTE or PLA continued to be administered. Significance was set at P . Results Compared to PLA, BTE produced significantly higher average peak power (P = 0.013 and higher average mean power (P = 0.067 across nine WAnT intervals. BTE produced significantly lower DOMS compared to PLA at 24 h post test (P and 48 h post test (P . Compared to PLA, BTE had a slightly higher GSH:GSSG ratio at baseline which became significantly higher at 30 and 60 min post test (P . AUC analysis revealed BTE to elicit significantly lower GSSG secretion (P = 0.009, significantly higher GSH:GSSG ratio (P = 0.001, and lower CORT secretion (P = 0.078 than PLA. AUC analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total IL-6 response (P = 0.145 between conditions. Conclusions Consumption of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract led to improved recovery and a reduction in

  20. Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.

  1. Reactions of green and black teas with Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B A; Ferreira Severino, J; Pirker, K F

    2012-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the products of reactions between Cu(II) and samples of green and black teas showed spectral components from at least six different Cu(II) complexes with both tea types. Several of these complexes were common to both teas in spite of major differences in their polyphenol compositions. The pH range observed for complex formation, and the total signal intensity in the pH range 4-8, were greatly different from those for the reactions of Cu(II) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid, the main polyphenols responsible for the free radical signals observed during oxidation of these beverages. Components with spectral parameters similar to those of Cu(II) complexes with theanine, the major amino acid in tea, may contribute to two of the spectra recorded under acidic conditions. However, the initial complexes formed at the lowest pH values investigated are still unidentified. EPR spectra with parameters consistent with Cu(II) polyphenol complexes were only observed under alkaline conditions, thus suggesting that components of tea other than polyphenols might be more important in reactions with copper, and possibly other transition metals, in solutions under physiological conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  2. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  3. Functional Characterization of Epitheaflagallin 3-O-Gallate Generated in Laccase-Treated Green Tea Extracts in the Presence of Gallic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuya; Kurokawa, Junji; Isogai, Yasuhiro; Ogasawara, Masaru; Matsunaga, Takayuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Katsube, Yuji

    2017-12-06

    Epitheaflagallin (ETFG) and epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate (ETFGg) are minor polyphenols in black tea extract that are enzymatically synthesized from epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), respectively, in green tea extract via laccase oxidation in the presence of gallic acid. The constituents of laccase-treated green tea extract in the presence of gallic acid are thus quite different from those of nonlaccase-treated green tea extract: EGC and EGCg are present in lower concentrations, and ETFG and ETFGg are present in higher concentrations. Additionally, laccase-treated green tea extract contains further polymerized catechin derivatives, comparable with naturally fermented teas such as oolong tea and black tea. We found that ETFGg and laccase-treated green tea extracts exhibit versatile physiological functions in vivo and in vitro, including antioxidative activity, pancreatic lipase inhibition, Streptococcus sorbinus glycosyltransferase inhibition, and an inhibiting effect on the activity of matrix metalloprotease-1 and -3 and their synthesis by human gingival fibroblasts. We confirmed that these inhibitory effects of ETFGg in vitro match well with the results obtained by docking simulations of the compounds with their target enzymes or noncatalytic protein. Thus, ETFGg and laccase-treated green tea extracts containing ETFGg are promising functional food materials with potential antiobesity and antiperiodontal disease activities.

  4. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario

    2015-02-25

    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  5. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq

    2015-06-01

    In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishmanial studies were conducted on L. aethiopica. Wushwush green tea had the highest content of polyphenol (19.98 ± 1.15 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry leaf weight), catechin (37.06 mg/g) and L-theanine (48.54 mg/g but the lowest caffeine content). It exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant effect of Wushwush green tea may be attributed to the highest polyphenol content. East African black tea had the lowest L-theanine (20.72 mg/g) and antioxidant activity but the highest caffeine (16.60 mg/g) content. Wushwush green tea showed slight inhibitory effect on L. aethiopica while the lack tea extracts (Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush) exhibited no antileishmanial activity. Wushwush green tea did not show any synergistic or antagonistic effect on the antileishmanial drugs used in this study while Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush black tea extracts exhibited dose dependant inhibitory activity to the commonly used antileishmanial drugs included in this study.

  7. The antiplaque efficacy of white tea extract mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Kalyan Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the antiplaque efficacy of a mouthwash containing white tea. It also assessed the antibacterial properties of white tea against Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa in vitro. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects with healthy periodontium were randomly chosen and were divided into three groups and advised to use mouthwashes A, B, and C (Group A, white tea; Group B, distilled water [placebo]; Group C, chlorhexidine for 4 days. They were advised to refrain from any kind of mechanical oral hygiene techniques. Plaque index (PI was checked on day 1 and 5. In vitro testing for against Pi, Pg, and Aa against white tea extract was undertaken. Results: PI significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0.01 in Groups A, B, and C. In inter-group comparison, there was a statistical significant difference between white tea mouthrinse group and placebo group, chlorhexidine group and placebo group and also chlorhexidine group and white tea mouthrinse group. However, chlohexidine showed superior antiplaque activity. In vitro test, white tea showed effective inhibition against all three bacterial strains Pi, Pg, and Aa at 1% concentration. Conclusion: White tea mouthrinse potently inhibits plaque formation although not as comparable to chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Hence, for those preferring herbal products, white tea mouthrinse is a good option.

  8. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS with the aid of size exclusion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Katsuki, Fumie; Itoh, Akihide; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves and their tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Tea infusions were prepared as usual tea beverage by brewing black tea leaves in boiling water for 5 min. About 40 elements in tea leaves and tea infusions could be determined over the wide concentration range in 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusions to that in tea leaves. From the experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in black tea leaves were classified into three characteristic groups: (i) highly-extractable elements (>55%): Na, K, Co, Ni, Rb, Cs and Tl, (ii) moderately-extractable elements (20-55%): Mg, Al, P, Mn and Zn, and (iii) poorly-extractable elements (<20%): Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sn, Ba and lanthanoid elements. Furthermore, speciation of major-to-trace elements in tea infusions was performed by using a combined system of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ICP-MS (or ICP-AES). As a result, many diverse elements were found to be present as complexes associated with large organic molecules in tea infusions. (author)

  9. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: Comparative study of the reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  10. Improvement of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images after black tea consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanaati, Hossein; Rokni-Yazdi, Hadi; Firouznia, Kavous; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Abahashemi, Firouze; Shakiba, Madjid

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of black tea as the negative oral contrast agent in MRCP. MRCP was performed before and 5 and 15 min after tea consumption for 35 patients. Depiction of the gall bladder (GB), cystic duct (CD), proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD), intrahepatic ducts (IHD), ampulla of vater (AV), main pancreatic duct (MPD) and signal loss of stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Likert scores. Twenty-one of the patients (60%) were female (mean age, 50.3 ± 19.2 years). Regarding visibility of different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree, the post procedure images were better visualized in the distal part of CBD, AV and MPD in Likert and VAS scoring (all P≤0.001). Regarding obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post procedure images showed significant disappearance of high signal in Likert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps≤0.001). Black tea is a simple and safe negative oral contrast agent which reduces the signal intensity of gastrointestinal tract fluid and provides improved depiction of the MPD, the distal CBD and the ampulla during MRCP. (orig.)

  11. Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A.; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishman...

  12. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  14. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  15. Work-related symptoms among workers exposed to black tea dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea may be classified as unfermented green, semi-fermented oolong and fermented black. All of these types are derived from Camellia sinensis, the Tea Plant, which contains the low molecular weight (LMW agent Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg, probably responsible for allergic reactions. The aim of our study was to asses the work-related allergic symptoms and IgE-mediated sensitivity among black tea packers. Material and Methods: Study groups comprised 26 black tea packers (group 1 and 20 office workers (group 2. A questionnaire, skin prick tests (SPTs to common allergens and black tea, evaluation of specific IgE (asIgE to Camellia sinensis and moulds, pre- and post-work-shift spirometry were performed. Results: At least 1 symptom suggesting allergic disease was reported by 85% of the tea packers and 60% of the office workers. The most frequent positive results of SPTs were obtained with moulds (8%. A small decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s after the work shift was observed among tea packers sensitized to moulds. Conclusions: Although specific sensitization to black tea was not observed in our study groups, cough and skin symptoms were significantly more frequently among the tea packers than in office workers. The irritant impact on the airways and the skin of tea dust and/or sensitization to moulds contaminating tea leaves are being suspected. Med Pr 2015;66(1:11–15

  16. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  17. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  18. DNA degradation by water extract of green tea in the presence of copper ions: implications for anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arshi; Azam, Sonish; Hadi, Naghma; Hadi, S M

    2003-04-01

    In recent years a number of reports have documented the chemopreventive effect of green tea consumption on various types of cancers such as those of bladder, prostate, esophagus and stomach. This property is attributed to the presence in green tea of polyphenols known as catechins. These include epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin. In addition to their antioxidant properties plant derived polyphenolics are also capable of oxidative DNA damage particularly in the presence of transition metal ions. We have recently proposed a mechanism for cytotoxic action of plant-derived polyphenols against cancer cells that involves mobilization of endogenous copper and consequent prooxidant action. In partial support of the idea, in the present paper we show that water extract of green tea is considerably more efficient than black tea extract in DNA cleavage in the presence of copper ions. Green tea extract also shows a higher rate of Cu(II) reduction and consequent hydroxyl radical formation. Cu(II) reduction is presumably accompanied by the formation of 'oxidized species' of tea polyphenols, which in turn also appear to catalyze the reduction of Cu(II) leading to redox cycling of copper ions. The results are discussed in relation to the structural differences between polyphenols of green and black tea. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Microfiltration of high concentration black tea streams for haze removal using polymeric membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Argyle, Iain .S.; Bird, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Black tea used for ready-to-drink beverages suffers from an inherent haze problem affecting the appeal of products in terms of colour and appearance; the effect also diminishes health-giving properties. Microfiltration of black tea streams up to 10.0 wt.% has been carried out in an attempt to remove this haze as a replacement to current alkali solubilisation methods which can damage the product. The three commercial polysulphone membranes tested show superior haze removal in tea when filtered...

  20. Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study used black tea and its impregnates were used as an adsorbents for the removal of textile dyes such as methylene blue and malachite green. The impregnation technique was adopted for the preparation of metal impregnates. The present study shows that used black tea and its impregnate exhibit ...

  1. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Poppel, G. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    Background: Tea is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Antioxidant polyphenol compounds (such as catechins and flavonols) are abundantly present in both green and black teas and have been observed to have anticarcinogenic properties in cell and animal model studies. In black

  2. Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... In the present study used black tea and its impregnates were used as an adsorbents for the removal of textile dyes such as methylene blue and malachite green. The impregnation technique was adopted for the preparation of metal impregnates. The present study shows that used black tea and its ...

  3. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  4. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  5. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  6. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa P. Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas using the osmotic evaporation (OE process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas.

  7. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marisa P; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-12-28

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m². The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl₂ 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m²·m -3 , it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% ( w / w ) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas.

  8. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  9. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5.......0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  10. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  11. Comparison of the effect of green, white and black tea on Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during refrigerated

    OpenAIRE

    Premalatha Muniandy; Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of green, white and black tea (Camellia sinensis) on lactic acid production and the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during 3 weeks of refrigerated storage. Three types of tea water extracts were added into a milk-starter culture mixture and incubated at 42 °C until the pH was reduced to 4.5. All yogurts were then refrigerated (4 °C) for up to 21 days and samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acid and viable counts...

  12. Optimization of Protein Extraction and Decoloration Conditions for Tea Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun CUI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To optimize alkaline method for extracting proteins from tea residue (TR, the effect of extraction conditions on tea protein extraction rate (TPER was investigated. Single factor experiment showed the extraction temperature 80 °C, extraction time 100 min, pH value 13 and liquid–solid ratio 40:1 as the optimal extraction conditions. The orthogonal test revealed that the maximum TPER reached 29.71% under the following optimal combination of conditions: extraction temperature 70 °C, extraction time 60 min, pH 12 and liquid–solid ratio 50:1. For optimizing the purification of tea residue proteins, isoelectric point precipitation (pI, ammonium sulfate precipitation (aS and isoelectric point plus ammonium sulfate precipitation (iPAS were compared. The result showed that the highest protein precipitation rate (PPR was 89.70% which was generated by using iPAS. Furthermore, powdered activated carbon was chosen as the most suitable decolorant for the extracted proteins.

  13. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and In vitro Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-Omi

    2014-07-01

    Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin's activity in the rumen.

  15. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  16. Comparative healing property of kombucha tea and black tea against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice: possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debashish; Hassarajani, Sham A; Maity, Biswanath; Narayan, Geetha; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2010-12-01

    The healing activity of black tea (BT) and BT fermented with Candida parapsilosis and kombucha culture, designated as CT and KT respectively against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied in a mouse model. The KT sample (KT4) produced by fermenting BT for four days, showed the best DPPH radical scavenging capacity and phenolics contents. Hence the ulcer-healing activity of KT4 was compared with those of CT4 and BT. All the tea extracts (15 mg kg(-1)) could effectively heal the gastric ulceration as revealed from the histopathological and biochemical studies, with relative efficacy as KT4 > CT4 ∼ BT. The healing capacities of the tea extracts could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to protect the mucin content of the gastric tissues. In addition, the ability of KT4 to reduce gastric acid secretion might also contribute to its ulcer-healing activity. The tea preparation KT4 (15 mg kg(-1)) was as effective as the positive control, omeprazole (3 mg kg(-1)) in ulcer healing.

  17. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de Ric; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and

  18. Extraction of caustic potash from spent tea for biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Sarina; Faiz Che Fisol, Ahmad; Sharikh, Atikah Mohamed; Noraini Jimat, Dzun; Jamal, Parveen

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels due to its low gas emission and economical value. This study aims to extract caustic potash (KOH) from spent tea and to optimize the transesterfication process based on parameters such as amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and methanol to oil ratio. The spent tea was first dried at 60°C prior to calcination at 600°C for two hours. Caustic Potash were extracted from the calcined spent tea. The transesterification process was done based on Design of Experiments (DOE) to study the effects of amount of catalyst ranging from 0.5 wt % to 2.5 wt %, reaction temperature from 55°C to 65°C and methanol to oil ratio from 6:1 to 12:1 at a constant agitation rate of 300 rpm for three hours. The calcined spent tea produced was recorded the highest at 54.3 wt % and the extracted catalyst was 2.4 wt %. The optimized biodiesel yield recorded was 56.95% at the optimal conditions of 2.5 wt % amount of catalyst, 65°C reaction temperature and 9:1 methanol to oil ratio.

  19. Black tea aroma inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin-A after arithmetic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto, Ai; Fukui, Natsuki; Kaneda, Chisa; Torita, Shoko; Goto, Keiichi; Nanjo, Fumio; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2018-01-24

    Growing attention has been paid to the effects of food flavor components on alleviating negative brain functions caused by stressful lifestyles. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effect of two kinds of black tea aromas on physical and psychological stress induced by the Uchida-Kraepelin test, based on salivary chromogranin-A (CgA) levels as a stress marker and subjective evaluations (Profile of Mood States). Compared with the water exposure control, inhaling black tea aroma (Darjeeling and Assam in this study) induced lower salivary CgA concentration levels after 30 min of mental stress load tasks. This anti-stress effect of black tea aroma did not differ between the two tea types even though the concentration of the anti-stress components in the Darjeeling tea aroma was higher than that in the Assam aroma. However, Darjeeling tea aroma tended to decrease the tension and/or anxiety score immediately after the first exposure. Inhaling black tea aroma may diminish stress levels caused by arithmetic mental stress tasks, and Darjeeling tea aroma tended to improve mood before mental stress load.

  20. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon, E.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19μg GAE/g, TFC (367.84 and 325.18μg QE/g, FRAP (887.38 and 209.38μg TE/g, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity (1233.03 and 866.39μg AAE/g. Caffeine content per cup (200mL in black, green, and white tea was 63, 51, and 49mg respectively. Changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of teas were modelled using zero, first, and fractional-conversion-first-order (FCFO kinetic models. Results fitted a FCFO kinetic model, providing useful data for maximum phytochemical preservation in the optimisation of industrial and domestic processing. As a dietary comparison, green, black, and white tea were found to have a greater phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than fresh orange and apple juice. It can be concluded that green and black teas are significant sources of dietary phenolic antioxidants.

  1. Interfering Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer by CA 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Ali Abdul Hussein S; Tawfeeq, Ekhlas F

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to determine the possible effects of black tea consumption on the level of CA 19-9 antigen in the human body. The level of CA 19-9 was measured in 270 healthy individuals who consumed heavy amounts of black tea. About 43.3 % of involved individuals were revealed to have elevated levels of CA 19-9. Males with high values of CA 19-9 represented the greatest number of involved individuals. The cutoff value of high levels of CA 19-9 in all individuals was ranged 69-105 U/ml. Consuming heavy amounts of black tea could be considered an important interfering factor that affects the levels of CA 19-9. The cutoff or predictive value of CA 19-9 in heavy-consuming people of black tea was determined.

  2. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon flavoured black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, ...

  3. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-28

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts.

  4. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  5. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  6. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Michael; Limeback, Hardy

    2017-01-01

    In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand. PMID:28713433

  7. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Aoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria activation factor (MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample “E80” from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  8. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuki; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Takemasa, Tohru; Numata, Osamu

    2017-03-29

    Mitochondria activation factor (MAF) is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample "E80" from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  9. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  10. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  11. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  12. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  13. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polymeric black tea polyphenols inhibit 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish B.

    2008-01-01

    Tea polyphenols like epigallocatechin gallate and theaflavins are established chemopreventive agents for colorectal carcinogenesis. However, studies on evaluating similar chemopreventive properties of thearubigins or polymeric black tea polyphenols (PBPs), the most abundant polyphenols in black tea, are limited. Hence, in the present study we aim to investigate chemopreventive effects along with probable mechanisms of action of PBP extract employing 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats as experimental model. The present study suggests that PBPs, like other tea polyphenols, also inhibit DMH-induced colorectal tumorigenesis by decreasing tumor volume and multiplicity. This study also shows that although the pretreatment with PBP extract could induce detoxifying enzymes in hepatic and colorectal tissue, it did not show any additional chemopreventive effects when compared to treatments with PBP extract after initiation with DMH. Mechanistically, PBP extract may inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis by decreasing DMH-induced cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Treatments with PBP extract showed decreased levels of COX-2, c-MYC and cyclin D1 proteins which aid cell proliferation probably by regulating β-catenin by maintaining expression of APC and decreasing inactivation of GSK3β. DMH-induced activation of MAP kinases such as ERK and JNK was also found to be inhibited by treatments with PBP extract. In conclusion, the protective effects of PBP extract could be attributed to inhibition of DMH-induced cellular proliferation probably through β-catenin regulation

  15. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Lin, C.S.; Wu, C.; Liao, C.E.; Lin, H.Y.

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  16. Characterization of corrinoid compounds from a Japanese black tea (Batabata-cha) fermented by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Syuhei; Watanabe, Fumio; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2004-02-25

    A Japanese fermented black tea (Batabata-cha) contained a considerable amount of vitamin B(12) (456 +/- 39 ng per 100 g dry tea leaves and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ng per 100 mL of tea drink). A corrinoid compound was partially purified and characterized from the tea leaves. The patterns of the purified compound by the silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatography and C18 reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography were identical to those of authentic vitamin B(12). When 20 week old vitamin B(12) deficient rats, which excreted substantial amounts (about 250 mg/day) of methylmalonic acid in urine as an index of vitamin B(12) deficiency, were fed the tea drink (50 mL/day, 1 ng of vitamin B(12)) for 6 weeks, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion (169 +/- 29 mg/day) of the tea drink-supplemented 26 week old rats decreased significantly relative to that (250 +/- 32 mg/day) of the deficient rats. The results indicate that the vitamin B(12) found in the fermented black tea is bioavailable in mammals.

  17. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  18. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  19. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  1. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  2. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300?mL water contains about 50?mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been ...

  3. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  4. Determination of trace element and heavy metal in black tea and tea leaves using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mohamed Abualgasim Abdalhakam

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information about the trace element and heavy metals concentrations in black tea and tea leaves. 23 different samples were collected from the Sudanese local market. The collected samples were characterized as the most common used items in Sudan. The concentration of trace and heavy elements were determined using x-ray fluorescence (X RF) technique. The standard reference materials (IAEA-V-10) and hay (powder) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical result. The measured values were found in agreement with the certified values. The elements determined were K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb, and Sr. The average concentration of the elements is black tea were 2277.43, 7245.71, 1.11, 1025.29, 334.29, 6.88, 11.24, 9.47, 1.02, 7.08, 97.4 and 63.21 respectively while the average concentration of the elements in leaves tea were 2644.44, 8805.56, 1.02, 571.81, 295.44, 6.19, 10.69, 9.26, 0.91, 13.42, 63.03 and 67.14 respectively. The results showed an increase in the concentration of some elements such as calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine, rubidium and strontium (22500, 6.75, 48.9, 194, 4.37, 9,77, 24.9, 8.23, 7.79, 40,9) ppm respectively compared to certified values. Correlation between concentration of certain element and cluster analysis were preformed and the results compared with values of literature and the concentrations of some elements found to be similar.(Author)

  5. Interaction mechanism between green tea extract and human α-amylase for reducing starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Huan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xingfeng

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of the green tea extract on human pancreatic α-amylase activity and its molecular mechanism. The green tea extract was composed of epicatechin (59.2%), epigallocatechin gallate (14.6%) and epicatechin gallate (26.2%) as determined by HPLC analysis. Enzyme activity measurement showed that % inhibition and IC50 of the green tea extract (10%, based on starch) were 63.5% and 2.07 mg/ml, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant remained unchanged but the maximal velocity decreased from 0.43 (control) to 0.07 mg/(ml × min) (4 mg/ml of the green tea extract), indicating that the green tea extract was an effective inhibitor against α-amylase with a non-competitive mode. The fluorescence data revealed that the green tea extract bound with α-amylase to form a new complex with static quenching mechanism. Docking study showed the epicatechin gallate in the green tea extract presented stronger affinity than epigallocatechin gallate, with more number of amino acid residues involved in amylase binding with hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Thus, the green tea extract could be used to manipulate starch digestion for potential health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combinatorial effect of nicotine and black tea on heart rate variability: Useful or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, S; Sheibani, M

    2017-06-01

    The effect of nicotine on heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial. Autonomic nervous system is the main regulator of heart rhythm, and heart rate variability is an appropriate index to assessment of the effects of the autonomic system on heart. In this study, the combination effect of nicotine and black tea consumption on sympatho-vagal balance and heart rate variability was investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups as control, tea (2.5 g/100 cc, daily), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d) and tea plus nicotine groups which treated for 28 days, and in the 29th day, their electrocardiograms (lead II) were recorded. The mean of high-frequency power (HF) in tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups was significantly more than control group (P nicotine and tea + nicotine groups was significantly less than control group (P nicotine and tea + nicotine groups in comparison with control group (P nicotine or their combination with dosages used in this study can increase the heart rate variability and improve the sympatho-vagal balance in rat. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rapid tea catechins and caffeine determination by HPLC using microwave-assisted extraction and silica monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, A A; Nofrizal, S; Saad, Bahruddin

    2014-03-15

    A rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method using a monolithic column for the determination of eight catechin monomers and caffeine was developed. Using a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile:methanol (83:6:11) at a flow rate of 1.4 mL min(-1), the catechins and caffeine were isocratically separated in about 7 min. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.11-0.29 and 0.33-0.87 mg L(-1), respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained (94.2-105.2 ± 1.8%) for all samples when spiked at three concentrations (5, 40 and 70 mg L(-1)). In combination with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), the method was applied to the determination of the catechins and caffeine in eleven tea samples (6 green, 3 black and 2 oolong teas). Relatively high levels of caffeine were found in black tea, but higher levels of the catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found in green teas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction between green tea extract and 99mTc-pertechnetate on in vivo distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burak Sabuncu; Fazilet Zumrut Biber Muftuler; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Betul Cekic; Eser Ucar; Perihan Unak

    2014-01-01

    People drink various types of tea without knowing the side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions. In current study, it is aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea extract in different extraction solvents on the radiolabeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) in male Wistar Albino rats. The extraction of green tea was performed in different solvents. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with green tea extract in different extraction solvents or saline (0.9 % NaCl) as a control group for 7 days. The radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with SnCl 2 and 99m Tc. According to experimental results, radiolabeling blood components with 99m Tc were not modified in the usage of the different extraction solvents for green tea extraction, but a significant alteration (P 99m TcO 4 was observed after treatment with green tea extract in distilled water. Although there is no considerable effect on radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially with green tea extract in distilled water. The identified change monitored in this study may cause to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or avoid the repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine. (author)

  9. Optimal extraction parameters of Theabrownin from Sichuan Dark Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sichuan Dark Tea is a popular beverage with hypolipidemic and lifting greasy properties in the minority neighborhoods of Sichuan and Tibet regions. The theabrownin, an important pigment of dark tea, has been proven for the role of the hypolipidemic property in Sichuan Dark Tea. The objective of the study ...

  10. Regular consumption of black tea increases circulating kynurenine concentrations: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Gostner

    2015-06-01

    General significance: The influence of black tea consumption on biomarkers of immune system activation could relate to its general health benefits. Data suggests that the net effect strongly depends on the individual immune state, being stimulatory in healthy individuals, while acting more immune dampening in situations with an inflammatory background.

  11. some factors influencing the free fluoride content in black tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    that is more resistant to erosion by plaque acid and demonstrates a lower surface energy which makes plaque adhesion more difficult. However, excessive intake ... fluoride-halide complexes present in the soil decompose into aluminium and fluoride ions, enhancing their availability to tea plants. The free fluoride ion is then ...

  12. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  13. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  14. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  15. Radiocaesium concentration of the first crop of processed tea and it's extracts, and the second crop of processed tea manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Funahashi, Hideto; Kita, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to understand the relation of 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of its extracts manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012. In the case of the first crop, processed tea was brewed in 30 times its volume in hot water (at 90℃) for 1 minute, the 137 Cs concentration of processed tea extracts was diluted to 1/68.9 that of processed tea on average and extraction efficiency of 137 Cs from processed tea was 46.2% on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of extracts was 0.799(p 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crops of processed tea was analyzed. The 137 Cs concentration of the second crop of processed tea was 0.69 compared with that of the first crop of processed tea on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crop of processed tea was 0.803(p<0.01). (author)

  16. Effect of black tea on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Rahmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin is the most basic denture material used. One of the mechanical properties of an acrylic resin is its transverse strength. The transverse strength test provides an overview of the material's durability in accepting the load at mastication. Consumption of tea, especially black tea in the world placed the second most consumed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of black tea on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Methods: This research was an experimental laboratory with 24 samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin plate with the size of 65 x 10 x 2.5 mm. The sample was divided into 6 groups, each consisted of 4 samples. The first, second, and the third groups were immersed in aquadest for consecutively 1, 4, and 20 days. The fourth, fifth, and sixth groups were immersed in the black tea for consecutively 1, 4, and 20 days. The transverse strength was tested using the three-point bending method with the Universal Testing Machine. The results of the transverse strength measurement were then analyzed statistically by the One-way ANOVA test and Holm's sequential Bonferroni posthoc test as an advanced test. Results: The results of the statistical test showed that p < 0,05 (p = 0,000 which means that the six groups have a significant difference in the average value of the transverse strength. Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was the black tea immersion duration was affecting the transverse strength difference of the heat-polymerized acrylic resin.

  17. Effects of the main extraction parameters on chemical and microbial characteristics of compost tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M K; Yaseen, T; Traversa, A; Ben Kheder, M; Brunetti, G; Cocozza, C

    2016-06-01

    The rising popularity of compost tea as fertilizer or foliar spray against pathogens has encouraged many researchers to evaluate its performance without standardizing its quality, so obtaining inconsistent and controversial results. The fertilizing and pesticide-like effects of compost tea are due to its chemical and microbiological properties. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the best combination of the compost tea extraction parameters for exalting both chemical and microbiological features. A factorial design was adopted to evaluate the effects of compost/water ratio, extraction time, storage duration and storage temperature in different combination on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of compost tea, and the results were elaborated through different statistical analyses. Compost tea nutrients and microorganisms were influenced by compost/water ratio and extraction time. In addition, the storage duration affected the microbial populations, whereas the storage temperature influenced only the fungal population of compost tea. Results suggested that the best combination of the studied parameters was: 1:2.5 compost/water ratio, 2days of extraction time and the compost tea should be utilized immediately after the extraction, since the storage reduced the microbial populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activity of aqueous extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages in the world. In the current study, aqueous extract of green tea (C. sinensis was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activities. Green tea extract (11, 13, 15 mg/ml significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited compound 48/80-induced rat mesentric mast cell degranulation in a dose dependent manner. Anti-anaphylactic activity of green tea extract was performed in female mice. At a dose of 400, 500, 600 mg/kg BW, green tea extract showed significant reduction in the mortality of mice subjected to anaphylactic shock by compound C48/80. Ketotifen was used for comparison. In addition, IR and UV–Visible spectroscopy analysis of green tea extract revealed the presence of functional groups of bioactive compounds. These results suggest that green tea could be useful in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  19. Alkaloid and polyphenol analysis by HPLC in green and black tea powders and their potential use as additives in ruminant diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul S.; Seal, Chris J.

    2018-02-01

    We used HPLC to examine the bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and polyphenols in green and black tea powders and their use as potential additives in ruminant diets. Caffeine was the highest alkaloid in both green and black teas. Green tea had significantly higher concentrations of alkaloids and catechins but lower theaflavins than black tea. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major catechins in green tea while theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate and theaflavin-3-gallate were the major theaflavins in black tea. Tea powders in ruminant diets decreased in vitro rumen ammonia and methane production without affecting volatile fatty acid profiles and the degradability of the diets. The tea powders containing variable amounts of alkaloids, catechins and theaflavins can potentially be used to decrease rumen ammonia and methane productions without any detrimental effect on rumen functions in vitro and perhaps ruminant productive efficiency.

  20. Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineharu, Yohei; Koizumi, Akio; Wada, Yasuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Date, Chigusa; Yamamoto, Akio; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2011-03-01

    The effects of coffee and green, black and oolong teas and caffeine intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality have not been well defined in Asian countries. To examine the relationship between the consumption of these beverages and risk of mortality from CVD, 76,979 individuals aged 40-79 years free of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer at entry were prospectively followed. The daily consumption of beverages was assessed by questionnaires. 1362 deaths were documented from strokes and 650 deaths from CHD after 1,010,787 person-years of follow-up. Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, the multivariable HR and 95% CI for those drinking 1-6 cups/week, 1-2 cups/day and ≥ 3 cups/day were 0.78 (0.50 to 1.20), 0.67 (0.47 to 0.96) and 0.45 (0.17 to 0.87) for strokes among men (p = 0.009 for trend). Compared with non-drinkers of green tea, the multivariable HR for those drinking 1-6 cups/week, 1-2 cups/day, 3-5 cups/day and ≥ 6 cups/day were 0.34 (0.06-1.75), 0.28 (0.07-1.11), 0.39 (0.18-0.85) and 0.42 (0.17-0.88) for CHD among women (p = 0.038 for trend). As for oolong tea, the multivariable HR of those drinking 1-6 cups/week and ≥ 1 cups/day were 1.00 (0.65-1.55) and 0.39 (0.17-0.88) for total CVD among men (p = 0.049 for trend). Risk reduction for total CVD across categories of caffeine intake was most prominently observed in the second highest quintile, with a 38% lower risk among men and 22% among women. Consumption of coffee, green tea and oolong tea and total caffeine intake was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from CVD.

  1. Composition, distribution and risk of total fluorine, extractable organofluorine and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Qingwu; Luo, Ji; Chai, Zhifang; Shen, Jincan

    2017-03-15

    To explore the residual characteristics of fluorine and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in tea, the total fluorine (TF), extractable organofluorine (EOF) and PFCs in 19 Chinese commercial teas of five categories were measured using cyclic neutron activation analysis combined with HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that fluorine mainly existed as inorganic fluorine in teas, and identified fluorine (∑PFCs quantified as F) only accounted for 0.023-0.41% of EOF, indicating that most EOF in tea were still unknown. 50-99% of ∑PFCs in tea were short-chain (C⩽6), while perfluorooctanoic acid was the typical PFCs residual species. Less fermented teas contained significantly higher PFCs (mean, 20ng/g) than more fermented teas (3.0ng/g, p<0.01), suggesting that microbe may degrade PFCs during fermentation. The highest TF content was discovered in Hubei brick tea, which poses risk of fluorosis, whereas PFCs residues in teas caused no immediate harm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption | Sharma | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea is the most common beverage after water. It is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (family: Theaceae). It is consumed in different forms, namely, oolong, green, black and Ilex tea depending on post-harvest treatment and chemical components. Being rich in natural antioxidants, tea is reported to be used in the ...

  3. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Although the inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of diabetes has been reported numerous times, the role of caffeine intake in this association has remained unclear. We evaluated the consumption of coffee and other beverages and food containing caffeine in relation to the incidence of diabetes. The study participants were 5897 men and 7643 women in a community-based cohort in Takayama, Japan. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea and chocolate snacks were measured with a semi-quantitative FFQ in 1992. At the follow-up survey in 2002, the development of diabetes and the time of diagnosis were reported. To assess the association, age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, education in years, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, fat intake and women's menopausal status were adjusted. Among men who consumed one cup per month to six cups per week and among those who consumed one cup per d or more, the associated hazard ratios were 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.97) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.98) compared with those who drank little to no coffee, with a P value for trend of 0.32. The hazard ratios for women with the same coffee consumption patterns were 1.08 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.60) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.44, 1.12), with a P value for trend of 0.03. The association between estimated total caffeine intake and risk of diabetes was insignificant both among men and among women. The results imply that coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake.

  4. CATECHIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME BREWED TEMPERATURE OF BLACK TEA SYRUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuty Anggraini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The catechin contents and the antioxidant activity of black tea syrup that brewed at some temperature still poorly understood. It has been investigated whether catechin contents and antioxidant activity of black tea syrup may be affected by hot or cold water.  The temperature of 30°C, 60°C, and 90°C were used to brew the syrup, and then the catechin and the antioxidant were determined at each temperature by using DPPH radical scavenging activity method. Measurement of DPPH was conducted for 2 minutes reaction time. Catechin contents were determined by using HPLC method. The result of research showed that the catechin and the antioxidant activity affected by temperature tested. Five kinds of catechin derivatives detected in black tea syrup, EGC (epigallocatechin, C (catechin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate, EC (epicatechin and ECG (epicatechin gallate. The highest DPPH scavenging activity of black tea syrup was showed by 30°C.ABSTRAKKandungan katechin dan aktivitas antioksidan dari sirup teh hitam yang diseduh pada beberapa temperatur masih belum begitu dipahami. Pada penelitian ini telah diselidiki apakan kandungan katechin dan aktioksidan dipengaruhi oleh air dingin atau air panas. Temperatur 30oC, 60oC, dan 90oC digunakan untuk menyeduh sirup teh hitam lalu ditentukan kandungan katechin dan aktifitas antioksidannya pada masing-masing temperatur menggunakan metode aktifitas perangkap radikal bebas DPPH (dyphenyl pycrylhydrazyl. Pengukuran DPPH dilakukan selama waktu reaksi dua menit. Kandungan katechin ditentukan menggunakan metode HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan katechin dan aktifitas antioksidan sirup teh hitam dipengaruhi oleh temperatur yang diuji. Lima jenis turunan katechin terdeteksi dalam sirup teh hitam yaitu EGC (epigallocatechin, C (catechin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate, EC (epicatechin and ECG (epicatechin gallate. Aktifitas perangkap DPPH tertinggi dari sirup teh

  5. Development of Candidate Reference Materials of Endosulfan Sulfate and Bifenthrin in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhani Aryana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The candidate reference materials of endosulfan sulfate and bifenthrin in black tea have been developed according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Preparation of candidate material includes grinding and sieving of the black tea leaves, spiking the black tea powder by both analytes, homogenization, and bottling. Homogeneity and short-term stability test were performed using a GC-µECD instrument. Meanwhile, the characterization was carried out by a collaborative study using both of GC-µECD and GC-MS instruments. The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample inhomogeneity, short-term instability and variability in the characterization procedure. In a dry mass fraction, endosulfan sulfate was assigned to be 491 µg kg-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of ± 33.2%, and bifenthrin was assigned to be 937 µg kg-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of ± 18.5%. The candidate reference materials are aimed to support the need of matrix CRM especially for the measurement of pesticide residue for quality assurance work done by laboratories in Indonesia.

  6. Black and green tea--how to make a perfect crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancirova, Martina

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant properties of the black and green tea are well known. The latent bloodstains are detectable by luminol. The bloodstains also can be cover up by drinks and foods containing the antioxidants; thus their presence can cause a decrease of the luminol light emission (false-negative results). The aim of this study was to quantify the light emission decrease of the chemiluminescent mixture prepared according to Weber (containing NaOH) and the chemiluminescent mixture of pH 7.4 (for the determination of the total antioxidant capacity) for the open air-dried sample. The black and green teas and white wine were used as the antioxidant's samples (high and low total antioxidant capacity). The significant decrease of the luminol chemiluminescent emission caused by the presence of the black and green teas (and comparable for both of them) was observed in comparison with the presence of white wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of green tea polyphenols and different tea types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Kong, Fanbin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase which may be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Green tea polyphenols (TPs) strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity by non-competitive inhibition with an IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL(-1) and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea and oolong tea also had dose-dependent inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25 and 1.38 µg mL(-1) (µg polyphenol mL(-1)), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TPs changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TPs during enzymatic hydrolysis. Green TPs, green tea, black tea and oolong tea are excellent α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TPs. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea and oolong tea can potentially be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea extract-based dietary supplements and green tea leaves by LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea extract-based dietary supplements (GTDS) have gained in popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of several GTDS in comparison to the composition of green tea leaves using a LC-MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric an...

  10. In Vitro Color Change of Three Dental Veneering Resins in Tea, Coffee and Tamarind Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muttagi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the in vitro color changes of three dental resin veneering materials when immersed in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts.Materials and Methods: The color changes of heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (Stellondetrey, B, F14, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai, auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (DPI, B, QV5, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai andlight polymerized resin composite (Herculite XRV, Enamel A2, part no. 22860, lot no. 910437, Kerr Corporation, West Collins Avenue, Orange, CA, USA when immersed in water extracts of tea (Tata Tea Ltd. Bangalore, India, coffee (Tata Coffee Ltd. Coorg, Indiaand tamarind were evaluated using computer vision systems. The color images were recorded in R (red, G (green and B (blue form and converted into H (hue, S (saturationand V (value.Results: Significant color change occurred for auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tamarind extract, for heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tea extract andfor light polymerized resin composite in coffee extract. Auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin samples showed an overall higher color change. However, for all the material samples coffee extract produced more color change.Conclusion: These results suggest that the color stability of the resins is influenced by the presence of secondary metabolites such as tartaric acid, tannins, caffeine, saponins and phenols in tamarind, tea and coffee extracts.

  11. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Kannan, A; Bhar, R; Gulati, A; Gaurav, A; Sharma, V K

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS) extract. Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T 0 (control), T 1 , and T 2 , consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50). Animals in group III (T 2 ) were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI), and group II (T 1 ) were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T 2 . Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. The tea seed (T 1 ) or TSS (T 2 ) supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (pTea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  12. Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yu-Jing; Li, Duo

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies regarding the associations of tea and coffee consumption with esophageal cancer (EC) risk are still inconsistent and this meta-analysis was conducted to examine these associations. PubMed, ISI -Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese VIP database up to October 2011 were searched and manual search for reference lists of relevant studies were conducted. Random effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (OR). Twenty-four case-control and cohort studies with 7376 EC cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR of EC was 0.77 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.57, 1.04] for highest vs. non/lowest green tea consumption; but it was statistically significant for case-control studies (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96) and for studies conducted in China (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.95). No significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption against EC risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.86, 2.11). A borderline significantly inverse association of highest vs. non/lowest coffee consumption against EC risk was found (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.01). In conclusion, our data showed that both green tea and coffee consumption, but not black tea consumption, have protective effects on EC.

  13. Quantification of catechins and caffeine from green tea (Camellia sinensis infusions, extract, and ready-to-drink beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Macedo Mendes De Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the levels of catechins and caffeine in various forms of presentation of green tea: infusion tea bags, extract, and ready-to-drink beverage and, based on their content, identify the most suitable for consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analytical method was used for the quantification of catechins and caffeine. The tea bags had the highest concentration of total catechins with 5 to 9.5% followed by the extract with 3.64 to 4.88%, and ready-to-drink green tea beverage showed low levels of catechins, from 0.14 to 0.26%. As for caffeine content, green tea extract had higher concentration (1.96 to 3.54% compared to the tea bags (1.39 to 1.57%. Tea bags were found the most suitable for consumption because it contains higher amounts of catechins and smaller amounts of caffeine.

  14. In Vitro Chemopreventive Properties of Green Tea, Rooibos and Honeybush Extracts in Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandeka U. Magcwebeba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive properties of the herbal teas rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and honeybush (Cyclopia spp. have been demonstrated on mouse skin in vivo but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of rooibos and two Cyclopia species in different skin cells, using green tea (Camellia sinensis as a benchmark. Extracts were also characterised for their major individual polyphenols by high performance liquid chromatography and spectroscopically for the total polyphenol (TP groups. The methanol extract of rooibos, containing higher levels of polyphenols than its aqueous extract, displayed similar activity to green tea as it selectively targeted premalignant cells by inhibiting cell proliferation at lower concentrations whilst inducing apoptosis via membrane depolarisation at higher concentrations. Specific roles of the major rooibos dihydrochalcones and flavanol/proanthocyanidin-type (FLAVA compounds are likely to be involved. The aqueous extracts of the Cyclopia species were more active against cell proliferation and at inducing apoptosis which was associated with a higher FLAVA content and a reduced TP/FLAVA ratio. In contrast, their methanol extracts exhibited a cytoprotective effect against apoptosis which was related to their monomeric xanthone and flavanone content. The underlying chemopreventive properties of green tea and the herbal teas appear to be associated with diverse and complex monomeric/polymeric polyphenolic cell interactions.

  15. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of phenolic antioxidants from green tea using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang Pil; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-10-31

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 ° C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg)/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  16. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LAPHET LABORATORY PROCESS AND TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) PRODUCTS BETWEEN CHINA AND MYANMAR

    OpenAIRE

    Pyie Phyo Maung; Qian He

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of extraction method on the flavonoids and antioxidant activity was investigated. The flavonoid contents of Laphet(fermented pickled tea leaves) possessed more than twice as much than fresh tea leaves. Chinese green tea had higher flavonoid contents than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar black tea’s flavonoid contents were higher. In laphet, both countries tea’s products possessed similar contents. Antioxidant activity of tea extracts were determined by using DPPH assay...

  17. The protective activity of tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Shimamura, T

    1991-02-01

    Extracts of black tea exhibited bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae O1. The tea extract inhibited the haemolysin activity of V. cholerae O1, El Tor and the morphological changes of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by cholera toxin. Tea extract also reduced fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice and by V. cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea has protective activity against V. cholerae O1.

  18. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  19. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  20. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  1. Extraction and analysis of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMONDI-GUYA

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... value < 3.5 meq O2/kg, saponification value between 182 to 187 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid < 1.5% oleic acid, total ... Key words: Tea seed oil, iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acids, total polyphenols, antioxidant .... This was estimated according to the method of Morales and.

  2. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemopreventive agents in tea include catechins, caffeine, polysaccharides, apigenin and luteolin which inhibit, reverse or retard the ... tumor cellular proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers with potency similar to natural ..... on the effect of chitosan mordanting condition. Fiber. Polym 2006; 7: 255-261. 3 Reinert G ...

  3. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  4. Green tea extract-induced lethal toxicity in fasted but not in nonfasted dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuei-Meng; Yao, Jiaqin; Boring, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Recent chronic toxicity studies performed on green tea extracts in fasted dogs have revealed some unique dose-limiting lethal liver, gastrointestinal, and renal toxicities. Key findings included necrosis of hepatic cells, gastrointestinal epithelia and renal tubules, atrophy of reproductive organs, atrophy and necrosis of hematopoietic tissues, and associated hematological changes. The polyphenol cachetins (a mixture of primarily epigallocatechin gallate [≥55%]; plus up to 10% each of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate) appeared to be the causative agents for the observed toxicities because they are the active ingredients of green tea extract studied. Conduct of the study in nonfasted dogs under the same testing conditions and dose levels showed unremarkable results. Assuming both studies were valid, at the identified no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of each study, systemic exposures (based on area under the curve [AUC]) were actually lower in fasted than nonfasted dogs, suggesting that fasting may have rendered the target organ systems potentially more vulnerable to the effects of green tea extract. The toxicity mechanisms that produced lethality are not known, but the results are scientifically intriguing. Because tea drinking has become more popular in the United States and abroad, the mode of action and site of action of green tea extract-induced lethal toxicities during fasting and the role of other phytochemical components of Folia Camellia sinensis (including nonpolyphenol fractions, which are often consumed when whole-leaf products are presented) warrant further investigation.

  5. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  6. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  7. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, Jun Ho; Lee, Hyun Ja; Byun, Myung Woo

    2003-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract.

  8. Greener synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using green tea extract and their magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, V. C.; Waifalkar, P. P.; Dongle, T. D.; Sahoo, Subasa C.; Kollu, P.; Patil, P. S.; Patil, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The facile green synthesis method has been employed for the synthesis of biocompatible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using green tea extract. The effective reduction of ferric ions (Fe3+) were done using an aqueous green tea extract where it acts as reducing as well as capping agent. The effect of iron precursor to green tea extract ratio and reaction temperature was studied. The MNPs were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer. It was observed that the reaction temperature strongly affects the magnetic and structural properties of MNPs. The magnetic measurements study showed that Fe3O4 MNPs are superparamagnetic at 300 K, while at 60 K have ferromagnetic as well as superparamagnetic contributions.

  9. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  10. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomized double blind study of a green and black tea agent, AssuriTEA®, in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Capodice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green and black teas have known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 3 doses of a water-extracted green and black tea agent (AssuriTEA® [AT]. Methods: Subjects who met inclusion criteria were randomized to one of four groups: 1000, 500, or 250 mg AT or placebo for 28 days. At baseline (BL and day 28, serum antioxidant capacity, quality of life and safety were assessed. Results: Of the 55 subjects screened, 43 were considered evaluable. Age was 56.77 ± 2.83 years (mean ± SEM. Evaluable subjects demonstrated improved antioxidant status, as measured by ferric iron reducing antioxidant power at all doses over the placebo (p < 0.05. There was significant improvement in cellular antioxidant protection in the 1000 mg AT group versus the placebo (p=0.032. Glucose levels were higher in the placebo group versus the 250 mg AT group (p=0.023 and there was a significant improvement in systolic blood pressure in the 250 mg AT group at day 28 versus BL (p=0.048. In the 1000 mg AT group, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure at day 28 versus BL (p=0.017. There was a significant improvement in the vitality category in the 1000 mg AT group (p=0.029. Overall, AT was safe and well tolerated with no differences in adverse events or serum chemistries between groups. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the administration of AT resulted in improvement of serum antioxidant status, vitality level, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure in test subjects.

  12. Fermentation characteristics of some assamica clones and process optimization of black tea manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Ananta Madhab; Mahanta, Pradip Kumar

    2003-10-22

    Changes in the specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and protease and in the relative amounts of flavan-3-ols for eight genetically derived cultivated teas at various stages of leaf maturity and in four succescive seasons were examined. A series of investigations were carried out to study the cross-reactivity of complex polyphenols and PPO-generated orange-yellow theaflavins, as well as of POD oxidized substrates, producing brown so-called thearubigins during fermented tea processing. From the estimation of five major catechins, PPO activities in young shoots, and theaflavin and thearubigin contents of crushed, torn, and curled (CTC) black teas, the superior variety and flavorful flush characteristics were refined. Notable protein hydrolysis by endogenous protease as measured from free amino acids and formation of tannin-protein complex (browning products) was obtained for cultivar character and product quality. Results showed that process optimization with respect to time, temperature, moisture, and pH maximizes PPO-catalyzed desirable theaflavin pigments, whereas POD-mediated chemical reaction produces dull color.

  13. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  14. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  15. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  16. Anti-polymerization activity of tea and fruits extracts during rapeseed oil heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, Dominik; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Korczak, Józef

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of natural antioxidants on polymerization of partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil heated in 170°C for 40h. In the research ethanolic extracts of green tea leaves (China Lung Ching), yellow tea leaves (China Kakecha), cranberry, blackberry, and lime were used. The yellow and green tea extracts were characterized by the highest content of total polyphenol and antioxidant activity. Polymers of triacylglycerols were found only in the polar fraction of heated oil. During heating, the increase of dimers, trimers, and oligomers was observed. However, it was dependent on the used additives and not directly related to the content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. The final content of polymers in oil samples increased in the fallowing order: green teaoil without additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of a (Na+K+)-ATPase inhibitor in extracts of tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnella, G.A.; MacGregor, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of tea were examined for inhibitors of the sodium-potassium pump by investigating the effect of the extracts on 1) isolated preparations of (Na + -K + )-ATPase from hog brain and human blood cells; 2) the displacement of radioactive ouabain from its specific receptor on red blood cells, and 3) the uptake of radioactive rubidium in intact red blood cells. It has been found that extracts of tea were potent inhibitors of the purified hog brain (Na + -K + )-ATPase. However, the inhibition was not specific for the (Na + -K + )-ATPase and the extract of tea did not displace 3 H-ouabain in a specific ouabain-receptor assay. Additionally, the tea extracts displayed only a small inhibitory effect on the uptake of 86 Rb in intact red blood cells. These observations suggest that the material is not like digitalis and that, unlike cardiac glycosides, it may inhibit the activity of the (Na + -K + )-ATPase by interacting with the enzyme at intracellular sites

  18. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  19. Green tea extract as an anti-browning agent for cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Inga; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and colour stability of juice during short-time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice colour during storage was expressed as the total colour differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A 420 ). All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration-dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. Green tea extract may be an effective anti-browning agent for short-time stored cloudy apple juices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Comparative potential of black tea leaves waste to granular activated carbon in adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ifelebuegu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption properties and mechanics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds; 17 β-estradiol, 17 α – ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A on locally available black tea leaves waste and granular activated carbon were investigated. The results obtained indicated that the kinetics of adsorption were pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature dependent with equilibrium being reached at 20 to 40 minutes for tea leaves waste and 40 to 60 minutes for granular activated compound. Maximum adsorption capacities of 3.46, 2.44 and 18.35 mg/g were achieved for tea leaves waste compared to granular activated compound capacities of 4.01, 2.97 and 16.26 mg/g for 17 β- estradiol, 17 α-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A respectively. Tea leaves waste adsorption followed pseudo-first order kinetics while granular activated compound fitted better to the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The experimental isotherm data for both tea leaves waste and granular activated compound showed a good fit to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models with the Langmuir model showing the best fit. The thermodynamic and kinetic data for the adsorption indicated that the adsorption process for tea leaves waste was predominantly by physical adsorption while the granular activated compound adsorption was more chemical in nature. The results have demonstrated the potential of waste tea leaves for the adsorptive removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from water.

  1. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  2. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  3. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four aqueous plant extracts (APEs) of Acorus calamus (L), Xanthium strumarium (L), Polygonum hydropiper (L) and Clerodendron infortunatum (Gaertn) were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/v) concentrations against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner). Also, the ...

  4. Antifungal activities of the essential oil extracted from the tea of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potency of the essential oil of tea of savanna (Lippia multiflora) on three fungal strains. The essential oil is extracted of Lippia multiflora by steam distillation and the antifungal activity in vitro was investigated on Apergillus flavus, Asperguillus Niger and Fusarium sp ...

  5. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and its composite with natural graphite (NG) powder for application in solar cell. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using green tea leaf extract as non-toxic and eco-friendly reducing material under microwave irradiation. The formation of ZnO nanoparticles was ...

  6. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 38, No. 3, June 2015, pp. 653–657. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and its application for solar cell. PRASANTA SUTRADHAR and MITALI SAHA∗. Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Agatrala 799046, Tripura, India.

  7. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

  8. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples-Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%-109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%-12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  9. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  10. Artificial neural network modeling and optimization of ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; Xue, Yujing; Xu, Yinxiang; Shen, Yuhong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ultrahigh pressure extraction of green tea polyphenols was modeled and optimized by a three-layer artificial neural network. A feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was used to evaluate the effects of pressure, liquid/solid ratio and ethanol concentration on the total phenolic content of green tea extracts. The neural network coupled with genetic algorithms was also used to optimize the conditions needed to obtain the highest yield of tea polyphenols. The obtained optimal architecture of artificial neural network model involved a feed-forward neural network with three input neurons, one hidden layer with eight neurons and one output layer including single neuron. The trained network gave the minimum value in the MSE of 0.03 and the maximum value in the R(2) of 0.9571, which implied a good agreement between the predicted value and the actual value, and confirmed a good generalization of the network. Based on the combination of neural network and genetic algorithms, the optimum extraction conditions for the highest yield of green tea polyphenols were determined as follows: 498.8 MPa for pressure, 20.8 mL/g for liquid/solid ratio and 53.6% for ethanol concentration. The total phenolic content of the actual measurement under the optimum predicated extraction conditions was 582.4 ± 0.63 mg/g DW, which was well matched with the predicted value (597.2mg/g DW). This suggests that the artificial neural network model described in this work is an efficient quantitative tool to predict the extraction efficiency of green tea polyphenols. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa caninaL.) Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlbay, Zeynep; Şahin, Selin; Kirbaşlar, Ş İsmail

    2013-02-05

    Three different brands of Rose hip ( Rosa canina L.) tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried matter (DM). The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM), followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM).

  12. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L. Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

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    Zeynep İlbay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L. tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH, methanol (MeOH, and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g of dried matter (DM. The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM, followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM.

  13. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlbay, Zeynep; Şahin, Selin; Kırbaşlar, Ş. İsmail

    2013-01-01

    Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH), methanol (MeOH), and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v) by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried matter (DM). The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM), followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM). PMID:28239095

  14. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

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    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  15. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture.

  16. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  17. Effect of Green Tea Extract on the Treatment of Dentin Erosion: An in Vitro Study

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    M Mirkarimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of green tea on dentin erosion.Materials and Methods: Twelve extracted sound human premolars were immersed in Coca Cola with a pH of 2.8 for 5 minutes. The surface microhardness was measured with a Knoop diamond under a load of 50gr/10s. The teeth were immersed in green tea (Camellia sinensis solution for one minute. The microhardness values were measured again and compared with pretreatment values by the Wilcoxon test. Three eroded teeth, which were treated with green tea, were evaluated under scanning electron microscope.Results: The mean ± SD of microhardness values before and after immersion in green tea were 46.5±2.79 and 54.5±4.4, respectively with statistically significant differences between the two measurements (P<0.01. In SEM evaluation there was an improvement in eroded dentin appearance and there were deposits on the dentin surface.Conclusion: Green tea (Camellia sinensis increased the microhardness of eroded dentin and improved the eroded texture.

  18. ESR detection of free radicals in polyphenolic extracts from wine grapes, olives and green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F.; Hunter, C.R.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Polyphenols are widespread in vegetables and fruits and they play an important role in human diet and health: these compounds act mainly as antioxidants and radical scavengers. In this work we have detected free radicals in the following natural polyphenols: Endotelon, an anthocyanic grapeskin extract; malvidin 3,5-O-diglucosides (malvin); oleuropein, an olive polyphenol; a commercial green tea extract, and pure epigallocatechingallate EGCG. The investigation was performed using a Varian E-12 ESR Spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All except the green tea extract gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10 gauss linewidth. The tea extract signal showed 3 lines, one ∼ 20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼ 2-3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N 2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals About 50% of the extract is represented by epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). Using the pure sample EGCG it was possible to assign the appropriate radical, which corresponded with the broadest and strongest 'single' signal (∼20g wide). The presence of the free radicals in the solid extracts shows that the appropriate molecules can act as radical scavengers by forming stable radicals

  19. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

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    Ana Eugenia Thea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  20. The contents of fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their aqueous extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.N.; Kazi, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined in Green Tea samples imported from different countries such as India, China, Kenya and Bangladesh in packets and without packets were purchased from authorized tea dealers in Peshawar. Wet ashing procedures were employed for decomposing the organic matter in the tea samples. Aqueous extract of each green tea sample was also prepared by heating with de-ionized water at 80 /sup o/C on electric heating plates. (author)

  1. Black tea (camellia sinensis ) role in modulating antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in γ -irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N.N.; Hussien, E.M.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the efficacy of camellia sinensis beverage in reducing gamma-irradiation - induced oxidative damage to the liver, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats. Animals were received the black tea beverage (BTB) as a sole source of potable liquid for seven consecutive days before exposing them to single dose of 6 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation . The irradiated rats continued to receive BTB for 21 days before sacrifice. The effect of BTB was assessed by monitoring the plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (AcP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C,LDL-C and VLDL-C) as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC). In addition, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) in blood and liver of experimental rats. It was observed that tea administration lowers significantly (p< 0.05), the plasma AST, ALT, AcP activities and TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and PCC concentration as well as blood and liver TBARS. The level of GSH and activity of CAT in the blood and liver tissue were however shown to be significantly elevated (p< 0.05).The results provide useful information for future investigations and strongly implicate the beneficial application of BTB

  2. Black tea assisted exfoliation using a kitchen mixer allowing one-step production of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi; Farhana Abu Kassim, Nurul; Hannifa Abdullah, Abu; Sakinah Zainal Abidin, Anis; Sameha Ismail, Fadwa; Yusoh, Kamal

    2017-07-01

    A kitchen mixer is one of the possible tools for the exfoliation of graphene. While organic solvents such as NMP or DMF are suitable for the exfoliation of graphite, the majority are toxic and dangerously harmful when exposed to humans and the environment. Therefore, an alternative solvent must be proposed for green and sustainable production of graphene. In this initial work, we have developed a new synthesis method for graphene through the direct exfoliation of graphite in commercial black tea. We found that our maximum yield concentration of graphene is Y  =  0.032 mg ml-l after 15 min of mixing. From the data of Raman, the level of defects in our produced graphene is suggested as being very minor (I D/I G  =  0.17), despite possible graphene functionalization by oxygen groups in tea. Incorporation of our graphene into PMMA results in shifting the onset temperature from 300 °C to 326 °C, which impressively validates the potential of the produced graphene as a thermal reinforcement material for polymer composites.

  3. Batch fermentation of black tea by kombucha: A contribution to scale-up

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    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local domestic Kombucha was used in fermentation of 1.5 g L-1 of black tea (Indian tea, " Vitamin ", Horgoš, Serbia and Montenegro, sweetened with approximately 70 g L'1 of sucrose. Inoculation was performed either with 10% or 15% (v/v of fermentation broth from previous process. The fermentation was conducted in geometrically similar vessels with 0.4 L, 0.8 L, 4 L and 8 L of substrate, at 22±1 °C for 28 days. The samples were analyzed after 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days, so that their pH values, content of total acids sucrose, glucose and fructose contents, as well as contents of ethanol and vitamin C were determined. Based on the experiment design, the response surface for the product pH, as a function of time, beverage volume and inoculum concentration, was defined in the form of a second-order polynomial. From the obtained response surface, a formula for scaling-up of the process was derived.

  4. Tea and coffee intake in relation to risk of breast cancer in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R; Stampfer, Meir J; Spiegelman, Donna; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2010-11-01

    Prospective studies of tea and coffee intake and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. None of these studies has reported separately on African-American women. We prospectively examined the relation of tea and coffee consumption to risk of breast cancer among 52,062 women aged 21-69 at enrollment in 1995 in the Black Women's Health Study. Dietary intake was assessed in 1995 and 2001 using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. During 12 years of follow-up through 2007, there were 1,268 incident cases of breast cancer. Intakes of tea, coffee, and caffeine were not significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer overall. The IRRs for consumption of ≥4 cups/day compared with none were 1.13 (95% CI 0.78-1.63) for tea and 1.03 (95% CI 0.77-1.39) for caffeinated coffee, and the IRR for the top quintile relative to the bottom quintile of caffeine intake was 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.24). Consumption of tea, coffee, and caffeine was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk according to menopausal status or hormone receptor status. Our findings suggest that intakes of tea, coffee, and caffeine are not associated with the risk of breast cancer among African-American women.

  5. Potentiality of Uranium Adsorption and Its Associated Elements From Waste Laboratory Liquids Using Black Tea Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    The black tea waste, representing an efficient natural, bio-adsorbent has been applied for adsorption of some hazardous elements. Several batch wise experiments are conducted to determine the relevant factors affecting its adsorption characteristics especially for uranium. The studied factors are the effects of stirring, agitation time, ph, solid/ liquid ratio and initial metal concentration. The equilibrium data are found to be satisfactorily fitting to Langmuir isotherms. A maximum-metal uptake of 60.56 mg/g was observed for uranium at a solution ph range of 4.5-5.5. The studied elements include U, Th and REEs in the presences of some possible interfering elements. Elution of the studied interesting elements has been achieved and from their eluates proper concentrates have been prepared

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

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    M.D.A. Saldaña

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  7. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts on Durability of Tilapia

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    Rozita Golvardzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study tried to investigate the antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects of green tea and grape seed extract (with a volume of 2% on durability of Tilapia packed inpolyethylene bags, which were kept in cool temperature of 4 ± 1 °C. Methods: Prepared fish were divided into 3 batches: 2 batches were treated by dipping for 30 min in ethanolic of green tea extract (2% v/v and grape seed (2% v/v, respectively, while the third batch was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological such as total volatile count and psychrotrophic count, and chemical such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA, and free fatty acid (FFA values. The sensory characteristic was over a period of 20 days. Results: The results indicated that the two extracts' treatments delayed significantly (P < 0.05. Lipid oxidation and process of spoilage in comparison with the psychrotrophic bacteria and total viable count control also remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log CFU/g. According to sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses results, the treatment of grape seed extract had high quality and enhanced the beneficial effects on sensory characteristics in comparison with other treatments. Conclusions: the present study showed that the grape seed extract and green tea were very effective in extending the shelf life of Tilapia during refrigerated storage.

  8. Effect of green tea extract and mouthwash without alcohol on Candida albicans biofilm on acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Débora P; Salvia, Ana Carolina R D; de Araújo, Rodrigo M; Di Nicoló, Rebeca; Koga Ito, Cristiane Y; de Araujo, Maria A M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and the oral antiseptic without alcohol, on Candida albicans biofilm formation to heat-curing acrylic resin plates. Candida is associated with oral candidiasis in poorly cleaned dentures. Standardised specimens of heat-cured (Conv; n = 30) or microwave-cured acrylic resin (Mw; n = 30) were obtained and divided into six groups (n = 10): G1 = Conv resin and green tea aqueous extract, G2 = Conv resin and mouthwash, G3 = control of Conv resin, G4 = Mw resin and green tea aqueous extract, G5 = Mw resin and mouthwash and G6 = control of Mw-cured resin. The specimens were contaminated with 10 ml of Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 0.1 ml of standard suspension containing 1 × 10(6) cells/ml of C. albicans and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After this period, they were immersed in the aqueous extract or in mouthwash for 15 min. The control groups were treated with sterile distilled water. Aliquots of 0.1 ml were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The numbers of colony-forming units per test specimen (CFU/TS) were calculated, and the results statistically analysed by two-way anova and Tukey's tests (5%). Statistically significant difference was observed for the aqueous extract groups (G1; 33.65%) and mouthwash (G2; 17.06%), when compared to control (G3; 100%), for Conv resin. For the Mw resin, there was significant difference between mouthwash (G5; 43.16%) and control (G6; 100%). The aqueous extract of green tea and mouthwash led to a reduction in the number of viable fungal cells in biofilm formed on acrylic resin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The inhibition of the mammalian DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a by dietary black tea and coffee polyphenols

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    Jeltsch Albert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea is, second only to water, the most consumed beverage globally. Previously, the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 was shown by dietary polyphenols and epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, and 5-caffeoyl quinic acid, the main phenolic constituent of the green coffee bean. Results We studied the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3a by a series of dietary polyphenols from black tea such as theaflavins and thearubigins and chlorogenic acid derivatives from coffee. For theaflavin 3,3 digallate and thearubigins IC50 values in the lower micro molar range were observed, which when compared to pharmacokinetic data available, suggest an effect of physiological relevance. Conclusions Since Dnnmt3a has been associated with development, cancer and brain function, these data suggest a biochemical mechanism for the beneficial health effect of black tea and coffee and a possible molecular mechanism for the improvement of brain performance and mental health by dietary polyphenols.

  10. Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2013-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and co-fortified with zinc, as zinc sulfate consumed with black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ≥60 mg/kg flour.

  11. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

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    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  12. Volatile composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) commercial teas through solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, L G; Abi-Zaid, I E; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles from aqueous extract of peppermint commercial sachets were investigated through gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). Samples were prepared under similar conditions as in homemade tea. Volatiles were isolated using solid phase extraction method (SPE) with Porapak Q trap followed by desorption with acetone. Estimated mean values for short and medium chain carboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ketones lay in the range of 50-64 microg kg(-1) whilst aliphatic alcohols and acyclic hydrocarbons had values lower than 6 microg kg(-1). The major volatiles were terpenes (275-382 microg kg(-1)) that reached 89 % of the total composition. A total of 16 compounds, among them dodecane, acetoin, acetol, citral, geraniol and octanoic acid have been described by the first time in peppermint tea. These findings could be attributed to the different analytical approach employed, mainly to the use of different extraction/pre-concentration techniques. Given the apparently lower proportion of terpenes in the aqueous extract it may be that the chemical properties of the peppermint essential oil are not entirely reproduced with homemade tea.

  13. Ameliorated Effects of Green Tea Extract on Lead Induced Kidney Toxicity in Rats

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    Nadia Ait Hamadouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the protective effect of an aqueous extract of green tea (GTE against renal oxidative damage induced by lead was undertaken. Adult males rats were divided into 4 groups: Control group receives distilled water as sole drinking source. GTE group received green tea extract (6.6% w/v.Pb group received Pb at dose of 0.4 % w/v in distilled water. Pb + GTE group received mixture of Pb and GTE as sole drinking source. Renal oxidative damage was observed in Pb-treated rats as evidenced via augmentation in kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as depletion in kidney antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Histopathological analysis revealed degeneration in the endothelium of glomerular tuft and the epithelium of lining tubules. In conclusion, GTE appeared to be beneficial to rats, to a great extent by attenuating and restoring the damage sustained by lead exposure.

  14. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camouse, Melissa M; Domingo, Diana Santo; Swain, Freddie R; Conrad, Edward P; Matsui, Mary S; Maes, Daniel; Declercq, Lieve; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2009-06-01

    Tea polyphenols have been found to exert beneficial effects on the skin via their antioxidant properties. We sought to determine whether topical application of green tea or white tea extracts would prevent simulated solar radiation-induced oxidative damages to DNA and Langerhans cells that may lead to immune suppression and carcinogenesis. Skin samples were analysed from volunteers or skin explants treated with white tea or green tea after UV irradiation. In another group of patients, the in vivo immune protective effects of green and white tea were evaluated using contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. Topical application of green and white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UV on cutaneous immunity. Such protection is not because of direct UV absorption or sunscreen effects as both products showed a sun protection factor of 1. There was no significant difference in the levels of protection afforded by the two agents. Hence, both green tea and white tea are potential photoprotective agents that may be used in conjunction with established methods of sun protection.

  15. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

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    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  16. Optimization of the Preparation Conditions of Yerba Mate tea Beverage to Maximize Chlorogenic Acids Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Tayse Ferreira Ferreira; Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; de Souza, Thaís Cristina Lima; Cunha, Elenice Carla Emídio; de Moraes, Maria Rosa; Filho, José Teixeira; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    The beverage obtained from the yerba mate tea, besides being the most consumed in Brazil, has high concentrations of chlorogenic acids. In this study, a central composite design was employed to establish the best infusion time, temperature and water volume to maximize the extraction of chlorogenic acids 5-caffeoylquinic (5CQ), 3.4-dicaffeoylquinic (3.4 DQ), 3.5-dicaffeoylquinic (3.5 DQ) and 4.5-dicaffeoylquinic (4.5 DQ), from the leaves and stems of yerba mate tea (beverage ready for consumption). Analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography and the optimum conditions were obtained through the use of the desirability function of Derringer and Suich. The maximum chlorogenic acids content in the beverage was obtained when the infusion was prepared with 2 g of mate tea, in 300 mL of water at 95 °C, under infusion for 16 min. The optimal conditions were applied for the preparation of beverages from 15 commercial samples of yerba mate tea, and it was observed that the sum of the concentration of the four compounds showed variation of up to 79 times between the average of the samples, which can be attributed to climatic conditions of cultivation of the plant and/or of processing.

  17. In-vitro study investigating influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian, K.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, DJ

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized enamel. Human tooth, which was demineralised in citric acid solution, had a toothpaste containing green tea extract of concentration of 5, 10 or 15% application. Microhardness measurement was carried out on each enamel surface of the teeth for initial, after the demineralization and after application of the tooth pastes. It showed that there was significant decrease between enamel microhardness of the teeth at the initial condition and after demineralization. After application of the toothpaste containing green tea extract of each concentration the microhardnss increased significantly. However, there the microhardness was insignificant between the applications of each green tea concentration.

  18. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  19. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

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    Raghunath Pariyani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS Benth (Lamiaceae leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight.

  20. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  1. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

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    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  2. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

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    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  3. Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliakal, P P; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2001-04-01

    The antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea and its polyphenols have been reported. As bioactivation of the precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens are mainly carried out by hepatic metabolizing enzymes, we have investigated the modulation of these enzyme activities subsequent to tea consumption in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 5). Six groups were given aqueous solutions (2%, w/v) of six different teas (New Zealand green tea, Australian green tea, Java green tea, Dragon green tea, Gunpowder green tea or English Breakfast black tea) as the sole source of fluid. One group was given a standard green tea extract (0.5%, w/v) while the control group had free access to water. At the end of four-weeks treatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of the liver microsomes or cytosols with appropriate substrates. CYP 1A2 activity was markedly increased in all the tea treatment groups (P Java green tea-treatment groups. Cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activity was significantly increased (PJava green tea-treatment groups. The microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity remained unchanged or was moderately increased in most of the groups. The balance between the phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and the phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer.

  4. In vitro antifungal activity against Candida species of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

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    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal potential of different grades of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea [orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1] belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high. Methods: Antifungal activity was assessed in vitro using methanolic extracts (300 µg/disc and agar disc diffusion bioassay technique against three Candida species, Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida glabrata (C. glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. ketoconazole and itraconazole mixture was used as positive control (10 µg/disc and methanol was used as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were also determined using standard protocols. Results: None of the extracts were effective against Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, orange pekoe grade tea belonging to all agro-climatic elevations did not induce any antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata as well. Conversely, Dust No. 1 belonging to all three agro-climatic elevations and low-grown BOPF showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Interestingly, the severity of the antifungal effect varied with agroclimatic elevations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 64.00–128.00 µg/mL against C. glabrata and 128.00-256.00 µg/mL against C. albicans. Conclusions: Sri Lankan Dust No. 1 and BOPF have marked antifungal activity in vitro and offer promise to be used as a supplementary beverage in prophylaxis and during drug treatment in candidiasis.

  5. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.M.; Ismail Al-kadey, M.M.I.; Shabon, M.H.; Hussien, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  6. Equilibrium adsorption of rhodamine B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution

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    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carcinogenic dye like rhodamine B (Rh-B in textile wastewater affects the quality of water to consumers. The adsorption of Rh-B on used black tea leaves (UBTL was studied in batch process to investigate its removal efficiency. The effects of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH etc. on adsorption have been investigated. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of Rh-B at constant pH. The adsorption isotherms were constructed for different temperatures using acidic solution of pH 2.0. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Raduskevich (D-R equations were used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data. The experimental data follows Freundlich equation more precisely compare with the Langmuir one. The maximum amount adsorbed calculated from Langmuir equation is 72.5 mg/g at 30 oC which is increased with increasing temperature. Separation factor and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the process is favorable, spontaneous and endothermic nature. Possible mechanism of the process was elucidated from the effect of solution pH on amount adsorbed. The endothermic nature of the adsorption might be due to the fragmentation of Rh-B molecules during the adsorption process.

  7. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

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    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  8. Curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract synergically inhibit inflammatory and catabolic mediator's synthesis by normal bovine and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes in monolayer.

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    Fanny Comblain

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract in normal bovine chondrocytes and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes cultured in monolayer. This study also investigated the synergic or additive effects of these compounds. Enzymatically isolated primary bovine or human chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer until confluence and then incubated for 24 hours or 48 hours in the absence or in the presence of interleukin-1β and with or without curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen or green tea extract, added alone or in combination, at different concentrations. Cell viability was neither affected by these compounds, nor by interleukin 1β. In the absence of interleukin-1β, compounds did not significantly affect bovine chondrocytes metabolism. In human chondrocytes and in the absence of interleukin 1β, curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract significantly inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-3 production. In interleukin-1β-stimulated bovine chondrocytes, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase2, matrix metalloproteinase 3, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 4 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 5 expressions were decreased by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. The combination of the three compounds was significantly more efficient to inhibit interleukin-1β stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression than curcuminoids extract alone. In interleukin-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes, nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 productions were significantly reduced by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. These findings indicate that a mixture of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen

  9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Monoterpenes from the Leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree

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    Deidre Tronson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was applied to various sample matrices under a range of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 densities and chamber temperatures. The purpose was to develop an effective extraction condition for the removal of eight target monoterpenes from Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel leaves. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be 0.25 g/mL scCO2 density at a chamber temperature of 110oC. These condition were most effective when applied to whole fresh and rehydrated whole dried leaves, where it yielded maximum recovery of target analytes with minimum change in oil composition for the extractor system employed. This study demonstrates the importance of the type of sample matrix used in SFE work, and that a different extraction protocol would need to be developed for each matrix.

  10. Performance and methane emissions in dairy cows fed oregano and green tea extracts as feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, G J; Stivanin, S C B; Gabbi, A M; Machado, F S; Ferreira, A L; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Cunha, C S; Dill, S W; Pereira, L G R; Fischer, V

    2018-02-21

    Plant extracts have been proposed as substitutes for chemical feed additives due to their potential as rumen fermentation modifiers and because of their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, possibly reducing methane emissions. This study aimed to evaluate the use of oregano (OR), green tea extracts (GT), and their association as feed additives on the performance and methane emissions from dairy between 28 and 87 d of lactation. Thirty-two lactating dairy cows, blocked into 2 genetic groups: 16 Holstein cows and 16 crossbred Holstein-Gir, with 522.6 ± 58.3 kg of body weight, 57.2 ± 20.9 d in lactation, producing 27.5 ± 5.0 kg/cow of milk and with 3.1 ± 1.8 lactations were evaluated (means ± standard error of the means). Cows were allocated into 4 treatments: control (CON), without plant extracts in the diet; oregano extract (OR), with the addition of 0.056% of oregano extract in the dry matter (DM) of the diet; green tea (GT), with the addition of 0.028% of green tea extract in the DM of the diet; and mixture, with the addition of 0.056% oregano extract and 0.028% green tea extract in the DM of the diet. The forage-to-concentrate ratio was 60:40. Forage was composed of corn silage (94%) and Tifton hay (6%); concentrate was based on ground corn and soybean meal. Plant extracts were supplied as powder, which was previously added and homogenized into 1 kg of concentrate in natural matter, top-dressed onto the total mixed diet. No treatment by day interaction was observed for any of the evaluated variables, but some block by treatment interactions were significant. In Holstein cows, the mixture treatment decreased gross energy and tended to decrease the total-tract apparent digestibility coefficient for crude protein and total digestible nutrients when compared with OR. During the gas measurement period, GT and OR increased the digestible fraction of the ingested DM and decreased CH 4 expressed in grams per kilogram of digestible DMI compared with CON. The use

  11. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Phenolic compounds act as food antioxidants. One of the postulated mechanisms of action is chelation of prooxidant metals, such as iron. Although the antioxidative effect is desirable, this mechanism may impair the utilization of dietary iron. Objective: We sought to determine the eff.......5 +/- 4.0% to 6.4 +/- 4.7% (P extract. Conclusion: Phenolic-rich extracts used as antioxidants in foods reduce the utilization of dietary iron.......Background: Phenolic compounds act as food antioxidants. One of the postulated mechanisms of action is chelation of prooxidant metals, such as iron. Although the antioxidative effect is desirable, this mechanism may impair the utilization of dietary iron. Objective: We sought to determine...... the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1...

  12. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  13. The Effect of Green Tea Extract on Reproductive Improvement in Estradiol Valerate-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafurniyan, Habibeh; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Karimzadeh, Latifeh

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disorder in which the level of oxidative elements in blood rises. Green tea is a potent antioxidant since it contains catechins. In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic green tea extract on PCOS rats was examined. For PCOS induction, 96 mature Wistar rats were given estradiol valerate. After 60 days, the rats were divided into four groups including PCOS group and three experimental groups, which were given 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg BW green tea extract 10 days, intraperitoneally. The serum concentration level of FSH, LH, testosterone and insulin were measured using ELISA method, while the serum concentration level of glucose was measured using glucose oxidase methods. Insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR formulation. The data were analyzed using the one-Way ANOVA method considering P<0/05 level of significance. There were a significant reduction in LH serum level, body and ovarian weight between the green tea extract treated-groups compare to PCOS. Moreover, a significant reduction in insulin resistance index was seen in the treatment groups related to PCOS. Histomorphometric studies also showed the significant changes in the number of follicles and theca layer thickness. These changes demonstrated a marked improvement in the symptoms of PCOS which may be due to green tea effects on oxidative stress pathways. Green tea can be considered as a potentially effective drug for treatment of PCOS, Insulin resistance and Type II diabetes.

  14. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

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    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  15. Structural characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Qingzhuan brick tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhe; Huang, Mingjun; Qin, Caiqin; Lv, Bangyu; Mao, Qingli; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The crude tea polysaccharides (CTPS) from Qingzhuan brick tea(QZBT) were extracted and fractionated to afford two fractions, namely TPS-1 and TPS-2. Analyses were conducted concerning the structural characterization and antioxidant activities of these samples. Component analysis revealed that the carbohydrate, uronic acid, protein and polyphenol contents of these samples differed significantly. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that these samples showed similar characteristic absorption peaks for polysaccharides. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that there were considerable differences in the presence of protein, surface features, conformational characteristics and thermodynamic behaviors. For antioxidant activities in vitro, CTPS, TPS-1 and TPS-2 exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, with TPS-2 showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than CTPS and TPS-1. These results provide a scientific and strong foundation for the use of tea polysaccharides(TPS) from QZBT and further research towards the relationships between the characteristics and antioxidant activities of TPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  17. Influence of the green tea leaf extract on neurotoxicity of aluminium chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenković, Ankica; Jovanović, Marina D; Stevanović, Ivana; Petronijević, Nataša; Bokonjić, Dubravko; Zivković, Jelena; Igić, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium may have an important role in the aetiology/pathogenesis/precipitation of Alzheimer's disease. Because green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) reportedly has health-promoting effects in the central nervous system, we evaluated the effects of green tea leaf extract (GTLE) on aluminium chloride (AlCl3 ) neurotoxicity in rats. All solutions were injected into the cornu ammonis region 1 hippocampal region. We measured the performance of active avoidance (AA) tasks, various enzyme activities and total glutathione content (TGC) in the forebrain cortex (FbC), striatum, basal forebrain (BFb), hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. AlCl3 markedly reduced AA performance and activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in all regions. It decreased TGC in the FbC, striatum, BFb, hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum, and increased superoxide dismutase activity in the FbC, cerebellum and BFb. GTLE pretreatment completely reversed the damaging effects of AlCl3 on AA and superoxide dismutase activity, markedly corrected COX and AChE activities, and moderately improved TGC. GTLE alone increased COX and AChE activities in almost all regions. GTLE reduces AlCl3 neurotoxicity probably via antioxidative effects and improves mitochondrial and cholinergic synaptic functions through the actions of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin, compounds most abundantly found in GTLE. Our results suggest that green tea might be beneficial in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality

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    Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives, sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1, and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2. The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage. The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage.

  19. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis and Olive (Olea europaea L. Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

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    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

  20. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line

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    Magdalena Izdebska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. Material and methods: A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope.Results: The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM, was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment.Conclusion: Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  1. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  2. LOGIKA FUZZY DAN JARINGAN SYARAT TIRUAN UNTUK PENINGKATAN MUTU TEH HITAM [Fuzzy Logic an Artificial Neural Network for Quality Improvement of Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatulloh 1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed quality improvement of black tea using fuzzy approach on quality functions deployment and the development of backpropagation neural the software NWP II plus. The research was conducted at PTPN VIII tea industry, Goalpara plantation. Result of the study showed that, parameter first priority based on customer evaluation was tea flavour. The Important process parameter of black tea based on result of fuzzy relationship matrix was the withering process. Based on the test of “trial and error” of network training process, the best network architecture for withering process monitoring [3-15-1] was obtained, that is 3 neurons in input layer, 15 neurons in hidden layer and 1 neuron in output layer. Three inputs and output consist of time, flow, temperature and moisture content. The result sugges that development of backpropagation neural network can be used for process evaluation of withering processes.

  3. Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Yang, Jieping; Hsu, Mark; Lee, Ru-Po; Grojean, Emma M; Ly, Austin; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-09-30

    Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0.25% GTP or BTP or a low-fat/high-sucrose (LF/HS, 10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose) diet for 4 weeks. Bacterial composition was assessed by MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. GTP and BTP diets resulted in a decrease of cecum Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. The relative proportions of Blautia, Bryantella, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Marvinbryantia, Turicibacter, Barnesiella, and Parabacteroides were significantly correlated with weight loss induced by tea extracts. BTP increased the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio and intestinal formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analyzed by gas chromatography. Cecum propionic acid content was significantly correlated with the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio. GTP and BTP induced a significant increase in hepatic 5'adenosylmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation by 70 and 289%, respectively (P < 0.05) determined by Western blot. In summary, both BTP and GTP induced weight loss in association with alteration of the microbiota and increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. We hypothesize that BTP increased pAMPK through increased intestinal SCFA production, while GTPs increased hepatic AMPK through GTP present in the liver.

  4. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  5. The microbiota is essential for the generation of black tea theaflavins-derived metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G, theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF3'G, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG, are the most important bioactive polyphenols in black tea. Because of their poor systemic bioavailability, it is still unclear how these compounds can exert their biological functions. The objective of this study is to identify the microbial metabolites of theaflavins in mice and in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study, we gavaged specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ free (GF mice with 200 mg/kg TFDG and identified TF, TF3G, TF3'G, and gallic acid as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in SPF mice. These metabolites were absent in TFDG- gavaged GF mice. The microbial bioconversion of TFDG, TF3G, and TF3'G was also investigated in vitro using fecal slurries collected from three healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that TFDG is metabolized to TF, TF3G, TF3'G, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Moreover, both TF3G and TF3'G are metabolized to TF, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Importantly, we observed interindividual differences on the metabolism rate of gallic acid to pyrogallol among the three human subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis have the capacity to metabolize TFDG. CONCLUSIONS: The microbiota is important for the metabolism of theaflavins in both mice and humans. The in vivo functional impact of microbiota-generated theaflavins-derived metabolites is worthwhile of further study.

  6. Impact of green tea extract addition on oxidative changes in the lipid fraction of pastry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kozłowska, Mariola; Onacik-Gür, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Alongside flour, fat is the key ingredient of sponge cakes, including those with long shelf lives. It is an unstable food component, whose quality and nutritional safety depend on the composition and pres- ence of oxidation products. Consumption of fat oxidation products adversely affects the human body and contributes to the incidence of a number of medical conditions. Qualitative changes in fats extracted from thermostat sponge cakes with and without antioxidant additions were determined in this study. In the study, two types of antioxidant were used: natural - green tea extract in three doses (0.02%; 0.2% and 1.0%) and synthetic BHA (0.02%) and 100%, solid bakery shortening. Sponge-cakes were thermostatted at temperatures 63°C after twenty-eight days. In this study, the quality of the lipid fraction was analyzed. The amount of primary (PV) and secondary (AnV) oxidation products was determined, and   a Rancimat test was performed. Adding antioxidants to fats varied in the degree to which oxidation processes of lipids fractions were inhibited. The peroxide value after twenty-eight days of thermostatting ranged from 3.57 meq O/kg (BHA) and 11.14 O meq/kg (extract content - 1%) to 62.85 meq O/kg (control sample). In turn, the value of AnV after the storage period ranged from 4.84 (BHA) and 6.71 (extract content - 1%) to 16.83 (control sample). The best protective effects in the process of oxidation was achieved by BHA. The longest in- duction time and the lowest peroxide value and anisidine value were obtained for this antioxidant. It was achieved after twenty-eight days of fat thermostatting. Nonetheless, the results demonstrated it is possible to use the commercially available green tea extract to slow the adverse process of fat oxidation in sponge cake products.

  7. Evanescent wave sensing and absorption analysis of herbal tea floral extracts in the presence of silver metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, V. C.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2017-06-01

    Fiber optic evanescent wave sensors are used for studying the absorption properties of biochemical samples. The studies give precise information regarding the actual ingredients of the samples. Recent studies report the corrosion of silver in the presence glucose dissolved in water and heated to a temperature of 70°C. Based on this report evanescent absorption studies are carried out in hibiscus herbal tea floral extracts in the presence of silver metal complexes. These studies can also lead to the evaluation of the purity of the herbal tea extract.

  8. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

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    Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB was used as the sample in this study. Antiglycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 and dose dependant inhibition of BSA-MGO glycation [IC50: (164.30 ± 4.85 µg/mL], potentiating of its reversing activity [EC50: (235.39 ± 5.37 µg/mL] and marked antioxidant properties [total polyphenolic content: (119.55 ± 9.97 mg gallic acid equivalents/g BTB; total flavonoid content: (6.04 ± 1.26 mg quercetin equivalents/g BTB; 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power: (3.29 ± 0.06, (1.95 ± 0.15 and (1.31 ± 0.19 mmol Trolox equivalents/g BTB, respectively]. No correlations were observed between antioxidant activity and BSA-MGO glycation. Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  9. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Beverages Prepared using Banana Peel, Common Nettles and Black Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being

  10. Consumption of Black Tea Infusion to Maintain the Functions of the Liver in Rats Exposed to γ-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Black tea, a phyto-compound of the fully oxidized form of Camellia sinensis has been attributed with a plethora of health-promoting actions. The role of aqueous black tea infusion (BTI) in the liver cytoprotective properties was studied using liver biochemical lesions produced by γ-rays in rat model prior oral administration of black tea infusion at 3 % (w/v) as the sole source of drinking for 10 days. Liver antioxidant properties were evaluated as, total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, Thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), triacylglycerols (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were estimated. The marker enzymes of liver damage (aspartate and alanine transaminases; ALT and AST) in serum were also evaluated. Moreover, the level of plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs); bioactive products of lipid peroxidation was determined. Exposure of rats to γ-rays was found to cause a decrease in the liver's antioxidant abilities and provoke an increase in the level of TBARS, TG and TC. It also significantly exasperated enzymes of liver damage (ALT and AST) and the plasma F2-isoprostanes level. Supplementation of BTI prevents the changes in the liver's antioxidant abilities and in TBARS and GSH. In addition, prevents increase of oxidative stress visible as plasma F2-IsoP and decreased leak of ALT and AST into the blood. Conclusion: These results indicate that regular intake of BTI may protect γ-rays-induced oxidative damage and the consequent degenerative liver changes. The BTI consumed throughout the world is believed to be not only a popular beverage but also an anti oxidative agent available in everyday life

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine.

  12. Changing oxidation in whey fat concentrate upon addition of green tea extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Marianne; Nielsen, J; Sørensen, J

    2011-01-01

    was measured using a number of different antioxidants: Trolox (TRX), propyl gallate (PG), Grindox 1021 (GRX), green tea extract (GTE) and rosemary extract (RE). The development of the secondary lipid oxidation product hexanal was inhibited by all the tested antioxidants, and GTE was found to be the most....... The purpose of the present study was to find an antioxidant which effectively inhibits oxidation in whey fat concentrate (WFC) during accelerated storage (60 C) and to investigate the effect of the antioxidant on primary and secondary oxidation. The development of secondary lipid oxidation products...... efficient of the tested antioxidants. The effect of GTE concentrations (0, 50 and 500 lg/g whey solid) on oxidation was investigated further by measuring hydroperoxide and hexanal accumulation during accelerated storage (60 C). Hydroperoxides were accumulated after a lag phase which was prolonged...

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

  14. Comparison of oil recovered from tea tree leaf by ethanol extraction and steam distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G R; Lowe, R F; Southwell, I A

    2000-09-01

    Two methods for the determination of oil and oil major components from tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaf are quantitatively compared. A microwave assisted ethanol extraction and a 2-h hydrodistillation technique were used on both dry and fresh leaf from a low and a high oil concentration tree. There was no significant difference between dry and fresh leaf. The distillation technique recovered 88% and 82% of the extractable oil for the low and high concentration material, respectively. For both samples this distilled oil was composed of lower absolute amounts of sesquiterpenoids and marginally lower amounts of monoterpenoids. Extending the distillation to 6 h increased the sesquiterpenoid recovery but this resulted in a reduction in both the absolute and relative amounts of the oxygenated monoterpenoids, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.

  15. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21673927

  16. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  17. Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Bags: Comparison of Black, Green, Red Rooibos, Chamomile and Peppermint over Different Steep Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Cleverdon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether this production step alters the content of the final product. The study purpose was to investigate the effect of steep time and tea type on the polyphenol content and predicted antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea bag products, including Green, Orange Pekoe, Red Roiboos, Peppermint, and Chamomile. Total polyphenol content (TPC, antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, and total predicted antioxidant capacity were measured in aliquots sampled every minute for 10 min. Polyphenols were extracted into solution in a nonlinear fashion, with ~80–90% of the TPC appearing within 5 min of tea bag immersion. Moreover, a significant range in TPC values was observed between products, with true teas containing at least two-fold greater polyphenol content than the herbal varieties. Our results are consistent with previous work using loose-leaf tea products and demonstrates that tea bag products are an effective source of polyphenols that may offer health benefits relating to their constituent antioxidant activity.

  18. Green synthesis palladium nanoparticles mediated by white tea (Camellia sinensis) extract with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4) cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Susan; Mahdavi Shahri, Mahnaz; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2017-01-01

    Among nanoparticles used for medical applications, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) are among the least investigated. This study was undertaken to develop PdNPs by green synthesis using white tea (W.tea; Camellia sinensis) extract to produce the Pd@W.tea NPs. The Pd@W.tea NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Pd@W.tea NPs were spherical (size 6–18 nm) and contained phenols and flavonoids acquired from the W.tea extract. Pd@W.tea NPs has good 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), OH, and NO-scavenging properties as well as antibacterial effects toward Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. MTT assay showed that Pd@W.tea NPs (IC50 =0.006 μM) were more antiproliferative toward the human leukemia (MOLT-4) cells than the W.tea extract (IC50 =0.894 μM), doxorubicin (IC50 =2.133 μM), or cisplatin (IC50 =0.013 μM), whereas they were relatively innocuous for normal human fibroblast (HDF-a) cells. The anticancer cell effects of Pd@W.tea NPs are mediated through the induction of apoptosis and G2/M cell-cycle arrest. PMID:29276385

  19. ANALYSIS OF IFN- CONCENTRATION IN WISTAR RAT BLOOD AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF STANDARDIZED GREEN TEA WATER EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Agus Purwanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and its polyphenols have been studied extensively as cancer chemopreventive agents in recent years. However, the mechanisms of action are still not clearly understood. Some researchers suggest that immune system plays important role to destroy cancer cells. Because of that reason, the present study was designed to analyse the effects of oral administration standardized green tea water extract on increasing of IFN-g blood concentration and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of the cancer development. Two groups (male and female of 5 rats have given p.o. administration 1.25% of standardized green tea water extract and got 300 mg of (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG/kg body weight, while two groups others (male and female were used as control. We found that IFN-g blood concentration on male and female Wistar rat are significantly increase with 13.11% and 17.59%, respectively (p

  20. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

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    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  1. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins; Conceição, Anderson Carlos de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Juliana Caribé Pires; Assis, Denilson de Jesus; Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days) under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower) compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pfilm formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  2. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

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    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  3. Treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with green tea extract: a pilot randomized controlled clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshdy, Eman; Rajaratnam, Veera; Maitra, Sarbani; Sabry, Mohamed; Allah, Abdou S Ait; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids (UFs, also known as leiomyoma) affect 70% of reproductive-age women. Imposing a major burden on health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) of premenopausal women, UF is a public health concern. There are no effective medicinal treatment options currently available for women with symptomatic UF. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of green tea extract (epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG]) on UF burden and quality of life in women with symptomatic UF, in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Methods A total of 39 reproductive-age women (age 18–50 years, day 3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone <10 \\U/mL) with symptomatic UF were recruited for this study. All subjects had at least one fibroid lesion 2 cm3 or larger, as confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The subjects were randomized to oral daily treatment with either 800 mg of green tea extract (45% EGCG) or placebo (800 mg of brown rice) for 4 months, and UF volumes were measured at the end, also by transvaginal ultrasonography. The fibroid-specific symptom severity and HRQL of these UF patients were scored at each monthly visit, using the symptom severity and quality-of-life questionnaires. Student’s t-test was used to evaluate statistical significance of treatment effect between the two groups. Results Of the final 39 women recruited for the study, 33 were compliant and completed all five visits of the study. In the placebo group (n = 11), fibroid volume increased (24.3%) over the study period; however, patients randomized to green tea extract (n = 22, 800 mg/day) treatment showed significant reduction (32.6%, P = 0.0001) in total UF volume. In addition, EGCG treatment significantly reduced fibroid-specific symptom severity (32.4%, P = 0.0001) and induced significant improvement in HRQL (18.53%, P = 0.01) compared to the placebo group. Anemia also significantly improved by 0.7 g/dL (P = 0.02) in the EGCG treatment group, while average blood loss

  4. Extraction of green tea and drying with a high pressure spray process

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    Meterc Darja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a beverage widely consumed throughout the world and is produced from non-fermented leaves of Camellia Sinensis. Traditionally, green tea leaves are extracted with water. To form solid products, these aqueous products have to be dried. The main focus of the investigation is how to avoid antioxidant degradation during solvent removal. The work was separated in two major sections, firstly investigation of the extraction process secondly, optimizing of the drying process. In the first experiments extractions with different solvents (H2O, EtOH and MeOH, at different temperatures (20, 40, 60 and 80 °C and extraction times (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min were preformed to obtain optimum conditions for further processing. For further work extracts obtained with water extraction at 80°C for 15 min were used. In the PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions drying process, extracts with up to 98 wt % water are mixed with preheated carbon dioxide in a static mixer in order to obtain a homogenous mixture. The mixture is led via a single path nozzle into a spray tower. Driven by the expansion of the gas, fine droplets are formed and the heated gas evaporates the solvent, which is exhausted together with CO^ by a blower. Fine powder is formed and collected in the spray tower. The amount of solvent which is to be removed and the residual humidity obtained in the product depend strongly on flow rate and temperature of the gas. From obtained results it can be seen, that high pre-expansion temperatures Tp (145 °C cause degradation of polyphenols (1.05 wt %. Maintaining Tp at approximately 130 °C and lower gave satisfying results; total amount of polyphenols in the obtained powders was between 4.97 and 8.77 wt %. Temperature in spray tower ranging from 33 to 65 °C has no significant effect on the amount of total polyphenols, but higher temperature results in lower water residue in the sample.

  5. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  6. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J.F.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion...... in flavonoids. GTE intervention increased plasma antioxidant capacity from 1.35 to 1.56 (P...

  7. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic attenuation of neuroinflammation and apoptosis by black tea theaflavin in chronic MPTP/probenecid model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan

    2013-02-01

    Neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental and clinical Parkinson's disease (PD). This study focused on the possible anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of theaflavin (TF), a black tea polyphenol against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were treated with 10 doses of MPTP (25 mg/kg, s.c.) and probenecid (250 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3.5 days interval. TF (10 mg/kg) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of MPTP for 35 days of experimental period. MPTP/p treatment upregulates the release of interleukin-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-10, glial fibrillary acidic protein and Bax, and downregulates anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2. Oral treatment of black tea polyphenol TF significantly attenuates MPTP-induced neuroinflammation as well as apoptosis. Behavioral studies (catalepsy and akinesia) were carried out to confirm these molecular studies. The results demonstrate that TF mediated its neuroprotection against chronic MPTP-induced toxicity through the involvement of multiple molecular events. It was concluded that TF may provide a precious therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as PD in future.

  9. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from Miang, a traditional fermented tea leaf in northern Thailand and their tannin-tolerant ability in tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Baipong, Sasitorn; Sone, Teruo; Kanpiengjai, Apinun; Chui-Chai, Naradorn; Asano, Kozo; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2017-09-01

    The microbiota of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in thirty-five samples of Miang, a traditional fermented tea leaf product, collected from twenty-two different regions of eight provinces in upper northern Thailand was revealed through the culture-dependent technique. A total of 311 presumptive LAB strains were isolated and subjected to clustering analysis based on repetitive genomic element-PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting profiles. The majority of the strains belonged to the Lactobacillus genera with an overwhelming predominance of the Lb. plantarum group. Further studies of species-specific PCR showed that 201 of 252 isolates in the Lb. plantarum group were Lb. plantarum which were thus considered as the predominant LAB in Miang, while the other 51 isolates belonged to Lb. pentosus. In contrast to Lb. plantarum, there is a lack of information on the tannase gene and the tea tannin-tolerant ability of Lb. pentosus. Of the 51 Lb. pentosus isolates, 33 were found to harbor the genes encoding tannase and shared 93-99% amino acid identity with tannase obtained from Lb. pentosus ATCC 8041 T . Among 33 tannase gene-positive isolates, 23 isolates exhibited high tannin- tolerant capabilities when cultivated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar-containing bromocresol purple (0.02 g/L, MRS-BCP) supplemented with 20% (v/v) crude tea extract, which corresponded to 2.5% (w/v) tannins. These Lb. pentosus isolates with high tannin-tolerant capacity are expected to be the high potential strains for functional tannase production involved in Miang fermentation as they will bring about certain benefits and could be used to improve the fermentation of tea products.

  10. Biosynthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Tie Guanyin Tea Extract for Degradation of Bromothymol Blue

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    Haiyan Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facile synthesis of zero-valent iron nanoparticles has been developed using Tie Guanyin tea extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The characterization carried out by UV-Vis, SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR techniques has identified the successful synthesis of the zero-valent iron nanoparticles. It is evident from the TEM result that spherical zero-valent iron nanoparticles with average size of 6.58±0.76 nm have been obtained through biological method in this study. FTIR spectrum demonstrates that the polyphenols play an important role in the synthetic process. Diffraction peak at 2θ of 44.9° and 49.1° in XRD spectrum explains the existence of the iron nanoparticles. Additionally, effect of concentration of iron nanoparticles and concentration of bromothymol blue on the kinetic rate constants during the degradation process was studied.

  11. Fluorescence, spectroscopic and NLO properties of green tea extract in deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Ana-Maria; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, Francois; Meghea, Aurelia

    2013-11-01

    Natural, purely biological deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-green tea extract (GTE) complexes at different concentrations were prepared and characterized for their spectroscopic, fluorescent, linear and nonlinear optical properties. The complexes can be processed into good optical quality thin films by solution casting. They fluoresce when excited in UV absorption band, with a significantly larger quantum yield for the DNA-GTE complex than for a pure GTE solution. The thin film refractive indices were determined by Fabry-Perot (FP) interference patterns. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of thin films were determined by the optical third-harmonic generation technique at 1064.2 nm fundamental wavelength. The phase of THG susceptibility was determined from the concentration variation of THG susceptibility. It reveals presence of a two-photon resonance with a band lying in the optical gap.

  12. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  13. Biotransformation of catechin and extraction of active polysaccharide from green tea leaves via simultaneous treatment with tannase and pectinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Park, Yooheon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-08-30

    Green tea is a dietary source of bioactive compounds for human health. Enzymatic treatments induce the bioconversion of bioactive components, which can improve biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous treatment with tannase and Rapidase on biotransformation of catechins and extraction of polysaccharide from green tea extract (GTE). Tannase and pectinase treatments induced the biotransformation of catechins and altered tea polysaccharide () content. The addition of GTE to the enzyme reaction resulted in a significant increase in degallated catechins, including gallic acid, a product of the tannase reaction (314.5-4076.0 µg mL(-1)) and a reduction in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Biotransformation of catechins improved the radical scavenging activity of GTE. Pectinase treatment led to change of TPS composition in GTE by hydrolyzing polysaccharides. In addition, pectinase-driven hydrolysis in polysaccharides significantly increased TPS-induced Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in macrophages. In particular, treatment of Rapidase (TPS-Ra) led to the highest IL-6 production among TPS samples, similar to treatment of highly purified pectinase (TPS-GTE), a positive control. Simultaneous processing with tannase and Rapidase can be an efficient method for the extraction of bioactive polysaccharides and biotransformation of catechins with enhanced radical scavenging activity from green tea. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with green tea extract: a pilot randomized controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eman Roshdy,1,* Veera Rajaratnam,2,* Sarbani Maitra,2 Mohamed Sabry,3,4 Abdou S Ait Allah,3,4 Ayman Al-Hendy2 1Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Ibn Sina IVF Center, Ibn Sina Hospital, Sohag, Egypt*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Uterine fibroids (UFs, also known as leiomyoma affect 70% of reproductive-age women. Imposing a major burden on health-related quality-of-life (HRQL of premenopausal women, UF is a public health concern. There are no effective medicinal treatment options currently available for women with symptomatic UF.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of green tea extract (epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG] on UF burden and quality of life in women with symptomatic UF, in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.Methods: A total of 39 reproductive-age women (age 18–50 years, day 3 serum follicle-stimulating hormone < 10 mIU/mL with symptomatic UF were recruited for this study. All subjects had at least one fibroid lesion 2 cm3 or larger, as confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The subjects were randomized to oral daily treatment with either 800 mg of green tea extract (45% EGCG or placebo (800 mg of brown rice for 4 months, and UF volumes were measured at the end, also by transvaginal ultrasonography. The fibroid-specific symptom severity and HRQL of these UF patients were scored at each monthly visit, using the symptom severity and quality-of-life questionnaires. Student's t-test was used to evaluate statistical significance of treatment effect between the two groups.Results: Of the final 39 women recruited for the study, 33 were compliant and completed all five visits of the study. In the placebo group (n = 11, fibroid volume increased (24.3% over the study

  15. The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q C; Wu, A Z; Pika, J

    2010-09-01

    Increasing pH solution from 7.5 to 8.0 was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of green tea extract for methanethiol removal in vitro. Green tea extract was also found to remove hydrogen sulfide and its effectiveness was greatly improved under alkaline conditions. It was found that with green tea extract, maximum H₂S removal was achieved when the pH was between 8.1 and 8.4 at 37 °C for 5 min. Further increases in pH resulted in decrease of the extract effectiveness. Vegetable acetone powders which contain polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases were found to further enhance the effectiveness for the removal of thiols when used in combination with green tea extracts at body temperature under alkaline conditions. Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs.

  16. Identification of Green, Oolong and Black Teas in China via Wavelet Packet Entropy and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop an automatic tea-category identification system with a high recall rate, we proposed a computer-vision and machine-learning based system, which did not require expensive signal acquiring devices and time-consuming procedures. We captured 300 tea images using a 3-CCD digital camera, and then extracted 64 color histogram features and 16 wavelet packet entropy (WPE features to obtain color information and texture information, respectively. Principal component analysis was used to reduce features, which were fed into a fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM. Winner-take-all (WTA was introduced to help the classifier deal with this 3-class problem. The 10 × 10-fold stratified cross-validation results show that the proposed FSVM + WTA method yields an overall recall rate of 97.77%, higher than 5 existing methods. In addition, the number of reduced features is only five, less than or equal to existing methods. The proposed method is effective for tea identification.

  17. The Antioxidant Capacity of Rosemary and Green Tea Extracts to Replace the Carcinogenic Antioxidant (BHA in Chicken Burgers

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    Manoela A. Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural extracts (rosemary and green tea extracts in frozen storage of chicken burgers. Chicken burger treatments were prepared as follows: control (CON, 20 mg BHA/kg (BHA20, 10 mg green tea extract/kg (GT10, 38 mg green tea extract/kg (GT38, 18.6 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO18, and 480 mg rosemary extract/kg (RO480. Analysis of physicochemical parameters, color, TBAR index, and sensory acceptance were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at −18°C in burgers packaged in LDPE plastic bags. The addition of natural antioxidants did not affect (p>0.05 the color and physicochemical parameters of the chicken burgers. After 120 days at −18°C, the RO480 sample showed a TBAR index similar (p>0.05 to BHA20 (0.423 and 0.369 mg, resp.. Sensory acceptance did not differ (p>0.05 among the treatments throughout the storage period (p>0.05.

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

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    Loo YY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuet Ying Loo,1 Buong Woei Chieng,2 Mitsuaki Nishibuchi,3 Son Radu11Centre of Excellent for Food Safety Research, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Center for South East Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine.Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, green synthesis, leaf extract, transmission electron microscopy, nanotechnology

  19. Mothers' Consumption of Soy Drink But Not Black Tea Increases the Flavonoid Content of Term Breast Milk: A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Frank; Alteheld, Birgit; Meinardus, Pamela; Dahlinger, Norbert; Nomayo, Antonia; Stehle, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We performed a pilot RCT to prove the hypothesis that a controlled ingestion of polyphenol-rich beverages (soy drink, decaffeinated black tea) in nutritive dosages by nursing women has an effect on the composition (flavonoid concentration, total antioxidant capacity) of breast milk. Healthy nursing women were supplemented with either 250 mL of a soy drink (12 mg isoflavones; n = 18), 300 mL decaffeinated black tea (67 mg catechins; n = 18), or 300 mL water (n = 8, control) for 6 days. Milk samples were collected before, during, and after intervention. Flavonoid content (isoflavones/catechins, HPLC) and total antioxidant capacity of milk and test drinks in milk specimens were assessed. Isoflavone content (genistein and daidzein) in breast milk increased up to 12 nmol/L after soy drink consumption; the major flavonoids constituents of black tea (catechin, epicatechin, and respective conjugates) could not be detected in milk samples. With both interventions, the total antioxidant capacity of breast milk was not affected. Mothers' daily consumption of a soy drink considerably increases isoflavone content of breast milk resulting in an estimated daily exposure of 9.6 nmol isoflavones in a 4-month-old suckling infant. Luminal flavanol uptake from black tea consumed by the nursing mother may be too low to affect flavanol concentrations in breast milk. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE: a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmöller Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. Methods/Design We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. Discussion The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good

  1. Protocol for minimizing the risk of metachronous adenomas of the colorectum with green tea extract (MIRACLE): a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Julia C; Ettrich, Thomas; Muche, Rainer; Wiedom, Martina; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seeringer, Angela; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2011-08-18

    Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary) prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good accessibility and low costs might render this neutraceutical a top

  2. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea phenols are extensively metabolized in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Buijsman, M.N.C.P.; Amelsvoort, van J.M.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary phenols are antioxidants, and their consumption might contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Coffee and tea are major dietary sources of phenols. Dietary phenols are metabolized extensively in the body. Lack of quantitative data on their metabolites hinders a proper

  3. Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... to remove pollutants such as colors, dyes and metal impurities (Khan, 2002). Some of the adsorbent ... and color characteristics of tea include polyphenolic bo- dies, caffeine, non-caffeine nitrogenous ..... for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions on the activated carbons prepared from ...

  4. Gut microbial metabolism of polyphenols from black tea and red wine/grape juice is source-specific and colon-region dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorsten, F A; Peters, S; Gross, G; Gomez-Roldan, V; Klinkenberg, M; de Vos, R C; Vaughan, E E; van Duynhoven, J P; Possemiers, S; van de Wiele, T; Jacobs, D M

    2012-11-14

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and continuous-dose experiments. A combination of liquid or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS or GC-MS) and NMR-based metabolic profiling was used to measure selected parent polyphenols, their microbial degradation into phenolic acids, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in different colon compartments. Acetate production was increased by continuous feeding of BTE but not RWGE. During RWGE feeding, gallic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid remained elevated throughout the colon, while during BTE feeding, they were consumed in the distal colon, while 3-phenylpropionic acid was strongly produced. Gut microbial production of phenolics and SCFAs is dependent on colon location and polyphenol source, which may influence potential health benefits.

  5. A Presurgical Study of Lecithin Formulation of Green Tea Extract in Women with Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Aristarco, Valentina; Macis, Debora; Mora, Serena; Caldarella, Pietro; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Riva, Antonella; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic data support an inverse association between green tea intake and breast cancer risk. Greenselect Phytosome (GSP) is a lecithin formulation of a caffeine-free green tea catechin extract. The purpose of the study was to determine the tissue distribution of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and its effect on cell proliferation and circulating biomarkers in breast cancer patients. Twelve early breast cancer patients received GSP 300 mg, equivalent to 44.9 mg of EGCG, daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery. The EGCG levels were measured before (free) and after (total) enzymatic hydrolysis by HPLC-MS/MS in plasma, urine, breast cancer tissue, and surrounding normal breast tissue. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline, before the last administration, and 2 hours later. Repeated administration of GSP achieved levels of total EGCG ranging from 17 to 121 ng/mL in plasma. Despite a high between-subject variability, total EGCG was detectable in all tumor tissue samples collected up to 8 ng/g. Median total EGCG concentration was higher in the tumor as compared with the adjacent normal tissue (3.18 ng/g vs. 0 ng/g, P = 0.02). Free EGCG concentrations ranged from 8 to 65.8 ng/mL in plasma ( P between last administration and 2 hours after breast tumor tissue and is associated with antiproliferative effects on breast cancer tissue. Cancer Prev Res; 10(6); 363-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C.; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross‐over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose‐dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  7. Extracts of black garlic exhibits gastrointestinal motility effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-An; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Liu, Keng-Fan; Chang, Chao-Kai; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

    2018-05-01

    In this studied, extracts of black garlic on the improvement of gastrointestinal function, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total flavonoids and total polysaccharides were evaluated. Results showed that the black garlic n-butanol fraction extract (BA) had significantly increased effect within small intestine in vitro, while the ethyl acetate fractions had no significant effect on small intestine in vitro. Increase of 5-HT 4 content effectively stimulated the gastrointestinal peristalsis, which enhanced its gastrointestinal tract emptying, and promoted defecation. As for antioxidant activity test, the water extract was more effective in SOD activity test, DPPH radical scavenging rates, ferric reducing antioxidant power and reducing power. In addition, the water fraction was simulated by gastric acid digestion and hydrolysis, and the small intestine was isolated after acid hydrolysis (AW). It was found that the water fraction extract after acid hydrolysis did significantly improve the intestinal contraction rate. In short, extract of black garlic could effectively promote gastrointestinal motility and promote defecation. The active compounds were highly polar ingredients since water extract of black garlic exhibits most significant effect on improving gastrointestinal function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Dicastillo, Carol; Nerin, Cristina; Alfaro, Pilar; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-07-27

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product.

  9. Theaflavin, a black tea polyphenol, protects nigral dopaminergic neurons against chronic MPTP/probenecid induced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Tamilselvam, Kuppusamy; Radhiga, Thangaiyan; Rao, Shalinee; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan

    2012-01-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of dopominergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta, and can be experimentally induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Chronic administration of MPTP/probenecid (MPTP/p) leads to oxidative stress, induction of apoptosis, and loss of dopominergic neurons which results in motor impairments. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between tea consumption and susceptibility to PD. Theaflavin is a black tea polyphenol, which possess a wide variety of pharmacological properties including potent anti oxidative, anti apoptotic and anti inflammatory effects. The current study is aimed to assess the effect of theaflavin against MPTP/p induced neurodegenaration in C57BL/6 mice. We found that the theaflavin attenuates MPTP/p induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration as evidenced by increased expression of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and reduced apoptotic markers such as caspase-3, 8, 9 accompanied by normalized behavioral characterization. This may be due to anti oxidative and anti apoptotic activity and these data indicate that theaflavin may provide a valuable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs. The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample, and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  11. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz; Zagal, José Heraclito

    2010-01-01

    A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III) followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III) reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample), and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. PMID:21461407

  12. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of extract of Carmellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of water extracts of black tea (Camellia sinensis) were studied in sodium oxalate treated rats. Lipid peroxidation was induced in rats by administration of 100 mg/kg body weight sodium oxalate. The protective effect of black tea was assessed by monitoring the serum and tissue levels ...

  13. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  14. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins Perazzo

    Full Text Available There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%, which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05, was detected in products packed in film formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  15. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  16. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  17. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds of Camellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations of BTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0 µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results: The results showed that BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.95 cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity in vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.94 inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17% on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption of BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  18. Antioxidant efficacy of crude methanol extract of ashitaba green tea against radiation induced oxidative stress in E.coli K12 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sindhu Priya, E.S.; Sarojini, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of ashitaba green tea (G). The DPPH scavenging assay was evaluated for green tea extract to determine its radical scavenging capacity. The bacteria was pretreated with ashitaba green tea extract, quercetin (Q) and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate (E) at below MIC level. Oxidative stress was induced at 0.4 Gy using gamma radiation. The antioxidant efficacy of ashitaba green tea was evaluated through enzyme antioxidant studies like SOD (Superoxidedismutase) and CAT (Catalase). The oxidative stress marker Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) was also evaluated. Further the protective efficacy of the(G) was confirmed by colony forming units (CFU) study. Among the tested compounds the crude extract of ashitaba (G) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in comparison with quercetin and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate. (abstract)

  19. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  20. Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of taurine and green tea extract against oxidative stress induced by pilocarpine during status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen A. Noor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE has functional and structural consequences resulting in brain damage. The present study aims to investigate the role of taurine and green tea extract in the neuroprotection against oxidative stress and changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE and Na+,K+-ATPase activities during SE induced by pilocarpine in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Animals received an oral administration of either taurine (100 mg/kg or green tea extract containing 100 mg/kg epigallocatechin gallate for 3 days before the induction of SE with pilocarpine (380 mg/kg, i.p. and were sacrificed 1 h after pilocarpine injection. Data indicated that a state of oxidative stress has evolved during SE as evident from the significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH level. Significant decreases in AChE and Na+,K+-ATPase activities were also recorded. Pretreatment of rats with taurine exaggerated the increase in lipid peroxidation and failed to prevent the decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity resulting from pilocarpine. However, taurine pretreatment prevented the reduced activity of hippocampal AChE induced by pilocarpine during SE. Pretreatment of rats with green tea extract prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation occurring during SE. However, it failed to inhibit the decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In conclusion, taurine pretreatment failed to reduce the oxidative stress induced during SE. In contrast, pretreatment of rats with green tea extract ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by pilocarpine and this may assist in reducing the insults of hyperexcitability and excitotoxicity that occur during SE and thereby reduce neuronal damage.

  1. Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Malassezia sympodialis by Green Tea Extracts Bath Therapy: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Chang, Hui Kyoung; Baek, Seok Yun; Chung, Jin Oh; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, So Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2012-01-01

    Multiple treatment modalities, including topical and systemic corticosteroid and phototherapy, have been used in treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, long-term corticosteroid therapy may have various adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of bath therapy using green tea extracts for treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. A total of four patients with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in this study. A Malassezia ...

  2. Synthesis of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Green Tea Extract Composite Nanostructures using Electrohydrodynamic Spraying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin; Edikresnha, D.; Sriyanti, I.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2017-05-01

    Green Tea Extract (GTE) as an active substance has successfully loaded to PVP nanostructures using electrohydrodynamic spraying technique. The precursor solution was the mixture of ethanolic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with a molecular weight of 1,300 kg/mol and ethanolic GTE solutions at a weight concentration of 4 wt.% and 2 wt.%, respectively, and it was estimated that the entanglement number was 2. The electrospraying was conducted at the voltage of 15 kV, the flow rate of 10 µL/min., and the distance between the collector and the tip of the nozzle of 10 cm. The SEM images showed that the PVP/GTE nanostructures had a combination of agglomerated beads (less spherical particles) and nanofibers. This occurred because if the PVP concentration is low, the PVP/GTE composite has weak core structures that cause the shell to be easily agglomerated each other. The intermolecular interaction between PVP and GTE in the PVP/GTE nanostructures occurred as confirmed by the peak at 3396 cm-1, which is the carboxyl group, proving that the PVP/GTE nanostructures contained water, alcohols, and phenols. The peak at 1040 cm-1, which is the stretching of C-O group in amino acid, gave another proof to the intermolecular interaction.

  3. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ezzeldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4 was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg or saline (control by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured up to 12 h after its administration by a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Pretreatment with GTE produced significant reductions in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of quetiapine by 45% and 35%, respectively, compared to quetiapine alone. However, GTE did not produce significant change in elimination half-life and oral clearance of quetiapine. This study concluded that GTE may decrease the bioavailability of quetiapine when coadministered.

  4. Effect of green tea extract supplementation on glycogen replenishment in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsen-Wei; Chang, Chia-Chen; Liao, Su-Fen; Liao, Yi-Hung; Hou, Chien-Wen; Tsao, Jung-Piao; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period. Thereafter, all participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (75 % VO2max) and consumed a carbohydrate-enriched meal immediately after exercise. Vastus lateralis muscle samples were collected immediately (0 h) and 3 h after exercise, and blood and gaseous samples were collected during the 3-h postexercise recovery period. An 8-week oral GTE supplementation had no effects on further promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle, but the exercise-induced muscle GLUT type 4 (GLUT4) protein content was greater in the GTE supplementation trial (Pglycogen resynthesis during the postexercise period.

  5. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of green tea extracts in oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Keun; Kim, Gyo-Nam; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2007-03-01

    Green tea extracts (GTEs) [water (GTE-W) and 75% ethanol (GTE-E)] were investigated to characterize their propensities to act as antioxidants or as pro-oxidants by analyzing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and scavenging capacity for hydroxyl radical. When 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride was used for the generation of peroxyl radicals, both GTE-W and GTE-E exhibited strong concentration-dependent scavenging activity through donating protons, which could be explained by their reducing property. When hydroxyl radicals were generated through the addition of Cu(2+) and H(2)O(2), GTE-W and GTE-E exhibited antioxidant activity or pro-oxidant activity, depending on their concentrations, which might be attributed to the metal chelating activity, the scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical, and/or the pro-oxidant activity to generate some reactive oxygen species. When Cu(2+) without H(2)O(2) was used as an oxidant in the assay, the copper-initiated pro-oxidant activities of GTE-W and GTE-W was consistent with the availability of (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin to generate hydrogen peroxide and/or hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidant activity of GTE-W and GTE-E was demonstrated by the deoxyribose assay. These results indicate that both GTE-W and GTE-E can have pro-oxidant activity at lower concentrations and antioxidant activity at higher concentrations in the ORAC and deoxyribose assays using generated hydroxyl radicals.

  6. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A; Khalaf, A A; Galal, Mona K; Ogaly, Hanan A; H M Hassan, Azza

    2015-12-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  7. Antioxidant activity of Green tea extract against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a common health problem worldwide. Isoniazid, an antibiotic used routinely for tuberculosis chemotherapy is documented to be a potent hepatotoxicant. The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant activity of Green tea extract (GTE against Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in the rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 animals each including 1- normal healthy control rats, 2- healthy rats receiving (GTE 3- toxicant control, and 4- toxicant drug+ GTE treatment group. In groups 2 and 4 GTE (1.5%, w/v was given as only source of drinking for 8 weeks. In the midst stage of experiment (4th and 5th weeks, Isonizid (50 mg/kg b.w./day, i.p. was administrated for groups 3 and 4 for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experiment, product of lipid peroxidation (MDA, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate antioxidant activity. Significant differences among the groups were determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p

  8. Effects of physiological levels of the green tea extract Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on breast cancer cells

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    Li eZeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological concentrations of the green tea extract EGCG caused growth inhibition in oestrogen receptor α (ERα-positive MCF7 cells, that was associated with down-regulation of the ERα and reduced insulin-like growth factor (IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 abundance and increased protein abundance of the tumour suppressor genes p53/p21. In contrast to MCF7 cells that have wt p53, EGCG alone did not change cell proliferation or death significantly in another ERα-positive cell line T47D that possesses mutant p53. EGCG increased ERα protein levels and as a consequence, the cells responded significantly better to an ERα antagonist Tamoxifen (TAM in the presence of EGCG. EGCG significantly increased cell death in an ERα-negative cell line, MDA-MB-231 that also possesses mutant p53. EGCG significantly increased the ERα and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR levels and thereby enhanced the sensitivities of the cells to Tamoxifen and a blocking antibody targeting the IGF-1R (αIR3. In contrast to MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that exhibited significant changes in key molecules involved in breast growth and survival upon treatment with physiological levels of EGCG, the growth, survival and levels of these proteins in non-malignant breast epithelial cells, MCF10A cells, were not affected.

  9. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Lu, Qing-Yi; Rao, JianYu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2011-05-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83 Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  10. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  11. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  12. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  13. Effects of aqueous extracts of dried calyx of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on polygenic dyslipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

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    Majid Hajifaraji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The control group was trained in lifestyle modifications at baseline. The intervention group was trained for lifestyle modifications at baseline and received two cups of sour tea daily, and both groups were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profile was evaluated at baseline, and six and 12 weeks following the intervention. In addition, dietary and physical activity assessed at baseline for twelve weeks. Results: Mean concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly decreased by up to 9.46%, 8.33%, and 9.80%, respectively, after 12 weeks in the intervention group in comparison to their baseline values. However, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio significantly increased  by up to 3.15%, following 12 weeks in the control group in comparison to their baseline values. This study showed no difference in lipid profiles between the two groups, except for HDL-C concentrations. Conclusion: sour tea may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of polygenic dyslipidemia subjects and these effect might be attributed to its anthocyanins and inflation factor content. Therefore, sour tea intake with recommended dietary patterns and physical activity can be useful in regulation of lipid profile in patients with polygenic dyslipidemia.

  14. Effects of aqueous extracts of dried calyx of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on polygenic dyslipidemia: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajifaraji, Majid; Matlabi, Mohammad; Ahmadzadeh-Sani, Farihe; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Rezaee, Mohammad Salem; Hajimehdipour, Homa; Hasanzadeh, Abbas; Roghani, Katayoun

    2018-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia. This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old) with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The control group was trained in lifestyle modifications at baseline. The intervention group was trained for lifestyle modifications at baseline and received two cups of sour tea daily, and both groups were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profile was evaluated at baseline, and six and 12 weeks following the intervention. In addition, dietary and physical activity assessed at baseline for twelve weeks. Mean concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly decreased by up to 9.46%, 8.33%, and 9.80%, respectively, after 12 weeks in the intervention group in comparison to their baseline values. However, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio significantly increased by up to 3.15%, following 12 weeks in the control group in comparison to their baseline values. This study showed no difference in lipid profiles between the two groups, except for HDL-C concentrations. sour tea may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of polygenic dyslipidemia subjects and these effect might be attributed to its anthocyanins and inflation factor content. Therefore, sour tea intake with recommended dietary patterns and physical activity can be useful in regulation of lipid profile in patients with polygenic dyslipidemia.

  15. Optimisation of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil of flowers of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plants and its antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenchun; Mei, Xin; Jin, Yuxia; Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Ziyin; Tu, Youying

    2014-01-30

    To extract natural volatile compounds from tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers without thermal degradation and residue of organic solvents, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was employed to prepare essential oil of tea flowers in the present study. Four important parameters--pressure, temperature, static extraction time, and dynamic extraction time--were selected as independent variables in the SFE. The optimum extraction conditions were the pressure of 30 MPa, temperature of 50°C, static time of 10 min, and dynamic time of 90 min. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 59 compounds, including alkanes (45.4%), esters (10.5%), ketones (7.1%), aldehydes (3.7%), terpenes (3.7%), acids (2.1%), alcohols (1.6%), ethers (1.3%) and others (10.3%) were identified in the essential oil of tea flowers. Moreover, the essential oil of tea flowers showed relatively stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than essential oils of geranium and peppermint, although its antioxidative activity was weaker than those of essential oil of clove, ascorbic acid, tert-butylhydroquinone, and butylated hydroxyanisole. Essential oil of tea flowers using SFE contained many types of volatile compounds and showed considerable DPPH scavenging activity. The information will contribute to the future application of tea flowers as raw materials in health-care food and food flavour industries. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The study of antioxidant activity of white tea

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    O. V. Chernousova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants protect the organism from the harmful effects of free radicals. High content of antioxidants is characteristic for red wine, olive oil, tea. Today in Russia is well studied the antioxidant activity of black and green tea, but the choice of teas found in the sale, much wider. The aim of the work was to study antioxidant activity of white tea, as well as its comparison with the parameters of green tea and rooibos. Spectrophotometrically compared the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts white, green tea, drink rooibos using the adrenaline autooxidation reaction in alkaline medium (pH 10.65. The correctness of the spectrophotometric determination was confirmed on the device “Tsvet Yauza-01-AA” (Russia. As a standard used quercetin. In the initial period of time (up to 5 min tea extracts “Java”, «Elixir immortality» and rooibos are equally affect the values of optical density. After 10 min the optical density takes different values for different extracts, however this time is recommended to determine antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity of the extract has white tea «Greenfield». Rooibos extract antioxidant activity could be compared with “Elixir of immortality” white tea аctivity. The lowest value of antioxidant activity of green tea “Princess JAVA”. The effect of water temperature on the antioxidant activity of extracts was investigated. The highest value was found in tea «Greenfield» at a brewing temperature of 70 °C, which decreases with increasing temperature to 100 °C. The water temperature has a minimal effect on the antioxidant activity of the rooibos extract, but a small maximum at 80 °C is observed. The minimum value of antioxidant activity is the extract of green tea «Princess JAVA», but it increases with the temperature rise up to 100 °C. The study was conducted according to the content of antioxidants from the brewing time. For this, the device “Tsvet Yauza-01-AA” was

  17. Effect of oral administration of green tea extract in various dosage schemes on oxidative stress status of mice in vivo

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    Bártíková Hana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a favorite beverage and its extracts are popular components of dietary supplements. The aim of the present in vivo study was to obtain detailed information about the effect of a standard green tea extract (Polyphenon, P, at different doses, on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in murine blood, liver, small and large intestine. In all doses, P improved the oxidative stress status via an increased content of plasmatic SH-groups (by 21-67 %. Regarding antioxidant enzymes in tissues, the low dose of P had the best positive effect as it elevated the activity of NADPH quinone reductase in liver and small intestine, thioredoxin reductase in small intestine and hepatic superoxide dismutase. Based on these facts, consumption of green tea seems to be safe and beneficial, while consumption of dietary supplements containing high doses of catechins may disturb oxidative balance by lowering the activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase

  18. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

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    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  19. Effects of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Tian, J; Jiang, J; Li, L; Ying, X; Tian, H; Nie, M

    2014-10-01

    Although the regular consumption of green tea or green tea extract has been considered to improve insulin sensitivity, the reported results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Electronic databases, including PUBMED, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and Chinese Scientific Journals Fulltext Database, were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) up to December 2011, supplemented by the Clinicaltrials.gov websites and the reference lists of identified studies. Two reviewers independently selected trials, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological qualities and evidence levels. Seven RCTs involving 510 participants were identified. There was no statistically significant difference between green tea or green tea extract group and placebo group with regard to fasting plasma glucose [standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.15 to 0.24], fasting serum insulin (SMD -0.09; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.11), 2-h plasma glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-2 h) (SMD -0.14; 95% CI -0.63 to 0.34), haemoglobin A₁c (SMD 0.10; 95% CI -0.13 to 0.33) and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index (SMD -0.06; 95% CI -0.35 to 0.23) in participants at risk of T2DM. The consumption of green tea did not decrease the levels of fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, OGTT-2 h glucose, haemoglobin A₁c and HOMA(IR) in populations at risk of T2DM. Larger, longer-term and high-quality RCTs are needed to further definitely determine the effect of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of T2DM. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Biosynthesis of caffeine by tea-leaf extracts. Enzymic formation of theobromine from 7-methylxanthine and of caffeine from theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takahashi, E

    1975-01-01

    1. Extracts prepared from tea leaves with Polyclar AT (insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidine) contained two methyltransferase activities catalysing the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to 7-methylxanthine, producing theobromine, and to theobromine, producing caffeine. 2. The methyltransferases exhibited the same pH optimum (8.4) and a similar pattern of effects by metal ions, thiol inhibitors and metal-chelating reagents, both for theobromine and caffeine synthesis. Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+ slightly stimulated enzyme activity but they were not essential. Paraxanthine was shown to be most active among methylxanthines, as the methyl acceptor. However, the formation of paraxanthine from 1-methylxanthine was very low and that from 7-methylxanthine was nil, suggesting that the synthesis of caffeine from paraxanthine is of little importance in intact plants. Xanthine, xanthosine, XMP and hypoxanthine were all inactive as methyl acceptors, whereas [2(-14)C]xanthine and [8(-14)C]hypoxanthine were catabolized to allantoin and urea by tea-leaf extracts. The apparent Km values are as follows: 7-methylxanthine, 1.0 times 10(-14)M; theobromine, 1.0 times 10(-3)M; paraxanthine, 0.2 times 10(-3)M; S-adenosylmethionine, 0.25 times 10(-4)M (with each of the three substrates). 3. The results suggest that the pathway for caffeine biosynthesis is as follows: 7-methylxanthine leads to theobromine leads to caffeine. In contrast, it is suggested that theophylline is synthesized from 1-methylxanthine. The methyl groups of the purine ring of caffeine are all derived directly from the methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine. Little is known about the pathways leading to the formation of 7-methylxanthine. 4. A good correlation between caffeine synthesis and shoot formation or growth of tea seedlings was shown, suggesting that the methylating systems in caffeine synthesis are closely associated with purine nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism in tea plants. PMID:238504

  1. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  2. Effect of green tea extract on enteric viruses and its application as natural sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, W; Falcó, I; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the effect of green tea extract (GTE) was assessed against murine norovirus (MNV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at different temperatures, exposure times and pH conditions. Initially, GTE at 0.5 and 5 mg/ml were individually mixed with each virus at 5 log TCID 50 /ml and incubated 2 h at 37 °C at different pHs (from 5.5 to 8.5). GTE affected both viruses depending on pH with higher reductions observed in alkaline conditions. Secondly, different concentrations of GTE (0.5 and 5 mg/ml) were mixed with viral suspensions and incubated for 2 or 16 h at 4, 25 and 37 °C at pH 7.2. A concentration-, temperature- and exposure time-dependent response was showed by GTE in suspension tests, where complete inactivation was achieved after overnight exposure at 37 °C for both viruses and also at 25 °C for HAV. In addition, antiviral effect of GTE proved efficient in the surface disinfection tests since 1.5 log reduction and complete inactivation were recorded for MNV and HAV on stainless steel and glass surfaces treated with 10 mg/ml GTE for 30 min, analyzed in accordance with ISO 13697:2001. GTE was also evaluated as a natural disinfectant of produce, showing 10 mg/ml GTE reduced MNV and HAV titers in lettuce and spinach by more than 1.5 log after 30 min treatment. The results show a potential of GTE as natural disinfectant able to limit enteric viral (cross-)contaminations conveyed by food and food-contact surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intelligent evaluation of color sensory quality of black tea by visible-near infrared spectroscopy technology: A comparison of spectra and color data information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Zhao, Jiewen; Guo, Zhiming; Gu, Hang

    2017-06-01

    Instrumental test of black tea samples instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. This study focused on an investigation of the feasibility for estimation of the color sensory quality of black tea samples using the VIS-NIR spectroscopy technique, comparing the performances of models based on the spectra and color information. In model calibration, the variables were first selected by genetic algorithm (GA); then the nonlinear back propagation-artificial neural network (BPANN) models were established based on the optimal variables. In comparison with the other models, GA-BPANN models from spectra data information showed the best performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.8935, and the root mean square error of 0.392 in the prediction set. In addition, models based on the spectra information provided better performance than that based on the color parameters. Therefore, the VIS-NIR spectroscopy technique is a promising tool for rapid and accurate evaluation of the sensory quality of black tea samples.

  4. Commercial Honeybush (Cyclopia spp. Tea Extract Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages—An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amcois Visagie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Honeybush tea, a sweet tasting caffeine-free tea that is indigenous to South Africa, is rich in bioactive compounds that may have beneficial health effects. Bone remodeling is a physiological process that involves the synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts and resorption of bone by osteoclasts. When resorption exceeds formation, bone remodeling can be disrupted resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors of monocytic lineage. These precursors fuse and differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL, produced by osteoblasts. In this study, the in vitro effects of an aqueous extract of fermented honeybush tea were examined on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We found that commercial honeybush tea extract inhibited osteoclast formation and TRAP activity which was accompanied by reduced bone resorption and disruption of characteristic cytoskeletal elements of mature osteoclasts without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, honeybush tea extract decreased expression of key osteoclast specific genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and cathepsin K. This study demonstrates for the first time that honeybush tea may have potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects and therefore should be further explored for its beneficial effects on bone.

  5. Pu-erh Tea Extract Ameliorates Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in Rats and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis, especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro.Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups. Ovariectomized (OVX rats were used as an animal model of osteoporosis. The animals were intragastrically administered distilled water, XLGB, or different concentrations of PTE for 13 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical indicators, relative organ coefficients, femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone biomechanical properties, and bone microarchitecture were examined and analyzed. Additionally, the in vitro effects of PTE on osteoclastic activities were investigated using the RAW 264.7 cell line as an osteoclast differentiation model. The effects of PTE on osteoclast differentiation and the expression of osteoclast-specific genes and proteins were determined.Results: PTE reduced OVX-induced body weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment, and the high-dose exerted a significant effect. High-dose PTE significantly ameliorated OVX-induced estradiol (E2 deficiency. PTE treatment maintained calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and improved other blood biochemical parameters to various degrees. In addition, PTE treatment improved organ coefficients of the femur, uterus, and vagina and improved femoral BMD and bone biomechanical properties. PTE treatment strikingly ameliorated bone microarchitecture. Moreover, in the in vitro studies, osteoclast differentiation using the differentiation cell model was significantly inhibited by PTE without cytotoxic effects. Additionally

  6. In vitro comparison of the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vatanpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of Ledermix® paste and green tea extract on the concentration of inflammatory mediators. Materials and methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, first, the noncytotoxic concentrations of Ledermix® medicament and green tea extract were determined by MTT assay. Afterwards, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α inflammatory mediators were assessed by ELISA test in the four experimental groups and also in the control group at different time intervals of 2, 24, and 48 hours and after 7 days. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the obtained raw data followed by Tukey's post-hoc test for pair comparisons. Results: the noncytotoxic concentration of green tea extract and Ledermix® paste equaled 12 µg/ml and 0.25 µg/ml, respectively. Time interval had no significant effect on the concentration of the mediators. Generally, both substances significantly decreased the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6 inflammatory mediators in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Green tea extract is less cytotoxic and more biocompatible than Ledermix® paste. Both Ledermix® paste and green tea extract expressed anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  8. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  9. Effect of Catechins, Green tea Extract and Methylxanthines in Combination with Gentamicin Against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Combination therapy against resistant bacteria -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bacterial resistant infections have become a global health challenge and threaten the society’s health. Thus, an urgent need exists to find ways to combat resistant pathogens. One promising approach to overcoming bacterial resistance is the use of herbal products. Green tea catechins, the major green tea polyphenols, show antimicrobial activity against resistant pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of catechins, green tea extract, and methylxanthines in combination with gentamicin against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and the standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of different agents against bacterial strains were determined. The interactions of green tea extract, epigallate catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, two types of methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline with gentamicin were studied in vitro by using a checkerboard method and calculating the fraction inhibitory concentration index (FICI. Results: The MICs of gentamicin against bacterial strains were in the range of 0.312 - 320 μg/mL. The MIC values of both types of catechins were 62.5 - 250 μg/ mL. Green tea extract showed insufficient antibacterial activity when used alone. Methylxanthines had no intrinsic inhibitory activity against any of the bacterial strains tested. When green tea extract and catechins were combined with gentamicin, the MIC values of gentamicin against the standard strains and a clinical isolate were reduced, and synergistic activities were observed (FICI < 1. A combination of caffeine with gentamicin did not alter the MIC values of gentamicin. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that green tea extract and catechins potentiated the antimicrobial action of gentamicin against some clinical isolates of S. aureus and standard P. aeruginosa strains

  10. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...... of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal...

  11. Determination of five pyrethroids in tea drinks by dispersive solid phase extraction with polyaniline-coated magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Ying; Gao, Yan; Xu, Bo; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2014-02-01

    The polyaniline-coated magnetic particles with bowl-shaped morphology (Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls) were successfully prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared microbowls were used as the magnetic adsorbent in dispersive solid phase extraction of five pyrethroids, including cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin and bifenthrin in plain tea drinks. The effects of experiment factors, including amount of Fe3O4/C/PANI microbowls, pH value, ultrasound extraction time and desorption conditions, were investigated. The extraction recoveries obtained with 8 mg of magnetic microbowls were satisfactory, and the microbowls can be reused after easy washing. Thus, a simple, selective and effective method for the determination of the pyrethroids was established successfully. The results showed that the method had good linearity (r=0.9992-0.9998), and the limits of detections (LODs) were from 0.025 to 0.032 ng mL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.4-6.1% and 3.5-8.8%, respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the real tea drinks were in the range of 72.1-118.4%. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT), a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of green tea extract on biomarkers of breast cancer risk: study rationale, design, methods, and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavat, Hamed; Dostal, Allison M; Wang, Renwei; Bedell, Sarah; Emory, Tim H; Ursin, Giske; Torkelson, Carolyn J; Gross, Myron D; Le, Chap T; Yu, Mimi C; Yang, Chung S; Yee, Douglas; Wu, Anna H; Yuan, Jian-Min; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-10-01

    The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial investigating the effect of daily green tea extract consumption for 12 months on biomarkers of breast cancer risk. Participants were healthy postmenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer due to dense breast tissue with differing catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes. The intervention was a green tea catechin extract containing 843.0 ± 44.0 mg/day epigallocatechin gallate or placebo capsules for 1 year. Annual digital screening mammograms were obtained at baseline and month 12, and fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were provided at baseline and at months 6 and 12. Primary endpoints included changes in percent mammographic density, circulating endogenous sex hormones, and insulin-like growth factor axis proteins; secondary endpoints were changes in urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and circulating F2-isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidative stress. The MGTT screened more than 100,000 mammograms and randomized 1,075 participants based on treatment (green tea extract vs. placebo), stratified by COMT genotype activity (high COMT vs. low/intermediate COMT genotype activity). A total of 937 women successfully completed the study and 138 dropped out (overall dropout rate = 12.8 %). In this paper we report the rationale, design, recruitment, participant characteristics, and methods for biomarker and statistical analyses.

  13. Sequential extraction applied to Peruibe black mud, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson Koyaishi

    2014-01-01

    The Peruibe Black mud is used in therapeutic treatments such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne and seborrhoea, as well as in the treatment of myalgia, arthritis, rheumatism and non-articular processes. Likewise other medicinal clays, it may not be free from possible adverse health effects due to possible hazardous minerals leading to respiratory system occurrences and other effects, caused by the presence of toxic elements. Once used for therapeutic purposes, any given material should be fully characterized and thus samples of Peruibe black mud were analyzed to determine physical and chemical properties: moisture content, organic matter and loss on ignition; pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity and swelling index. The elemental composition was determined by Neutron Activation Analysis, Atomic Absorption Graphite Furnace and X-ray fluorescence; the mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Another tool widely used to evaluate the behavior of trace elements, in various environmental matrices, is the sequential extraction. Thus, a sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate the mud in specific geochemical forms and verify how and how much of the elements may be contained in it. Considering the several sequential extraction procedures, BCR-701 method (Community Bureau of Reference) was used since it is considered the most reproducible among them. A simple extraction with an artificial sweat was, also, applied in order to verify which components are potentially available for absorption by the patient skin during the topical treatment. The results indicated that the mud is basically composed by a silty-clay material, rich in organic matter and with good cation exchange capacity. There were no significant variations in mineralogy and elemental composition of both, in natura and mature mud forms. The analysis by sequential extraction and by simple extraction indicated that the elements possibly available in larger

  14. Uranium extraction from aqueous solution using dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaynab Aly

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of U(VI) onto dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes was investigated. The adsorption properties of the materials were characterized by measuring uranium uptake as a function of solution pH, kinetics and adsorption isotherms. pH profile of uranium adsorption where UO 2 2+ is expected to be the predominant species was measured between pH 0 and 4. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibria, and corresponding constants evaluated. Using the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of uranium by dried tea and coffee wastes was 59.5 and 34.8 mg/g, respectively at 291 K. Adsorption thermodynamic constants, ΔHdeg ΔSdeg and ΔGdeg were also calculated from adsorption data obtained at three different temperatures. Adsorption thermodynamics of uranyl ions on dried tea and coffee systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic processes. Additionally, a Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model was used to fit the kinetic experimental data for both adsorbents and the constants evaluated. Dried tea and coffee wastes proved to be effective adsorbents with high capacities and significant advantage of a very low cost. (author)

  15. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Fox, Mark

    2010-12-14

    To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Randomised controlled crossover study. 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium (13)Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Cumulative percentage dose of (13)C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of (13)C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; Pcheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696.

  16. A study of inoculation route and dosage levels on embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing tea mistlestoe (Scurrula oortiana extract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana has cytotoxic activity which is potential to be used in preventing viral induced-chicken tumor. The following study was designed to evaluate the effects of different inoculation routes, dosage levels, and strains of embryonated chicken eggs as media for testing the tea mistlestoe extract (Scurrula oortiana antiviral activity. Proper inoculation route was examined by inoculation of the extract at dose level of 0,2 mg/egg into embryonated layer eggs via allantoic cavity, chorio-allantoic membrane, and yolk sac. Effect of dose level of tea mistlestoe extract on embryo development was examined in groups of embryonated broiler eggs inoculated with the extract at 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 mg/egg. Inoculation of tea mistlestoe extract into allantoic cavity was the safest procedure as indicated by the absence of embryos mortality, and faster embryo growth compared to those of chorio-allantoic membrane and yolk sac-inoculated eggs. The extract induced different growth effects when inoculated into embryonated layer or broiler eggs. Administration of the extract at dose levels between 0,02–200 mg/egg reduced significantly the weight of broiler embryoes, but not the relative weights of liver, heart and spleen. Administration of similar dosage in layer embryoes did not cause any significant difference in the embryoes weight. This study suggests that the study of antiviral activity of tea mistlestoe extract in embryonated chicken eggs should be carried out on embryonated eggs of layer breeds and the extract should be inoculated via allantoic cavity.

  17. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157 Bacteriophages by Using a Mixture of Ferrous Sulfate and Tea Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Meng, Ruiqiang; Wang, Jiaying; Niu, Yan D; Li, Jinquan; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-12-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) have been used for biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157 and other pathogenic bacteria in many different matrices and foods, but few studies have included inactivation of residual phages in culture medium before plating and enumeration of surviving host bacteria for the assessment of phage efficacy. This oversight may lead to overestimation of phage efficacy. The ability of virucidal solution containing a mixture of ferrous sulfate [iron(II) sulfate, FeSO4] and tea extract [Fe(II)T] to inactivate residual T5-like, T1-like, T4-like, and rV5-like phages was assessed using E. coli O157 as the host. At concentrations of ≥10 mM FeSO4, all phages were not detected after 20 min in a broth culture model. Compared with the virucidal solution-free samples (1 to 96% recovery), Fe(II)T (10 mM FeSO4 plus 15% tea extract) recovered a greater (P phage-treated broth culture (97 to 100% recovery) and beef samples (52 to 100% recovery). Moreover, with the addition of Fe(II)T, the number of bacteria surviving after exposure to T5-like or T4-like phages was greater (P phages. Consequently, use of a virucide for phage inactivation is recommended to improve the accuracy of evaluations of phage efficacy for biocontrol of E. coli O157.

  20. Ionizing radiation effects on volatiles formation in Camellia sinensis (L) teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white, green, oolong and black teas. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60 Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydro distillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results show that the volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. The white tea showed less influence of ionizing radiation, as 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all doses of radiation and formed 47.53% of new compounds after irradiation. The green tea was the tea that has the greatest influence of radiation effects, increasing 66.12% of volatiles identified in relation to the control sample and only 21.77% of volatiles found naturally were resistant to all doses of radiation. The oolong tea, despite suffering a partial enzymatic treatment, was the second tea that has least interference of radiation in increasing the formation of new volatile. >From this tea, was able to detect 49.59% of new compounds after irradiation and 30.08% of the compounds found naturally were also found after irradiation. The black tea has the second greatest influence of radiation on formation of new volatile (60.94%) and only 17.97% of all identified compounds were not degraded after radiation. (author)

  1. Identification of the varietal origin of processed loose-leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanping Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an important cash crop, representing a $40 billion-a-year global market. Differentiation of the tea market has resulted in increasing demand for tea products that are sustainably and responsibly produced. Tea authentication is important because of growing concerns about fraud involving premium tea products. Analytical technologies are needed for protection and value enhancement of high-quality brands. For loose-leaf teas, the challenge is that the authentication needs to be established on the basis of a single leaf, so that the products can be traced back to the original varieties. A new generation of molecular markers offers an ideal solution for authentication of processed agricultural products. Using a nanofluidic array to identify variant SNP sequences, we tested genetic identities using DNA extracted from single leaves of 14 processed commercial tea products. Based on the profiles of 60 SNP markers, the genetic identity of each tea sample was unambiguously identified by multilocus matching and ordination analysis. Results for repeated samples of multiple tea leaves from the same products (using three independent DNA extractions showed 100% concordance, showing that the nanofluidic system is a reliable platform for generating tea DNA fingerprints with high accuracy. The method worked well on green, oolong, and black teas, and can handle a large number of samples in a short period of time. It is robust and cost-effective, thus showing high potential for practical application in the value chain of the tea industry.

  2. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Z; Amani, R; Habibagahi, Z; Namjoyan, F; Ghadiri, Ata; Saki Malehi, A

    2017-07-01

    Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory benefit of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in autoimmune disease has been proven in recent studies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of green tea on disease activity and quality of life in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. A randomized controlled trial on subjects with lupus was conducted, and 68 patients in the age range of 39.1 ± 10.3 years and body mass index of 25.7 ± 5.21 kg/m 2 completed the 12-week study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (1000 mg green tea extract, two capsules/day) and control (1000 mg of starch, two capsules/day). Main outcome measure, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity, was assessed by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index at the first and after 3 months of intervention. In addition, patient's quality of life was evaluated by short form of quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months. Green tea extract supplementation significantly reduced disease activity in lupus patients (p tea extracts for 12 weeks improves the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity as well as some aspects of quality of life. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine George

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary agents has received considerable importance because of their cost-effectiveness and wide safety margin. However, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP in suppressing two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. Resveratrol/BTP alone treatment decreased tumor incidence by ∼67% and ∼75%, while combination of both at low doses synergistically decreased tumor incidence even more significantly by ∼89% (p<0.01. This combination also significantly regressed tumor volume and number (p<0.01. Mechanistic studies revealed that this combinatorial inhibition was associated with decreased expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and increased in total p53 and phospho p53 (Ser 15 in skin tissue/tumor. Treatment with combinations of resveratrol and BTP also decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse skin tissues/tumors than their solitary treatments as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, histological and cell death analysis also confirmed that resveratrol and BTP treatment together inhibits cellular proliferation and markedly induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results for the first time lucidly illustrate that resveratrol and BTP in combination impart better suppressive activity than either of these agents alone and accentuate that development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention using dietary agents will be more beneficial against cancer. This promising combination should be examined in therapeutic trials of skin and possibly other cancers.

  4. Influence of agronomic variables on the composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) extracts obtained from CO2 extraction at 30 degrees C and 175 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmelindro, Angela Aquino; Girardi, Jonathan Dos Santos; Mossi, Altemir; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio

    2004-04-07

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of light intensity (plants with direct sun exposure and in a controlled light intensity) and age of leaves (6-24 months) on the characteristics of the extracts of mate tea leaves obtained from carbon dioxide at high pressures. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Industria e Comercio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. The content of selected organic compounds of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography together with mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, phytol, vitamin E, squalene, and stigmasterol was performed, and the results showed that field variables exert a strong influence on the liquid yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  5. Characterization of tea polyphenols as potential environment-friendly fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengqi; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Haihui; Tao, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigated the oxidation properties of tea polyphenols and their potential as the fire retardants. Two types of tea polyphenols were adopted, which were extracted from red tea and green tea leaves, respectively. Their macroscopic performance during pyrolysis and oxidation at elevated temperatures were examined by using a heating furnace. Mass change, heat evolution and gas products of tea polyphenols during heating in air were also monitored by using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) integrated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in conjunction with online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). A tea polyphenol sample first becomes a brown semi-fluid after heating, and gradually turns into highly-porous black chars with significantly expanded volume. By raising the temperature to ∼550 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, the mass of a sample reduces by nearly 70% to form a large quantity of inert gases that are mainly composed of H2O and CO2. It was found that the aerial oxidation products of tea polyphenols in the solid phase possess good heat insulation property; meanwhile, the substantial release of a lot of water and its evaporation during oxidation of tea polyphenols removes a large amount of heat from a sample located in a heating environment. The heat insulation of tea polyphenols may withstand up to 550 °C. The present work confirms tea polyphenols as potential superior and environment-friendly fire retardants.

  6. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JSC (short-circuit photocurrent), VOC (open-circuit photovoltage), FF (fill factor) and η (efficiency of the solar cell) ... Tea leaf; ZnO; NG; microwave; solar cell. .... Where Pin is the power of incident white light from Xe lamp. Under the irradiation of 100 mW cm−2, the ZnO/NG com- posite gave a short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of ...

  7. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  8. Effects of green tea extracts on non-shivering thermogenesis during mild cold exposure in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Chantal; Haman, François

    2013-07-28

    The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine on non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold exposure is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of co-ingesting EGCG and caffeine on the thermogenic responses of a 3 h cold exposure. A total of eight healthy males were exposed to mild cold, using a liquid-conditioned suit perfused with 158C water, on two occasions and consumed a placebo or an extract of 1600 mg of EGCG and 600 mg of caffeine (Green tea). Thermic, metabolic and electromyographic measurements were monitored at baseline and during the cold exposure. Results showed that the AUC of shivering intensity over the cold exposure period was reduced by approximately 20% in the Green tea (266 (SEM 6)% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) x min) compared with the Placebo (332 (SEM 69)%MVC x min) (P=0·01) treatments. In contrast, the total AUC for energy expenditure (EE) was approximately 10% higher in the Green tea (23·5 (SEM 1·4) kJ/kg x 180 min) compared with the Placebo (327 (SEM 74) kJ/kg 180 min) (P=0·007) treatments. The decrease in shivering activity combined with an increase in EE, following the ingestion of EGCG and caffeine during the cold exposure, indicates that NST pathways can be significantly stimulated in adult human subjects. The present study provides an experimental approach for human investigations into the potential role of diet and bioactive food ingredients in modulating NST during cold exposure. Stimulating NST pathways in such a manner may also provide important targets in the search of targets for the management of obesity and diabetes.

  9. What is under the hump? Mass spectrometry based analysis of complex mixtures in processed food--lessons from the characterisation of black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and caramel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Nikolai; Dairpoosh, Farnoosh; Yassin, Ghada; Golon, Agnieszka; Jaiswal, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution we review our work on the characterisation of processed food. We review novel methods and analysis strategies developed to account for the composition of extraordinarily complex materials such as black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and thermally treated carbohydrates. Our methods are mainly based on modern mass spectrometry and are introduced and critically discussed. A series of novel previously unpublished data interpretation strategies are presented as well. Finally an evaluation of the insight obtained in the composition of selected processed foods is given discussing potential consequences for assessing beneficial and adverse health effects of processed food.

  10. Mass transfer and kinetic modelling of supercritical CO 2 extraction of fresh tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.

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    Pravin Vasantrao Gadkari

    Full Text Available Abstract Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was employed to extract solids from fresh tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L. at various pressures(15 to 35 MPa and temperatures (313 to 333K with addition of ethanol as a polarity modifier. The diffusion model and Langmuir model fit well to experimental data and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.94. Caffeine solubility was determined in supercritical CO2 and the Gordillo model was employed to correlate the experimental solubility values. The Gordillo model fit well to the experimental values with a correlation coefficient 0.91 and 8.91% average absolute relative deviation. Total phenol content of spent materials varied from 57 to 85.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g spent material, total flavonoid content varied from 50.4 to 58.2 mg of rutin equivalent per g spent material and the IC50 value (antioxidant content varied from 27.20 to 38.11 µg of extract per mL. There was significant reduction in polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant content in the extract when supercritical CO2 extraction was carried out at a higher pressure of 35 MPa.

  11. Concentrated green tea extract induces severe acute hepatitis in a 63-year-old woman--a case report with pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillukat, Mike H; Bester, Carolin; Hensel, Andreas; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Beckebaum, Susanne; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2014-08-08

    ETNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The popularity of concentrated green tea extracts as dietary supplements for a wide range of applications is increasing due to their health-promoting effects attributed to the high amounts of catechins they contain. The most important of the green tea catechins is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG). While their beneficiary effects have been studied extensively, a small number of adverse events have been reported in the medical literature. Here we present a typical reversible course of severe hepatitis after green tea consumption. The case study describes in a 63-year old woman during treatment with green tea-capsules upon recommendation of a cancer support group. The histological finding was consistent with drug induced hepatitis, and other possible causes of hepatitis were excluded. According to the CIOMS/RUCAM score the causality was assessed as "probable". After discontinuation of medication, followed by extracorporal albumin dialysis, rapid and sustained recovery occurred. Pharmaceutically analysis (HPLC) of the green tea capsules did not give evidence for contaminants but revealed the two typical compounds of green tea, namely (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG, 93.2%) and epicatechin (EC, 6.8%) at a very high dose level. The present case highlights the fact that such concentrated herbal extracts from green tea may not be free of adverse effects under certain circumstances. There is still a lack of a uniform European Union-wide surveillance system for adverse drug reactions of herbal products. Therefore this case underlines the importance of public awareness in the potential risks in use of herbal products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-throughput screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceuticals from green tea extracts by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Zhang, Feng

    2015-08-07

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 52 vitamins and natural antioxidants in nutraceutical products obtained from green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts. The automated extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 84.9-112.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of vitamins and natural antioxidants in 136 different commercial nutraceutical products from green tea extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pu-Erh Tea Extract Induces the Degradation of FET Family Proteins Involved in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Yang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available FET family proteins consist of fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS, Ewing's sarcoma (EWS, and TATA-binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15. Mutations in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, and FET family proteins are associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a fatal neurodegenerative disease. There is currently no cure for this disease and few effective treatments are available. Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of tea is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. The results of this study revealed that components of a pu-erh tea extract (PTE interacted with FET family proteins but not with TDP-43 or SOD1. PTE induced the degradation of FET family proteins but had no effects on TDP-43 or SOD1. The most frequently occurring ALS-linked FUS/TLS mutant protein, R521C FUS/TLS, was also degraded in the presence of PTE. Furthermore, ammonium chloride, a lysosome inhibitor, but not lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, reduced the degradation of FUS/TLS protein by PTE. PTE significantly reduced the incorporation of R521C FUS/TLS into stress granules under stress conditions. These findings suggest that PTE may have beneficial health effects, including preventing the onset of FET family protein-associated neurodegenerative diseases and delaying the progression of ALS by inhibiting the cytoplasmic aggregation of FET family proteins.

  14. The effects of green tea extract additive feeds on the growth performance and survival rate of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Pimpimol, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE additive feeds on the growth performance in the giant freshwater prawn. Two separate trials were determined by using two different stages of prawn for initial stocking, one was the small post larva (PL10, the other was 5.6 g prawn. A Completely Randomized Design was applied in this study. The small post larva (PL10 were raised in cement tanks(1x1.5 m2. Three treatments with three replications each were performed applied as following: treatment 1 (control was the commercial pellet feed; treatment 2 and 3 were feeds with 1% and 2% green tea extract, respectively. This assay was run for 8 weeks. The prawns were randomly selected for weight determination every week. The result showed there was no significant difference in the specific growth rate and survival (P > 0.05 but the feed conversion ratio was reduced in prawn fed with green tea extracts (P 0.05. Therefore, green tea extract has potential as growth enhancer in giant freshwater prawn culture.

  15. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  16. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves bone formation in the alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, Matheus da Silva; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Pereira, Camila Scacco; Pereira, Ariana Aparecida Ferreira; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Ervolino, Edilson; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati; de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Ana Cláudia; Chaves-Neto, Antonio Hernandes

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mate tea (MT) [Ilex paraguariensis] on alveolar socket healing after tooth extraction. Sixteen male rats were divided into MT and control groups. MT was administered by intragastric gavage at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 28 days before and 28 days after right maxillary incisor extraction. The control group received an equal volume of water. Histopathological and histometric analysis of the neoformed bone area and osteocyte density were performed, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the alveolar socket. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in plasma, whereas TRAP activity was determined in serum. Histometry evidenced an increase in bone area (P alveolar socket healing on day 28 after tooth extraction. Regular MT ingestion improves the antioxidant defenses and bone formation, which is beneficial for alveolar socket bone healing after tooth extraction.

  17. Composition analysis and antioxidant properties of black garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Li, Ningyang; Qiao, Xuguang; Qiu, Zhichang; Liu, Pengli

    2017-04-01

    Black garlic produced from fresh garlic under controlled high temperature and humidity has strong antioxidant properties. To determine these compounds, five fractions (from F1 to F5) were separated and purified by elution with chloroform:methanol at different ratios (8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 0:1; v/v). The antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed. The results showed that F3 and F4 had higher phenolic contents and stronger 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the others. Seven purified individual components were further separated using semipreparation high-performance liquid chromatography from these two intensely antioxidant fractions (F3 and F4), their structures were elucidated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Three compounds including adenosine, uridine, and 2-acetylpyrrole were first identified in black garlic, except for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, (1S, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid. The cellular antioxidant activities of uridine, adenosine, carboline alkaloids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and ethyl acetate extracts were consistent with the results of in vitro experimental antioxidant properties. The results provide useful information for understanding the health benefits of black garlic products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

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    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  19. Identification of key aromatic compounds in Congou black tea by PLSR with variable importance of projection scores and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shihong; Lu, Changqi; Li, Meifeng; Ye, Yulong; Wei, Xu; Tong, Huarong

    2018-04-13

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) is the most frequently used method to estimate the sensory contribution of single odorant, but disregards the interactions between volatiles. In order to select the key volatiles responsible for the aroma attributes of Congou black tea (Camellia sinensis), instrumental, sensory and multivariate statistical approaches were applied. By sensory analysis, nine panelists developed 8 descriptors, namely, floral, sweet, fruity, green, roasted, oil, spicy, and off-odor. Linalool, (E)-furan linalool oxide, (Z)-pyran linalool oxide, methyl salicylate, β-myrcene, phenylethyl alcohol which identified from the most representative samples by GC-O procedure, were the essential aroma-active compounds in the formation of basic Congou black tea aroma. In addition, 136 volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), among which 55 compounds were determined as the key factors for the six sensory attributes by partial least-square regression (PLSR) with variable importance of projection (VIP) scores. Our results demonstrated that HS-SPME/GC-MS/GC-O was a fast approach for isolation and quantification aroma-active compounds. PLSR method was also considered to be a useful tool in selecting important variables for sensory attributes. These two strategies allowed us to comprehensively evaluate the sensorial contribution of single volatile from different perspectives, can be applied to related products for comprehensive quality control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytical strategy coupled with response surface methodology to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from ternary mixtures of green, yellow, and red teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniel; Grevink, Raymond; Zielinski, Acácio A F; Nunes, Domingos S; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-10-22

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extraction of flavan-3-ols, o-diphenols, total phenolic compounds (TPC), free radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), cupric ion reducing antioxidant activity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were significant, and data were fit satisfactorily (R(2) > 80%). A mixture of green and red teas had a synergism in CUPRAC and TPC, whereas a mixture of yellow and red teas had a positive effect on CUPRAC and DPPH. An optimization was performed to maximize the antioxidant activity and flavan-3-ol content and to render a tea with mild bitterness, and results showed that a mixture of 14.81% green, 56.86% yellow, and 28.33% red teas would be the most suitable combination of factors.

  1. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

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    María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins. The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+-catechin equivalents.

  2. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  3. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  4. Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black beans contain anthocyanins that could be used as colorants in foods with associated health benefits. The objective was to optimize anthocyanins extraction from black bean coats and evaluate their physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Optimal extraction conditions were 24% ethan...

  5. Modeling of yield and environmental impact categories in tea processing units based on artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanali, Majid; Mobli, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa

    2017-12-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for predicting the yield and life cycle environmental impacts based on energy inputs required in processing of black tea, green tea, and oolong tea in Guilan province of Iran. A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to investigate the environmental impact categories of processed tea based on the cradle to gate approach, i.e., from production of input materials using raw materials to the gate of tea processing units, i.e., packaged tea. Thus, all the tea processing operations such as withering, rolling, fermentation, drying, and packaging were considered in the analysis. The initial data were obtained from tea processing units while the required data about the background system was extracted from the EcoInvent 2.2 database. LCA results indicated that diesel fuel and corrugated paper box used in drying and packaging operations, respectively, were the main hotspots. Black tea processing unit caused the highest pollution among the three processing units. Three feed-forward back-propagation ANN models based on Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm with two hidden layers accompanied by sigmoid activation functions and a linear transfer function in output layer, were applied for three types of processed tea. The neural networks were developed based on energy equivalents of eight different input parameters (energy equivalents of fresh tea leaves, human labor, diesel fuel, electricity, adhesive, carton, corrugated paper box, and transportation) and 11 output parameters (yield, global warming, abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and photochemical oxidation). The results showed that the developed ANN models with R 2 values in the range of 0.878 to 0.990 had excellent performance in predicting all the output variables based on inputs. Energy consumption for

  6. Elucidation of the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Catechin Monomers from Commercial Green Tea Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrizal, S.; Rahim, Afidah A.; Saad, Bahruddin; Bothi Raja, P.; Shah, Affaizza M.; Yahya, S.

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitive action of commercial green tea extracts on mild steel (MS) in a 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed conclusively that of the eight catechin monomers and caffeine found in the original extracts, only four components were responsible for the inhibition of MS. The decreasing adsorption capacity of monomers on MS is related to the stereochemistry of molecules and the number of phenolic groups, and it is as follows: epigallocatechin gallate > epicatechin gallate > epigallocatechin > epicatechin. Adsorption of green tea extract constituent was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the calculated Gibb's free energy values indicated the physisorption of inhibitor over MS surface. Physisorption was supported well by the potential zero charge (PZC) and molecular surface energy-level calculations.

  7. Effect of Green Tea Extract/Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Complex in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice

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    Ki-Cheor Bae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with the rapid spread of obesity. Obesity induces insulin resistance, resulting in β-cell dysfunction and thus T2DM. Green tea extract (GTE has been known to prevent obesity and T2DM, but this effect is still being debated. Our previous results suggested that circulating green tea gallated catechins (GCs hinders postprandial blood glucose lowering, regardless of reducing glucose and cholesterol absorption when GCs are present in the intestinal lumen. This study aimed to compare the effect of GTE with that of GTE coadministered with poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA, which is likely to inhibit the intestinal absorption of GCs.MethodsThe db/db mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were provided with normal chow diet containing GTE (1%, γ-PGA (0.1%, or GTE+γ-PGA (1%:0.1% for 4 weeks.ResultsIn nondiabetic mice, none of the drugs showed any effects after 4 weeks. In db/db mice, however, weight gain and body fat gain were significantly reduced in the GTE+γ-PGA group compared to nondrug-treated db/db control mice without the corresponding changes in food intake and appetite. Glucose intolerance was also ameliorated in the GTE+γ-PGA group. Histopathological analyses showed that GTE+γ-PGA-treated db/db mice had a significantly reduced incidence of fatty liver and decreased pancreatic islet size. Neither GTE nor γ-PGA treatment showed any significant results.ConclusionThese results suggest that GTE+γ-PGA treatment than GTE or γ-PGA alone may be a useful tool for preventing both obesity and obesity-induced T2DM.

  8. A porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of phthalate esters from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier (C-NH2 -MIL-125) was prepared and coated onto a stainless-steel wire through sol-gel technique. The coated fiber was used for the solid-phase microextraction of trace levels of phthalate esters (diallyl phthalate, di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexy) ortho-phthalate) from tea beverage samples before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis. Several experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity existed in the range of 0.05-30.00 μg/L for green jasmine tea beverage samples, and 0.10-30.00 μg/L for honey jasmine tea beverage samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9939 to 0.9981. The limits of detection of the analytes for the method were 2.0-3.0 ng/L for green jasmine tea beverage sample, and 4.0-5.0 ng/L for honey jasmine tea beverage sample, depending on the compounds. The recoveries of the analytes for the spiked samples were in the range of 82.0-106.0%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 11.1%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Properties and Antioxidant Action of Actives Cassava Starch Films Incorporated with Green Tea and Palm Oil Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins; Conceição, Anderson Carlos de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Juliana Caribé Pires; Assis, Denilson de Jesus; Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days) under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower) compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pstarch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products. PMID:25251437

  10. Development and application of UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of phenolic compounds in Chamomile flowers and Chamomile tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Vildová, Anna; Mateus, Joana Patricia; Gonçalves, Tiago; Solich, Petr

    2010-09-15

    UHPLC-MS/MS method using BEH C18 analytical column was developed for the separation and quantitation of 12 phenolic compounds of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). The separation was accomplished using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of methanol and formic acid 0.1%. ESI in both positive and negative ion mode was optimized with the aim to reach high sensitivity and selectivity for quantitation using SRM experiment. ESI in negative ion mode was found to be more convenient for quantitative analysis of all phenolics except of chlorogenic acid and kaempherol, which demonstrated better results of linearity, accuracy and precision in ESI positive ion mode. The results of method validation confirmed, that developed UHPLC-MS/MS method was convenient and reliable for the determination of phenolic compounds in Chamomile extracts with linearity >0.9982, accuracy within 76.7-126.7% and precision within 2.2-12.7% at three spiked concentration levels. Method sensitivity expressed as LOQ was typically 5-20 nmol/l. Extracts of Chamomile flowers and Chamomile tea were subjected to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most abundant phenolic compounds in both Chamomile flowers and Chamomile tea extracts were chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone, apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside. In Chamomile tea extracts there was greater abundance of flavonoid glycosides such as rutin or quercitrin, while the aglycone apigenin and its glycoside were present in lower amount. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of two thin-film microextractions for the analysis of estrogens in aqueous tea extract and environmental water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-Shan; Li, Dan; Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Ruan, Jin-Lan

    2015-04-15

    Two thin-film microextractions (TFME), octadecylsilane (ODS)-polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-TFME and polar enhanced phase (PEP)-PAN-TFME have been proposed for the analysis of bisphenol-A, diethylstilbestrol and 17β-estradiol in aqueous tea extract and environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Both thin-films were prepared by spraying. The influencing factors including pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, ion strength and reusability were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the two TFME methods are similar in terms of the analytical performance evaluated by standard addition method. The limits of detection for three estrogens in environmental water and aqueous tea extract matrix ranged from 1.3 to 1.6 and 2.8 to 7.1 ng mL(-1) by the two TFME methods, respectively. Both approaches were applied for the analysis of analytes in real aqueous tea extract and environmental water samples, presenting satisfactory recoveries ranged from 87.3% to 109.4% for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Activity Test of Ethanol Extract Tea Parasite Herb (Scurrulla Artopurpurea) as an Immunostimulator on Wistar Strain Rat Sensititized with Sheep Red Blood Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Retno; Dimas A, M.; Hafiz, Aldi; Amalia, Muttia

    2018-03-01

    Tea parasite (Scurrulla artropurpurea) is one of the hemiparasite plants suspected as an imustimulator agent. The aims of this study was to prove the activity of tea parasite herb extract as immunostimulator in Wistar strain rats that are sensitized by sheep red blood cell suspension (SRBC). Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group was given CMC 1%, the treatment group was given the tea parasite herb extract at doses of 750 mg, 1.5g and 3 g/kgBW/day, each group was sensitized by SRBC 10% as much 0.5 ml intraperitoneally on the 0th and 9th days and 0.1 ml intraplantar on 12th days. The total number of leukocyte and lymphocyte cells was performed using blood smear and analyzed by GLMRM. test. The macrophage cell activity and the capacity of the peritoneal fluid preparation on day 14 and analyzed by ANOVA test. The histopathological features are demonstrated after 48 hours of intraplantar injection, quantitatively perceived perivascular and periadnexal infiltrates. The results showed that there were average differences on leukocyte cell counts (F = 46.249) and total lymphocyte cells (F = 58.144) on each calculation (day), but there were no average differences between each treatment group. The highest activity of phagocytosis is 78% and continues to increase along with the additional dose of extract, without the increased capacity of macrophage phagocytosis. Histopathological features of slow-type IV reaction shows mild severity. It can be concluded that the active compound of the extract tea parasite herbare able to improve immune system.

  13. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    1400. The custom of tea serving continues today, and the tea flower continues to be used according to the demand. After that, it seems that "FURICHA" (tea with bubbles) continued to be used for 640 years, until 1590 (AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA period) because MANCHARAZU was regarded as important in religion. Then, it is believed that the customs of "BOTEBOTECHA" and/or"BATABATACHA" succeeded traditionally. The culture of both tea drinking and cooking, each development course, existed respectively from the relations of tea and food. The state that was accompanied with neither tea nor cooking, such as "KISHUU-CHAGAYU (tea gruel)" and BOTEBOTECHA, continued for a while, but it was combined together as "ICHIJUU-ICHISSA (one soup one tea)" of "KAISEKIRYOURI (tea-ceremony dish)." It is noteworthy that the tea flower is used as preserved food seasoned with "MISO (fermented soybean paste)" and "TSUKUDANI (boiled food in sweetened soy sauce)." Even though old documents about the use of tea flowers as food in China were not found, according to literature in the past ten years, seven descriptions were found that the tea flower was used for food provided alone or with black tea, oolong tea or green tea. As for tea leaves and tea flowers being used as medicine, drink or food in Japan, as well as in neighboring countries which belong to the Lucidophyllous forest zone. The process that they were regarded as important with the time was investigated and reported here.

  14. [Determination of pyrethroid pesticides in tea by series two-solid phase extraction-columns cleanup and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Haiyan; Feng, Feng; Cao, Hairong; Yang, Zhen; Ke, Zhijun; Chen, Xiyao

    2017-08-08

    A rapid determination method of three pyrethroid pesticides (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate) in tea was developed by series two-solid phase extraction-column cleanup and external standard method coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in 30 min. The pesticide residues in tea were extracted with acetonitrile, and cleaned up by Carb/NH 2 and SLH solid-phase extraction columns. After filtration, the target compounds were analyzed by GC-MS and quantified by the external standard method. Under the optimized conditions, good linear ranges of 0.05-2.00 mg/kg were obtained. The limits of detection varied from 0.3 to 1.0 μ g/kg. The linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999. At three spiked levels (0.10, 0.50 and 2.00 mg/L), the average recoveries were determined between 80.6% and 116.3% in the four matrices. The inter-day relative standard deviations were between 1.3%-12.6%, and the intra-day relative standard deviations were between 2.7% and 12.1%. This method is simple, fast, and has a good reproducibility, which can meet the requirements of the rapid detection of pyrethroid pesticides in tea.

  15. Study on the Influence of Tea Extract on Probiotics in Skim Milk: From Probiotics Propagation to Metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gong, Guangyu; Ma, Chengjie; Liu, Zhenmin; Cai, Jie

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the influence of tea extract (TE) on the growth of probiotics in skim milk was examined. Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb02, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used in this study. The introduction of TE in milk significantly stimulated the propagation and acidification of L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM. The antioxidant capacities and the total free amino acid contents of all fermented milk products were enhanced by the addition of TE; however, there were different antioxidant properties and free amino acid contents of fermented milk samples fermented by different bacteria. With a 9% (w/w) level, the fermentation with L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM showed larger numbers of viable cells and faster acidifying rates, as well as excellent antioxidant capacity and abundant free amino acids.  The stimulative effects of TE on probiotics can be considered for industrial purposes and has practical implications for commercial applications. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Q; Phan, T D; Thieu, V Q Q; Tran, S T; Do, S H

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  17. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea in reducing the formation of acrylamide during the bread baking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengjie; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Zhou, Weibiao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yutao; Lu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    This is the first study to investigate the extent of reduction in acrylamide formation during baking with the addition of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, and to determine whether EGCG influences the texture and colour attributes of bread, or interacts with other ingredients. EGCG powders were added to white bread formulations at the concentrations of 3.3, 6.6 and 9.9g·kg -1 . The amount of acrylamide in the bread was analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. EGCG addition significantly reduced the acrylamide formation by 37% compared to the control and decreased the moisture content of the bread by 6%. It did not affect its texture attribute, but increased the lightness and the yellowness and decreased the redness of bread crust (with contrasting results in crumb). It also decreased granule size and porosity. In conclusion, EGCG fortification is a feasible method to decrease acrylamide formation in baked bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics of unloaded and green tea extract loaded lecithin based liposomal dispersions investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance T2relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtil, Emrah; Dag, Damla; Guner, Selen; Unal, Kubra; Oztop, Mecit H

    2017-09-01

    Liposomes are lipid bilayer vesicles that can be used as encapsulation systems for bioactive agents to provide increased protection against environmental stresses (such as pH or temperature extremes). Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) that is based on differentiation of specimen contents with respect to magnetic relaxation rates provides detailed information on amount, state and distribution of water and oil and provide reproducible results on the samples. These make TD-NMR particularly suitable for time-dependent monitoring of emulsion system dynamics. In this study, spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times and relaxation spectra were used for characterizing green tea extract loaded and unloaded liposomes prepared with soy (S75) and egg lecithins (E80) by different preparation methods (such as homogenization type, pressure and solvent type). Mean particle sizes of liposomes were found to be the most influential factor in shaping mono-exponential T 2 relaxation times. The differences in particle sizes of E80 and S75 samples along with samples with different homogenization pressures could be monitored with T 2 relaxation times. Additionally, T 2 relaxation times were found to be correlated with particle shape irregularity, and chemical instability of samples due to lipid oxidation. With relaxation spectrum analysis, particular components in the sample could be distinguished (internal/external water and lipid bilayers), which gave more elaborate results on mechanisms of instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term green tea extract supplementation does not affect fat absorption, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (GT) extract may play a role in body weight regulation. Suggested mechanisms are decreased fat absorption and increased energy expenditure. We examined whether GT supplementation for 12 wk has beneficial effects on weight control via a reduction in dietary lipid absorption as well as an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE). Sixty Caucasian men and women [BMI (in kg/m²): 18-25 or >25; age: 18-50 y] were included in a randomized placebo-controlled study in which fecal energy content (FEC), fecal fat content (FFC), resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient (RQ), body composition, and physical activity were measured twice (baseline vs. week 12). For 12 wk, subjects consumed either GT (>0.56 g/d epigallocatechin gallate + 0.28-0.45 g/d caffeine) or placebo capsules. Before the measurements, subjects recorded energy intake for 4 consecutive days and collected feces for 3 consecutive days. No significant differences between groups and no significant changes over time were observed for the measured variables. Overall means ± SDs were 7.2 ± 3.8 g/d, 6.1 ± 1.2 MJ/d, 67.3 ± 14.3 kg, and 29.8 ± 8.6% for FFC, REE, body weight, and body fat percentage, respectively. GT supplementation for 12 wk in 60 men and women did not have a significant effect on FEC, FFC, REE, RQ, and body composition. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  1. Radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok Joon; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jong Dai

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties of the extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared from black chokeberry and blueberry, and evaluated for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total proanthocyanidin content, and antioxidative activities, using various in vitro assays, such as DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power. The major phenolic compounds, including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, neochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, were analysed by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of black chokeberry extract were higher than those of blueberry extract. In addition, black chokeberry extract exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power than did blueberry extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was identified as a major phenolic compound, with considerable content in black chokeberry, that correlated with its higher antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects. These results suggest that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation and application of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients for development of ready to drink tea beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Shweta; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Singhal, Rekha S

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes. The combined enzymatic extraction amplified total extractives up to 76% in GTE and 72% in BTE. Total polyphenol was found to be enhanced to 24% in GTE and 19% in BTE. GTE was further selected for development of RTD in two different formats; synbiotic RTD and prebiotic RTD premix and analyzed for sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, and acceptability). Synbiotic RTD was also evaluated for stability over a period of 28 days at 4 °C. Synbiotic RTD developed an unpleasant flavor and aroma during the shelf life. Premix format of RTD developed using spray drying was reconstituted and found to be functionally and sensorially acceptable.

  3. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice Extrato de chá branco reduz extresse oxidativo e triacilglicerois em camundongos obesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.O chá branco é um chá não fermentando feito a partir de brotos jovens da Camellia sinensis protegidos da luz solar para evitar a degradação de polifenóis. Embora os níveis de catequinas sejam mais elevados que os do chá verde (mesma planta, nenhum estudo foi realizado sobre estresse oxidativo relacionado obesidade. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do chá verde na obesidade e suas complicações, usando um modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta. Quarenta camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica para indução da obesidade ou mesma dieta suplementada

  4. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    Yuet Ying Loo,1 Buong Woei Chieng,2 Mitsuaki Nishibuchi,3 Son Radu11Centre of Excellent for Food Safety Research, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Center for South East Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role i...

  6. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Optimization of Surfactant-Mediated, Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Antioxidant Polyphenols from Rattan Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Raza, Aun; Wang, Yan-Wei; Xu, Xiu-Quan; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Rattan tea is a medicinal plant that has been used for many years for the treatment of inflammation, fatty liver, tumor, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. A green and novel approach based on surfactant-mediated, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (SM-UAE) was developed for the extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan tea. A nonionic surfactant Tween-80 was selected as extraction solvent. The antioxidant activity was measured by total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing/antioxidant capacity (FRAC) assay. Optimization of extraction parameters including concentration of solvent, ultrasonic time, and temperature were investigated by response surface methodology. The antioxidant activity was measured by TPC and FRAC assay. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.8 min. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 360.4 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight material (GAE/g DW) was recorded. Moreover, 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54.5°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.4 min were determined for the highest FRAC value of 478.2 μmol of Fe 2+ /g of weight material (μmol Fe 2+ /g DW). Compared with other methods, the TPC and FRAC values of 313.5 mg GAE/g DW and 389.6 μmol Fe 2+ /g DW were obtained by heat reflux extraction using ethanol as solvent, respectively, and 343.2 mg GAE/g DW and 450.1 μmol Fe 2+ /g DW were obtained by UAE using ethanol as solvent, respectively. The application of SM-UAE markedly decreased extraction time or extraction cost and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the other methods. Surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan Tea Response surface methodology used to optimize parameters and study combined effectsOptimized surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction process enhances the antioxidant phenolics extraction in less time

  8. Box-Behnken design in modeling of solid-phase tea waste extraction for the removal of uranium from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Jahanbin, Elham; Ghaffari-Moghaddam, Mansour; Moghaddam, Zahra Safaei; Bohlooli, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the solid-phase tea waste procedure was used for separation, preconcentration and determination of uranium from water samples by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. In addition, Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to investigated the influence of six variables including pH, mass of adsorbent, eluent volume, amount of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN); and sample and eluent flow rates on the extraction of analyte. High determination coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.972 and adjusted-R 2 of 0.943 showed the satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression model. This method was used for the extraction of uranium from real water samples.

  9. Ionizing radiation effects on volatiles formation in Camellia sinensis (L) teas; Efeito da radiacao ionizante na formacao de volateis em chas da planta Camellia sinensis (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white, green, oolong and black teas. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydro distillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results show that the volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. The white tea showed less influence of ionizing radiation, as 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all doses of radiation and formed 47.53% of new compounds after irradiation. The green tea was the tea that has the greatest influence of radiation effects, increasing 66.12% of volatiles identified in relation to the control sample and only 21.77% of volatiles found naturally were resistant to all doses of radiation. The oolong tea, despite suffering a partial enzymatic treatment, was the second tea that has least interference of radiation in increasing the formation of new volatile. >From this tea, was able to detect 49.59% of new compounds after irradiation and 30.08% of the compounds found naturally were also found after irradiation. The black tea has the second greatest influence of radiation on formation of new volatile (60.94%) and only 17.97% of all identified compounds were not degraded after radiation. (author)

  10. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yue Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  11. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  12. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2017-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  13. Effect of steeping temperature on antioxidant and inhibitory activities of green tea extracts against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyuan; Ai, Zeyi; Qu, Fengfeng; Chen, Yuqiong; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steeping temperature on the biological activities of green tea, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities, and glucose uptake inhibitory activity in Caco-2 cells. Results showed that, with increasing extraction temperature, the polyphenol content increased, which contributed to enhance antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Green tea steeped at 100°C showed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities with EC 50 or IC 50 values of 6.15μg/mL, 0.09mg/mL, and 6.31mg/mL, respectively. However, the inhibitory potential on glucose uptake did not show an upward trend with increasing extraction temperature. Green tea steeped at 60°C had significantly stronger glucose uptake inhibitory activity (ptea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on white tea volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.br; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2009-07-01

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  15. Effects of γ-radiation on white tea volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Purgatto, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60 Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  16. A Nev Simplified Stain Extracted From The Petals of Kujarat Tea Flovers ( Hibiscus Subdariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Z. Javadat

    2018-01-01

    The results of staining with Kujarat stain proved to be highly efficient when compared with routine stains ( such as iodine and. trichrome. In addition to that no differences vere observed between the watery and alcoholic extractsJ so the present work recommended the use of watery solution of stain ( in saline at the concentration of ( 8% wt.! vol. for both routine and teaching purposes. The dried petals can be easi1y obtained from the local markets with a cheep price and then the stain can be sasily prepared at any time.

  17. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai YJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Jieh Tsai, Bing-Huei ChenDepartment of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan’s market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A and acetonitrile (B with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential -66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 µg/mL and 8.5 µg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce

  18. Comparison of Catechins and Antioxidant Activity in Four kinds of Sichuan tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Chen, Shengxiang; Zhu, Mingzhu; Meng, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    Absract:Catechins of the nine representative teas produced in Sichuan, which belonged to green tea, yellow tea, dark tea and black tea, were determined by UHPLC. Their antioxidant activity was determined by the hydroxyl radical scavenging. The results showed that: the total amount of their catechins was between 0.45(Qingzhuan) ˜ 121.21 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea > dark tea (black tea); except Qingzhuan, their EGCG contents were between 1.07 ± 0.01 (Chuanhong gongfu) ˜ 76.16 ±0.43 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea> dark tea (black tea); EGCG3“Me, which only remained in green and yellow tea, their contents were between 0.05±0.02 (Mengding Huangya) ˜ 0.39±0.04 mg/g (Mengding ganlu); their hydroxyl radical scavenging was between 48.37±0.20 (Fuzhuan) ˜75.51±0.63% (Mengding Huangya) and their IC50 was between 3.31±0.028 ˜5.18±0.012 mg/mL, the order for their clear rates was yellow tea> green tea> dark tea (black tea). Mengding Huangya showed the highest antioxidant activity in sichuan tea.

  19. Antioxidant activities of extracts from teas prepared from medicinal plants, Morus alba L., Camellia sinensis L., and Cudrania tricuspidata , and their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sanghae; Jang, Hae Won; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-09-12

    The antioxidant activity of essences of teas prepared from mulberry ( Morus alba L.), Camellia sinensis L., and Cudrania tricuspidata (Carr.) Burea plant was examined using two antioxidant assays. Selected volatile chemicals identified in these plants were also tested for antioxidant activity. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activity with a clear dose response in the aldehyde/carboxylic acid and the malonaldehyde/gas chromatography (MA/GC) assays. Antioxidant activity of extracts at the level of 500 μg/mL ranged from 77.02 ± 0.51% (stems of Burea plant) to 52.57 ± 0.92% (fermented tea of Camellia and stems of Mulberry tea) in the aldehydes/carboxylic acid assay. Their antioxidant activity at the level of 160 μg/mL ranged from 76.17 ± 0.27% (roots of Burea plant) to 59.32 ± 0.27% (stems of Mulberry tea) in the MA/GC assay. Among the positively identified compounds (11 terpenes and terpenoids, 15 alkyl compounds, 26 nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds, 9 oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds, 18 aromatic compounds, 7 lactones, 6 acids, and 4 miscellaneous compounds), eugenol, 2,5-dihydroxyl acetophenone, and isoeugenol exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to that of BHT in both assays. Vanillin and 2-acetylpyrrole showed potent antioxidant activity in the aldehydes/carboxylic acid assay but only moderate activity in the MA/GC assay. These results suggest that consumption of antioxidant-rich beverages prepared from these plants may be beneficial to human health.

  20. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  1. Pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manodeep Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the rate of development of myocardial diseases and hypertension is very common, which is responsible for incremental morbidity and mortality statistics. Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ can precipitate myocardial infarction due to hypokalemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract (GTE with HCTZ against ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial toxicity. Wistar albino rats of either sex were taken and pretreated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o. and low (100 mg/kg, p.o. dose of GTE for 30 days. Standard, high and low dose of interactive groups received HCTZ (10 mg/kg, p.o. for last 7 days. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by modified Lagendorff apparatus, and the effect of different treatments was evaluated by percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension, serum biomarkers, and heart tissue antioxidant levels. Prophylactic treatment groups, such as high and low dose of GTE and their interactive groups with HCTZ, exhibited significant percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension. Apart from that, significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase, decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive species in heart tissue, as well as significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB and N-acetylcysteine levels have also been documented. The present findings clearly suggest that GTE dose-dependently reduces myocardial toxicity due to ischemia, and combination with HCTZ can reduce the associated side-effects and exhibits myocardial protection.

  2. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  3. Identification of Targets of a New Nutritional Mixture for Osteoarthritis Management Composed by Curcuminoids Extract, Hydrolyzed Collagen and Green Tea Extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Comblain

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that a mixture of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract (COT inhibited inflammatory and catabolic mediator's synthesis by osteoarthritic human chondrocytes. The objective of this study was to identify new targets of COT using genomic and proteomic approaches.Cartilage specimens were obtained from 12 patients with knee osteoarthritis. Primary human chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer until confluence and then incubated for 24 or 48 hours in the absence or in the presence of human interleukin(IL-1β (10-11M and with or without COT, each compound at the concentration of 4 μg/ml. Microarray gene expression profiling between control, COT, IL-1β and COT IL-1β conditions was performed. Immunoassays were used to confirm the effect of COT at the protein level.More than 4000 genes were differentially expressed between conditions. The key regulated pathways were related to inflammation, cartilage metabolism and angiogenesis. The IL-1β stimulated chemokine ligand 6, matrix metalloproteinase-13, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and stanniocalcin1 gene expressions and protein productions were down-regulated by COT. COT significantly decreased stanniocalcin1 production in basal condition. Serpin E1 gene expression and protein production were down-regulated by IL-1β. COT reversed the inhibitory effect of IL-1β. Serpin E1 gene expression was up-regulated by COT in control condition.The COT mixture has beneficial effect on osteoarthritis physiopathology by regulating the synthesis of key catabolic, inflammatory and angiogenesis factors. These findings give a scientific rationale for the use of these natural ingredients in the management of osteoarthritis.

  4. Development of a methodology using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the determination of the carbon isotope ratio of caffeine extracted from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Yamada, Keita; Sumikawa, Osamu; Matsunaga, Akiko; Gilbert, Alexis; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2012-04-30

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of the extracted caffeine can be used to determine the authenticity of the origin of tea. Elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS), which is widely used to measure the carbon isotope ratio of caffeine, has a strict requirement for the purity of the extracted caffeine. To obtain high-purity caffeine from tea leaves, the conventional extraction process has to be repeated and usually takes about 5-6 h. To improve the measurement of the carbon isotope ratio of caffeine, a more rapid and accurate measuring method is needed. An analytical protocol was developed for the determination of the carbon isotope ratio of caffeine from tea leaves using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) combined with our extraction process. The procedure to extract caffeine and determine its carbon isotope ratio takes around 1.5 h. The standard deviation of the method is less than 0.1‰ (1σ). The measured carbon isotope ratios were not influenced by the amount of caffeine injected (0.08-0.62 µg) or by the extraction yield of caffeine from the tea leaves. The carbon isotope ratios of caffeine from eight tea cultivars were determined using the protocol. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Energy extraction from a Konoplya–Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Long

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the properties of the ergosphere and the energy extraction by Penrose process in a Konoplya–Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr black hole spacetime. We find that the ergosphere becomes thin and the maximum efficiency of energy extraction decreases as the deformation parameter increases. For the case with aM, we find that the maximum efficiency can reach so high that it is almost unlimited as the positive deformation parameter is close to zero, which is a new feature of energy extraction in such kind of rotating non-Kerr black hole spacetime.

  6. A nanocomposite consisting of graphene oxide and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for the extraction of flavonoids from tea, wine and urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianrong; Xiao, Deli; Peng, Jun; Wang, Cuixia; Zhang, Chan; He, Jia; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We describe a single-step solvothermal method for the preparation of nanocomposites consisting of graphene oxide and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (GO/Fe 3 O 4 ). This material is shown to be useful as a magnetic sorbent for the extraction of flavonoids from green tea, red wine, and urine samples. The nanocomposite is taking advantage of the high surface area of GO and the magnetic phase separation feature of the magnetic sorbent. The nanocomposite is recyclable and was applied to the extraction of flavonoids prior to their determination by HPLC. The effects of amount of surfactant, pH value of the sample solution, extraction time, and desorption condition on the extraction efficiency, and the regeneration conditions were optimized. The limits of detection for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol range from 0.2 to 0.5 ng∙ mL −1 in urine, from 3.0 to 6.0 ng∙mL −1 in green tea, and from 1.0 to 2.5 ng∙mL −1 in red wine. The recoveries are between 82.0 and 101.4 %, with relative standard deviations of <9.3 %. (author)

  7. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32 P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen

  8. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceresini, Paulo C. [UNESP; Costa-Souza, Elaine [UNESP; Zala, Marcello; Furtado, Edson Luiz [UNESP; Souza, Nilton L. [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of...

  9. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...... of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea...

  10. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  11. Rapid analysis of fungicides in tea infusions using ionic liquid immobilized fabric phase sorptive extraction with the assistance of surfactant fungicides analysis using IL-FPSE assisted with surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miyi; Gu, Yihan; Wu, Xiaoling; Xi, Xuefei; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zeng, Haozhe; Zhang, Sanbing; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang; Li, Jing

    2018-01-15

    A green, simple, inexpensive, and sensitive ionic liquid immobilized fabric phase sorptive extraction method coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for rapid screening and simultaneous determination of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil and trifloxystrobin) residues in tea infusions. This IL modified extraction fiber is capable of extracting target analytes directly from complicated tea water matrices with the addition of surfactant. A series of extraction conditions were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach and orthogonal test. After a series experiments, the optimum conditions were found to be 10% [HIMIM]NTf 2 as coating solution, 2min vortex time, 500μL acetonitrile as dispersive solvent and 2min desorption time. Under the above conditions, the proposed technique was applied to detect fungicides from real tea water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Green tea extract attenuates muscle loss and improves muscle function during disuse, but fails to improve muscle recovery following unloading in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian T.; Wilson, Joseph C.; Sperringer, Justin; Mohamed, Junaith S.; Edens, Neile K.; Pereira, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that green tea extract (GTE) would improve muscle recovery after reloading following disuse. Aged (32 mo) Fischer 344 Brown Norway rats were randomly assigned to receive either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HLS) or 14 days of HLS followed by normal ambulatory function for 14 days (recovery). Additional animals served as cage controls. The rats were given GTE (50 mg/kg body wt) or water (vehicle) by gavage 7 days before and throughout the experimental periods. Compared with vehicle treatment, GTE significantly attenuated the loss of hindlimb plantaris muscle mass (−24.8% vs. −10.7%, P muscle function or mass compared with vehicle treatment, animals given green tea via gavage maintained the lower losses of muscle mass that were found during HLS (−25.2% vs. −16.0%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area loss in both plantaris (−39.9% vs. −23.9%, P muscles after HLS. This green tea-induced difference was not transient but was maintained over the reloading period for plantaris (−45.6% vs. −21.5%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area (−38.7% vs. −10.9%, P muscles during recovery from HLS compared with vehicle-treated muscles and decreased oxidative stress and abundance of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), yet this did not further improve muscle recovery in reloaded muscles. These data suggest that muscle recovery following disuse in aging is complex. Although satellite cell proliferation and differentiation are critical for muscle repair to occur, green tea-induced changes in satellite cell number is by itself insufficient to improve muscle recovery following a period of atrophy in old rats. PMID:25414242

  13. Immune responses to methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Bilen, Soner; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2017-08-01

    The immune stimulating effects of the methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated. Variable concentrations of black cumin methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg -1 of feed] were individually added to the basal diet and rainbow trout was fed for 30 days to assess the innate immune responses and growth performance. Feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in the group fed with 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract. Respiratory burst activity was observed to be the highest in the 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract fed group. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased in fish of experimental groups compared to control (P  0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of black cumin is a stimulator of some innate humoral immune responses, but it is ineffective for cytokine-related gene trancriptions in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple and cost-effective protocol for extraction of genomic DNA from ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Neelamegam Rameshkumar; Sankarappan Anbalagan; Nagarajan Kayalvizhi; Rasiravuthanahalli Kaveriyappan Govindarajan; Vimalanathan Arun Prasanna; Muthukalingan Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of extraction methodology for the proposed DNA from the ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera). Methods: This study addressed a simple and effective protocol for extraction of DNA from black flies stored in the ethanol. The sizes of larval and adult black flies ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 mm and 3 to 7 mm, respectively. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, the DNA was extracted from the ethanol preserved sample ...

  15. Effect of green tea extract on bonding durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Green tea extract has been advocated as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP inhibitor; however, its effect on bond durability to caries-affected dentin has never been reported. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two MMP inhibitors (2% chlorhexidine and 2% green tea extract, applied after acid etching, on bond durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin. Material and Methods Occlusal enamel was removed from third molars to expose the dentin surface, and the molars were submitted to a caries induction protocol for 15 days. After removal of infected dentin, specimens were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (15 seconds and randomly divided into three groups, according to the type of dentin pretreatment (n=10: NT: no treatment; GT: 2% green tea extract; CLX: 2% chlorhexidine. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, and composite resin restorations were built on the dentin. After 24 hours, at 37°C, the resin-tooth blocks were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface in the form of sticks (0.8 mm2 of adhesive area and randomly subdivided into two groups according to when they were to be submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing: immediately or 6 months after storage in distilled water. Data were reported in MPa and submitted to two-way ANOVA for completely randomized blocks, followed by Tukey’s test (α=0.05. Results After 24 hours, there was no significant difference in the μTBS of the groups. After 6 months, the GT group had significantly higher μTBS values. Conclusion It was concluded that the application of 2% green tea extract was able to increase bond durability of the etch-and-rinse system to dentin. Neither the application of chlorhexidine nor non-treatment (NT - control had any effect on bond strength after water storage.

  16. Dietary Intervention of Artemisia and Green Tea Extracts to Rejuvenate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Chronic Atrophic Gastritis and to Prevent Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Kangwan, Napapan; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Bok-Nam; Kim, Won-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2016-02-01

    As nonmicrobial dietary approach is capable of controlling Helicobacter pylori infection, we evaluated the efficacy of long-term dietary administration of Artemisia and/or green tea extracts on H. pylori-initiated, high-salt-promoted chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumorigenesis mouse model. Helicobacter pylori-infected and high-salt-diet-administered C57BL/6 mice were administered with Artemisia extracts (MP group) and/or green tea extracts (GT group) for 36 weeks in addition to the control group (ES group, gastroprotective drug, ecabet sodium 30 mg/kg, diet pellet). Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively, and their underlying molecular changes were measured in gastric homogenates. Detailed mechanisms were further evaluated in in vitro cell models. The erythematous and nodular changes and mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions were noted in the control group at 24 weeks. MP, GT, MPGT, and ES groups all showed significantly ameliorated pathologic lesion compared to the control group (p pylori infection were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p pylori infection (p pylori-induced serum TNF-α and NF-κB activations were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p pylori atrophic gastritis or to suppress tumorigenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Antiproliferative activity of protein extracts from the black clam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hiessu

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... 2F2 showed IC50 values of 67.46 µg/ml on HeLa cells. These results suggest that protein extracts from. C. fluctifraga might be potential anticancer agents. Key words: Protein extracts, clam, antiproliferative activity, breast cancer, cervical cancer. INTRODUCTION. Cancer is a worldwide health issue; it is not ...

  18. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  19. [Analysis of volatile components in Qingshanlvshui tea using solid-phase microextraction/accelerated solvent extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiafen; Lu, Sheming; Meng, Zhaoyu; Xiang, Nengjun; Cao, Qiu'e; Miao, Mingming

    2008-05-01

    The volatile components of Qingshanlvshui Tea were extracted using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), and then were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It showed that ninety-one compounds were identified, including forty-nine by SPME, fifty-six by ASE, and fourteen by both of them. The main constituents were beta-myrcene, 3,5,5-trimethyl-1,5-heptadiene, L-limonene, alpha-ocimene, beta-ocimene, beta-pinene, 2-methylbenzaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural. Both SPME and ASE have their advantages. SPME is excellent at simplicity, rapidity, solvent-free, high enrichment, low detection limit, environment friendly etc. ASE has characteristics of time and solvent saving, automation, simplicity, as well as high efficiency.

  20. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  1. Extraction of Black Hole Shadows Using Ridge Filtering and the Circle Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Ryan; Akiyama, Kazunori; Fish, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are widely considered to reside at the center of most large galaxies. One of the foremost tasks in modern astronomy is to image the centers of local galaxies, such as that of Messier 87 (M87) and Sagittarius A* at the center of our own Milky Way, to gain the first glimpses of black holes and their surrounding structures. Using data obtained from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global collection of millimeter-wavelength telescopes designed to perform very long baseline interferometry, new imaging techniques will likely be able to yield images of these structures at fine enough resolutions to compare with the predictions of general relativity and give us more insight into the formation of black holes, their surrounding jets and accretion disks, and galaxies themselves. Techniques to extract features from these images are already being developed. In this work, we present a new method for measuring the size of the black hole shadow, a feature that encodes information about the black hole mass and spin, using ridge filtering and the circle Hough transform. Previous methods have succeeded in extracting the black hole shadow with an accuracy of about 10- 20%, but using this new technique we are able to measure the shadow size with even finer accuracy. Our work indicates that the EHT will be able to significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole in M87.

  2. Preparation of a polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent for stir cake sorptive extraction of preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a new polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent was prepared and used as the extraction medium of stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) of three organic acid preservatives, namely, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The adsorbent was synthesized by the copolymerization of 1-ally-3-vinylimidazolium chloride (AV) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of a porogen solvent containing 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The effect of the content of monomer and the porogen solvent in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The adsorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. To obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE/AVDVB for target analytes, key parameters including desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, ionic strength and pH value in sample matrix were studied in detail. The results showed that under the optimized conditions, the SCSE/AVDVB could extract the preservatives effectively through multiply interactions. At the same time, a simple and sensitive method by combining SCSE/AVDVB and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of the target preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks. Low limits of detection (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target analytes were achieved within the range of 0.012–0.23 μg/L and 0.039–0.42 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was found that the values were all below 10%. Finally, the proposed method was used to detect preservatives in different orange juice and tea drink samples successfully. The recoveries were in the range of 71.9–116%, and the RSDs were below 10% in the all cases

  3. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  4. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  5. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  6. Metabolic variation and antioxidant potential of Malus prunifolia (wild apple) compared with high flavon-3-ol containing fruits (apple, grapes) and beverage (black tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-11-15

    Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination of HSCCC and Sephadex LH-20 methods An approach to isolation and purification of the main individual theaflavins from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjun; Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2008-01-01

    In order to separate the main individual theaflavin monomers from black tea, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography were applied. The results showed that theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3) can be obtained by HSCCC using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:3:1:6, v/v/v/v), but the TF1 was containing epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). Similarly, Sephadex LH-20 can also effectively separate TF2A(B) and TF3, but epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) contaminated TF1, too. Combination of HSCCC and Sephadex LH-20, the preferably purified TF1, TF2A(B) and TF3 were obtained than single separation technique. In addition, ECG and EGCG were also suggested to be able to be comprehensively separated by combination of the two techniques.

  8. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA LEAF EXTRACT ON SPATIAL MEMORY FUNCTION AND SUPEROXYDE DISMUTASE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN MICE WITH D-GALACTOSE INDUCED DIMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainun Rahmasari Gumay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in pathogenesis of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer. Green tea has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective activity. Objectives: to determine the effect of green tea extract on spatial memory function and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in mice with D-galactose induced dementia Methods: An experimental study using "post test only control group design". Twenty male BALB/c Mice aged 6-8 weeks were divided into 4 groups. Negative control group (NG was induced by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (150 mg/kg BW once daily for 6 weeks. GT-90, GT-270, GT-540 were induced by D-galactose and orally administered with 90, 270, and 540 mg/kg BW of green tea extract once daily for 6 weeks. The spatial memory functions were assessed using Morris water maze and SOD enzyme activities were evaluated using ELISA. One-way Anova and Kruskal-Wallis were used for statistical analysis.  Results: mean percentage of latency time in the GT-90 (35.29 (SD= 2.69%, GT-270 (35.28 (SD= 2.62%, and GT-540 (35.62 (SD=5.05% were significantly higher compared to that of NG (20.38 (SD = 3.21%, p <0.05. SOD enzyme activity in the GT-270 (0.78 (SD = 0.07 U/ml was significantly higher compared to that of NG (0.51 (SD = 0.01 U ml, p= 0.004. Conclusion: Green tea extract may improve spatial memory function and the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in mice with D-galactose induced dementia.

  10. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine in the extract of waste tea on macroporous adsorption resins functionalized with chloromethyl, amino, and phenylamino groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Bai, Qingqing; Lou, Song; Di, Duolong; Li, Jintian; Guo, Mei

    2012-02-15

    According to the Friedel-Crafts and amination reaction, a series of macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) with novel structures were synthesized and identified by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and corresponding adsorption behaviors for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine (CAF) extracted from waste tea were systemically investigated. Based on evaluation of adsorption kinetics, the kinetic data were well fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin-Pyzhev, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were selected to illustrate the adsorption process of EGCG and CAF on the MARs. Thermodynamic parameters were adopted to explain in-depth information of inherent energetic changes associated with the adsorption process. The effect of temperature on EGCG and CAF adsorption by D101-3 was further expounded. Van der Waals force, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction were the main driving forces for the adsorption of EGCG and CAF on the MARs. This study might provide a scientific reference point to aid the industrial large-scale separation and enrichment of EGCG from the extracts of waste tea using modified MARs.

  12. Nigella sativa (black seed) extract improves spatial learning abilityin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on mice using Morris Water Maze. The study was conducted on 30 Albino mice of both sexes randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was treated with oral distilled water, Groups 2, 3 and 4 ...

  13. Effectiveness of matured Morus nigra L. (black mulberry) fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol phases of extracts by evaporation were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the environment in which with Fenton reaction, OH• radical is constituted; preventing the formation of lipopolysaccharide (LPO) and protective effect on unsaturated fatty acid were examined. In the Fenton reagent environment, ...

  14. Box-Behnken design in modeling of solid-phase tea waste extraction for the removal of uranium from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Jahanbin, Elham; Ghaffari-Moghaddam, Mansour; Moghaddam, Zahra Safaei [Zabol Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Bohlooli, Mousa [Zabol Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Biology

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the solid-phase tea waste procedure was used for separation, preconcentration and determination of uranium from water samples by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. In addition, Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to investigated the influence of six variables including pH, mass of adsorbent, eluent volume, amount of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN); and sample and eluent flow rates on the extraction of analyte. High determination coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.972 and adjusted-R{sup 2} of 0.943 showed the satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression model. This method was used for the extraction of uranium from real water samples.

  15. Heat-induced chemical and color changes of extractive-free Black Locust (Rosinia Pseudoacacia) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark

    2012-01-01

    To investigate chemical and color changes of the polymeric constituents of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment, extractive-free wood flour was conditioned to 30% initial moisture content (MC) and heated for 24 h at 120 °C in either an oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The color change was measured using the CIELAB color system. Chemical changes...

  16. Extraction of anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo subjected to different heat treatments for scalding

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Díaz; Marcia Pesántez; Lidia Castro

    2016-01-01

    In order to avoid the loss of anthocyanins during the preparation of black corn (Zea mays L.) as food, and for the extraction of these metabolites for industrial purposes, it is necessary to determine the effect of several factors that influence its final content. The objective of this work was to extract anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo, Ecuador subjected to different heat treatments for scalding. Black corn seeds were used and planted manually. The corn cobs harv...

  17. The effect of Tea Misletoe (Scurrula oortiana Stem Extract as Immuno-Modulator on Oncogenic Marek’s Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyoto Samsi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Marek’s disease virus (MDV is one of oncogenic herpesvirus. It causes immunosupresion and cancer in chicken. Several plants produce bioactive compounds which are very useful for treatment of many disease, especially hiperproliveration and virus infection. This study was aimed to find out mechanism of immuno-modulatory capacity in layer commercial chicken administered orally with extract of tea parasite (Scurrula oortiana in dose of 10 mg/kg BW through drinking water, then the chicken were infected by intraperitoneal oncogenic MDV in dose of 1,0 x103 TCID50. The study used 60 layer commercial day old chicks (DOC divided into four group treatments. The treatments were group A (administered S. oortiana extract and without MDV infection, B (neither S. oortiana nor MDV infection, C (administered S. oortiana extract and with MDV infection, and D (without administered S. oortiana extract, but with MDV infection. Results showed that MDV oncogenic caused immunosupresion at a day post infection (p.i and recovery to be normal based on relative weight of bursa Fabricius and thymus at 40 days p.i. The extract of S. oortiana had a capability as an immunomodulator indicated by the increase of relative weight of bursa Fabricius and thymus at day 20 days p.i. (Animal Production 9(2: 172-177 (2007 Key Words: Marek’s disease virus (MDV, Scurrula oortiana, immuno-modulator

  18. Tea Polysaccharides and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Du

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a beverage beneficial to health and is also a source for extracting bioactive components such as theanine, tea polyphenols (TPP and tea polysaccharides (TPS. TPS is a group of heteropolysaccharides bound with proteins. There is evidence showing that TPS not only improves immunity but also has various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperglycemia, and anti-inflammation. However, inconsistent results concerning chemical composition and bioactivity of TPS have been published in recent years. The advances in chemical composition and bioactivities of TPS are reviewed in the present paper. The inconsistent and controversial results regarding composition and bioactivities of TPS are also discussed.

  19. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R2=0.67–0.87. The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, epicatechin gallate (ECG, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG.

  20. Effect of Green Tea Extract as Antioxidant on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to in-Office and Home-Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Shear bond strength (SBS of home and office bleached enamel will be compromised by immediate application of composite restoration. Antioxidant agent may overcome this problem. Objectives: This in vitro study assessed the effect of green tea extract on shear bond strength of resin composite to in-office and home-bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5 ×1.5 cm, with the coronal portion above the cemento enamel junction out of the block. Then, after bleaching labial enamel surfaces of 20 teeth with 15% carbamide peroxide 6 hours a day for 5 days, they were randomly divided into two groups: A1 and A2 (n = 10, depending upon whether or not they are treated with antioxidant. Labial enamel surfaces of the remaining 20 teeth were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide before being randomly divided into groups B1 and B2 (n = 10, again depending on whether or not the antioxidant was used in their treatment . The experimental groups (A2,B2 were treated with 5% solution of green tea extract before resin composite restoration was done by a cylindrical Teflon mould (5×2 mm. Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020. The SBS data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between shear bond strength of the control group (A1 and treated group (A2 but there were statistically significant differences between the groups B1 and B2 (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Application of antioxidant did not increase the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel to resin composite but its application increased the shear bond strength of in-office bleached enamel to resin composite.

  1. Effect of Green Tea Extract-Enriched Diets on Insulin and Leptin Levels, Oxidative Stress Parameters and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and green tea extracts (GTE are often incorporated into diet intended to weight reduction, although the information about their efficacy in obese individuals is insufficient. The present study was designed to follow up the effect of defined and standardized GTE in mice with obesity induced by monosodium L-glutamate. Obese mice were fed with GTE-supplemented diet in three dosage regimens: 28-day and 3-day intake of 1 g GTE in 1 kg of diet and 28-day intake of 0.1 g GTE in 1 kg of diet. The information on body weight, food intake, oxidation stress parameters in blood and antioxidant enzymes activity in liver and small intestine was obtained. High doses of GTE decreased the specific activities of glutathione reductase and catalase and increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in blood. Specific activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and small intestine were not altered after GTE treatment except the decrease of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity. Our results showed that GTE did not affect average body weight and did not markedly improve antioxidant status in glutamate-induced obese mice. Moreover, intake of high doses of GTE made antioxidant defense in obese animals even worse.

  2. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  3. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of black widow spiderling extract against HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaozhen; Dai, Zhipan; Lei, Qian; Liang, Long; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Xianchun

    2017-06-01

    Black widow spiders contain toxic components not only in the venom glands but also in other parts of the spider body, including the legs and abdomen. Additionally, both the eggs and newborn spiderlings of the black widow spider contain venom. It is important to investigate their potential effects on cancer cells. In the present study, the effects of newborn black widow spiderling extract on human HeLa cells were evaluated in vitro . When applied at different concentrations, the total extract decreased HeLa cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC 50 value of 158 µg/ml. Flow cytometry indicated that treatment of HeLa cells with the total extract of the spiderlings induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner and led to cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Additionally, application of the total extract at different concentrations increased apoptosis-related caspase 3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. HeLa cells treated with the total extract appeared to be morphologically changed, exhibiting membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation and condensation of chromatin. Further separation and activity screening demonstrated that the cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the total extract were attributable mainly to its high molecular mass proteins, one of which was purified and characterized to determine its anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells. The results of the present study therefore have expanded understanding regarding the effect of spider toxins on cancer cells and suggested that components of black widow spiderlings may be developed as a promising novel agent to treat cancer.

  4. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

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    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  5. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg−1 and (v) 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities. PMID:18955369

  6. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg(-1) and (v) 2.00 g kg(-1) black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23-27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  7. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA, acetylcholinesterase (Ache and monoamine oxidase (MAO brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i naive (control, (ii sham, (iii OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv 0.50 g kg−1 and (v 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27 and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35. At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum coatings containing green tea extracts in fruit-based salads, romaine hearts and pork slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-En; Lai, Lih-Shiuh

    2010-04-30

    The antimicrobial activities of edible coatings based on a tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum (dHG) matrix with various green tea extracts (GTEs) were evaluated. Its effect on the shelf-life extension of fruit-based salads, romaine hearts, and pork slices were investigated as well. Three types of GTEs from hot water (80 degrees C) (W), 40% (E4) and 80% (E8) ethanol were prepared. It was found that all GTEs showed pronounced inhibition on Gram positive bacteria in agar media, including Staphylococcus aureus BCRC 10781, Bacillus cereus BCRC 11778 and Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14848, but not on Gram negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli DH10beta and Salmonella enteria BCRC 10747. The antimicrobial activities increased with increasing GTEs concentration (1, 2 and 5%), but did not differentiate significantly in terms of the effect of extraction solvents. When various GTEs (1%) were added to an edible coating formulation based on 1.35% tapioca starch +0.15% dHG +0.225% glycerol, pronounced antimicrobial activity on Gram positive bacteria was also observed as evaluated by using cylinder diffusion and antimicrobial migration tests. It was believed that the active compounds in green tea extracts could leave the coating matrix and migrate to increase the non-growth area. When being sprayed on various real food models, all tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs could successfully reduce the aerobic counting and growth of yeasts/molds by 1 to 2 log cycles in fruit-based salads, as compared to the control sample. Furthermore, during refrigerated storage of romaine hearts and pork slices for 48h, tapioca starch/dHG coatings with E4 extracts demonstrated pronounced antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (4-6 log cycles reduction), followed by W extracts and E8 extracts in a decreasing order. Such results implied the high efficacy of antimicrobial migration of tapioca starch/dHG coatings containing GTEs and their application potentials on

  9. Extraction of Some Divalent Metal Ions (Cadmium, Nickel and Lead from Different Tea and Rice Samples Using Ghezeljeh Nanoclay (Geleh-Sar-Shoor as a New Natural Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh Siahpoosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the method of extraction-preconcentration of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel ions from food samples using the Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay (Geleh-Sar-Shoor as a new native adsorbent in batch single component systems. The extraction-preconcentration of heavy metals were carried out by applying the solid phase extraction (SPE method followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, and inductively coupled with plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The Ghezeljeh nanoclay was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer operating (SEM-EDS, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC measurements, BET specific surface area and Zeta potential. According to BET theory, the specific surface areas of the Ghezeljeh nanoclay was calculated to be 19.8 m2 g-1 whereas the cation exchange capacity was measured to be 150 meq/100 g. The results of XRD, XRF, FT-IR, Zeta potential and BET surface area of the nanoclay confirmed that montmorillonite was the dominant mineral phase. Based on SEM images of this clay, it can be seen that the distance between the plates is nm level. For all three ions, the detection and quantification limits, dynamic linear range, preconcentration factor, and adsorption capacity were obtained. The effect of various interfering ions was studied. The experimental method was successfully applied for the extraction of heavy metals in different tea and rice samples.

  10. Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; Berhow, Mark; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-08-15

    Black beans contain anthocyanins that could be used as colorants in foods with associated health benefits. The objective was to optimize anthocyanins extraction from black bean coats and evaluate their physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Optimal extraction conditions were 24% ethanol, 1:40 solid-to-liquid ratio and 29°C (Panthocyanins were identified by MS ions, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (465.1m/z), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (479.1m/z) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (493.1m/z). A total of 32mg of anthocyanins were quantified per gram of dry extract. Bean anthocyanins were stable at pH 2.5 and low-temperature 4°C (89.6%), with an extrapolated half-life of 277days. Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibited α-glucosidase (37.8%), α-amylase (35.6%), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (34.4%), reactive oxygen species (81.6%), and decreased glucose uptake. Black bean coats are a good source of anthocyanins and other phenolics with the potential to be used as natural-source food colorants with exceptional antidiabetes potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  12. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  13. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  14. Source density analysis of the human EEG after ingestion of a drink containing decaffeinated extract of green tea enriched with L-theanine and theogallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimpfel, W; Kler, A; Kriesl, E; Lehnfeld, R; Keplinger-Dimpfel, I K

    2007-01-01

    Source density analysis of EEG recordings from 12 healthy human volunteers was used in a randomized, placebo controlled cross over study to investigate the change in physiological parameters after ingestion of a soft drink containing green tea extract enriched with L-theanine and theogallin. EEG was recorded 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after ingestion during different recording conditions. Visually evoked P300 potentials were recorded every hour in addition to the EEG recordings. Analysis of the data revealed a general attenuation of electrical delta power under the condition of eyes open during the first hour (statistically significant at p caffeine presumably due to its high content in L-theanine and theogallin as found in preclinical experiments.

  15. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction of antioxidants from black bamboo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ya Fang; Kim, Sang Min; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-07-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovering bioactive compounds from natural plants, the potential of using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) was examined on black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) leaves, with ethanol/water as solvents. The superheated PLE process showed a higher recovery of most constituents and antioxidative activity, compared to reflux extraction, with a significantly improved recovery of the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) content and DPPH radical scavenging ability. For a broad range of ethanol aqueous solutions and temperatures, 50% EtOH and 200°C (static time: 25min) gave the best performance, in terms of the TP and TF (75% EtOH) content yield and DPPH scavenging ability (25% EtOH). Under the optimised extraction conditions, eight main antioxidative compounds were isolated and identified with HPLC-ABTS(+) assay guidance and assessed for radical scavenging activity. The superheated extraction process for black bamboo leaves enhanced the antioxidant properties by increasing the extraction of the phenolic components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring metal detoxification and accumulation potential during vermicomposting of Tea factory coal ash: sequential extraction and fluorescence probe analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Pratihar, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Mudoi, Pronab; Bora, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Metal contamination from coal ashes (CAs) is widely recognized as a significant environmental concern. To learn more about metal detoxification and accumulation potential of earthworm species, metal-rich tea factory coal ashes (TFCA) were fed to Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii by employing a fluorescent tag detection method. Fascinatingly, on feeding fluorescence probed Zn and Cd along with cow dung to Eisenia fetida, the detection of the gut-proteins with a molecular mass higher than 100 kDa was a distinct evidence of metal binding. Significant increases were observed in the content of humified organic C [humic acid (HAC) and fulvic acid C (FAC)] and degree of humification during vermicomposting. Concurrently, considerably large amount of toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) was transformed from exchangeable to recalcitrant (organic matter and mineral bound) fractions. Moreover, total metal concentrations were reduced with high removal efficiency upon vermicomposting.

  17. Behavior of cesium-134 in the tea tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yinliang; Chen Kaixuan; Chen Chuangqun

    1996-01-01

    The radioactivity changes of 134 Cs in the aged and the young leaves followed an exponential regression function after spraying 134 Cs in the tea trees. Contamination by spraying 134 Cs greatly harmed tea tree and by irrigating or mixing 134 Cs with soil resulted in a potential endangerment. The concentrating ability of tea leaves for 134 CS was very low and K value was 0.02. After the fresh tea leaves were processed to dry tea, the content of 134 Cs decreased by about 13.3%. When the tea leaves were soaked in hot water, the extraction ratio was around 83.6%

  18. Extract of Kuding tea prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice via liver X receptor (LXR β antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Fan

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng (kuding tea, a traditional beverage in China, on the metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diets.For the preventive experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet (Chow, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet mixed with 0.05% ethanol extract of kuding tea (EK for 5 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, the C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet for 3 months, and then mice were split and EK was given with oral gavages for 2 weeks at 50 mg/day/kg. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were measured. At the end of treatment, the adipocyte images were assayed with a scanning electron microscope, and the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and lipids in the livers were analyzed. A reporter gene assay system was used to test the whether EK could act on nuclear receptor transcription factors, and the gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative PCR assay.In the preventive treatment, EK blocked the body weight gain, reduced the size of the adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, EK reduced the size of the white adipocytes, serum TG and fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice. With the reporter assay, EK inhibited LXRβ transactivity and mRNA expression of LXRβ target genes.We observed that EK has both preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders in mice induced with high-fat diets. The effects appear to be mediated through the antagonism of LXRβ transactivity. Our data indicate that kuding tea is a useful dietary therapy and a potential source for the development of novel anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs.

  19. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  20. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  1. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  2. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  3. Green tea phytocompounds as anticancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is universally considered significant and its benefits have been experimentally explored by researchers and scientists. Anticancer potential of green tea has been completely recognized now. Green tea contains anti-cancerous constituents and nutrients that have powerful remedial effects. By using electronic data base (1998–2015, different compounds in green tea possessing anticancer activity including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, paclitaxel and docetaxel combinations, ascorbic acid, catechins, lysine, synergistic arginine, green tea extract, proline, and green tea polyphenols has been reported. Green tea extracts exhibited remedial potential against cancer of lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemic cells, prostate, breast, human cervical cells, head, and neck. For centuries, green tea has been utilized as medicine for therapeutic purposes. It originated in China and extensively used in Asian countries for blood pressure depression and as anticancer medicine. Green tea has therapeutic potential against many diseases such as lowering of blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, weight loss, esophageal disease, skin-care, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

  4. Agarose-chitosan-C18film micro-solid phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenanthrene and pyrene in chrysanthemum tea samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk Ting; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini

    2017-05-01

    Agarose-chitosan-immobilized octadecylsilyl-silica (C 18 ) film micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) was developed and applied for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in chrysanthemum tea samples using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The film of blended agarose and chitosan allows good dispersion of C 18 , prevents the leaching of C 18 during application and enhances the film mechanical stability. Important μSPE parameters were optimized including amount of sorbent loading, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The matrix match calibration curves showed good linearity (r⩾0.994) over a concentration range of 1-500ppb. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (0.549-0.673ppb), good analyte recoveries (100.8-105.99%) and good reproducibilities (RSDs⩽13.53%, n=3) with preconcentration factors of 4 and 72 for PHE and PYR, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interfacial film stabilized W/O/W nano multiple emulsions loaded with green tea and lotus extracts: systematic characterization of physicochemical properties and shelf-storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2014-05-12

    Multiple emulsions have excellent encapsulating potential and this investigation has been aimed to encapsulate two different plant extracts as functional cosmetic agents in the W/O/W multiple emulsions and the resultant system's long term stability has been determined in the presence of a thickener, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Multiple W/O/W emulsions have been generated using cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and a blend of polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether and cetomacrogol 1000® as hydrophilic emulsifiers. The generated multiple emulsions have been characterized with conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, phase separation and rheology for a period of 30 days. Moreover, long term shelf-storage stability has been tested to understand the shelf-life by keeping the generated multiple emulsion formulations at 25 ± 10°C and at 40 ± 10% relative humidity for a period of 12 months. It has been observed that the hydrophilic emulsifiers and HPMC have considerably improved the stability of multiple emulsions for the followed period of 12 months at different storage conditions. These multiple emulsions have shown improved entrapment efficiencies concluded on the release rate of conductometric tracer entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of the multiple emulsions. Multiple emulsions have been found to be stable for a longer period of time with promising characteristics. Hence, stable multiple emulsions loaded with green tea and lotus extracts could be explored for their cosmetic benefits.

  6. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong WANG

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic. Black garlic polyphenol (BGP was extracted from black garlic. The in vitro antioxidant activities of BGP were determined using DPPH·, OH and O2– radical scavenging assays. The in vivo antioxidant activities were determined by detecting the malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in mice. Results showed that, the DPPH· radical inhibition rate of 200 and 250 μg/mL BGP was equivalent with Vc (P > 0.05. With concentration of 400 and 500 μg/mL, the OH radical inhibition rate of BGP was slightly lower than Vc (P > 0.05. The O2– radical inhibition rates of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/mL BGP were significantly lower than Vc (P < 0.05. In the groups treated with BGP with suitable dose, the serum MDA content was significantly decreased compared with model group (P < 0.05, and the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased (P < 0.05. BGP has obvious DPPH· and ·OH radical scavenging activities, and can significantly decrease the serum MDA content in mice with oxidative damage, and increase the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities.

  7. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  8. Fermented green tea extract exhibits hypolipidaemic effects through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and promotion of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Sukyung; Kim, Jeongkee; Lee, Ji Hae; Joo, Kyungmi; Choi, Jin Kyu; Shin, Song Seok; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT). In hypertriglyceridaemic hamsters, FGT administration significantly reduced plasma TAG levels. In mice, FGT administration (500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks augmented energy expenditure by 22 % through the induction of plasma serotonin, a neurotransmitter that modulates energy expenditure and mRNA expressions of lipid metabolism genes in peripheral tissues. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that FGT reduced the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes in hamsters, which could further contribute to its anti-obesity effects. Collectively, these data demonstrate that FGT decreases plasma TAG levels via multiple mechanisms including inhibition of pancreatic lipase, augmentation of energy expenditure, induction of serotonin secretion and alteration of gut microbiota. These results suggest that FGT may be a useful natural agent for preventing hypertriglyceridaemia and obesity.

  9. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  10. Modeling of solid-phase tea waste extraction for the removal of manganese and cobalt from water samples by using PSO-artificial neural network and response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Khajeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop a low price adsorbent with the abundant of source to remove manganese and cobalt from water samples. Tea waste solid-phase extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS was used for the extraction and determination of manganese and cobalt ions. Response surface methodology (RSM and hybrid of artificial neural network-particle swarm optimization (ANN-PSO have been used to develop predictive models for simulation and optimization of tea waste extraction process. The pH, amount of tea waste, concentration of PAN (complexing agent, eluent volume, concentration of eluent, and sample and eluent flow rates were the input variables, while the extraction percent of Mn and Co were the output. Two approaches for their modeling and optimization capabilities were compared. The generalization and predictive capabilities of both RSM and ANN were compared by unseen data. The results have shown the superiority of ANN compared to RSM. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits of Mn and Co were 0.5 and 0.67 μg L−1, respectively. This method was applied to the preconcentration and determination of manganese and cobalt from water samples.

  11. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Skibsted, Leif H

    2018-01-15

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O₂ and 20% CO₂) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops.

  12. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørngren, Mari Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2 and 20% CO2) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops. PMID:29342928

  13. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zeković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume, temperature (40–80 °C and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity from black mulberry (Morus nigra L. leaves. Experimental values of total phenolic content were in the range from 18.6 to 48.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents per g of dried leaves and total flavonoids in the range from 6.0 to 21.4 mg of rutin eqivalents per g of dried leaves. Antioxidant activity expressed as the inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50 value was in the range from 0.019 to 0.078 mg of mulberry extract per mL. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions and to investigate the effect of different variables on the observed properties of mulberry leaf extracts. The results show a good fit to the proposed model (R˄2>0.90. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids were within the experimental range. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the used model and the success of RSM in optimizing the investigated extraction conditions.

  14. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL Oxidation in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, H.M.G.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Blonk, C.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Langius, J.A.E.; Meinders, A.E.; Pijl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Intake of flavonoids is associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Oxidation of LDL is a major step in atherogenesis, and antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. Because tea is an important source of flavonoids which are strong antioxidants, we have assessed in a randomized,

  15. Green tea extract induces genes related to browning of white adipose tissue and limits weight-gain in high energy diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Han; Chien, Yi-Wen; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chan, Ching-Hung; Fan, Meng-Han; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77.5 or 155 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Body weight, fat accumulation, and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate obesity. The gene expressions were analyzed using RT-qPCR and western blotting. Results: GTE modulated HED-induc