WorldWideScience

Sample records for black tea brew

  1. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  2. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  3. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  4. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  5. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  6. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degr...

  7. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  8. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  9. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  10. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  11. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklar, Sena; Ertas, Erdal; Ozdemir, Ibrahim S; Karadeniz, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Brewing at 85 °C for 3 min was found to be the optimal condition, where the EGCG content was at a maximum of 50.69 mg/100 ml with the highest sensory scores. It was observed that the yield of epistructured catechins increased rapidly for the first 3-5 min of brewing at 85 °C, and increased brewing time resulted in a decrease in the yield of epistructured catechins. The amount of nonepistructured catechins continued to increase with longer extraction times. Sensory scores for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were highest at 3 and 5 min brewing times at all temperatures. Sensory scores were very low for 30 and 45 min brewing at 85 and 95 °C due to the bitter taste and dark colour.

  12. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  13. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  14. Investigation in tea on fate of fenazaquin residue and its transfer in brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin; Tewary, Dhananjay Kumar; Ravindranath, Sringapuram Desikachar; Shanker, Adarsh

    2006-04-01

    Fenazaquin is a non-systemic acaricide/insecticide used widely in controlling mites and other related pests in fruits, vegetables and tea. The objective of this research was to investigate the disappearance trend in tea of fenazaquin residue level and its transfer in brew. Fenazaquin was applied on a tea crop at two rates, 125 and 250 g AI/ha in wet and dry seasons under field conditions. Samples (green shoots, made tea and its brew) were analyzed for fenazaquin and quantification was by high performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector. The residue dissipated faster in the wet season than in the dry season. Seven days after the treatment (normal round of plucking) the residues observed in the green shoots at the two rates were 2.17, 3.07 mg/kg and 2.04, 2.84 mg/kg in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. However, the degradation rale in both seasons followed first-order kinetics. Half-lives in green shoots were in range 1.43-1.70 and 2.10-2.21 days and in made tea 1.59-1.73 and 1.87-1.94 days for wet and dry seasons, respectively. During processing of green shoots to made tea considerable loss (42-70%) of residue was observed. The transfer of residue from made tea brew was in the range 3-22%. In brew residue were below 0.02 mg/l after 5 days of application at both the rates in either of the seasons. The estimated intake with brew (normal consumption of 10 cup/day/adult) thus would be below the acceptable daily intake for fenazaquin (0.005 mg/kg-body weight). To avoid health hazards due to the toxic effect of residues in brew, a waiting period for plucking the tea shoots after fenazaquin application of more than 5 days for both the seasons at recommended rate (125 g AI/ha) may be suggested and considered quite safe.

  15. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Sri Lankan Dust grade Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L. in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the antidiarrhoeal potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis in mice using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 tea. Different concentrations of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ ml (equivalent to 1.5 cups, 167 mg/ ml (equivalent to 3 cups, 501 mg/ ml (equivalent to 9 cups or 1336 mg/ ml (equivalent to 24 cups], or a high concentration (equivalent to 9 cups of green tea brew (GTB of Chinese and Japanese types or reference drug, toperamide (10 mg/ kg were orally administered to different groups of mice (N = 9-12/group and were subjected to two antidiarrhoeal tests: normal defecation test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. The results show that BTB of Sri Lankan Dust grade tea dose-dependently and markedly decreased the number of faecal boluses produced in the normal defecation test and improved the severity of the diarroheal condition in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test. However, the antidiarrhoeal effect of BTB was superior to Japanese type of GTB and inferior to loperamide. BTB also prolonged the gastrointestinal transit time, impaired intestinal fluid secretion, increased intestinal fluid absorption and reduced in vitro nitric oxide production. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea possesses marked antidiarrhoeal activity supporting the folkloric claim that Sri Lankan black tea is a good remedy for acute non specific diarrhoea.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Bashiri, Hamideh; Dabiri, Shahriar; Ghotbi, Payam; Sarveazad, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Joukar, Farzin; Abbaszadeh, Mahsa

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. Animal groups were control, black tea, nicotine and black tea plus nicotine. Test groups received nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and black tea brewed (p.o.) each alone and in combination for 4 weeks. On the 28th day, myocardial damage was induced by isoproterenol (50 mg/kg i.p.), and blood samples were taken. On day 29, after hemodynamic parameters recording, hearts were removed for histopathological evaluation. Tea or nicotine consumption had no significant effects on hemodynamic indices of animals without heart damage. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the anti-inflammatory potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. Family: Theaceae using both acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and chronic (formaldehyde-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma test rat inflammatory models. Three dose of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ml, equivalent to 1.5 cups; 168 mg/ml, equivalent to 3 cups; and 501 mg/ml, equivalent to 9 cups] were made using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 black tea samples and was orally administed to rats (n = 6-9/ dose/ test. The results showed that Sri Lankan BTB possesses marked and significant (P < 0.05 oral anti-inflammatory activity against both acute and chronic inflammation. This anti-inflammatory activity was dose-dependent in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test and cotton pellet granuloma test. Further, in the carrageenan paw oedema model, the anti-inflammatory activity of BTB was almost identical to green tea brew of both Chinese and Japanese types. Further, the BTB had significant antihistamine activity (in terms of wheal test phagocytic cell migration inhibitory activity (in terms carrageenan-induced leucocyte peritoneal infiltration test, nitric oxide production inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity (DPPH method and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity (in terms of rat enteropooling test. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea has marked anti-inflammatory potential against both acute and chronic inflammation which is mediated via multiple mechanisms.

  18. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  19. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  20. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  1. Degradation Dynamics and Dietary Risk Assessments of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides during Lonicera japonica Planting, Drying, and Tea Brewing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qingkui; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Tong, Zhou; Xiao, Jinjing; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao

    2017-03-01

    The degradation dynamics and dietary risk assessments of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid during Lonicera japonica planting, drying, and tea brewing processes were systematically investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 1.0-4.1 d in the honeysuckle flowers and leaves, with degradation rate constants k ranging from -0.169 to -0.696. The safety interval time was 7 d. The sun- and oven-drying (70 °C) percent digestions were 59.4-81.0% for the residues, which were higher than the shade- and oven-drying percentages at lower temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, which ranged from 37.7% to 57.0%). The percent transfers of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 0-48.4% and 0-25.2%, respectively, for the different tea brewing conditions. On the basis of the results of this study, abiding by the safety interval time is important, and using reasonable drying methods and tea brewing conditions can reduce the transfer of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid to humans.

  2. Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M S; Imran, A; Sharif, M K; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Xiao, Hang; Imran, M; Rsool, H A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment.

  3. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  4. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-06-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  5. Green tea, black tea and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Can-Lan; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C

    2006-01-01

    .... This meta-analysis included 13 papers which examined populations in eight countries and provided data on consumption of either green tea or black tea, or both in relation to breast cancer risk...

  6. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB) was used as the sample in this study. Anti-glycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  7. 冲泡条件对茶树花茶茶汤内主要滋味成分的影响%Influence of Brewing Conditions on Taste Components of Tea Made from Tea Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振军; 包彬; 邹万志

    2014-01-01

    The influences of different brewing conditions on the quality of tea made from Fuding tea plant flower were studied using orthogonal design test of three factors including different brewing temperature (80℃, 90℃, 100℃), different brewing time (3 min, 4 min, 5 min)and different ratio of tea and water (2g:150mL, 3g:150mL,4g:150mL). The results showed that leaching efficiency of water extract, tea polyphenols, catechins, caffeine and amino acids of Fuding tea plant flower increased with the increase of the ratio of tea and water, temperature and brewing time. The ratio of tea to water was the most influencing factor on the leaching yield of water extract, tea polyphenols, catechins, caffeine and amino acids, followed by brewing temperature and brewing time. Brewing temperature was the most influencing factor on the ratio of tea polyphenols, followed by the ratio of tea to water and the brewing time. Brewing temperature was the most influence factor on the ratio of polyphenols to amino acids, followed by the ratio of tea to water and the brewing time. With brewing temperature of 90℃ and brewing time of 4 min, ratio of tea to water 4 g/150 mL, the ratio of tea polyphenols to amino acids is suitable and tea liquor is tasty.%采用正交试验研究了冲泡水温(80、90、100℃)、冲泡时间(3、4、5 min)、茶水比(g:mL)(2:150、3:150、4:150)3个因素对福鼎大白茶茶树花茶茶汤品质的影响。结果表明,福鼎大白茶茶树花茶茶汤中水浸出物、茶多酚、儿茶素、咖啡碱、游离氨基酸的浸出量均随冲泡温度升高、冲泡时间延长、茶水比增大而增加。茶水比对水浸出物、咖啡碱、儿茶素和游离氨基酸浸出量的影响最大,其次是冲泡水温,冲泡时间的影响最小;冲泡水温对茶多酚浸出量的影响最大,其次是茶水比,冲泡时间的影响最小。对酚氨比的影响,冲泡水温影响最大,其次是茶水比,冲泡时间

  8. Diuretic activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.. This was assessed in rats using high grown Dust grade No: 1 tea, which is consumed widely by the tea drinkers worldwide. Different doses of hot black tea brew (BTB (84, 167, 501 or 1336 mg/ml respectively equivalent to 1.5, 3, 9 and 24 cups were made and orally administered to previously starved (24 h but subsequently hydrated (with 15 ml of isotonic saline rats and their urinary output was monitored cumulatively at hourly intervals for 6h. The reference drug used was frusemide (13 mg/kg. The results showed that BTB induced significant (P < 0.05, mild to moderate and dose- dependent diuresis (starting from 167 mg/ml. This diuretic activity had a fairly rapid onset (within 2 h and relatively short duration of action (3 h. BTB also significantly (P < 0.05 increased the overall urinary frequency. Further, the diuretic activity of BTB was less potent to frusemide (by 45%. Decaffeination of black tea almost completely abolished the diuresis. The diuresis of the BTB was solely due to increased (by 55 % urinary Na + excretion (with no urinary K + loss. Further, the chronic daily administration of the BTB did not develop tolerance or induce toxicity (general, renal and hepatic. It is concluded that BTB made from Sri Lankan high grown Dust grade No :1 tea has safe, mild to moderate diuretic activity with rapid onset and relatively short duration of action. Further, this study supports the claim made by Sri Lankan indigenous physicians that it is a diuretic.

  9. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  10. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Naping; Wu, Yuemin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Rongbin

    2009-09-01

    Studies investigating the association of green tea and black tea consumption with lung cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis on the topic. Studies were identified by a literature search in PubMed from 1966 to November 2008 and by searching the reference lists of relevant studies. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on random-effects model. Our meta-analysis included 22 studies provided data on consumption of green tea or black tea, or both related to lung cancer risk. For green tea, the summary RR indicated a borderline significant association between highest green tea consumption and reduced risk of lung cancer (RR=0.78, 95% CI=0.61-1.00). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of two cups/day was associated with an 18% decreased risk of developing lung cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.96). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observe through the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.70-1.05; an increment of two cups/day, RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.65-1.03). In conclusion, our data suggest that high or an increase in consumption of green tea but not black tea may be related to the reduction of lung cancer risk.

  11. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  12. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  13. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  14. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  15. Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heyuan; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Thräne, Claudia; Maiwald, Beate; Stark, Janina

    2015-09-15

    An UHPLC method for the determination of flavonol glycosides (FOG) from green and oolong tea vs. black tea has been developed for the first time. Sample clean-up method by means of polyamide column chromatography was optimized with multiple-step elution. Using UHPLC and HPLC with gradient elution and photodiode array detection, eighteen FOG compounds were determined with the aid of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. These FOG compounds were qualified on both UHPLC and HPLC, and this UHPLC method successfully separated rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and K-grg (kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoglucoside) while conventional HPLC method did not. The total amounts of FOG compounds in the tea samples were 2.32-5.67g/kg dry weight (calculated as aglycones), and there is no significant difference for the total FOG content among green tea, oolong tea and black tea. However, kaempferol glycosides are more abundant in green teas, while oolong tea has more quercetin and myricetin glycosides. In black tea quercetin glycosides were most abundant.

  16. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as “fermented tea”, has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  17. 绿茶冲泡过程中咖啡碱的转移动态%On Transfer Dynamics of Caffeine in Green Tea brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会娟; 童华荣

    2015-01-01

    采用均匀试验设计,模拟中国绿茶消费者的泡饮方式,研究在冲泡过程中液料比、茶汤剩余百分比、加水温度、冲泡时间以及冲泡次数这5个因素对咖啡碱溶出量的影响。结果表明,除冲泡次数外,加水温度对咖啡碱的溶出量影响最大,其次为液料比和茶汤剩余百分比,冲泡时间影响较小。当温度高于90℃,液料比和茶汤剩余百分比为55∶1和30%时,咖啡碱溶出量最多;但无论用哪种冲泡方法进行冲泡,当冲泡4次时,咖啡碱溶出量均达到最大值。%The effect of the factors on the caffeine transfer from dried (made) tea to tea infusion ,has been studied in this paper ,including liquid‐solid ratio ,tea infusion percentage remaining ,water temperature , brewing time and brewing times ,as green tea is subjected to an infusion process prior to the Chinese con‐sumers .It is further interesting to observe that the water temperature has a great influence on the dissolu‐tion of caffeine except brewing times ,followed by liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentage remaining . However ,brewing for longer periods (extend brewing time) resulted in less impact on the transfer of caf‐feine .Moreover ,when the water temperature is higher than 90 ℃ and liquid‐solid ratio and tea infusion percentages remaining are respectively 55∶1 and 30% ,the caffeine amount is more ,no matter w hat brew‐ing method we use .Also ,the caffeine amount reaches the maximum ,when brewing times is 4 .

  18. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log Kow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  19. Epimerization of green tea catechins during brewing does not affect the ability to poison human type II topoisomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmel, M Anne; Byl, Jo Ann W; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-04-15

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves, and many of its cellular effects are consistent with its actions as a topoisomerase II poison. In contrast to genistein and several related bioflavonoids that act as interfacial poisons, EGCG was the first bioflavonoid shown to act as a covalent topoisomerase II poison. Although studies routinely examine the effects of dietary phytochemicals on enzyme and cellular systems, they often fail to consider that many compounds are altered during cooking or cellular metabolism. To this point, the majority of EGCG and related catechins in green tea leaves are epimerized during the brewing process. Epimerization inverts the stereochemistry of the bond that bridges the B- and C-rings and converts EGCG to (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Consequently, a significant proportion of EGCG that is ingested during the consumption of green tea is actually GCG. Therefore, the effects of GCG and related epimerized green tea catechins on human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ were characterized. GCG increased levels of DNA cleavage mediated by both enzyme isoforms with an activity that was similar to that of EGCG. GCG acted primarily by inhibiting the ability of topoisomerase IIα and IIβ to ligate cleaved DNA. Several lines of evidence indicate that GCG functions as a covalent topoisomerase II poison that adducts the enzyme. Finally, epimerization did not affect the reactivity of the chemical substituents (the three hydroxyl groups on the B-ring) that were required for enzyme poisoning. Thus, the activity of covalent topoisomerase II poisons appears to be less sensitive to stereochemical changes than interfacial poisons.

  20. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  1. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  2. Impact of light irradiation on black tea quality during withering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zeyi; Zhang, Beibei; Chen, Yuqiong; Yu, Zhi; Chen, Huacai; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-04-01

    Black tea manufacture usually involves the processes of withering, cutting, fermentation and drying. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of the relationship between the quality and withering with different light sources (ultraviolet, yellow, blue, purple, orange, red, cyan, green and white) an quality attribute of tea. The results indicated that the yellow, orange and red light withering significantly improved the aroma and taste, imparting the tea a sweet flavor and a fresh and mellow taste. Tea treated with yellow light was scored highest the sensory scores and showed the highest content in catechins, theaflavins, amino acids and aroma components, followed by the orange and red light treatments. The black tea withered with ultraviolet light showed a strong astringency, probably resulting from low contents of theaflavins, amino acids and soluble sugar. The green light irradiation remarkably damaged the aroma and taste of the tea, leading to a strong greenish flavor and an astringent taste, probably owing to the lowest contents of chemical compositions. No significant cumulative effect was found in the hybrid light withering treatments. Therefore, monochromatic yellow, orange and red lights were suggested for withering the black tea to improve its overall quality.

  3. Consumption of Green Tea, but Not Black Tea or Coffee, Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara; Sohshi Yuki; Chiaki Dohmoto; Yoshihisa Ikeda; Miharu Samuraki; Kazuo Iwasa; Masami Yokogawa; Kimiko Asai; Kiyonobu Komai; Hiroyuki Nakamura; Masahito Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with...

  4. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  5. Chemical Studies on Plant Polyphenols and Formation of Black Tea Polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 隆

    2008-01-01

    Recent biological and pharmacological studies strongly suggested that plant polyphenols in foods, beverages and crude drugs have various health benefits. However, still there are chemically uncharacterized polyphenols, especially those with large molecular weights. The typical example is black tea polyphenols. Four tea catechins of fresh tea leaves are enzymatically oxidized in tea fermentation process of black tea manufacture to give a complex mixture of the oxidation products. Despite many ...

  6. FLUORIDE IN BLACK AND GREEN TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    None of the 10 Ethiopian black tea leaf brands are safe for children but 30% of the ... Fluoride has also been used to treat osteoporosis [1, 2]. It is very characteristic that fluoride prevents tooth decay at about 1 mg/L but causes mottled teeth.

  7. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb) and bovine testicular hyaluronidase. Results: The results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose dependent (r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r2=0.93, P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB. Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  8. The development of processing technology for black tea-salty sweet-biscuits%红茶咸香饼干加工工艺的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝敏; 温立香; 王淋靓; 任二芳; 罗小杰; 艾静汶; 叶雪英

    2015-01-01

    研究红茶咸香饼干加工工艺。分别通过单因素实验确定了红茶的制备工艺和红茶的冲泡工艺,红茶制备采用鲜叶→萎凋(室温)→机械揉捻→轻发酵(35℃×3h,湿度90%)→烘干的制备工艺方案;红茶的冲泡采用洗茶→纯水仪过滤水冲泡(95℃×5min)→茶叶与茶汤分离→出茶的冲泡方案。利用正交实验确定了红茶咸香饼干的最佳配方为:低筋面粉180g、盐2g、泡打粉1.5g、黄油45g、红茶汤45g、全蛋液30g。%We researched the processing technology of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits.The preparation and brewing process of black tea were determined by single factor experiment and the preparation process program was that, fresh leaves→withering (room temperature)→mechanical rolling→light fermentation (35℃×3h,humidity 90%)→drying.The brewing process was that washing tea→brewed by filtered water of pure water meter(95℃×5min)→separating the tea and tea soup.And then,the best formula of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits was confirmed by an orthogonal experiment, the best technical skill was that low-gluten flour 180g, salt 2g, baking powder 1.5g, butter 45g,black tea soup 45g, whole egg 30g.

  9. Exploring the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from black, green and white tea infusions - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian C; Daglia, Maria; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Black, green, and white teas are the main commercial teas obtained from buds and leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.). The postharvest processing treatments, together with genotype and growing techniques, may strongly affect the chemical composition of the tea infusion and, thereby, its potential effects on health. Catechins constituted up to 30% of tea leaves dry weight. During fermentation, polyphenols undergo enzymatic oxidation, leading to the formation of condensed polymeric compounds regarded as responsible for the typical organoleptic properties of black tea leaves and related infusions. Scientific studies has been recently focusing on the possibility that tea polyphenols, particularly those of black and green tea, may lead to healthy properties in individuals affected by diseases correlated to metabolic syndrome. In vivo experiments reveal that green and black tea polyphenols may be able to reduce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Other works suggest that black tea polymeric products may be effective in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and hypertriacylglycerolemia. To this regard, very few data about white tea, being the rarest and the least handled tea, are available so far. It has been reported that white tea could show higher antioxidative capacity than green tea and to exert in vitro lipolytic activity. Considering the increasing interest towards healthy potential through diet and natural medicaments, the aim of the present review was to overview the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from tea after various degrees of fermentation.

  10. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A....... niger. A part of the calmodulin gene in 17 isolates were sequenced, and these 17 isolates were all identified as Aspergillus acidus (=A. foetidus var. acidus). The rest of the 47 isolates were also identified as A. acidus from their metabolite profile. Neither production of ochratoxin A nor fumonisins B...

  11. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB.

  12. SPME-GC-MS Analysis of Aromatic Components in Sichuan Black Tea, Yunnan Black Tea and Qimen Black Tea%SPME-GC-MS联用分析川红、滇红和祁红香气成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗学平; 李丽霞

    2016-01-01

    The aromatic components in Sichuan black tea, Yunnan black tea and Qimen black tea were analyzed with the method of SPME-GC-MS. The results show that 150 aromatic components are detected in these black teas. There exist 79 aromatic components in Sichuan black tea and Yunnan black tea respectively and 89 aromatic components in Qimen black tea. And 33 aromatic components including linalool and its oxides, geraniol, methyl salicylate, phenylethyl alcohol, nerolidol and benzene acetaldehyde are common components in these teas. There exist 18 main aromatic components in⁃cluding geraniol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol, linalool oxide II, methyl salicylate and delta-cadinene in Sichuan black tea, 16 aromatic components including linalool, methyl salicylate, geraniol, linalool oxide II, geraniol, linalool oxide IV and phenylethyl alcohol in Yunnan black tea, 26 aromatic components including geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide II, phenylethyl alcohol and methyl salicylate in Qimen black tea. The floral and fruity scent in Sichuan black tea and Qimen black tea is probably caused by the high content of geraniol, linalool and methyl salicylate. The terpene index of Sichuan black tea, Yunnan black tea and Qimen black tea is 0.47, 0.72 and 0.40, respectively, therefore, Sichuan black tea and Qimen black tea have high aroma, that accords with the results of sensory evaluation.%采用固相微萃取(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法对川红、滇红和祁红香气成分进行分析.结果表明:共检测到150种香气化合物,其中川红和滇红均为79种,祁红为89种,共有芳樟醇及其氧化物、香叶醇、水杨酸甲酯、苯乙醇、橙花叔醇、苯乙醛等33种成分是三个红茶中的共有成分.在主体香气成分方面,川红中检出香叶醇、芳樟醇、苯乙醇、芳樟醇氧化物Ⅱ、水杨酸甲酯、δ-杜松萜烯等18种,滇红中检出芳樟醇、水杨酸甲酯、香叶醇、芳樟醇氧化物Ⅱ、芳

  13. An essential role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in vasorelaxations induced by black tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Green tea has received much attention as protective agent against cardiovascular disease and cancer, the two primary targets of preventive medicine. Since our first demonstration in 1999 of the involvement of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the acute vasodilator effect of green tea polyphenols, several new vascular protective effects of green tea catechins have been identified. Theaflavins are another class of polyphenol pigments found in black tea, however, little is known about their bioactivity in the vascular system. We have recently demonstrated that black tea and its theaflavins cause relaxations of rat aortas via endothelial nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms and the tea polyphenols are very effective in protecting endothelial function agonist oxidative stress. The present results support the vascular benefit of consumption of black tea, which is equal to that of drinking green tea in terms of their endothelial cell protection and antioxidant capacity.

  14. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds of Camellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations of BTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0 µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results: The results showed that BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.95 cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity in vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r 2 = 0.94 inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17% on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption of BTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  15. In vitro pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To access the pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea made from uppermost tender leaves and unopened buds ofCamellia sinensis L. Methods: Black tea brew (BTB) was made according to International Organization for Standardization 3103 specifications and concentrations ofBTB tested were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0 and 600.0µg/mL for antilipase and anti-cholesterol esterase assays and 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00µg/mL for cholesterol micellization inhibitory assay. Results:The results showed thatBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea has marked and dose-dependent (r2 = 0.95) cholesterol micellization inhibitory activityin vitro comparable to epigallocatechin gallate, the reference drug used. In contrast, BTB had only mild but dose-dependent (r2= 0.94) inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase and weak inhibitory effect (up to 13.17%) on pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusions: It is concluded that consumption ofBTB of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade tea as a beverage may be a useful strategy in the management of hyperlipidaemia.

  16. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  17. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  18. In vivo evaluation of black and green tea dermal products against UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, M; Uğurlu, T; Gedik, G; Yılmaz, A M; Süha Yalçin, A

    2010-10-01

    Aqueous extracts of black and green tea (Camellia sinensis) were obtained by freeze-drying for this study. The extracts were evaluated based on tea quality control tests, UV, IR scans, and in vitro antioxidant capacity tests. Dermal products from the tea extracts were designed and manufactured. Black and green tea gels were tested in vivo in the forearms of six subjects using an artifical UV (200-400 nm) source. The tested formulations were green tea gel, black tea gel, 0.3% caffeine gel, carbomer gel base, and a control. Depending on tea quality, the samples resulted in water soluble fractions of 24.5-39.5%. UV and IR scans specifically showed peaks for alkaloids like caffeine, catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate, and polyphenols with dimeric and polymeric structures such as theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigins (TRs). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of black and green tea samples were found to be high and comparable; activity levels for black tea, green tea, high quality black tea, and L-ascorbic acid were 0.48, 0.50, 0.82, and 1.32 mM TR/mg, respectively. No UV-induced erythema was observed at the black and green tea gel sites in any of the subjects. UV-induced erythema was consistently present in various grades at caffeine gel, carbomer gel, and control sites. Results led to the conclusion that freeze-dried black and green tea extracts had strong UV absorbance. Formulating those extracts into dermal gels protected the skin against UV-induced erythema. Therefore, tea extracts were found to be promising candidates for their ability to protect against the harmful effects of UV radiation, such as erythema and premature aging of the skin.

  19. 优质抗寒红茶新品种——潇湘红21—3选育研究报告%The Breeding of New Anti-cold Black Tea Cultivar--Xiao Xiang Hong 21-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛君; 郑红发; 罗意; 康彦凯; 董丽娟

    2012-01-01

    江华苦茶是我省茶树珍贵资源,产于南岭山脉,制红茶香气浓郁,滋味浓强,冷后呈乳状,叶底红亮,红碎茶达二套样水平。抗寒性强,耐-9℃低温,可在长江中下游茶区种植。我所上世纪八十年代初在江华苦茶性状分离圃中进行优中选优,通过系统选育程序,选育出优质抗寒红茶新品种——潇湘红21—3(后简称21—3)。%Jianghua Bitter Tea is a rare breeding resource, which grows in Nanling Mountains of Hunan. The black tea made by Jianghua Bitter Tea is strong in flavor and taste, the brewing would cool down, and the brewed leaf is red and bright. Its Black Broken Tea quality can reach the level of 2nd Samples. It can stand cold above -9 ℃, and grows in the lower Yangtze Region. Hunan Tea Research Institute had conducted breeding of Jianghua Bitter Tea in 1980's. Based on the work, anti-cold black tea cultivar Xiao Xiang Hong 21-3 was invented.

  20. Improvement of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images after black tea consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaati, Hossein; Rokni-Yazdi, Hadi; Firouznia, Kavous [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, Amir Hossein; Abahashemi, Firouze; Shakiba, Madjid [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Evaluation of the efficacy of black tea as the negative oral contrast agent in MRCP. MRCP was performed before and 5 and 15 min after tea consumption for 35 patients. Depiction of the gall bladder (GB), cystic duct (CD), proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD), intrahepatic ducts (IHD), ampulla of vater (AV), main pancreatic duct (MPD) and signal loss of stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Likert scores. Twenty-one of the patients (60%) were female (mean age, 50.3 {+-} 19.2 years). Regarding visibility of different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree, the post procedure images were better visualized in the distal part of CBD, AV and MPD in Likert and VAS scoring (all P{<=}0.001). Regarding obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post procedure images showed significant disappearance of high signal in Likert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps{<=}0.001). Black tea is a simple and safe negative oral contrast agent which reduces the signal intensity of gastrointestinal tract fluid and provides improved depiction of the MPD, the distal CBD and the ampulla during MRCP. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, E; Inkielewicz, I; Czarnowski, W; Szefer, P

    2008-03-01

    The fluoride content in infusions of commercially available black, green, oolong, pu-erh and white teas was determined by ion-selective electrode. Herbal infusions as well as instant tea and ready-to-drink tea beverages were also examined. It is found that brewing time (5, 10 and 30 min) does increase the fluoride content, which in infusions of black tea (5 min brewing) was higher than that in the other types of tea, with contents ranging between 0.32 and 4.54 mg/l for black tea to 0.37-0.54 mg/l for white tea and with even lower values for herbal tea infusions of 0.02-0.09 mg/l. On the basis of the results obtained, the daily intake of fluoride provided from tea and herbal beverages was estimated for an adult person and for children in comparison with the Polish SAI (Safe and Adequate Daily Intake) of fluoride which is strictly attributable to ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake). The fluoride intake resulted from the regular consumption of black tea infusions was raised as compared to the other types of teas as well as herbal teas. For adult and children tea drinkers consuming five cups of black tea per day the intake of fluoride will be in the range of 8.0-303% and 12-303% of the SAI, respectively. People are often exposed to multiple sources of fluoride, such as in food, water, air and excessive use of toothpaste. The control of tea quality is important to protect human against too high uptake of this element from black tea, which is the most popular beverage. Excessive intake of fluoride with black tea, especially in the regions with its high level in the drinking water, increases the risk of dental fluorosis in children during the years of tooth development. The long-term exposure to large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially skeletal fluorosis (WHO, 1984).

  2. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  3. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  4. Anti-melanogenic effects of black, green, and white tea extracts on immortalized melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Chul; Choi, So Young; Park, Eun Ye

    2015-01-01

    Tea contains polyphenols and is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Because most tyrosinase inhibitors that regulate melanogenesis are phenol/catechol derivatives, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Camellia sinensis water extracts (CSWEs), including black tea, green tea, and white tea extracts, on melanogenesis using immortalized melanocytes. CSWEs inhibited melanin accumulation and melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were superior to those of arbutin, a well-known depigmenting agent. The anti-melanogenic activity of black (fermented) tea was higher than that of a predominant tea catecholamine, epigallocatechin gallate. CSWEs, especially black tea extract, decreased tyrosinase protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-melanogenic effect of CSWEs is mediated by a decrease in both tyrosinase activity and protein expression, and may be augmented by fermentation. Thus, CSWEs could be useful skin-whitening agents in the cosmetic industry.

  5. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  6. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  7. Application of enzymes in the production of RTD black tea beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandini S; Subramanian, R; Rao, L Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) tea is a popular beverage in many countries. Instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is the common problem faced in the production of RTD black tea beverages. Thus decreaming is an important step in the process to meet the cold stability requirements of the product. Enzymatic decreaming approaches overcome some of the disadvantages associated with other conventional decreaming methods such as cold water extraction, chill decreaming, chemical stabilization, and chemical solubilization. Enzyme treatments have been attempted at three stages of black tea processing, namely, enzymatic treatment to green tea and conversion to black tea, enzymatic treatment to black tea followed by extraction, and enzymatic clarification of extract. Tannase is the most commonly employed enzyme (tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20) aiming at improving cold water extractability/solubility and decreasing tea cream formation as well as improving the clarity. The major enzymatic methods proposed for processing black tea having a direct or indirect bearing on RTD tea production, have been discussed along with their relative advantages and limitations.

  8. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlan

  9. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Poppel, G. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    Background: Tea is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Antioxidant polyphenol compounds (such as catechins and flavonols) are abundantly present in both green and black teas and have been observed to have anticarcinogenic properties in cell and animal model studies. In black

  10. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Poppel, G. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    Background: Tea is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Antioxidant polyphenol compounds (such as catechins and flavonols) are abundantly present in both green and black teas and have been observed to have anticarcinogenic properties in cell and animal model studies. In black

  11. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Arts, I.C.W.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the

  12. Counter-current chromatography of black tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedzicha, B L; Lo, M F; Donovan, T J

    1990-05-04

    Counter-current chromatography using a multilayer coil planet centrifuge, with solvent system ethyl acetate-butanol-water, permits the separation of black tea infusions into fractions which include pure SII and a mixture of SI and SIa thearubigins. Good resolution of several components of the infusion may be achieved in elution times of 1 to 2 h. The appearance of chromatograms is altered on decaffeinating the infusion. The effect of stationary phase composition is considered. Resolution of the peaks improves with butanol content.

  13. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  14. Spatial variability of theaflavins and thearubigins fractions and their impact on black tea quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Borah, Paban; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of theaflavin and thearubigin fractions and their impact on black tea quality were investigated using multivariate and geostatistics techniques. Black tea samples were collected from tea gardens of six geographical regions of Assam and West Bengal, India. Total theaflavin (TF) and its four fractions of upper Assam, south bank and North Bank teas were higher than the other regions. Simple theaflavin showed highest significant correlation with tasters' quality. Low molecular weight thearubigins of south bank and North Bank were significantly higher than other regions. Total thearubigin (TR) and its fractions revealed significant positive correlation with tasters' organoleptic valuations. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The semivariogram for quality parameters were best represented by gaussian models. The nugget/sill ratio indicated a strong/moderate spatial dependence of the studied parameters. Spatial variation of tea quality parameters may be used for quality assessment in the tea growing areas of India.

  15. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  16. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  17. Effect of black tea and black tea pomace polyphenols on α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition, relevant to type 2 diabetes prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eStriegel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT were 5.77 mg/mL, and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the recovered hydrophobic fraction (HBBT was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW. The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 mg/mL and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50=8.97 µg/mL followed by HBBT fraction (IC50=14.83 µg/mL. However the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50=0.049 mg/mL. The black tea pomace (AOBT had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=14.72 µg/mL but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.21 mg/mL. The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  18. Effect of Black Tea and Black Tea Pomace Polyphenols on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibition, Relevant to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, Lisa; Kang, Bouhee; Pilkenton, Sarah J; Rychlik, Michael; Apostolidis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT) and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT) were 5.77 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the resulting hydrophobic fraction (HBBT) was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW) and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW). The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 8.97 μg/mL) followed by HBBT fraction (IC50 = 14.83 μg/mL). However, the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50 = 0.049 mg/mL). The black tea pomace (AOBT) had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 14.72 μg/mL) but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.21 mg/mL). The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  19. Oxidative deamination of benzylamine and lysine residue in bovine serum albumin by green tea, black tea, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Shigemitsu, Tomoko; Suyama, Kyozo

    2005-10-01

    Oxidative deamination by various polyphenolic compounds is presumed to be due to the oxidative conversion of polyphenols to the corresponding quinones through autoxidation. Here we examined the oxidative deamination by the polyphenol-rich beverages green tea, black tea, and coffee at a physiological pH and temperature. Green tea, black tea, and coffee extracts oxidatively deaminated benzylamine and the lysine residues of bovine serum albumin to benzaldehyde and alpha-aminoadipic delta-semialdehyde residues, respectively, in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C in both the presence and absence of Cu2+, indicating the occurrence of an amine (lysyl) oxidase-like reaction. We also examined the effects of pH and metal ions on the reaction. The possible biological effects of drinking polyphenol-rich beverages on human are also discussed.

  20. [Aging Process of Puer Black Tea Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Curve-Fitting Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-yu; Shi, You-ming; Yi, Shi Lai

    2015-07-01

    For better determination of the chemical components in the Puer black tea, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of Puer black tea at different aging time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that the chemical components had change in Puer black tea at different aging time. The leaf of Puer black tea was a complex system, its Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a total overlap of each absorption spectrum of various components. Each band represented an overall overlap of some characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups in the Puer black tea. In order to explore the change of characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups with aging time, the prediction positions and the number of second peaks in the range of 1900-900 cm(-1) were determined by Fourier self-deconvolution at first, and later the curve fitting analysis was performed in this overlap band. At different aging time of Puer black tea, the wave number of second peaks of amide II, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides at overlap band were assigned by curve fitting analysis. The second peak at 1520 cm(-1) was characteristic absorption band of amide II, the second peaks of tea polyphenol and pectin appeared at 1278 and 1103 cm(-1) respectively. Two second peaks at 1063 and 1037 cm(-1), corresponds mainly to glucomannan and arabinan. The relative area of these second peaks could be indicated the content of protein, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides in the Puer black tea. The results of curve fitting analysis showed that the relative area of amide II was increasing first and then decreasing, it indicated the change of protein in Puer black tea. At the same time, the content of tea polyphenol and pectin were decreased with the increase of aging time, but the glucomannan and arabinan were increased in reverse. It explained that the bitter taste was become weak and a sweet taste appeared in the tea with the increase of

  1. Study on the Brewing Behavior of Two Kinds of Different Solubility Pesticide from Made Tea to Tea Infusion%两种不同溶解度农药残留在茶汤中的浸出规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬; 张新忠; 陈宗懋; 罗逢健; 楼正云; 孙威江

    2013-01-01

    建立了茶汤中两种不同溶解度农药噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯残留分析方法,并利用该方法研究了浸泡时间、温度、次数、茶叶形状和茶叶中残留量对两种农药浸出规律的影响。结果表明:恒定水温100℃时,浸泡不同时间,15 min时,整叶茶和碎茶中噻虫嗪浸出率达最大值分别为81.2%和88.6%;25 min时碎茶中高效氯氟氰菊酯的浸出率达到最大为5.5%,此时整叶茶中为0.41%。不同水温下冲泡15 min时,噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯在茶汤中的浸出率均随着浸泡温度的升高而增加,当水温100℃时,整叶茶和碎茶中噻虫嗪的浸出率达到最大,分别为83.9%和89.1%;高效氯氟氰菊酯的浸出率也达到最大,分别为0.55%和4.1%。恒定水温100℃,冲泡15 min 3次,整叶茶实际样品中噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯的浸出率随浸泡次数增加而逐次减小,总浸出率最大分别为93.25%和1.94%。茶汤中噻虫嗪总浸出浓度与它在成茶中的残留量呈线性关系 Y=0.9267X-0.0336,R2=0.9954;高效氯氟氰菊酯总浸出浓度与它在成茶中的残留量呈二次函数关系 Y=0.0026X2-0.0023X+0.0096,R2=0.9765。在此基础上对茶叶中噻虫嗪和高效氯氟氰菊酯残留量进行风险评估,结果表明饮茶摄入两种农药残留对人体健康影响的风险很小。%A residue analysis method for thiamethoxam and lambda-cyhalothrin in tea infusion was established, and the influence of brewing time, brewing temperature, tea shape and residue concentration in made tea to the brewing behavior from made tea to tea infusion were investigated by this method. The results showed that: when constant temperature of 100℃ for different brewing time (5~30 min), the brewing rate of thiamethoxam were maximum at 15 min, which were 81.2% in whole leaf tea and 88.6% in broken tea, the brewing rate of lambda-cyhalothrin reached the maximum of 5.5% at 25 min in broken tea, and

  2. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  3. [Chemical studies on plant polyphenols and formation of black tea polyphenols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Recent biological and pharmacological studies strongly suggested that plant polyphenols in foods, beverages and crude drugs have various health benefits. However, still there are chemically uncharacterized polyphenols, especially those with large molecular weights. The typical example is black tea polyphenols. Four tea catechins of fresh tea leaves are enzymatically oxidized in tea fermentation process of black tea manufacture to give a complex mixture of the oxidation products. Despite many efforts since 1950's, major part of the black tea polyphenols has not been clarified yet. We have investigated the oxidation mechanism of each catechin by employing a newly developed in vitro model fermentation system. The oxidation was initiated by enzymatic dehydrogenation of catechins, and subsequent intermolecular quinone-phenol coupling reactions followed by cascade-type degradation of the unstable products resulted in the formation of complex black tea polyphenols. Besides black tea polyphenols, this review introduces the chemistry of insolubilization of persimmon proanthocyanidins, wood polyphenols in connection with whisky polyphenols, and co-polymerization of cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins in cinnamon bark.

  4. Nutritional and functional characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpen, Arda; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Yavuz, Havvana Tuba; Gökmen, Vural; Özcan, Nihat; Özçelik, Beraat

    2012-08-01

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were examined for their proximate composition, dietary fiber, minerals, and water-soluble vitamins as well as total phenolic content, various antioxidant assays, phenolics (flavanols, alkoloids, condensed phenolics, and phenolic acids), chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Some variations, albeit to different extents, were observed (p black tea. With respect to proximate composition, dietary fiber was the predominant compound (ranging from 49.68 to 54.31 g/100 g), followed by protein, carbohydrate, and, to a lesser extent, ash, moisture, and fat. Thirteen minerals, four water-soluble vitamins, six flavanols, two alkoloids, three condensed phenolics, one phenolic acid, two chlorophylls, and two carotenoids were identified in the seven grades of black tea. Total phenol content ranged from 7.52 to 8.29 g of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g, being lowest in grade 6 and highest in grade 1. With regard to antioxidant activities, a large variation in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values was observed among all grades of black tea (ranging from 777 μmol of trolox equivalents (TE)/g in grade 7 to 1210 μmol of TE/g in grade 3). The present work suggests that high- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished on the basis of their nutritional and functional characteristics. The combination of nutritional compounds together with functional characteristics renders combination effects that provide the characteristic quality of each grade of black tea.

  5. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  6. Green and black tea consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Liu, Weiqing; Elashoff, David

    2009-05-01

    Experimental models of stroke provide consistent evidence of smaller stroke volumes in animals ingesting tea components or tea extracts. To assess whether a similar association of black or green tea consumption with reduced risk is evident in human populations, we sought to identify and summarize all human clinical and observational data on tea and stroke. We searched PubMed and Web of Science for all studies on stroke and tea consumption in humans with original data, including estimation or measurement of tea consumption and outcomes of fatal or nonfatal stroke. Data from 9 studies involving 4378 strokes among 194 965 individuals were pooled. The main outcome was the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke. We tested for heterogeneity and calculated the summary effect estimate associated with consumption of >or=3 cups of tea (green or black) per day using random-effects and fixed-effects models for the homogeneous studies. Publication bias was also evaluated. Regardless of their country of origin, individuals consuming >or=3 cups of tea per day had a 21% lower risk of stroke than those consuming risk reduction, 0.79; CI, 0.73 to 0.85). The proportion of heterogeneity not explained by chance alone was 23.8%. Although a randomized clinical trial would be necessary to confirm the effect, this meta-analysis suggests that daily consumption of either green or black tea equaling 3 cups per day could prevent the onset of ischemic stroke.

  7. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  8. Effect of different doses of un-fractionated green and black tea extracts on thyroid physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; De, Neela; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy

    2011-08-01

    Tea is a rich source of polyphenolic flavonoids including catechins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of it. Flavonoids have been reported to have antithyroid and goitrogenic effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of green and black tea have a harmful effect on thyroid physiology. Un-fractionated green and black tea extracts were administered orally to male rats for 30 days at doses of 1.25 g%, 2.5 g% and 5.0 g%. The results showed that green tea extract at 2.5 g% and 5.0 g% doses and black tea extract only at 5.0 g% dose have the potential to alter the thyroid gland physiology and architecture, that is, enlargement of thyroid gland as well as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and inhibition of the activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5(')-deiodinase I with elevated thyroidal Na+, K+-ATPase activity along with significant decrease in serum T3 and T4, and a parallel increase in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study concludes that goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of un-fractionated green tea extract is much more than black tea extract because of the differences in catechin contents in the tea extracts.

  9. Green and black tea consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arab, Lenore; Liu, Weiqing; Elashoff, David

    2009-01-01

    .... To assess whether a similar association of black or green tea consumption with reduced risk is evident in human populations, we sought to identify and summarize all human clinical and observational...

  10. A study on quality components and sleep-promoting effects of GABA black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenfang; Li, Yun; Ma, William; Ge, Yazhong; Huang, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the changes in quality components of gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) black tea during processing, and to investigate the effect of three dosages of GABA black tea on sleep improvement. The results showed that the GABA content was increased significantly up to 2.70 mg g(-1) after vacuum anaerobic and aerobic treatment. In addition, the content of GABA after drying reached 2.34 mg g(-1), which achieved the standard of GABA tea. During the entire processing of GABA black tea, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine and total catechins displayed a gradually descending trend, while the contents of free amino acids and GABA were firstly increased, and then reduced. The GABA black tea had significant effects on prolonging the sleeping time with sodium pentobarbital (P sleeping rate induced by sodium pentobarbital at a sub-threshold dose (P sleeping latency period induced by sodium barbital was not significant (P > 0.05). It had no effect on directly inducing sleep and the mouse body weight. The extract of GABA black tea improved the sleeping quality of mice to extend with an optimal effect being found in the high dose-treated mice.

  11. Black tea extract: a supplementary antioxidant in radiation-induced damage to DNA and normal lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debjani; Pal, Sandip; Saha, Chabita; Chakrabarti, Amit Kumar; Datta, Salil C; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Myriad research has contributed significantly toward the understanding and identification of health benefits stemming from tea polyphenols and many other naturally occurring flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. These flavonoids are known to mitigate reactive oxygen species-induced damage by scavenging them. In this study, hot-water black tea extract rich in flavonoids is evaluated as a supplementary antioxidant. The antioxidant efficacy of black tea extract was investigated by evaluating radioprotection conferred to pBR322 DNA, calf thymus DNA, and normal lymphocytes during gamma irradiation. The protection was measured by gel electrophoresis, fluorimetric study, cell viability assay, cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei assay, and comet assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability of the tea extract used increased in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 182.45 µg/mL). Positive correlation of radioprotection with antioxidant activity of black tea extract was observed in all systems. Maximum protection against radiation-induced damage was observed in pBR322 DNA and calf thymus DNA at ≥200 µg/mL of black tea extract. At a dose of black tea extract as low as 5 µg/mL, efficient radioprotection was observed in normal lymphocytes, which is encouraging and can be tested in the future as a natural antioxidant supplement during radiotherapy.

  12. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, C; Birch, M R; Dacombe, C; Humphrey, P G; Martin, P T

    2001-11-01

    The effects of product and preparation variables on the in-cup chemical composition of tea extracts is of interest because the appearance and taste characteristics and the possible health effects of a tea liquor arise from the chemical components extracted from the leaf during tea preparation. A comprehensive study was therefore undertaken to determine the contributions of product and preparation variables on the total soluble solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of tea extracts. The results of this study show that the variety, growing environment, manufacturing conditions, and grade (particle size) of the tea leaves each influence the tea leaf and final infusion compositions. In addition, the composition of the tea infusion was shown to be influenced by whether the tea was contained in a teabag and, if so, the size and material of construction of the bag. Finally, the preparation method, including the amounts of tea and water used, infusion time, and amount of agitation, was shown to be a major determinant of the component concentrations of tea beverages as consumed. An illustration of the variation introduced by these product and preparation factors is provided by comparing solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of green and black tea infusions when commercial products are prepared according to the instructions given on their packaging.

  13. Impacts of flushing and fermentation times on the quality of black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari Hojjat Reza; Asil Hassanpour Moazzam; Rabiei Babak; Dadashpour Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Flushing and fermentation times are the two main parameters determining the quality of black tea. In this research, the effects of different flushing and fermentation times were studied on the quality of black tea in two clones, 100 and natural Chinese hybrid. Analysis of variance showed there were the significant differences between the clone types, flushing and fermentation times for theaflavin, thearubigin, total color, brightness, tannin and caffeine. C...

  14. Compositional variation among black tea across geographies and their potential influence on endothelial nitric oxide and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paul Mark; Changarath, Jayashree; Damodaran, Anita; Joshi, Manoj Kumar

    2014-07-16

    Black tea (C. sinensis) consumption is well associated with enhanced endothelial function (EF) and reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk. This clinical end benefit is endorsed to flavonoids in tea. The black tea flavonoid composition varies across geographies and may impact its health benefits. Moreover, the underlying functional species and a precise working mechanism responsible for the observed health benefit also remain to be investigated. In this Article, we investigated the effect of black teas from various geographies (WoBTs) on different working mechanisms (antioxidant potential and endothelial function) proposed to influence certain risk factors of CVH, in vitro. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant benefits are fairly influenced by majority of tea actives such as catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and phenolic acids, while NO potentiating effects are mainly regulated by catechins in black tea. The data also suggest that the net vascular function benefit of black tea is majorly influenced by NO enhancement, while mildly contributed by its antioxidant benefit.

  15. Protective effect of black tea on integral membrane proteins in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szachowicz-Petelska, Barbara; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta; Figaszewski, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol intoxication is accompanied by oxidative stress formation. Consequently, it leads to disturbances in cellular metabolism that can alter the structure and function of cell membrane components. Black tea displays antioxidant properties, protects membrane phospholipids and may protect integral membrane proteins. In the present study, we examined whether black tea induces changes in the liver integral membrane proteins of 12-months old rats chronically intoxicated with ethanol. To estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the levels of the liver integral membrane proteins, the proteins were selectively hydrolyzed by trypsin, the obtained peptides were resolved by HPLC and the levels of specific amino acids within the individual peptides were determined. All of the obtained peptides contained phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and lysine (Lys). Compared to the control group, rats in the ethanol intoxication group showed decreased liver levels of integral membrane proteins as well as fewer trypsin-hydrolyzed peptides and amino acids in the hydrolyzed peptides. Administration of black tea to ethanol-intoxicated rats partially protected proteins against the structural changes caused by ethanol. Black tea prevented decreases in the levels of cysteine (in about 90% of cases), lysine (in about 60% of cases), phenylalanine (in about 70% of cases) and examined peptides (in about 60% of cases). The liver protein level was higher (by about 18%) in rats who received black tea and ethanol than in those who received ethanol alone. In conclusion, black tea partially protects the composition and level of rat liver cell integral membrane proteins against changes caused by ethanol intoxication.

  16. New ethanol extraction improves the anti-obesity effects of black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bongju; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Bonggyeong; Kim, Ingyum; Baek, Namjoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Seok-Yong; Son, Miwon; Park, Hyunsung

    2016-03-01

    Black tea has been reported to have anti-obesity effects in both rodents and humans. Gallic acid, an active component of black tea, decomposes quickly into pyrogallol in high-temperature solutions. This study introduced a new, aqueous ethanol extraction of black tea, which resulted in extracts with higher concentrations of gallic acid than conventional black tea extracts prepared by hot-water extraction or hot-ethanol extraction. We confirmed that, compared with the hot-water extract of black tea, the cold-ethanol extract of black tea (CE-BTE) had greater effects on reducing body weight and body fat, improving fatty liver, regulating blood glucose, and reducing blood cholesterol in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Nonetheless, although CE-BTE significantly reduced fat content, it did not reduce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) protein in epididymal fat tissue of HFD mice. We also showed that CE-BTE did not inhibit the function of PPARγ protein to drive adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Considering that PPARγ is a master transcription factor not only for adipocyte differentiation, but also for adipose tissue function, such as glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, these results suggest that CE-BTE reduced fat mass and body weight without dampening fat cell homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

  17. An exposure and risk assessment for fluoride and trace metals in black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofuoglu, Sait C. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Research Center, Guelbahce, Urla 35430 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: cemilsofuoglu@iyte.edu.tr; Kavcar, Pinar [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Research Center, Guelbahce, Urla 35430 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: pinarkavcar@iyte.edu.tr

    2008-10-30

    Exposure and associated health risks for fluoride and trace metals in black tea were estimated. Fifty participants were randomly recruited to supply samples from the tea that they drink, and self-administer a questionnaire that inquired about personal characteristics and daily tea intake. Analyzed trace metals included aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and zinc. Fluoride and four metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Ni) were detected in all samples while barium was detected only in one sample. The remaining metals were detected in >60% of the samples. Fluoride and aluminum levels in instant tea bag samples were greater than in loose tea samples (p < 0.05) while the differences in elemental concentrations of loose and pot bag tea samples were not significant. Median and 90th percentile daily tea intake rates were estimated as 0.35 and 1.1 l/day, respectively. Neither fluoride nor aluminum levels in black tea were found to associate with considerable risks of fluorosis and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 1.0 x 10{sup -6} even at the median level. According to sensitivity analysis, daily tea intake was the most influencing variable to the risk except for arsenic for which the concentration distribution was of more importance.

  18. Meta-analysis of black tea consumption and breast cancer risk: update 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Dao-Song; Bai, Yang; Xia, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Black tea is a commonly consumed beverage in the world, comprising approximately 80% of all tea consumed. We sought to examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of breast cancer, using all available epidemiologic evidence to date. PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, and China Biological Medicine Database were used to search for citations using the MeSH terms as "breast neoplasm" AND "black tea." Then we performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer risk published between 1985 and 2013 by using RevMan 5.0 software. The results showed that no association between black tea consumption and breast cancer risk in overall [odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89-1.05]. We further performed a stratified analysis according to region (United States/Europe). Black tea consumption did not decrease breast cancer risk in the United States (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) and in Europe (OR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.93-1.06). In addition, the summary OR from all cohort studies (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18) or all case-control studies (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88-1.02) showed black tea intake has no effects on breast cancer risk. However, the association between black tea consumption and breast cancer incidence remains unclear based on the current evidence. Further well-designed large studies are needed to confirm our result.

  19. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  20. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  1. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  2. Characterization of epoxydecenal isomers as potent odorants in black tea (Dimbula) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2006-06-28

    In a black tea (Dimbula) infusion, the potent "sweet and/or juicy" odorants were identified as the cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals by comparison of their gas chromatography retention indices, mass spectra, and odor quality to those of the actual synthetic compounds. Of the two odorants, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal has been identified for the first time in the black tea. On the basis of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the flavor distillate obtained using the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique from the black tea infusion, these isomers showed higher flavor dilution (FD) factors. The FD factors and concentrations of these odorants in the black tea infusion were observed to be much higher than those from Japanese green tea. In addition, the model studies showed that these odorants were generated from linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides by heating, but the generated amounts of these odorants from linoleic acid were much less than those of its hydroperoxides. It can be assumed from these results that the withering and fermentation, which are characteristic processes during the manufacturing of the black tea, which includes the enzymatic reaction such as lipoxygenase, is one of the most important factors for the formation of the epoxydecenal isomers.

  3. Age-dependent changes in the proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance after alcohol and black tea consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, A; Bylińska, A; Skrzydlewska, E

    2011-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes in the redox balance that is additionally modified by alcohol. Ethanol metabolism is connected with generation of free radicals which can damage cell components especially when antioxidant mechanisms are not able to neutralize them. In connection with the necessity of prevention against oxidative consequences, natural antioxidants are looked for. A natural and commonly used component of the diets with antioxidant properties are teas, especially the black tea. This study provides evidence of the role of black tea in the protection of rat plasma proteins and lipids against oxidative stress caused by aging and ethanol intoxication. For 5 weeks, the rats (2-, 12-, and 24-months old) used for the experiment received a black tea beverage (3 g/l) without or with alcohol (given for 4 weeks). The decrease in antioxidant abilities determined as total antioxidant status during aging and ethanol intoxication resulted in enhanced lipid and protein oxidation (determined as malondialdehyde, carbonyl groups, dityrosine, tryptophan and sulfhydryl groups level). In consequence the decrease in anti-proteases (alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin) activity and the increase in proteases (elastase and cathepsin G) activity were observed. Black tea protected the plasma antioxidants and prevented oxidative modifications of lipid and protein observed during aging as well as ethanol intoxication. The results indicate that a shift into plasma proteolytic activity results from a decrease in antioxidant abilities, so the use of black tea appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress caused by ethanol and/or aging.

  4. Black Tea Consumption and Risk of Skin Cancer: An 11-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Arovah, Novita Intan; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Tea consumption has been shown to protect against skin carcinogenesis in laboratory-based studies; however, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This prospective study examined the association between black tea consumption and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Usual black tea consumption was estimated from food frequency questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 by 1,325 Australian adults. All histologically confirmed skin cancers diagnosed in participants from 1997 to 2007 were recorded. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using generalized linear models with Poisson and negative binomial distributions and adjusted for confounding factors including skin phenotype and sun exposure. Compared with never drinking black tea, drinking ≥4 cups/day was not associated with BCC (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.70-1.53; P-trend = 0.74) or SCC (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.71-2.19; P-trend = 0.29) in person-based analyses. Stratification by previous history of skin cancer as well as tumor-based analyses also showed no significant associations between black tea intake and incidence of BCC or SCC tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that high black tea consumption reduces risk of skin cancer, including in people with a previous history of skin cancer.

  5. Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, Jasmine; Singh, Madhulika; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Bhui, Kulpreet; Roy, Preeti; Chaturvedi, Pranav Kumar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2011-01-01

    ...; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP...

  6. Black tea increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Gui; Huang, Jian-An; Li, Juan; Yu, Peng-Hui; Xiong, Zhe; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Hua

    2014-11-19

    The present study examined the effects of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts (BTE) in Caenorhabditis elegans under various abiotic stressors. Results showed BTE increased nematode resistance to osmosis, heat, and UV irradiation treatments. However, BTE could not increase nematodes' lifespan under normal culture conditions and MnCl2-induced toxicity at concentrations we used. Further studies showed that BTE decreased reactive oxygen species and up-regulated some antioxidant enzymes, including GSH-PX, and genes, such as gsh-px and sod-3. However, only a slight extension in mev-1 mutants mean lifespan was observed without significance. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of BTE might be necessary but not sufficient to protect against aging to C. elegans. Moreover, BTE increased the mRNA level of stress-response genes such as sir-2.1 and sek-1. Our finding demonstrated BTE might increase heat and UV stress resistance in a sir.2.1-dependent manner. Taken together, BTE enhanced stress resistance with multiple mechanisms in C. elegans.

  7. Brewing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Following the brewing process from grain to glass, this course uses the biological and chemical principles of brewing to teach science to the nonscience major. Discussion of the scientific aspects of malting, mashing, fermentation, and the making of different beer styles is complemented by laboratory exercises that use scientific methods to…

  8. Safety Evaluation of Fluoride Content in Tea Infusions Consumed in the Azores-a Volcanic Region with Water Springs naturally Enriched in Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Amaral, Leslie; Ferreira, Teresa; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo

    2017-01-24

    Tea is the second most commonly consumed beverage in the world. It is well recognized that the consumption of tea in high quantities can promote the development of fluorosis. The main objective of this study is to estimate the exposure to fluoride in the Azores through drinking tea prepared with water from different volcanic locations, by i) investigating the fluoride (F) content of various commercial brands of tea (Camellia sinensis) marketed in Azores and ii) comparing tea releasing rates of F according to brewing time, considering the fluoride concentration in the different types of water used for the infusion. Fluoride contents were determined by ion-selective electrode in 30 samples of drinking water from three different locations and in 450 samples of tea (black and green tea) from three different brands. Fluoride concentration in water ranged from 0.29 to 1.56 ppm (Porto Formoso and Sete Cidades village, respectively). Fluoride concentrations increased with brewing time, reaching the highest values in the Azorean black and green tea infusions. For all the studied brands, a negative correlation was found between tea fluoride contents and the pH of the water used to prepare the infusion. Fluoride concentration in infusions was significantly associated with the background fluoride concentration in drinking water. Since the fluoride concentration in groundwater varies accordingly to the geological conditions and tea consumption can contribute to fluoride intake, it is important to define the limits for tea consumption, particularly in fluoride-rich areas. Graphical Abstract Fluoride concentrations in black and green tea for 3 minutes of brewing time and, association between fluoride concentration and pH with brewing time.

  9. A comparative study of the antioxidant scavenging activity of green tea, black tea and coffee extracts: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, Jaouad; El Hassouni, Mohammed; Ouardaoui, Abdelkrim; Sendide, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activities of three beverages, coffee, black tea and green tea, along with their major components, were investigated in terms of their reaction with the stable radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We used a kinetic approach in parallel with quantification methods based on a fixed end-point to determine the scavenging efficiency of compounds abundant in these beverages during their reaction with DPPH using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer-based method. Ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, tannic acid, and caffeic acid were selected as model antioxidants to study in coffee, black tea and green tea. We applied a second-order model to demonstrate similarities in the kinetics behavior of beverages and related compounds. Our findings showed the slopes k2(')((mol/L)(-1)s(-1)) and k2max(')((mol/L)(1)s(-1)) exhibited similar and correlated values; we suggest the variation in k2(') as a function of time is more informative about antioxidant properties than reaction with DPPH alone. We also used IC100 to test the reliability of the relative stoichiometry using a new comparative parameter "n", which was calculated as: n=c0DPPHIC100 (mol/L(mol/L)(-1), (mol/L)mlmg(-1) or molg(-1)).

  10. Does the Pot Melt, Boil, or Brew? Black Children and White Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva; Abrahams, Roger D.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of black youths in educational and psychological testing situations cannot be assessed adequately without consideration of their particular attitudes, perceptions, and behavioral patterns. The authors discuss Blacks' attitudes toward whites, systems of time allocations, expressions of identity, attitudes toward learning,…

  11. Research Progress of the Aroma of Black Tea%红茶香气研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 吕才有

    2016-01-01

    红茶是我国生产和出口的主要茶类之一,其色泽红艳、滋味醇厚、兼容性好,是目前世界上消费量最大的一种茶类。我国红茶有小种红茶、功夫红茶、红碎茶等。在影响红茶品质的诸多因素中,香气是决定茶叶品质的关键因素之一,故将以红茶香气为出发点,从茶树品种、自然环境、加工工艺等方面进行探讨,为不断提高和改进红茶总体品质提供理论依据。%Black tea is one of the main tea production and export of China.Black tea is bright red in color, mellow in taste and has good com-patibility.At present, it has the greatest consumption in the world.Chinese black tea is divided into small kind of lapsangsouchong tea, kung-fu tea, broken black tea and so on.In a number of factors that influences the quality of black tea, aroma is one of the key factors determine the tea quality.Therefore, in this research, the aroma of black tea was taken as a starting point.We discussed the black tea aroma from the tea plant varieties, natural environment, processing technology and so on, so as to constantly improve the overall quality of black tea.

  12. Black tea prevents cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis and lung damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Dhrubajyoti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung damage. One prominent deleterious effect of cigarette smoke is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptosis and lung injury. Since black tea has antioxidant property, we examined the preventive effect of black tea on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury in a guinea pig model. Methods Guinea pigs were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure from five cigarettes (two puffs/cigarette per guinea pig/day for seven days and given water or black tea to drink. Sham control guinea pigs were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Lung damage, as evidenced by inflammation and increased air space, was assessed by histology and morphometric analysis. Protein oxidation was measured through oxyblot analysis of dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the protein carbonyls of the oxidized proteins. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, phosphorylation of p53 as well as over-expression of Bax by immunoblot analyses. Results Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model caused lung damage. It appeared that oxidative stress was the initial event, which was followed by inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury. All these pathophysiological events were prevented when the cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs were given black tea infusion as the drink instead of water. Conclusion Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model causes oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury that are prevented by supplementation of black tea.

  13. Dietary flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and risk of overall and advanced stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Verhage, Bas A J; Arts, Ilja C W; van Schooten, Frederik J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2013-06-15

    Flavonoids are natural antioxidants found in various foods, and a major source is black tea. Some experimental evidence indicates that flavonoids could prevent prostate cancer. We investigated the associations between flavonoid intake, black tea consumption, and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort study, which includes 58,279 men who provided detailed baseline information on several cancer risk factors. From 1986 to 2003, 3,362 prostate cancers were identified, including 1,164 advanced (stage III/IV) cancers. Cox proportional hazards regression using the case-cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intake of total catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and myricetin and consumption of black tea were associated with a decreased risk of stage III/IV or stage IV prostate cancer. Hazard ratios of stage III/IV and stage IV prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest category of black tea consumption (≥5 versus ≤1 cups/day) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97) and 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.91), respectively. No associations were observed for overall and nonadvanced prostate cancer. In conclusion, dietary flavonoid intake and black tea consumption were associated with a decreased risk of advanced stage prostate cancer.

  14. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  16. Adsorption of Pb(II) on Spent Leaves of Green and Black Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Zuorro; Roberto Lavecchia

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In recent years much attention has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Spent tea leaves, an abundantly available material that is currently disposed of as a solid waste, are potentially suitable for such applications. Approach: To provide some information on the adsorption properties of tea waste, we evaluated the removal efficiency of lead ions by spent leaves of green and black te...

  17. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-02-03

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared with traditional sodium acetate media due in part to its acidophilic pH and its higher organics content. Although high internal resistance remains a big concern, this simple, curiosity-driven experiment gave us the preliminary results to say that energy could be extracted from the reuse of waste resources such the collection of our afternoon-tea\\'s leftovers.

  18. Characterization of corrinoid compounds from a Japanese black tea (Batabata-cha) fermented by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Syuhei; Watanabe, Fumio; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2004-02-25

    A Japanese fermented black tea (Batabata-cha) contained a considerable amount of vitamin B(12) (456 +/- 39 ng per 100 g dry tea leaves and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ng per 100 mL of tea drink). A corrinoid compound was partially purified and characterized from the tea leaves. The patterns of the purified compound by the silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatography and C18 reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography were identical to those of authentic vitamin B(12). When 20 week old vitamin B(12) deficient rats, which excreted substantial amounts (about 250 mg/day) of methylmalonic acid in urine as an index of vitamin B(12) deficiency, were fed the tea drink (50 mL/day, 1 ng of vitamin B(12)) for 6 weeks, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion (169 +/- 29 mg/day) of the tea drink-supplemented 26 week old rats decreased significantly relative to that (250 +/- 32 mg/day) of the deficient rats. The results indicate that the vitamin B(12) found in the fermented black tea is bioavailable in mammals.

  19. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  20. The prevention of lung cancer induced by a tobacco-specific carcinogen in rodents by green and black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, F L

    1999-04-01

    A growing body of evidence from studies in laboratory animals indicates that green tea protects against cancer development at various organ sites. We have previously shown that green tea, administered as drinking water, inhibits lung tumor development in A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-l-butanone (NNK), a potent nicotine-derived lung carcinogen found in tobacco. The inhibitory effect of green tea has been attributed to its major polyphenolic compound, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and, to a lesser extent, to caffeine. We have also demonstrated that while levels of O6-methylguanine, a critical lesion in NNK lung tumorigenesis, were not affected in lung DNA. However, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly suppressed in mice treated with green tea or EGCG. These studies underscore the importance of the antioxidant activity of green tea and EGCG for their inhibitory activity against lung tumorigenesis. Unlike green tea, the effect of black tea on carcinogenesis has been scarcely studied, even though the worldwide production and consumption of black tea far exceeds that of green tea. The oxidation products found in black tea, thearubigins and theaflavins, also possess antioxidant activity, suggesting that black tea may also inhibit NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. Indeed, bioassays in A/J mice have shown that black tea given as drinking water retarded the development of lung cancer caused by NNK. However, data on the relationship of black tea consumption with the lung cancer risk in humans are limited and inconclusive. There is a need for additional tumor bioassays in animal models to better examine the protective role of black tea against lung cancer. The development of adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas in F344 rats upon chronic administration of NNK provides an important and relevant model for lung carcinogenesis in smokers. Thus far, no information was previously

  1. Pantoea theicola sp. nov., isolated from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato Tanaka, Yuko; Horie, Nobuhiro; Mochida, Kaoru; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Okugawa, Eri; Nanjo, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic strain was isolated from black tea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain QC88-366T was grouped into the genus Pantoea, being related most closely to the type strains of Pantoea gaviniae (98.5 %) and Pantoea calida (98.3 %); sequence similarities were ≤ 97.0 % to the type strains of other species of the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on partial sequences of the gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes also revealed P. gaviniae and P. calida as the closest phylogenetic relatives. The fatty acid profile showed the major fatty acids of strain QC88-366T were C16 : 0, C16 : 1 and C18 : 1, the same as those of its closest related species. However, the ratio of C16 : 1, C17 : 0 cyclo, C18 : 1 and C18 : 2 differed slightly compared with those of the related neighbours. In addition, the results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain QC88-366T from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The G+C content of the DNA was 57.2 mol%. Strain QC88-366T therefore represents a novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which the name Pantoea theicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is QC88-366T ( = DSM 29212T = NBRC 110557T).

  2. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p tea consumption (p tea ingestion improves BA FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  3. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  4. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  5. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  6. Black and green tea--how to make a perfect crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancirova, Martina

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant properties of the black and green tea are well known. The latent bloodstains are detectable by luminol. The bloodstains also can be cover up by drinks and foods containing the antioxidants; thus their presence can cause a decrease of the luminol light emission (false-negative results). The aim of this study was to quantify the light emission decrease of the chemiluminescent mixture prepared according to Weber (containing NaOH) and the chemiluminescent mixture of pH 7.4 (for the determination of the total antioxidant capacity) for the open air-dried sample. The black and green teas and white wine were used as the antioxidant's samples (high and low total antioxidant capacity). The significant decrease of the luminol chemiluminescent emission caused by the presence of the black and green teas (and comparable for both of them) was observed in comparison with the presence of white wine.

  7. Honey and green/black tea consumption may reduce the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Vladimirov, Borislav; Nikolov, Rossen; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dietary and demographic factors and some habits on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in 150 dyspeptic patients examined endoscopically and by the urea breath test. Positivity rate was lower (50.6%) in patients consuming honey ≥1 day weekly compared with the remainder (70.8%) and in those consuming green/black tea ≥1 day weekly (45.2%) compared with the other patients (64.8%). Logistic regression confirmed that the factors associated with significantly lower H. pylori positivity rate were the consumption of honey (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.78) and green/black tea (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95). In conclusion, honey and green/black tea intake is associated with reduced prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  8. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-02-15

    The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8-99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2-15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels.

  9. Adsorption of Pb(II on Spent Leaves of Green and Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zuorro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years much attention has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Spent tea leaves, an abundantly available material that is currently disposed of as a solid waste, are potentially suitable for such applications. Approach: To provide some information on the adsorption properties of tea waste, we evaluated the removal efficiency of lead ions by spent leaves of green and black tea. Batch adsorption experiments were made at 25 and 40°C at initial lead-ion concentrations between 0.01 and 2 g L-1. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir equation to evaluate the maximum adsorption capacity and the equilibrium constant. The adsorption characteristics of the two materials were also compared with those of coffee grounds, activated carbon and Fullers earth. Results: Experimental data showed that removal efficiencies up to 98-99% can be achieved when using spent tea leaves as lead adsorbent. The results were only marginally affected by the type of tea waste. At low lead loading, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by the Langmuir equation, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 83-130 mg g-1 and an equilibrium constant ranging from 0.112-0.245 L mg-1. A comparison with other adsorbents provided the following order for lead removal efficiency: Black tea, coffee grounds > green tea > Fullers earth > activated carbon. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that using spent tea leaves as an adsorbent may be an efficient and economical means for removing lead and, presumably, other heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  10. Still Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tea culture and China are synonymous, but even old-style teahouses have to change with the times Xinquan Tea House is filled with old men who seemingly have known each other for years. They share unrestrained and far-ranging conversations on topics that range from tea ceremony culture to how to sort out all the world's troubles. Situated in De'nei Dajie street in downtown Beijing, this teahouse is known as a qingchaguan (teahouse serving tea without

  11. Regular consumption of black tea increases circulating kynurenine concentrations: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Gostner

    2015-06-01

    General significance: The influence of black tea consumption on biomarkers of immune system activation could relate to its general health benefits. Data suggests that the net effect strongly depends on the individual immune state, being stimulatory in healthy individuals, while acting more immune dampening in situations with an inflammatory background.

  12. Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Robin B

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in tea drinking habits and/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin. Moreover, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of citrus peel and black tea in the development of SCC. Results Hot and iced teas were consumed by 30.7% and 51.8% of the subjects, respectively. Peel consumption was reported by 34.5% of subjects. Controls were more likely than were cases to report citrus peel use (odds ratio (OR = 0.67 and hot tea intake (OR = 0.79. After adjustment for hot and iced tea intake, the ORs associated with citrus peel use were 0.55 and 0.69, respectively, whereas the corresponding adjusted ORs for hot and iced tea intake after adjustment for citrus peel use were 0.87 and 1.22 respectively. Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were 0.60 and 0.30, respectively. Subjects who reported consumption of both hot black tea and citrus peel had a significant marked decrease (OR= 0.22; 95% CI = 0.10 – 0.51 risk of skin SCC. Conclusion These results indicate that both citrus peel use and strong (hot black tea have independent potential protective effects in relation to skin SCC.

  13. Comparative study of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of black tea theaflavins and green tea catechin on murine myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Hong-Lok; Ip, Wai-Ki; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Mak, Nai-Ki; Leung, Kwok-Nam

    2004-03-01

    Among the black tea polyphenols, theaflavins are generally considered to be the more effective components for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. In this study, we attempted to compare the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of the four black tea theaflavins (TF-1, TF-2A, TF-2B and TF-3) with the major green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. All the four black tea theaflavins were shown to exert potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects on the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose-dependent manner. The observed anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects were in the following order of potency: EGCG > TF-2B > TF-3 > TF-2A > TF-1. In addition, all theaflavins were capable of inducing apoptosis in the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. Among the four theaflavins tested, TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be slightly more potent in inducing apoptosis of the WEHI-3B JCS cells than that of TF-2A and TF-1 but were comparable to the major green tea epicatechin EGCG. More interestingly, both TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be much more effective than TF-1 and TF-2B in reducing both the in vitro clonogenicity and in vivo tumorigenicity of the WEHI-3B JCS cells, suggesting that these two black tea theaflavins might represent potential candidates for the treatment of some forms of leukemia.

  14. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  15. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  16. [Antioxidant activities of green and black teas determined by the cumene hydroperoxide/hemoglobin.methylene blue method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Osamu; Ishizawa, Nobuhito; Nakano, Masaharu; Matsuto, Takayuki; Okada, Masahiko

    2003-09-01

    Antioxidant activity in tea was measured by the new cumene hydroperoxide/hemoglobin.methylene blue(CHP/Hb.MB) method developed in our laboratory. Using the CHP/Hb.MB method, we investigated the activities of polyphenols(11 varieties) in order to determine their reactivity on CHP. According to the CHP/Hb.MB method, an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups in polyphenols induced high antioxidant activity. We found that this method was capable of measuring the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Consequently, we were able to measure the antioxidant activities of heated, green, powdered and black teas by this method. The average of antioxidant activities of heated green tea was 207 nmol/ml, while that of green tea was 280 nmol/ml, powdered green tea was 481 nmol/ml and black tea was 215 nmol/ml respectively.

  17. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP.We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, Chemical Abstracts and EMBASE databases through July 2013. For inclusion, studies had to meet the following pre-defined criteria: 1 placebo controlled design in human adults, 2 minimum of 1 week black tea consumption as the sole intervention, 3 reported effects on systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP or both. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled overall effect of black tea on BP.Eleven studies (12 intervention arms, 378 subjects, dose of 4-5 cups of tea met our inclusion criteria. The pooled mean effect of regular tea ingestion was -1.8 mmHg (95% CI: -2.8, -0.7; P = 0.0013 for SBP and -1.3 mmHg (95% CI: -1.8, -0.8; P<0.0001 for DBP. In covariate analyses, we found that the method of tea preparation (tea extract powders versus leaf tea, baseline SBP and DBP, and the quality score of the study affected the effect size of the tea intervention (all P<0.05. No evidence of publication bias could be detected.Our meta-analysis indicates that regular consumption of black tea can reduce BP. Although the effect is small, such effects could be important for cardiovascular health at population level.

  18. Short-term effects of polyphenol-rich black tea on blood pressure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo; Fuchs, Dagmar; Croft, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that black tea polyphenols contribute to vascular health. We have recently shown that regular ingestion of polyphenol-rich black tea over 6 months results in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, the time course of these effects remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to determine if short-term effects of tea on blood pressure could contribute to longer-term benefits of regular tea consumption on blood pressure. Men and women (n = 111) were recruited to a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind parallel designed trial. During a 4-week run-in, all participants consumed 3 cups per day of black tea. Participants then consumed 3 cups over 1 day of either powdered black tea solids containing 429 mg of polyphenols (tea), or a control product matched in flavour and caffeine content but containing no tea solids. The 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate was measured at the end of the 4-week run-in (baseline) and again during the 24 h intervention period. The 24 h day-time and night-time blood pressures were not significantly different between tea and control (P > 0.05). Baseline-adjusted net effects on mean 24 h ambulatory blood pressure for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were -0.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.5 to 1.0), P = 0.72, and 0.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.0 to 0.9), P = 0.95, respectively. Heart rate was significantly lower for tea compared to control during the night-time and early-morning periods (-2.0 (95% CI, -3.2, -0.8) bpm, and -1.9 (95% CI, -3.7, -0.2) bpm, respectively; P black tea on blood pressure are unlikely to be due to short-term changes.

  19. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  20. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF.

  1. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greyling, A.; Ras, R.T.; Zock, P.L.; Lorenz, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Draijer, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP) have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to co

  2. The effect of black tea on blood pressure: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greyling, A.; Ras, R.T.; Zock, P.L.; Lorenz, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Draijer, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP) have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to

  3. Oolong, black and pu-erh tea suppresses adiposity in mice via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoko; Wang, Liuqing; Wang, Lihua; Tanaka, Yuki; Zhang, Tianshun; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that tea has a variety of beneficial impacts on human health, including anti-obesity effects. It is well documented that green tea and its constituent catechins suppress obesity, but the effects of other types of tea on obesity and the potential mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the suppression of adiposity by oolong, black and pu-erh tea and characterized the underlying molecular mechanism in vivo. We found that the consumption of oolong, black or pu-erh tea for a period of one week significantly decreased visceral fat without affecting body weight in male ICR mice. On a mechanistic level, the consumption of tea enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in white adipose tissue (WAT). This was accompanied by the induction of WAT protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1. Our results indicate that oolong, black and pu-erh tea, and in particular, black tea, suppresses adiposity via phosphorylation of the key metabolic regulator AMPK and increases browning of WAT.

  4. Black tea lowers blood pressure and wave reflections in fasted and postprandial conditions in hypertensive patients: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Draijer, Richard; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mulder, Theo; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-02-04

    Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP) and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids) or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period). Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (ptea consumption (pBlack tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (-3.2 mmHg, pBlack tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  5. Model system-based mechanistic studies of black tea thearubigin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Koek, Jan H; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-08-01

    Thearubigins are the most abundant pigments found in black tea, comprising polyphenolic oxidation products, whose composition and chemical nature have remained unresolved until recently. In the course of studying the mechanism of thearubigin formation from green tea flavan-3-ols, a model system, based on electrochemical oxidation of one of the main tea flavan-3-ol substrates, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was employed. Reaction intermediates and products were subsequently analysed using mass spectrometry techniques, allowing for the identification of key intermediates and products. The results provided, for the first time, spectroscopic evidence for the structures of primary oxidation products, and led to the conclusion that oxidation is mainly taking place on the B-ring and the galloyl group, where the oxidized components undergo oxidative coupling for the formation of theaflavins, theasinensins and polyhydroxylated flavan-3-ols, all precursors for thearubigin formation. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to support key findings.

  6. Efficacy of Black Tea as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent for MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Jalali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Evaluation of the use of black tea as negative oral contrast agent in MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP."nPatients and Methods: Thirty-five patients (mean age, 50.3±19.2 years, who were referred for MRCP, entered in this study. MRCP was performed before, after 5 minutes and after 15 minutes following consumption of 300 ml of black tea. Depiction of the gall bladder, cystic duct, proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD, intra hepatic ducts, ampula of Vater, main pancreatic duct (MPD and signal loss of the stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Lickert scores."nResults: Regarding visibility of seven different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree (gall bladder, cystic duct, CBD, common hepatic duct, intrahepatic duct, ampula of Vater and MPD, the post procedure images were better visualized only in the distal part of CBD, ampula of vater and MPD both in Lickert and VAS scoring (all Ps≤0.001."nThere was no significant difference between the images 5 and 15 minutes after tea consumption. Regarding the obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post tea images of the mentioned parts showed significant disappearance of high signal in Lickert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps≤0.001. "nConclusion: Black tea is an affordable, cheap, available, safe, and efficient oral negative contrast agent for MRCP which reduces the signal intensity of fluids in the gastrointestinal tract and is also efficient for better depiction of MPD, distal part of CBD and ampula.

  7. Antioxidants from black and green tea: from dietary modulation of oxidative stress to pharmacological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Serafini, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    The consumption of tea (Camellia sinensis) has been correlated with a low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, in which oxidative stress plays a critical role. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of green tea (GT) and black tea (BT). In addition to their redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as the ability to lower glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA) levels. These activities are mediated by pharmacological mechanisms such as enzymatic inhibition and interaction with transporters. Epigallocatechin gallate is the most active compound at inhibiting the enzymes involved in cholesterol and UA metabolism (hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and xanthine oxidase respectively) and affecting glucose transporters. The structural features of catechins that significantly contribute to their pharmacological effect are the presence/absence of the galloyl moiety and the number and positions of the hydroxyl groups on the rings. Although the inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, maltase, amylase and lipase, multidrug resistance 1, organic anion transporters and proton-coupled folate transport occur at higher concentrations than those apparent in the circulation, these effects could be relevant in the gut. In conclusion, despite the urgent need for further research in humans, the regular consumption of moderate quantities of GT and BT can effectively modulate their antioxidant capacity, mainly in people subjected to oxidative stress, and could improve the metabolism of glucose, lipid and UA.

  8. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, David; Zhang, Yanjun; Yang, Jieping; Ma, Janice E; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-09-01

    Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol

  9. [Effect of broken black tea on the formation of dental enamel and the contents of twelve kinds of chemical elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Yao, Zhigang; Yi, Juan; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Jie; Yuan, Huabing

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of broken black tea with slightly hyper-normal fluoride content which was near the level of people tea-drinking habits on enamel morphological structure and its content of chemical elements. Thirty six rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: one was control group and another two groups fed with broken black tea infusion with F- content of 8.2 mg/l and 16.4 mg/l, respectively. After 360 days, collected 144 teeth, observed their morphological structure by electron micrograph, Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and also analyzed concentrations of several chemical elements in tooth by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Chronic dental fluorosis in rats was induced by treatment with broken black tea with slightly hyper-normal fluoride content. Hyper-calcification and hypo-calcification appeared in enamel of those teeth from both broken black tea treated groups in dose-dependent manner. Twelve kinds of chemical elements, such as Ca, Mg, P, Al, Cl were examined. The contents of Ca, P, Mg were reduced and that of Al and Cl were increased significantly. Compared with control group, the levels of Si, S, Fe were lower in those teeth from treated group (broken black tea with the F- content of 8.2 mg/l), while higher in those teeth from treated group (broken black tea with the F- content of 16.4 mg/l). Long-term drinking broken black tea with hyper-normal fluoride content could cause chronic dental fluorosis, and its injury in enamel was related with Hyper-calcification and hypo-calcification mainly. Those changes of several chemical elements level in enamel, such as Ca, P, Al, Cl, were suggested that these chemical elements have influences on the development and mineralization of enamel.

  10. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice var...

  11. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Although the inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of diabetes has been reported numerous times, the role of caffeine intake in this association has remained unclear. We evaluated the consumption of coffee and other beverages and food containing caffeine in relation to the incidence of diabetes. The study participants were 5897 men and 7643 women in a community-based cohort in Takayama, Japan. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea and chocolate snacks were measured with a semi-quantitative FFQ in 1992. At the follow-up survey in 2002, the development of diabetes and the time of diagnosis were reported. To assess the association, age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, education in years, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, fat intake and women's menopausal status were adjusted. Among men who consumed one cup per month to six cups per week and among those who consumed one cup per d or more, the associated hazard ratios were 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.97) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.98) compared with those who drank little to no coffee, with a P value for trend of 0.32. The hazard ratios for women with the same coffee consumption patterns were 1.08 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.60) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.44, 1.12), with a P value for trend of 0.03. The association between estimated total caffeine intake and risk of diabetes was insignificant both among men and among women. The results imply that coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake.

  12. The Latest Advance in the Research of Black Tea in China%我国红茶最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 龚淑英; 李淦成; 张俊; 解静

    2012-01-01

    Quality formation of black tea is closely related to tea varieties,the ecological environment in tea garden and tea processing technology.The latest research progress of domestic black tea is elaborated and the black tea development is also prospected,which could provide theoretical basis for production of black tea.%红茶品质的形成与茶树品种原料、茶园生态环境和茶叶加工工艺等紧密相关。本文阐述了国内红茶最新研究进展,并对红茶发展前景进行了展望,为红茶生产提供理论依据。

  13. Resveratrol and Black Tea Polyphenol Combination Synergistically Suppress Mouse Skin Tumors Growth by Inhibition of Activated MAPKs and p53: e23395

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jasmine George; Madhulika Singh; Amit Kumar Srivastava; Kulpreet Bhui; Preeti Roy; Pranav Kumar Chaturvedi; Yogeshwer Shukla

    2011-01-01

    ...; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP...

  14. Correlation between catechin content and NF-κB inhibition by infusions of green and black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dos Santos, Ariana; Uberti, Francesca; Moro, Enzo; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates whether infusions of green and black tea inhibit the NF-κB driven transcription in human epithelial gastric AGS cells. Water extracts were prepared from different brands of green and black tea available on the Italian market. Teas with or without caffeine were studied. An industrially prepared freeze-dried water extract of green tea was also tested. Catechin and caffeine contents were measured by HPLC analysis. The decrease in phenol and catechin content three months after the expiry date was also investigated. The NF-κB driven transcription and the free radical scavenger activity were inhibited, and this effect was related to catechin levels. The potency of epigallocatechin 3-gallate in inhibiting NF-κB driven transcription is so great that tea extracts low in epigallocatechin 3-gallate are still highly active. In one decaffeinated sample of green tea, the phenol and catechin content was very low, probably as a consequence of caffeine removal. The decrease in catechin levels after 3 months did not reduce the inhibition of NF-κB driven transcription by tea infusions. This is the first paper reporting the inhibitory effect of NF-κB of commercial green and black infusions at the gastric level, evaluating their stability as well.

  15. Synergistic effect of black tea and curcumin in improving the hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A; Mona, Mohamed H; Shati, Ali A; El-Mekkawy, Haitham I

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found as a contaminant in human food. It is carcinogenic due its potential in inducing the oxidative stress and distortion of the most antioxidant enzymes. Since black tea possesses strong antioxidant activity, it protects cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Curcumin (CMN), a naturally occurring agent, has a combination of biological and pharmacological properties that include antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the possible role of separate and mixed supplementation of black tea extract and CMN in the hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 in rats. A total of 48: adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups with six rats in each group. Group 1 (normal control) includes rats that received no treatment. Groups 2, 3, and 4 (positive control) include rats that received olive oil, black tea extract, and CMN, respectively. Group 5 includes rats that received AFB1 at a dose of 750 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) dissolved in olive oil. Groups 6, 7, and 8 include rats that received AFB1 along with 2% black tea extract, CMN at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., and both black tea extract and CMN at the same previous doses, respectively. After 90 days, biochemical and histopathological examination was carried out for the blood samples and liver tissues. A significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes and a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide in the rats treated with AFB1 were observed. Moreover, there were dramatic changes in the liver function biomarkers, lipid profile, and liver architecture. Supplementation of black tea extract or CMN showed an efficient role in repairing the distortion of the biochemical and histological changes induced by AFB1 in liver. This improvement was more pronounced when both CMN and black tea were used together.

  16. Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Huang, Tao; Huang, Yu-Jing; Li, Duo

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies regarding the associations of tea and coffee consumption with esophageal cancer (EC) risk are still inconsistent and this meta-analysis was conducted to examine these associations. PubMed, ISI -Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese VIP database up to October 2011 were searched and manual search for reference lists of relevant studies were conducted. Random effects model was used to pool the odds ratios (OR). Twenty-four case-control and cohort studies with 7376 EC cases were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR of EC was 0.77 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.57, 1.04] for highest vs. non/lowest green tea consumption; but it was statistically significant for case-control studies (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96) and for studies conducted in China (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.95). No significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption against EC risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.86, 2.11). A borderline significantly inverse association of highest vs. non/lowest coffee consumption against EC risk was found (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.01). In conclusion, our data showed that both green tea and coffee consumption, but not black tea consumption, have protective effects on EC.

  17. Effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of the studies that have investigated the effects of black tea on blood cholesterol are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the effects of black tea on cholesterol concentrations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library (through to July 2014 were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to investigate the effect of black tea on blood cholesterol concentrations. The study quality was assessed by the Jadad scoring criteria. Pooled effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol concentrations was evaluated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate dose effects of black tea polyphenols on concentrations of blood cholesterol. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the potential source of heterogeneity. RESULTS: The consumption of black tea did not significantly lower TC concentrations either in healthy subjects or patients with coronary artery diseases based on both fixed-effects and random-effects analysis. No significant change was observed in HDL-C concentrations in healthy participants or in subjects with coronary artery disease supplemented with black tea when compared with control participants. The pooled net change of LDL-C in healthy participants was -5.57 mg/dL (95% CI, -9.49 to -1.66 mg/dL; P = 0.005 in fixed-effects analysis and -4.56 (95% CI, -10.30 to 1.17 mg/dL; P = 0.12 in random-effects analysis. No significant net change was observed in LDL-C concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease. Subgroup and sensitivity did not significantly influence the overall outcomes of this meta-analysis. No significant dose effects of black tea polyphenols on blood cholesterol concentrations were detected in meta-regression analyses. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis suggests that the consumption of black tea might not have beneficial effects on concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and

  18. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by black tea theaflavins: Comparative enzymology and in silico modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisan, Shannon L; Grove, Kimberly A; Yennawar, Neela H; Lambert, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) theaflavins on obesity-related targets. Pancreatic lipase (PL) plays a central role in fat metabolism and is a validated target for weight loss. We compared the inhibitory efficacy of individual theaflavins and explored the underlying mechanism. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFdiG), theaflavin-3'-gallate, theaflavin-3-gallate, and theaflavin inhibited PL with IC50 of 1.9, 4.2, 3.0, and >10μmol/L. The presence and location of the galloyl ester moiety were essential for inhibitory potency. TFdiG exhibited mixed inhibition with respect to substrate concentration. In silico modeling showed that theaflavins bind to Asn263 and Asp206, which form a pocket adjacent to the active site, and galloyl-containing theaflavins are then predicted to perturb the protonation of His264. These data provide a putative mechanism to explain the anti-obesity effects of tea.

  19. 论安化黑茶的绿色包装%Talk about the Green Packaging of Anhua Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞野营

    2011-01-01

    通过对绿色包装的内涵及原则的论述,结合安化黑茶包装材料的发展现状,分析了绿色包装材料在安化黑茶包装设计中的重要性。在此基础上,进一步提出了安化黑茶包装材料基于地域资源、地域文化之上的绿色发展方向,提高了安化黑茶包装与社会、自然相互协调、共生互补的境界,确保绿色设计思想在黑茶包装中的可行性。%Through discussion of the connotation and principle of green packaging, combined with the development situation of Anhua black tea packaging materials, it analyzed the importance of green packaging materials in packaging design of Anhua black tea. Based on this, it further proposed the green development orientation of packaging materials of Anhua black tea based on region resources and culture. Finally, it enhanced the anhua black tea packaging to achieve sustainable development with the society and nature, which guaranteed the feasibility of green design ideas in the black tea packaging.

  20. Health potential for functional green teas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the developed and developing world. Many "functional" foods and ingredients are advocated for their effects on body composition but few have consistent scientific support for their efficacy. However, an increasing amount of mechanistic and clinical evidence is building for green tea. The tea plant is naturally rich in a group of antioxidants known as catechins. Unlike black tea, green tea production involves little processing and fermentation and therefore, green tea brews are rich in catechins. Green tea has been suggested to have a number of potential health benefits in areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, glucose homeostasis and dental health. Although there is some promising evidence in all of these areas, more data from human intervention trials are needed. A lot of attention has lately been focused on the beneficial effects of green tea on body composition and particularly visceral fat, which has been shown to have a strong link with different components of the metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Most, but not all, of the positive results come from a number Asian studies, in which overweight subjects (men and women) consumed green tea for approximately 12 weeks. Finally, green tea may also have measurable acute effects on energy metabolism and fat oxidation and in particular during physical activity, as evidenced by other studies specifically looking at these endpoints. Small cumulative effects on energy metabolism could also be responsible for the longer-tem effects of green tea on body composition, and these long-term effects may also be most apparent in the context of moderate physical activity. However, more research is needed to further clarify the exact mechanisms of action and to extrapolate these findings to non-Asian populations.

  1. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  2. Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.

  3. 红茶品质化学的研究进展%Research Progresses on Quality and Chemical Components of Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盛美; 李晓霞; 夏丽飞; 陈玫; 唐一春

    2013-01-01

    红茶是世界生产和消费的主要茶类,红茶的品质与化学成分紧密相关.综述了国内外红茶品质化学的研究进展,并对今后红茶品质化学研究进行了展望.%Black tea is the principal tea product in the world' s tea production and consumption, the quality of black tea is closely related to its chemical compositions. The research achievements on quality and chemical composition of black tea were reviewed. The research emphases for quality and chemical composition of black tea in the future were forecasted.

  4. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  5. Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Intracellular Cytokines, Regulatory T Cells and Metabolic Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Dashti, Ali

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of black tea intake on inflammatory cytokines and metabolic biomarkers in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty patients with T2DM were randomly assigned either to a High Intake (HI) group, consuming three cups (600 mL) of black tea per day; and a Low Intake (LI) group, administered 1 cup (200 mL) per day, each during a 12-week period. Intracellular cytokine expression, regulatory T cells (Treg), glycemic and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and following the tea intake period. Tea consumption correlated with major effects measured in peripheral blood of subjects that included significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, along with increased regulatory T cells CD3+ CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3, CD3+ CD4+ IL-10+ cells (an immunosuppressive phenotype), reduced (pro-inflammatory) CD3+ CD4+ IL-17+ cells and reduced Th1-associated CD3+ CD4+ IFN-Υ+ cells. Tea consumption was also observed to abolish the significance of an inverse correlation between total serum cholesterol and representation of CD4+ IL-4+ T cells, which may reflect protection against atopy-related oxidative stress. Outcomes of this study describe both advantages and limitations to consumption of black tea as an aid to sustained health maintenance by persons at-risk for TD2M and related obesity-associated metabolic syndromes.

  6. Study of the protection of polysaccharide and polyphenols of black tea,green tea and Oolong tea on DNA%红茶、绿茶和乌龙茶多糖及多酚对DNA的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金娥; 张海容

    2011-01-01

    The protection action of tea polysaccharide and polyphenols on DNA are investigated using EB as a fluorescent probe in the work. The fluoresence integral intensity of DNA and EB mixture are determined in the presence of polysaccharide and polyphenols in extracts of 8 Chinese teas, such as Longjing tea, Puer tea and Oolong tea etc. D is defined as the interaction constant of different teas with DNA. According to the size of D, the impaction of protection action of tea polysaccharide and polyphenols on DNA was discussed. The result shown that the 8 kinds of teas can interact with DNA,but the degree of interaction is different.The bigger the D was,the stronger the interaction of teas and DNA was. The order of protection action of tae polysaccharide was Qimen black tea > Green tea (An-hui) > Puer tea > Oolong tea > Black tea of Fujian Zhenghe > Shouning green tea > Xinyang needle tea > Longjing tea.The order of protection action of tea polyphenols was Qimen black tea > Black tea of Fujian Zhenghe > Shouning green tea > Longjing tea > Oolong tea > Green tea ( Anhui) > Xinyang needle tea > Puer tea.%用溴化乙锭(EB)作为荧光探针研究了各种茶叶多糖、多酚类化合物对DNA的保护作用.测定了龙井、普耳茶、乌龙茶等8种茶叶中多糖和多酚类提取物存在下DNA与EB混合液的荧光积分强度,并把不同茶叶与DNA相互作用的常数定义为结合常数D,根据D的大小讨论了多糖及多酚类化合物的存在DNA保护作用的影响.结果表明,8种茶叶与DNA有较好的作用,但作用程度不同.D值越大,茶叶对DNA的保护作用越好.多糖保护作用顺序如下:祁门红茶>绿茶(安徽)>普尔茶>乌龙茶>福建政和红茶>寿宁绿茶>信阳毛尖>龙井;多酚保护作用顺序如下:祁门红茶>福建政和红茶>寿宁绿茶>龙井>乌龙茶>绿茶(安徽)>信阳毛尖>普尔茶.

  7. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, Mousumi [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Central Calcutta Polytechnic, Kolkata 700014 (India); Tudu, Bipan, E-mail: bt@iee.jusl.ac.in [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nabarun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Jana, Arun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chatterjee, Anutosh [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700107 (India)

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  8. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Black Tea-Derived Catechins and Theaflavins in Tissues of Tea Consuming Animals Using Ultra-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Souradipta; G., Taposh Kumar; Mantha, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of the major tea polyphenols, catechins and theaflavins as well as their gallated derivatives are yet to be precisely elucidated on a single identification platform for assessment of their relative bioefficacy in vivo. This is primarily due to the lack of suitable analytical tools for their simultaneous determination especially in an in vivo setting, which continues to constrain the evaluation of their relative health beneficiary potential and therefore prospective therapeutic application. Herein, we report a rapid and sensitive Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the simultaneous determination of the major catechins and theaflavins in black tea infusions as well as in different vital tissues and body fluids of tea-consuming guinea pigs. This method allowed efficient separation of all polyphenols within seven minutes of chromatographic run and had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of ~5 ng/ml. Using this method, almost all bioactive catechins and theaflavins could be simultaneously detected in the plasma of guinea pigs orally administered 5% black tea for 14 days. Our method could further detect the majority of these polyphenols in the lung and kidney as well as identify the major catechin metabolites in the urine of the tea-consuming animals. Overall, our study presents a novel tool for simultaneous detection and quantitation of both catechins and theaflavins in a single detection platform that could potentially enable precise elucidation of their relative bioavailability and bioefficacy as well as true health beneficiary potential in vivo. Such information would ultimately facilitate the accurate designing of therapeutic strategies utilizing high efficacy formulations of tea polyphenols for effective mitigation of oxidative damage and inflammation in humans as well as prevention of associated diseases. PMID:27695123

  10. Construction Technology of Ecological Tea Plantation in Mindong Black-green Tea Area%闽东红绿茶产区生态茶园建设技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨如兴; 张磊; 陈芝芝; 吴志丹

    2014-01-01

    阐述了闽东生态茶园建设措施和目标,总结出适合闽东红绿茶生产的新垦茶园、茶林嵌合型和纯茶种植老茶园生态建设技术。%In this paper, construction measures and objectives of ecological tea plantation in Mindong area were elaborated, and thus construction technology of ecological tea plantation was suggested for the newly-reclaimed young tea plantation, mosaic type plantation of tea and woods, and ageing single-tea plantation, to be proper for the production of black tea and green tea in Mindong area.

  11. The Design and Implementation of Black Tea Traceability System Based on UHF RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caijin; LING; Jinxin; LIU; Jiayao; WU; Qiushuang; WANG; Shumei; LIU; Haiqiang; CHEN; Chaoyi; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the whole process of consumer- producer bidirectional traceability and distinguish the true from the false,according to Yinghong 9,planting,processing and circulation situation,we introduce UHF RFID and Network information technology,to design and develop the UHF RFID black tea traceability system.The system adopts.NET technology,uses Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 + VB.NET,Microsoft SQL SERVER 2005,T-SQL language for development and design,and uses the network architecture of C /S combined with B /S,to randomly generate ID with 20 bit code and label,thereby forming the only corresponding relation and pointing to the corresponding batch and product types.The technology mode using three-layer structure for development realizes the functions of data collection,tracing,sharing and query.The data and business processing are concentrated on the server,simplifying the development,use and maintenance of system.We build and implement Yinghong 9 black tea traceability system,to the needs of government,the public and the producers for Yinghong 9 brand protection,product quality tracking and market regulation.

  12. Research and development of black tea-jujube wine%红茶红枣复合酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁昕; 胡长玉; 汪春霞

    2011-01-01

    The production processing of black tea-jujube wine was studied. The extraction technology of black tea and fermentation conditions were further investigated. The optimal fermentation conditions were obtained. In details, the extraction steps of black tea were firstly extracted in cold water for 30min and then in 90℃ hot water. The jujube juice should be soften firstly and then treated by 0.02% pectinase before filtration. The black tea juice and jujube juice were mixed and fermented at 25℃ for 8d~10d, followed by aging for 3months. The complex tea wine was clear and brilliant with a pure, elegant and soft taste and a deliciously lingering finish. It is a nutritional and healthy complex tea wine.%研究了以红茶、红枣为原料进行发酵酿得保健酒的生产工艺流程,并对生产工艺中红茶的浸提和发酵工艺条件进行了深入研究.实验得出最佳发酵工艺条件为:茶叶先用冷水浸提30min后,用90℃热水恒温浸提,红枣原汁软化后,用0.02%的果胶酶处理过滤,然后将红茶汁与红枣汁混合后于25℃恒温发酵8d~10d,陈酿3个月,最后酿制的复合茶酒色泽晶莹透亮,香味纯净优雅、口感柔和,回味绵长,是一种营养丰富、有多种保健功效的复合茶酒.

  13. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti-hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.

  14. Rapid and sustained systemic circulation of conjugated gut microbiol catabolites after single-dose black tea extract consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Foltz, M.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbial catabolites of black tea polyphenols (BTPs) have been proposed to exert beneficial cardiovascular bioactivity. This hypothesis is difficult to verify because the conjugation patterns and pharmacokinetics of these catabolites are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to identi

  15. Association between consumption of black tea and iron status in adult Africans in the North West Province: The THUSA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Jerling, J.C.; Hoekstra, T.; Boonstra, A.; MacIntyre, U.E.

    2008-01-01

    The association between black tea consumption and iron status was investigated in a sample of African adults participating in the cross-sectional THUSA (Transition and Health during Urbanization of South Africans) study in the North West Province, South Africa. Data were analysed from 1605 apparentl

  16. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: a diet-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Rasa; Hayes, Jennifer H; Raatz, Susan K; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Khaliq, Waseem; Jacobs, David R; Key, Nigel S; Morawski, Bozena M; Kaiser, Daniel; Bank, Alan J; Gross, Myron

    2015-02-01

    Habitual intake of black tea has been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trial results evaluating the effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have been inconsistent. Several factors could explain these mixed results, in particular, uncontrolled confounding caused by lifestyle factors (eg, diet). This diet-controlled clinical trial estimates the effect of black tea flavonoid consumption on cholesterol concentrations in 57 borderline hypercholesterolemic individuals (total cholesterol concentrations between 190 and 260 mg/dL [4.9 and 6.7 mmol/L]). A double-blind, randomized crossover trial was conducted in Minneapolis, MN, from April 2002 through April 2004 in which key conditions were tightly controlled to minimize possible confounding. Participants consumed a controlled low-flavonoid diet plus 5 cups per day of black tea or tea-like placebo during two 4-week treatment periods. The flavonoid-free caffeinated placebo matched the tea in color and taste. Differences in cholesterol concentrations at the end of each treatment period were evaluated via linear mixed models. Differences among those treated with tea vs placebo were 3.43 mg/dL (0.09 mmol/L) (95% CI -7.08 to 13.94) for total cholesterol, -1.02 mg/dL (-0.03 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.34 to 9.30) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.58 mg/dL (0.02 mmol/L) (95% CI -2.98 to 4.14) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 15.22 mg/dL (0.17 mmol/L) (95% CI -40.91 to 71.35) for triglycerides, and -0.39 mg/dL (-0.01 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.16 to 10.38) for low-density lipoprotein plus high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by -0.1 units (95% CI -0.41 to 0.21). No results were statistically or clinically significant. The intake of 5 cups of black tea per day did not alter the lipid profile of borderline hypercholesterolemic subjects

  17. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown were made and tested in vitro (concentration: 300 µg/disc against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 (S. aureus and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778 (B. cereus, and two Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 (E. coli, using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10 µg/disc was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted against S. aureus and B. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further low MIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 > BOPF > OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, and OP pocess in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteria P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  19. Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebouyeh, Farzaneh; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Ziarati, Parisa; Heshmati, Masoomeh; Qomi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (≤ 1-1.6) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.

  20. Identification of novel homologous series of polyhydroxylated theasinensins and theanaphthoquinones in the SII fraction of black tea thearubigins using ESI/HPLC tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Koek, Jan H; Jayaraman, Sujatha; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-10-01

    Thearubigins are the most abundant phenolic pigments found in black tea, produced by enzymatic oxidation of green tea flavan-3-ols in tea fermentation of until recently unknown composition. In this study electrospray ionization tandem LC-MS(n) experiments have been applied for the characterization of crude thearubigins isolated from black tea not exceeding 1000 Da. The aim of this study is to confirm the oxidative cascade hypothesis of tea fermentation. The data revealed the presence of two novel classes of compounds in thearubigin fractions. The first class of compounds revealed the presence of polyhydroxylated dimers of the theanaphthaquinone and theasinensin C structures, which were consistent with the polyhydroxylation hypothesis previously formulated. Furthermore, new classes of peroxo-/epoxy- compounds in the series of theasinensin A were identified, thus indicating the presence of H2O2 and its important contribution as a nucleophile in the tea fermentation process.

  1. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink.

  2. Batch fermentation of black tea by kombucha: A contribution to scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local domestic Kombucha was used in fermentation of 1.5 g L-1 of black tea (Indian tea, " Vitamin ", Horgoš, Serbia and Montenegro, sweetened with approximately 70 g L'1 of sucrose. Inoculation was performed either with 10% or 15% (v/v of fermentation broth from previous process. The fermentation was conducted in geometrically similar vessels with 0.4 L, 0.8 L, 4 L and 8 L of substrate, at 22±1 °C for 28 days. The samples were analyzed after 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days, so that their pH values, content of total acids sucrose, glucose and fructose contents, as well as contents of ethanol and vitamin C were determined. Based on the experiment design, the response surface for the product pH, as a function of time, beverage volume and inoculum concentration, was defined in the form of a second-order polynomial. From the obtained response surface, a formula for scaling-up of the process was derived.

  3. Extraction of polyphenols from black tea--conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Simon; Chemat, Farid; Strube, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Products from plant raw materials gain increasing importance in food-, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. By way of contrast, due to lack of detailed physico-chemical fundamentals, existing production processes are economically not optimal designed. This leads to a need for deeper understanding of the processes and furthermore a systematic process and equipment design for the potentially applicable extraction techniques. Using the example of polyphenol extraction from black tea (Kenya), the conventional and ultrasound assisted extractions are investigated. Here, the state of the art as well as a comparison between the two techniques is in focus. Especially, resulting quasi-equilibria and mass transport kinetics serves as a criteria. The physico-chemical background is discussed taking particle size distributions and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements into account. Conclusively, process alternatives are projected and discussed. Hence, the present study makes influences of ultrasound technique on physico-chemical characteristics during extraction a subject of discussion.

  4. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection.

  5. The inhibition of the mammalian DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a by dietary black tea and coffee polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeltsch Albert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea is, second only to water, the most consumed beverage globally. Previously, the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 was shown by dietary polyphenols and epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, and 5-caffeoyl quinic acid, the main phenolic constituent of the green coffee bean. Results We studied the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3a by a series of dietary polyphenols from black tea such as theaflavins and thearubigins and chlorogenic acid derivatives from coffee. For theaflavin 3,3 digallate and thearubigins IC50 values in the lower micro molar range were observed, which when compared to pharmacokinetic data available, suggest an effect of physiological relevance. Conclusions Since Dnnmt3a has been associated with development, cancer and brain function, these data suggest a biochemical mechanism for the beneficial health effect of black tea and coffee and a possible molecular mechanism for the improvement of brain performance and mental health by dietary polyphenols.

  6. Preparation of a Black Tea Jelly%红茶果冻的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志铭; 汤兴福; 吴云辉; 简文杰

    2011-01-01

    In this research, konjac powder, carrageenan and black tea powder were used as main raw materials to produce a new black tea jelly by the orthogonal experiment method The results indicated that, the best ratio of carrageenan to konjac glue, the total dosages of the mixture of carrageenan and konjac glue, sugar, black tea powder and citric acid were 7:3, 0.8%, 14%, 0.2% and 0.12%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the hazel jelly can be prepared after water bath for 15 minutes. It tasted mild and crisp, with rich tea aroma.%本文以魔芋粉、卡拉胶、红茶粉为主要原料,采用正交试验方法探讨红茶果冻的最佳制作工艺.实验结果表明:卡拉胶和魔芋胶两者的配比为7∶3,总胶粉的添加量为0.8%,白砂糖添加量为14%,红茶粉添加量为0.2%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.12%,水浴15min得到浅褐色果冻,口感软滑爽脆,酸甜可口,且具有浓郁茶香味.

  7. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang

    2015-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  8. Black Tea Processing Technology%红茶加工工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康孟利; 凌建刚; 林旭东; 俞静芬; 陈曙颖; 葛能培

    2015-01-01

    以宁波中小叶红茶叶为试材,研究揉捻、发酵对中小叶红茶品质的影响研究。结果显示,随着揉捻时间的延长,从轻揉5 min—重揉5 min—轻揉5 min至轻揉10 min—重揉10 min—轻揉10 min ,条形紧缩,红汤加深;发酵时间越长,由发酵2~4 h,颜色加深,以发酵6 h为佳。总体评价,轻揉10 min—重揉10 min—轻揉10 min,发酵4h为最佳工艺,含水量差异不显著。%Taking Ningbo small leaf black tea as raw material, studied the kneading and rolling effect on quality of black tea. Results show that as the rolling time longer, lighter knead knead 5 min—5 min—knead gently massage for 5 min to 10 min—heavy knead gently knead 10 min—10 min, bar austerity, deep red soup; The longer the fermentation time, 2~4 h by fermentation, color deepened, for 6 h fermentation is preferred. Overall evaluation, massage for 10 min—heavy knead gently knead 10 min—10 min, 4 h as the best fermentation process, the water content of significant difference.

  9. Formation of enriched black tea extract loaded chitosan nanoparticles via electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Samuel James

    Creating nanoparticles of beneficial nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals has had a large surge of research due to the enhancement of absorption and bioavailability by decreasing their size. One of these ways is by electrohydrodynamic atomization, also known as electrospraying. In general, this novel process is done by forcing a liquid through a capillary nozzle and which is subjected to an electrical field. While there are different ways to create nanoparticles, the novel method of electrospraying can be beneficial over other types of nanoparticle formation. Reasons include high control over particle size and distribution by altering electrospray parameters (voltage, flow rate, distance, and time), higher encapsulation efficiency than other methods, and also it is a one step process without exposure to extreme conditions (Gomez-Estaca et. al. 2012, Jaworek and Sobcyzk 2008). The current study aimed to create a chitosan encapsulated theaflavin-2 enriched black tea extract (BTE) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The first step of this process was to create the smallest chitosan nanoparticles possible by altering the electrospray parameters and the chitosan-acetic acid solution parameters. The solution properties altered include chitosan molecular weight, acetic acid concentration, and chitosan concentration. Specifically, the electrospray parameters such as voltage, flow rate and distance from syringe to collector are the most important in determining particle size. After creating the smallest chitosan particles, the TF-2 enriched black tea extract was added to the chitosan-acetic acid solution to be electrosprayed. The particles were assessed with the following procedures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology and size, and loading efficiency with ultraviolet--visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). Chitosan-BTE nanoparticles were successfully created in a one step process. Diameter of the particles on average

  10. Simultaneous determination of catechins, caffeine and gallic acids in green, Oolong, black and pu-erh teas using HPLC with a photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yuegang; Chen, Hao; Deng, Yiwei

    2002-05-16

    A simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector was developed for simultaneous determination of four major catechins, gallic acid and caffeine. After multiple extractions with aqueous methanol and acidic methanol solutions, tea extract was separated within 20 min using a methanol-acetate-water buffer gradient elution system on a C(18) column. The sample extraction data demonstrated that the single extraction used in the previous studies with aqueous acetonitrile or methanol is not sufficient; the multiple extraction procedure is essential for the quantitative analysis of catechins, phenolic acids and caffeine in teas. Several green, Oolong, black and pu-erh teas were successfully analyzed by this method. The analytical results obtained indicated that green teas contain higher content of catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin] than both Oolong, pu-erh and black teas because fermentation process during the tea manufacturing reduced the levels of catechins significantly. The fermentation process also remarkably elevated the levels of gallic acid in full-fermented pu-erh and black teas. Another interesting finding is the low level of caffeine in Oolong teas, especially in Fujian Oolong tea.

  11. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  12. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2 Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3 Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006 and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p < 0.0001. Tea further increased FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge decreased FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest.

  13. The mycoflora of tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Halweg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger was most often isolated from 3 various black lea species dust obtained from packer factory. 10 species of black tea packaged in Poland and 28 various species of black tea and one species of green tea packed abroad. Other fungi were seen lees frequently. It seems that A. niger spores alone or with tea dust may induce various respiratory disorders in tea packers. Serum antibodies to antigens of A. niger and tea extracts imply that both may be important etiological factors.

  14. Black Tea Extract and Its Theaflavin Derivatives Inhibit the Growth of Periodontopathogens and Modulate Interleukin-8 and β-Defensin Secretion in Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo Bedran, Telma Blanca; Morin, Marie-Pierre; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, several studies have brought evidence suggesting that tea polyphenols, mostly from green tea, may have oral health benefits. Since few data are available concerning the beneficial properties of black tea and its theaflavin derivatives against periodontal disease, the objective of this study was to investigate their antibacterial activity as well as their ability to modulate interleukin-8 and human β-defensin (hBD) secretion in oral epithelial cells. Among the periodontopathogenic bacteria tested, Porphyromonas gingivalis was found to be highly susceptible to the black tea extract and theaflavins. Moreover, our data indicated that the black tea extract, theaflavin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate can potentiate the antibacterial effect of metronidazole and tetracycline against P. gingivalis. Using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells, the black tea extract (100 μg/ml), as well as theaflavin and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (50 μg/ml) reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by 85%, 79%, and 86%, respectively, thus suggesting an anti-inflammatory property. The ability of the black tea extract and its theaflavin derivatives to induce the secretion of the antimicrobial peptides hBD-1, hBD-2 and hBD-4 by oral epithelial cells was then evaluated. Our results showed that the black tea extract as well as theaflavin-3,3'-digallate were able to increase the secretion of the three hBDs. In conclusion, the ability of a black tea extract and theaflavins to exert antibacterial activity against major periodontopathogens, to attenuate the secretion of IL-8, and to induce hBD secretion in oral epithelial cells suggest that these components may have a beneficial effect against periodontal disease.

  15. 中国红茶产销现状与发展前景%Production and Marketing Status and Development Prospects of Black Tea in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江用文; 张建勇; 江和源; 叶阳; 袁海波

    2012-01-01

    回顾了我国和世界其它国家红茶产销情况,分析了我国红茶产销的优劣势,并对我国红茶产业发展前景予以展望,提出了我国红茶产业的发展对策。%The production and marketing of black tea in world and China were reviewed. The production and marketing status and the advantage and deficiency of black tea in China were analyzed. The development prospect of black tea industry in China was looked forward, and the development countermeasures of black tea industry in China were put forward.

  16. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  17. Research on Fermented Black Tea Beverage Processing Technology%发酵型红茶饮料加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫刚; 熊昌云

    2014-01-01

    以云南CTC红茶为主要原料,经乳酸菌、酵母菌共生发酵,研究发酵型红茶饮料的加工工艺。%Taking Yunnan CTC black tea as the main raw material, after symbiotic fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, this paper studied the fermented black tea beverage process.

  18. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, F.; E. Khanlary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive ...

  19. Effects of γ-radiation on microbial load and antioxidant proprieties in black tea irradiated with different water activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, G. B.; Hassimotto, N. M. A.; Bastos, D. H. M.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of gamma radiation on black tea irradiated with different water activities. The black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (0.92, 0.65, and 0.18) and were irradiated in 60Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The methods used were: microbiology, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC, and quantification of the main antioxidants. It was observed that the greater the amount of free water present in the samples, lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. Regardless the water activity used, there was no difference in content of the phenolic compounds and at the mainly theaflavins, as well in the antioxidant activity at doses up to 5.0 kGy.

  20. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nora; Bezzina, Rebecca; Hinch, Edward; Lewandowski, Paul A; Cameron-Smith, David; Mathai, Michael L; Jois, Markandeya; Sinclair, Andrew J; Begg, Denovan P; Wark, John D; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of how tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) lower body fat are not completely understood. This study investigated long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was hypothesized that all treatments would improve the indicators of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 6 months from 4 weeks of age and were supplied GT, BT, EGCG, or water. GT and BT reduced body fat, whereas GT and EGCG increased lean mass. At 16 weeks GT, BT, and EGCG improved glucose tolerance. In the liver, GT and BT increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, MCD, ACC) and oxidation (PPAR-alpha, CPT-1, ACO); however, EGCG had no effect. In perirenal fat, genes that mediate adipocyte differentiation were suppressed by GT (Pref-1, C/EBP-beta, and PPAR-gamma) and BT (C/EBP-beta), while decreasing LPL, HSL, and UCP-2 expression; EGCG increased expression of UCP-2 and PPAR-gamma genes. Liver triacylglycerol content was unchanged. The results suggest that GT and BT suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid uptake into adipose tissue, while increasing fat synthesis and oxidation by the liver, without inducing hepatic fat accumulation. In contrast, EGCG increased markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissue, while having no effect on liver or muscle tissues at this dose. These results show novel and separate mechanisms by which tea and EGCG may improve glucose tolerance and support a role for these compounds in obesity prevention.

  1. 遂昌细嫩红茶加工技术%Processing Technology of Suichang Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伟忠

    2015-01-01

    Suichang tea industry is one of the pillar industries of agriculture in Lishui, which makes it one of the eight major Mee Tea export counties in the country. The development of Black Tea processing technology can optimize the tea area structure, improve the market competitiveness of tea products and increase the economic benefits of tea production. The main processing technology of Suichang Black Tea was withering-rolling-fermentation-drying-fragrance treatment. After hot air withering for 8~12 h in the withering trough tunnels with the temperature of 33~34 ℃, the leaves were rolled in order of light-heavy-light for about 2~4 h. Fermentation was in a basket for 2.5~3 h, turning once. Then the leaves were dried with hot air ( 110~120 ℃) for 1.5 h. At last, dried with the temperature 80~90 ℃ for 8~9 h as a fragrance treatment. The final product should be curl, black bloom, highly flavored, orange red liquid color with soft, fine and tender securinega.%遂昌是全国八大眉茶出口县之一,茶产业是丽水的农业支柱产业之一. 细嫩红茶加工技术的研制是优化地区茶类结构,提高茶产品市场竞争力的有效手段,有助于提高茶叶生产的经济效益. 其主要工艺技术为萎凋,把鲜叶放在热风萎凋槽,33~34 ℃热鼓风萎凋8~12 h;揉捻,掌握轻重轻原则,切勿重压,时间控制在2~4 h;发酵,发酵篮发酵2.5~3 h,中间翻动一次;毛火干燥,热风温度110~120 ℃,时间1.5 h;提香,80~90 ℃慢烘8~9h. 制得细嫩红茶紧细乌润、香高味醇,回甘持久,汤色橙红明亮、叶底细而柔软.

  2. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuki; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Takemasa, Tohru; Numata, Osamu

    2017-03-29

    Mitochondria activation factor (MAF) is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample "E80" from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  3. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Aoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria activation factor (MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample “E80” from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  4. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period.

  5. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate in Tea (Camellia Sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Pan

    Full Text Available Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  6. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  7. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya; Sachitra Gayanthi Ratnasooriya; Ranga Dissanayake

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP), broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF) and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown) were made and testedin vitro (concentration: 300µg/disc) against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria,Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC25923) (S. aureus) andBacillus cereus (ATCC11778) (B. cereus), and two Gram-negative bacteriaPseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC9027) (P. aeruginosa) andEscherichia coli (ATCC35218) (E. coli), using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10µg/disc) was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action againstP. aeruginosa andE. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted againstS. aureus andB. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further lowMIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 >BOPF >OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, andOP pocessin vitro antibacterial activity againstS. aureus andB. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteriaP. aeruginosa andE. coli.

  10. 北京自来水冲泡绿茶汤颜色及抗氧化性变化因素%Factors Affecting the Photochromism and Anti-oxidant Activity of Green Tea Infusion Brewed with Tap Water in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈然; 张季艾; 范志红

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was measured on Beijing tap water with and without reverse osmosis membrane filtration and deionized water. In addition, the effect of selected ions showing a considerable difference on color parameters and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion was discovered. Our results indicated that Beijing tap water was slightly alkaline, remarkably darkened the color of tea infusion compared with deionized water, and resulted in a distinct decrease in DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Calcium (70 mg/L), magnesium (30 mg/L) and sodium (18 mg/L) ions in Beijing tap water could reduce the color of tea infusion and its DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This suggests that the main reason for the darker color and decreased DPPH free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion brewed with tap water is that tea infusion is kept in a weakly alkaline environment during brewing due to the presence of HCO~ in tap water, thus causing oxidative degradation of tea phenols.%分别对北京地区弱碱性自来水及去离子水进行水质分析,并探究其中差别较大的几种离子对茶汤颜色及DPPH自由基清除能力的影响。结果表明:用北京地区弱碱性自来水冲泡绿茶得到茶汤的颜色较去离子水绿茶茶汤显著加深,DPPH自由基清除能力显著下降。Ca^2+(70mg/L)、Mg^2+(30mg/L)和Na^+(18mg/L)能够使茶汤颜色变浅,DPPH自由基清除能力上升。提示自来水中的HCO^-3在冲泡过程中将绿茶茶汤体系稳定在弱碱性环境,从而导致茶多酚的氧化降解,这是自来水绿茶茶汤颜色变深、DPPH自由基清除能力降低的主要因素。

  11. Study on Adaptability of Three Tea Cultivars in Wuyi Mingcong For Summer Black Tea%三种武夷名丛夏暑红茶适制性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兰馨; 冯花; 罗盛财; 吴玉琼; 郑瑜丹; 王飞权

    2013-01-01

    为充分利用武夷山夏暑茶资源和开发武夷名丛红茶,以向天梅、金毛猴、玉井流香三种武夷名丛夏暑茶鲜叶为原料,参照传统工夫红茶初制工艺,研究了其适制性及品质特征。结果表明:制得的红茶各生化成分以玉井流香红茶最丰富,向天梅红茶最少,其中氨基酸、黄酮类含量差异显著,而水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱含量差异达到极显著水平;感观审评综合得分由高到低依次为:向天梅(83.85)>金毛猴(79.5)>玉井流香(77.8)。武夷名丛向天梅夏暑红茶综合表现较好,较适宜加工夏暑红茶,其香气甜浓,滋味甜醇,具备较好的红茶品质。%In order to make full use of summer tea resources in Wuyi mountain and develop the Wuyi Mingcong black tea ,taking the three of Wuyi Mingcong summer fresh tea leaves of Xiangtianmei ,Jinmaohou and Yujingli-uxiang as raw material ,traditional processing technology of Gongfu black tea ,the adaptability and quality char-acteristics were studied .The results indicated that the biochemical components of them were rich ,and the Yu-jingliuxiang black tea had the most biochemical components and the Xiangtianmei black tea had the least .The differences of the amino acids and the flavonoid contents were obvious ,and the contents difference of aqueous extracts ,polyphenols and caffeine were reached significant level .The composite scores of the three kinds black tea for sensory evaluation were that Xiangtianmei (83 .85)>Jinmaohou (79 .5) >Yujingliuxiang (77 .8) .Com-pared with three kinds of Wuyi Mingcong black tea ,Xiangtianmei was generally supposed to be the best one which is suitable for processing black tea in summer with rich fragrance ,sweet taste and excellent quality .

  12. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto Used Black Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the kinetic and thermodynamic investigation of the adsorption of crystal violet (CV on used black tea leaves (UBTL from aqueous solution to evaluate the feasibility of the process. The effects of concentration, solution pH and temperature on adsorption kinetics were carried out in batch process. Kinetic studies have shown that the adsorption data partially follow simple first order, second order and pseudo second order kinetic equations for different initial concentrations at pH 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, equilibrium concentration and rate constant were calculated from better fitted pseudo second order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations. The equilibrium amount adsorbed (200 mg/g at 30 oC increased with the increase of temperature, indicated endothermic nature of the adsorption. The apparent activation energy of adsorption was determined from Arrhenius plot using pseudo second order rate constant and the value, Ea = 83.1 kJ/mol, revealed the process is chemisorption. Thermodynamic parameters: DHo, DGo and DSo, were determined from the equilibrium adsorption constant and the results obtained confirmed that the adsorption process was feasible, less spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium amount adsorbed was found to be increased with increase of solution pH from 2.0 to 6.0 indicating electrostatic interaction between cationic CV with anionic surface of UBTL dominated at higher pH due to the low zero point charge of pH of UBTL.

  13. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  14. Equilibrium adsorption of rhodamine B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carcinogenic dye like rhodamine B (Rh-B in textile wastewater affects the quality of water to consumers. The adsorption of Rh-B on used black tea leaves (UBTL was studied in batch process to investigate its removal efficiency. The effects of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH etc. on adsorption have been investigated. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of Rh-B at constant pH. The adsorption isotherms were constructed for different temperatures using acidic solution of pH 2.0. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Raduskevich (D-R equations were used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data. The experimental data follows Freundlich equation more precisely compare with the Langmuir one. The maximum amount adsorbed calculated from Langmuir equation is 72.5 mg/g at 30 oC which is increased with increasing temperature. Separation factor and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the process is favorable, spontaneous and endothermic nature. Possible mechanism of the process was elucidated from the effect of solution pH on amount adsorbed. The endothermic nature of the adsorption might be due to the fragmentation of Rh-B molecules during the adsorption process.

  15. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  16. Evaluation of black tea polyphenol extract against the retrogradation of starches from various plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huaxi; Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Fengxiang

    2012-07-06

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  17. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on Used Black Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B fromaqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism.The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-secondorder kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  18. Gas chromatographic method for the determination of hexaconazole residues in black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnachamy KARTHIKA; Paul James SACHIN

    2008-01-01

    A highly reliable, quantitative and sensitive analytical method for determining the residues of the fungicide, hexaconazole in black tea is described. The proposed method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatographic determination, using nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) for the identification and quantitation of hexaconazole. The most was cleaned up by adsorption column chromatography using activated florisil. Performance of the method was assessed by evaluating quality parameters such as recovery value, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. When the method was assessed for repeatability, the percentage of recovery ranged between 86% and 96% while the relative standard deviation was between 0.30% and 2.35%. In studies on reproducibility the recovery ranged from 81% to 85% and relative standard deviation from 1.68% to 5.13%, implying that the method was reliable. A field trial was conducted to verify the application of this method with real samples. Results prove that the validated method was suitable for extracting hexaconazole residues.

  19. Protective Role of Black Tea Extract against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Induced Skeletal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper aimed to examine the chemoprotective actions of aqueous black tea extract (BTE against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis- (NASH- induced skeletal changes in rats. Material. Wistar rats (body wt. 155–175 g of both sexes, aged 4–5 months, were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Group A (control, Group B (60% high-fat diet; HFD, and Group C (HFD + 2.5% BTE. Methods. Several urinary (calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and calcium-to-creatinine ratio serum (alkaline phosphatase and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and molecular markers of bone turnover (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and estrogen were tested. Also, several bone parameters (bone density, bone tensile strength, bone mineral content, and bone histology and calcium homeostasis were checked. Results. Results indicated that HFD-induced alterations in urinary, serum, and bone parameters as well as calcium homeostasis, all could be significantly ameliorated by BTE supplementation. Conclusion. Results suggest a potential role of BTE as a protective agent against NASH-induced changes in bone metabolism in rats.

  20. Black-tea polyphenols suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by suppressing lymphatic transport of dietary fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Suzuki, Yuko; Unno, Tomonori; Sugawara, Takashi; Yamahira, Takashi; Kato, Masaki; Takihara, Takanobu; Sagesaka, Yuko; Kakuda, Takami; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2009-08-12

    Administration of black-tea polyphenols (BTP) at 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight in rats suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of BTP also suppressed lymphatic recovery of (14)C-trioleoylglycerol in rats that were cannulated in the thoracic duct. BTP dose-dependently inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro with an IC50 of 0.254 mg/mL. When purified theaflavins, which are components of BTP, were used, theaflavins with galloyl moieties, but not those without galloyl moiety, inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG) was more effective in inhibiting the activity of pancreatic lipase than epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and a mixture of EGCG and ECG. BTP and TFDG had a similar effect in inhibiting the activity of pancreatic lipase when the total polyphenol amount was adjusted to the same. BTP had no effect on micellar solubility of hydrolysis products of triacylglycerol. These results suggest that BTP suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by reducing triacylglycerol absorption via the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity.

  1. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  2. Development of Electronic Nose with High Stable Sample Heater to Classify Quality Levels of Local Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Lelono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (e-nose equipped with a stable temperature controller has been successfully developed. Sensor response is very influenced by the temperature of the sample. The performance of the e-nose was then evaluated to differentiate the quality levels of black tea (Q1, Q2, and Q3. The black tea samples were purchased from Tambi Tea Industry in Central Java, Indonesia. Here, the quality is based on the information from the factory. For each quality level, the measurement was repeated 31 times. Therefore, the total of measurements is 93, and only six sensors, i.e. MQ-7, TGS 813, TGS 2602, TGS 826, TGS 2620 and TGS 825 have the highest influence on the patterns. By using linear discriminant analysis (LDA, the e-nose is able to classify the quality levels of all sample almost 100%. The Q1 and Q2 are 100% predicted, while for the 31 data from Q3, total 29 data can be predicted correctly.

  3. Atividade das glicosidases na presença de chá verde e de chá preto Activity of glycosidases in the presence of green tea and black tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L.S. Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Várias plantas têm sido consideradas produtos terapêuticos, dentre elas destacam-se os chás verde e preto, popularmente utilizados para controle da hiperglicemia e obesidade. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o potencial inibitório sobre as enzimas α-amilase, α e β-glicosidases e o teor de compostos fenólicos do chá verde e do chá preto. O teor de compostos fenólicos encontrados foram de 80,8 ± 0,43 mg g-1 no chá preto e 32,0 ± 0,12 mg g-1 no chá verde. O chá verde e o chá preto, em condições de consumo, inibiram as enzimas em estudo, porém, após a simulação do fluido gástrico o inibidor presente no chá verde perdeu a ação. O chá preto deixou de inibir a α-amilase e apresentou inibição inalterada para α e β-glicosidases. Tais resultados sugerem que o chá preto pode ser auxiliar em dietas de restrição de carboidratos.Several plants have been considered therapeutic products, including green and black tea, popularly used to control hyperglycemia and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the enzymes α-amylase, α and β-glycosidases, as well as the content of phenolic compounds in green tea and black tea. The concentrations of phenolic compounds found were 80.8 ± 0.43 mg g-1 in black tea and 32.0 ± 0.12 mg g-1 in green tea. Under the tested conditions of use, green and black tea inhibited the enzyme under study. However, after simulation of the gastric fluid, the inhibitor present in green tea lost its action. Black tea no longer inhibited a-amylase and showed unaltered inhibition for α and β-glycosidases. These results suggest that black tea can be helpful in diets restricting carbohydrates.

  4. LOGIKA FUZZY DAN JARINGAN SYARAT TIRUAN UNTUK PENINGKATAN MUTU TEH HITAM [Fuzzy Logic an Artificial Neural Network for Quality Improvement of Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatulloh 1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed quality improvement of black tea using fuzzy approach on quality functions deployment and the development of backpropagation neural the software NWP II plus. The research was conducted at PTPN VIII tea industry, Goalpara plantation. Result of the study showed that, parameter first priority based on customer evaluation was tea flavour. The Important process parameter of black tea based on result of fuzzy relationship matrix was the withering process. Based on the test of “trial and error” of network training process, the best network architecture for withering process monitoring [3-15-1] was obtained, that is 3 neurons in input layer, 15 neurons in hidden layer and 1 neuron in output layer. Three inputs and output consist of time, flow, temperature and moisture content. The result sugges that development of backpropagation neural network can be used for process evaluation of withering processes.

  5. Research Advances of Processing Technology of Congou Black Tea%工夫红茶加工新工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常笑君; 周子维; 朱晨; 王仲; 赵姗姗; 郭玉琼

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous innovation of processing technology of Congou black tea, the quality of Congou black tea has been improved, which gives more flavor choices for consumers.In this research, we summarized and discussed the process crafts and their impacts on the qual-ity of Congou black tea, and described the emerging on the production means of Congou black tea.This article aimed to providing a theoretical basis and reference for technology advances and researches on quality of Congou black tea.%工夫红茶加工工艺不断创新,品质不断提高,给消费者带来更多风味品质的选择。就工夫红茶的加工工艺及其对品质的影响展开归纳和探讨,并阐述了工夫红茶生产上的新兴技术手段,旨在为工夫红茶工艺进展和品质研究提供理论依据和参考。

  6. Catechins in tea suppress the activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation pathway in rat livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Itsuko; Nishiumi, Shin; Mukai, Rie; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) develop various adverse effects through activation of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The suppressive effects of brewed green tea and black tea on 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-induced AhR activation and its downstream events were examined in the liver of rats. Ad-libitum drinking of green tea and black tea suppressed MC-induced AhR activation and elevation of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity in the liver, whereas the teas themselves did not induce them. Tea showed a suppressive fashion on the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Tea suppressed the AhR activation induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) ex vivo. A part of catechins and theaflavins was present in plasma and liver as conjugated and intact forms. The results of this study suggested that active component(s) of tea are incorporated in the liver and suppress the activity of CYP1As through the AhR activation pathway.

  7. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  8. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver.

  9. The microbiota is essential for the generation of black tea theaflavins-derived metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G, theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF3'G, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG, are the most important bioactive polyphenols in black tea. Because of their poor systemic bioavailability, it is still unclear how these compounds can exert their biological functions. The objective of this study is to identify the microbial metabolites of theaflavins in mice and in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study, we gavaged specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ free (GF mice with 200 mg/kg TFDG and identified TF, TF3G, TF3'G, and gallic acid as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in SPF mice. These metabolites were absent in TFDG- gavaged GF mice. The microbial bioconversion of TFDG, TF3G, and TF3'G was also investigated in vitro using fecal slurries collected from three healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that TFDG is metabolized to TF, TF3G, TF3'G, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Moreover, both TF3G and TF3'G are metabolized to TF, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Importantly, we observed interindividual differences on the metabolism rate of gallic acid to pyrogallol among the three human subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis have the capacity to metabolize TFDG. CONCLUSIONS: The microbiota is important for the metabolism of theaflavins in both mice and humans. The in vivo functional impact of microbiota-generated theaflavins-derived metabolites is worthwhile of further study.

  10. The Microbiota Is Essential for the Generation of Black Tea Theaflavins-Derived Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Hayek, Saeed; Rivera Guzman, Javier; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Jobin, Christian; Sang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    Background Theaflavins including theaflavin (TF), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF3G), theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF3′G), and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TFDG), are the most important bioactive polyphenols in black tea. Because of their poor systemic bioavailability, it is still unclear how these compounds can exert their biological functions. The objective of this study is to identify the microbial metabolites of theaflavins in mice and in humans. Methods and Findings In the present study, we gavaged specific pathogen free (SPF) mice and germ free (GF) mice with 200 mg/kg TFDG and identified TF, TF3G, TF3′G, and gallic acid as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in SPF mice. These metabolites were absent in TFDG- gavaged GF mice. The microbial bioconversion of TFDG, TF3G, and TF3′G was also investigated in vitro using fecal slurries collected from three healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that TFDG is metabolized to TF, TF3G, TF3′G, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Moreover, both TF3G and TF3′G are metabolized to TF, gallic acid, and pyrogallol by human microbiota. Importantly, we observed interindividual differences on the metabolism rate of gallic acid to pyrogallol among the three human subjects. In addition, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis have the capacity to metabolize TFDG. Conclusions The microbiota is important for the metabolism of theaflavins in both mice and humans. The in vivo functional impact of microbiota-generated theaflavins-derived metabolites is worthwhile of further study. PMID:23227227

  11. Polyphenols extracted from black tea (Camellia sinensis) residue by hot-compressed water and their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Suzuki, Manabu; Asano, Yuzo; Ochi, Hiroshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-12-01

    Polyphenols, retained in black tea wastes following the commercial production of tea beverages, represent an underutilized resource. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential use of hot-compressed water (HCW) for the extraction of pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea residues. Black tea residues were treated with HCW at 10 °C intervals, from 100 to 200 °C. The resulting extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed to determine their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Four theaflavins (TF), 5 catechins, 2 quercetin glycosides, quinic acid, gallic acid, and caffeine were identified. The total polyphenol content of extracts increased with increasing temperature but lipase inhibitors (TF, theaflavin 3-O-gallate, theaflavin 3'-O-gallate, theaflavin 3,3'-O-gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate) decreased over 150 °C. All extracts inhibited pancreatic lipase but extracts obtained at 100 to 140 °C showed the greatest lipase inhibition (IC(50) s of 0.9 to 1.3 μg/mL), consistent with the optimal extraction of TFs and catechins except catechin by HCW between 130 and 150 °C. HCW can be used to extract pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea waste. These extracts have potential uses, as dietary supplements and medications, for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  12. The Processing Technology of Mulberry Black Tea Beverage%桑葚红茶饮料制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明明; 葛丹丹; 马泉来; 殷丹婷; 李艾黎; 李洪羽

    2012-01-01

    With mulberry and black tea as the main raw materials to make mulberry black beverage, the optimal technological conditions were determined, the extraction pH of black tea was controlled at about 4.5, extraction time was 3 h, the ratio of tea to water was 1:50, the ratio of mulberry to black tea juice was 2:8, the addition of VC was 0.03%, sterilization temperature was 105 ℃. The product showed fresh tea aroma and rich fruit aroma, and had a sweet and sour taste.%以桑葚和红茶为主要原料研制桑葚红茶饮料,确定最佳制作工艺条件为:红茶浸提pH控制在4.5左右,浸提时间3h,茶水比为1∶50,桑葚汁液:红茶汤为2∶8,VC添加量为0.03%,灭菌温度为105℃,所制得的产品茶香清新,果香浓郁,酸甜可口.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITE BEVERAGE OF ROSE AND BLACK TEA%玫瑰红茶复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞芸; 贾媛

    2011-01-01

    The composite beverage of rose and black tea was processed with rose, black tea and sugar as the main materials. The optimum extraction formula of rose was: adding 0.4% rose powder and extracting at 80 ℃ for 15 minutes. The optimum extraction formula of black tea was: adding 0.4% black tea powder and extracting at 60 ℃ for 20 minutes. The optimum formula of the composite beverage was: adding 2.0% sugar in the mixed solution( the extracting solution of rose: black tea = 2:3 ) . The product had rose flavor and black tea aromas which soluble solid level was 4%.%以玫瑰、红茶、白砂糖为主要原料,研制玫瑰红茶复合饮料.通过试验分别确定了玫瑰、红茶的最佳浸提工艺及复合饮料的最佳配方.结果表明,玫瑰的最佳浸提工艺为:玫瑰粉加量0.4%,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间15min;红茶的最佳浸提工艺为:红茶粉加量0.4%,浸提温度60℃,浸提时间20min.玫瑰红茶复合饮料的最佳配方为:玫瑰与红茶提取液体积比2∶3,白砂糖2.0%.该产品可溶性固形物含量为4%,具有玫瑰花的清香和红茶浓郁的香味,酸甜可口,色泽鲜亮.

  14. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  15. Comparison of the effect of green, white and black tea on Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during refrigerated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha Muniandy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of green, white and black tea (Camellia sinensis on lactic acid production and the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. in yogurt during 3 weeks of refrigerated storage. Three types of tea water extracts were added into a milk-starter culture mixture and incubated at 42 °C until the pH was reduced to 4.5. All yogurts were then refrigerated (4 °C for up to 21 days and samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acid and viable counts of yogurt bacteria. Higher pH values (p  0.05 the viability of Lactobacillus spp. and S. thermophilus compared to PY during storage. All the three types of tea yogurt maintained a high level of S. thermophilus and Lactobacilllus spp. counts through refrigerated storage and this can ensure health benefits to be delivered to consumers on daily consumption.

  16. Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a pleasant, popular and safe beverage. Tea provides a dietary source of bioactive components to help humans reduce a wide variety of cancer risks and chronic diseases. The antioxidative activity of green tea-derived polypbenols known as catchins has been extensively studied. The reducfive effect is a synergistic action between EGCG,EGC, ECG, EC, pheophytins a and b, and other components in tealeaves, which are more bioavailable for human body.Green tea has a higher content of catechins than black tea. Green tea extract with hot water has high potential and more efficiencytoreducecancerriskthananyotherteaproductsorpureEGCG. Protein, iron, andotherfoodcomponentsmay interfere with the bioavailability of tea polyphenols. Drinkinggreentea (orpolyphenol-rich tea extract ) also enhances the cancer-preventive activity of some cancer-fighting medication such as Sulindac and Tamoxifen. Further studies are required to determine the bioavailability of green tea and cancer-preventive functionality.

  17. The potential protective effect of green, black, red and white tea infusions against adverse effect of cadmium and lead during chronic exposure - A rat model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The protective effect of green (GT), black (BT), red (RT) and white (WT) tea infusions on the lungs, brains, hearts, livers and kidneys of adult Wistar rats exposed to Cd (7 mg/kg) and Pb (50 m/kg) was studied. The degree of reduction in the absorption of Cd and Pb in the organs compared to control group and the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx as well as GSH level was evaluated. It was determined that tea significant reduced the accumulation of Cd in the tissues. A significant reduction in the accumulation of Pb was recorded in the brain (WT), liver (GT, WT) and kidneys (BT, GT, RT, WT). A significant increase was observed in the activity of SOD, CAT and GPx in the organs of all rats from tea groups. It was found that the results obtained in rats receiving black, red and white tea were overall not worse than those recorded for rats receiving green tea. The obtained results suggest that drinking tea could be an effective method of reducing the adverse effect of environmental Cd and Pb pollution on the human body.

  18. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption.

  19. 发酵程度对红茶品质的影响%Effects of fermentation degree on the quality of black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开华; 陈贞纯; 屠幼英

    2012-01-01

    随着越来越多的消费者对红茶健康功能的认识,近五年国内红茶生产和销售增加非常迅速。红茶的发酵程度极大地影响红茶的品质,发酵是形成红茶品质特征的主要工序。本文从红茶发酵程度的把控和界定为切入点,详细探讨了原料、发酵温度、发酵湿度、发酵时间、发酵通氧量、发酵叶堆积厚度等因素对红茶品质的影响,以及应如何控制这些因素以生产品质优越的红茶。旨在为红茶生产企业以及科研人员提供实际指导意见。%In the last five years, production and sales of black tea developed very rapidly in China attracting more and more tea comsumers. Fermentation is a very important step in processing of black tea, and fermentation degree affected the quality of black tea. This paper discussed the effect of lectors including raw material, fermenting humidity, fermenting time, oxygen and leaf thickness on the black tea quality. Optical factors for producing a high quality black tea were suggested.

  20. Research and Development of Floral Type Congou Black Tea%花香型工夫红茶的开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄怀生; 谭正初; 银霞; 粟本文; 郑红发; 赵熙; 梁国强

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary study of variety choice and processing technology was utilized to develop floral type congou black tea. Four varieties and resources of floral type congou black tea were screened as the improved variety from nine hunan local resources and other varieties. Experimental results showed that floral type congou black tea was processed by infrared withering, but the scent had poor durability. Tea materials with one bud two leaves were effectively used to improve qulity of tea products.%为开发花香型工夫红茶,对品种选择和加工工艺进行初步研究。试验从9个湖南地方资源及部分外省品种中筛选出4个适制花香型工夫红茶的茶树品种和单株。在加工过程中,萎凋时用红外灯光照射,制得的工夫红茶带有花香,但花香持久性欠佳;原料选用具有一定成熟度的1芽2叶,有利于产品品质和香气的形成。

  1. Quality indexing by machine vision during fermentation in black tea manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, S.; Bhuyan, M.

    2003-04-01

    Although the organoleptic method of tea testing has been traditionally used for quality monitoring, an alternative way by machine vision may be advantageous. Although, the three main quality descriptors estimate the overall quality of made-tea, viz., strength, briskness and brightness of tea liquor, the exact colour detection in fermenting process leads to a good quality-monitoring tool. The use of digital image processing technique for this purpose is reported to play an effective role towards the production of good quality tea though it is not the only quality determining parameter. In this paper, it has been tried to compare the contribution of the chemical constituents towards the final product with the visual appearance in the processing stage by imaging. The use of machine intelligence supports the process somewhat invariantly in comparison to the human decision and colorimetric approach. The captured images are processed for colour matching with a standard image database using HSI colour model. The application of colour dissimilarity and perceptron learning for the standard images and the test images is ensured. Moreover, the performance of the system is being tried to correlate with the decision made by the organoleptic panel assigned for the tea testing and chemical test results on the final product. However, it should be noted that the optimized result could be achieved only when the other quality parameters such as withering, flavour (aroma) detection, drying status etc. are properly maintained.

  2. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: avoidance of artifacts and analysis of caffeine-precipitated SII thearubigins from 15 commercial black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drynan, J Warren; Clifford, Michael N; Obuchowicz, Jacek; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-05-01

    Thearubigins are the quantitatively major phenolic compounds in black tea, accounting for some 60-70% of the solids in a typical black tea infusion. MALDI-TOF mass spectra for caffeine-precipitated SII thearubigins (SII CTRs) from 15 different commercial teas support previous conclusions that SII CTRs are polyhydroxylated oligomers (rather than polymers) of catechins and catechin gallates in redox equilibrium with their quinone counterparts. Some 4500 peaks were revealed in a mass range from m/z 500 to 2100. Polyphenols are redox-susceptible and readily generate artifacts during MALDI-TOF analysis when the matrix is also redox-susceptible. Of the nine matrices evaluated, 3',4',5'-trihydroxyacetophenone (F) provided the best compromise between signal intensity and redox artifact formation.

  3. 祁门红茶超微粉碎技术研究%STUDY ON THE PULVERIZING TECHNOLOGY OF ULTRAFINE KEEMUN BLACK TEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 廖万有; 周坚

    2009-01-01

    Mainly studied the processing technology of ultrafine Keemun black tea and the necessary equipments. Took the granular Keemun black tea as the raw materials, used processing technology of plant powders, followed processing principle of Keemun black tea, controled low temperature and low damp of gas source, suppression chemical changes induced by mechanical power. Through analysing result of organoleptic evaluation, determination of biochemical components and uhrafine powders on tea samples, tea powders assumes the red-yellow, delicate and lustrous, D97 was in 33.77 μm, Dstokes was in 9.31 μm, and maintained biochemical components of Keemun black tea.%主要研究祁门红茶的超微粉碎工艺及气流粉碎技术,以祁红颗粒茶为原料,应用植物粉体加工技术,与"祁红"制茶原理有机结合,控制气流粉碎中气源的低温、低湿,抑制机械力诱导的化学作用.通过分析试验茶样的感官审评、理化检测及粉体检测结果,超微红茶外观呈红黄色匀净粉末、粒体细腻润泽,D97(97%的粉末粒径)在33.77 μm内,Dstokes(粉末平均粒径)在9.31μm内,并较好地保持祁门红茶品质特征的生化成分.

  4. 特种“紫娟”红茶与滇红茶香气成分的比较%Comparison of Aroma Components Between Special "Zijuan" Black Tea and Dianhong Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕世懂; 姜东华; 刘川; 黄伟; 孟庆雄

    2013-01-01

    为了探明紫娟茶的适制性,采用全自动顶空固相微萃取结合气质联用法对紫娟红茶的香气成分进行了定性定量分析,并与滇红茶的香气成分进行比较.结果从紫娟红茶中鉴定出香气成分83种,从滇红茶中鉴定出香气成分82种,它们的香气成分均以醇类化合物为主,分别占提取物总量的44.42%和44.99%;紫娟红茶的香气成分主要为芳樟醇、芳樟醇氧化物、植醇、咖啡因、6,10,14-三-甲基-2-十五烷酮、十六烷酸、香叶醇等;而滇红茶的香气成分主要为芳樟醇、十六烷酸、芳樟醇氧化物、植醇、香叶醇、咖啡因、水杨酸甲酯等.研究发现,紫娟红茶和滇红茶在香气组成上较接近,共有香气成分77种;紫娟红茶除醛类、酯类和酸类含量低于滇红茶外,其余成分含量均高于滇红茶.%In order to explore the manufacturing suitability for Zijuan tea,the aroma components of Zijuan black tea were extracted by fully automated HS-SPME,and were identified by GC-MS.Then comparison of the aromatic components and contents between Dianhong tea was made.The results showed that 83 kinds of aroma components were identified in Zijuan black tea and 82 kinds in Dianhong tea,alcohol was the major aromatic components in these two kinds of tea,representing 44.42% and 44.99% of the total peak area respectively.The major aromatic compounds of Zijuan black tea were linalool,linalool oxide,phytol,caffeine,6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone,hexadecanoic acid and geraniol,respectively,while the major aromatic compounds of Dianhong tea were linalool,hexadecanoic acid,linalool oxide,phytol,geraniol,caffeine and methyl salicylate.The aromatic components in these two kinds of tea were found very similar and 77 of them were identical,the contents of aldehydes,esters and acids compounds in Zijuan black tea were lower than that in Dianhong tea,but the contents of other compounds are higher than Dianhong tea.

  5. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail; Uthumporn Utra @ Sapina Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT), oolong tea (OT), green tea (GT), spent black tea (SBT), spent oolong tea (SOT) and spent green tea (SGT). Theextraction experi...

  6. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  7. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  8. Quality Improvement of Instant Black Tea Processed from Coarse Tea Materials%利用粗老原料加工速溶红茶的品质改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乾刚

    2001-01-01

    The improvement in taste, colour and aroma of instant black tea processed from coarse tea materials is discussed about the chemical nature of coarse tea materials, the substance support for black tea flavour, the conversion of quality-related components during manufacture, and the solutions to the quality defects resulted from the above-mentioned factors.%利用粗老原料加工速溶红茶可降低成本,充分利用茶叶资源.然而,其品质普遍存在茶叶香味淡薄、风味不显等缺陷.本文就红茶风味形成的物质基础,加工过程的物质转换,粗老原料的成分状况进行了讨论,并针对上述品质问题提出了一些具体的方法和思路,涉及风味成分的添加、乌龙茶原料和工艺的引入等.

  9. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and black tea phenols are extensively metabolized in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Buijsman, M.N.C.P.; Amelsvoort, van J.M.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary phenols are antioxidants, and their consumption might contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Coffee and tea are major dietary sources of phenols. Dietary phenols are metabolized extensively in the body. Lack of quantitative data on their metabolites hinders a proper evaluati

  10. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs. The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample, and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  11. Research Progress of High Aroma Black Tea Processing%高香红茶加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银霞; 郑红发; 黄怀生; 赵熙; 粟本文

    2012-01-01

    Most of Chinese Black teas' aroma is not high, which influences their competitiveness in international market. This article summarized the processing technologies and research progress of China black tea in recent 15 years and provided theoretical instruction for the producing of high aroma black tea.%我国大部分红茶香气品质不高,影响产品的市场竞争力。本文总结了近15年来红茶加工技术与香气品质关系的研究进展,为生产高香红茶提供理论依据。

  12. Black Tea and Theaflavins Assist Healing of Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulceration in Mice by Antioxidative Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplab Adhikary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing activities of black tea (BT and the theaflavins (TF against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration were studied in a mouse model. Indomethacin (18 mg/kg, p.o. administration induced maximum ulceration in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa on the 3rd day, accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, depletion of thiol-defense and mucin, as well as reduced expressions of cyclooxygenases (COX and prostaglandin (PG E synthesis in the gastric tissues, and plasma total antioxidant status of mice. Treatment with BT (40 mg/kg, TF (1 mg/kg, and omeprazole (3 mg/kg produced similar (74%–76% ulcer healing, as revealed from the histopathological studies. Treatment with all the above samples reversed the adverse oxidative effects of indomethacin significantly. BT and TF also enhanced the PGE synthesis by augmenting the expressions of COX 1 and 2, but did not modulate acid secretion.

  13. Ameliorating effect of black tea extract on cadmium chloride-induced alteration of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Venkappa S; Somannavarib, Manjunath S; Yendigeri, Saeed; Das, Kusal K; Goudar, Shivaprasad S

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is one among the most environmental pollutants that affects many organs like kidney, liver and testis. The present study was aimed to assess the simultaneous effects of black tea extracts (BTE) on cadmium chloride induced alterations in lipid profile and liver histology. Adult rats were divided into four groups (n=6/group), group I (normal saline), group II (CdCl2, 1.0 mg/kg, b.wt; i.p), group III (black tea extract, 2.5 gm tea leaf/dl of water that is 2.5% of aqueous BTE) and group IV (cadmium chloride + BTE). Cadmium chloride intoxicated rats showed significant increase in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and there is a significant decrease in the serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In the liver, cadmium chloride showed changes in normal architecture, swollen hepatocytes, kupffer cells hyperplasia, dilation and congestion of central vein. Oral administration of black tea extracts with cadmium chloride significantly improves lipid profile and liver architecture as compared to the cadmium chloride group. The results indicate that BTE is beneficial in preventing cadmium-induced lipid alterations and hepatocellular damage.

  14. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  15. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  16. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Fujimaki Hayacibara

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  17. 3种茶叶对非酒精性脂肪肝细胞中IGF-I基因表达的影响研究%Effects of Fermented Pu-erh Tea, Tieguanyin Tea and Black Tea on Expression of Hepatocyte IGF-1 in Rats with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家奇; 邵宛芳; 王蕊; 黄业伟; 赵宝权; 侯艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨普洱茶(熟茶)、铁观音、红茶对高脂饮食诱发的大鼠非酒精性脂肪肝中胰岛素样生长因子-I (insulinlike growth factor I,IGF-I)表达的影响.方法 将Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、高脂模型组、药物组及低、中、高剂量普洱茶(熟茶)、铁观音、红茶组(0.5,1.0,2.0 g/kg·bw).试验大鼠灌胃授试茶样水浸提物35 d后采血处死,分离血清测定总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、丙氨酸氨基转氨酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基转氨酶(AST)的活性;用RT-PCR法检测试验大鼠肝脏细胞中IGF-I基因的表达量.结果 与高脂模型组相比,药物对照组,中、高剂量普洱茶组,低、中剂量铁观音组,低、中剂量红茶组TC水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);药物对照组,低、中、高剂量普洱茶组,低、中剂量铁观音组,低、中、高剂量红茶组TG水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);低、中、高剂量普洱茶组,低、中剂量铁观音组和高剂量红茶组AST水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);低、中、高剂量普洱茶组和低、高剂量红茶组ALT水平显著降低(P<0.05,P<0.01);高剂量普洱茶、中剂量铁观音组IGF-I基因表达较高.结论 普洱茶(熟茶)、铁观音、红茶对IGF-I在非酒精性脂肪肝中的基因表达具有不同程度的积极作用,普洱茶(熟茶)的作用更好.%Objective To approach the effects of the fermented Pu-erh tea,Tieguanyin tea and Black tea on the expression of hepatocyte IGF-I in rats with non-alcoholic steatosis induced by high fat diet.Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group,hyperlipidemia model group,medicinal group,and low,medium and high dose groups(0.5,1.0,2.0 g/kg·bw) of fermented Pu-erh tea,Tieguanyin tea and Black tea individually.All rats were sacrificed after 35 days' intragastric administration with the aqueous extracts of tested teas.The serum levels of TC and TG and the activities of ALT and AST were determined

  18. A randomized double blind study of a green and black tea agent, AssuriTEA®, in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Capodice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green and black teas have known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 3 doses of a water-extracted green and black tea agent (AssuriTEA® [AT]. Methods: Subjects who met inclusion criteria were randomized to one of four groups: 1000, 500, or 250 mg AT or placebo for 28 days. At baseline (BL and day 28, serum antioxidant capacity, quality of life and safety were assessed. Results: Of the 55 subjects screened, 43 were considered evaluable. Age was 56.77 ± 2.83 years (mean ± SEM. Evaluable subjects demonstrated improved antioxidant status, as measured by ferric iron reducing antioxidant power at all doses over the placebo (p < 0.05. There was significant improvement in cellular antioxidant protection in the 1000 mg AT group versus the placebo (p=0.032. Glucose levels were higher in the placebo group versus the 250 mg AT group (p=0.023 and there was a significant improvement in systolic blood pressure in the 250 mg AT group at day 28 versus BL (p=0.048. In the 1000 mg AT group, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure at day 28 versus BL (p=0.017. There was a significant improvement in the vitality category in the 1000 mg AT group (p=0.029. Overall, AT was safe and well tolerated with no differences in adverse events or serum chemistries between groups. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the administration of AT resulted in improvement of serum antioxidant status, vitality level, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure in test subjects.

  19. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  20. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncontrolled process. With the objective to make tea oxidation a more controlled process, the aim of this thesis was to understand the enzymatic oxidation reactions occurring during tea oxidation, and t...

  1. Analysis of Volatile Compounds of Four Kinds of Black Tea from China%我国4种红茶的挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉明; 吕世懂; 吴远双; 周降生; 王晨; 孟庆雄

    2015-01-01

    为了解我国4种名优红茶挥发性成分的异同,采用全自动顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱分析,对滇红、祁红、正山小种和金骏眉的挥发性成分进行了研究。结果表明,4种红茶中共鉴定出挥发性成分90种,滇红茶中主要是芳樟醇、香叶醇、芳樟醇氧化物、水杨酸甲酯、2-戊基呋喃和橙花叔醇,祁红中主要是十六碳酸、植酮、香叶醇、芳樟醇氧化物、β-紫罗酮、植醇和蒽等,正山小种中主要是植酮、香叶醇、β-紫罗酮、二氢猕猴桃内酯、咖啡因和芳樟醇氧化物,而金骏眉中主要是香叶醇、咖啡因、芳樟醇氧化物、β-紫罗酮、苯乙醇、橙花叔醇和植醇;他们共同成分有苯甲醛、苯乙醛、芳樟醇氧化物、芳樟醇、香叶醇、α-紫罗酮、β-紫罗酮、植醇等。4种红茶在挥发性组成及含量上差异较大,共有成分仅32种;醇类化合物含量均较高,其中滇红茶中醇类化合物含量高达69.08%;而祁红、正山小种和金骏眉中酮类化合物含量较高。不同化合物之间比例和阈值的不同,形成了4种红茶各自独特的香气特征。%In order to explore the volatile components in four kinds of black tea from China, including Dianhong, Qihong, Zhengshanxiaozhong and Jinjunmei, their volatile components were extracted by fully automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resultsshowedthattotal90volatileconstituentswere identiifed from four kinds of black tea. The major volatile components in Dianhong tea were linalool, geraniol, linalool oxides, methyl salicylate, 2-pentylfuran, and nerolidol; which in Qihong tea were hexadecanoic acid, phytone, geraniol, linalool oxides, β-ionone, phytol, and anthracene; phytone, geraniol, β-ionone, dihydroactinidiolide, caffeine, and linalool oxides in Zhengshanxiaozhong black tea; and geraniol, caffeine

  2. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  3. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  4. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  5. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea tea green tea tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively.

  6. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Greyling, A.; Draijer, R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention

  7. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Greyling, A.; Draijer, R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention

  8. Preliminary technology of black tea trial with Leishan-leaf%雷山茶试制红茶工艺初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊峰; 王广铭

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the practice that the production of the black tea is with leishan-leaf as a raw material,this article analyzes the key technology factor that exists in the production.%以雷山茶为原料,试制红茶的实践,初步探讨出雷山茶加工生产红茶的关键技术因子。

  9. Intelligent evaluation of color sensory quality of black tea by visible-near infrared spectroscopy technology: A comparison of spectra and color data information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Zhao, Jiewen; Guo, Zhiming; Gu, Hang

    2017-06-01

    Instrumental test of black tea samples instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. This study focused on an investigation of the feasibility for estimation of the color sensory quality of black tea samples using the VIS-NIR spectroscopy technique, comparing the performances of models based on the spectra and color information. In model calibration, the variables were first selected by genetic algorithm (GA); then the nonlinear back propagation-artificial neural network (BPANN) models were established based on the optimal variables. In comparison with the other models, GA-BPANN models from spectra data information showed the best performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.8935, and the root mean square error of 0.392 in the prediction set. In addition, models based on the spectra information provided better performance than that based on the color parameters. Therefore, the VIS-NIR spectroscopy technique is a promising tool for rapid and accurate evaluation of the sensory quality of black tea samples.

  10. Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2013-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ≥60 mg/kg flour.

  11. Antagonistic effects of black tea against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage to normal lymphocytes in comparison with cancerous K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debjani; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Chabita

    2014-11-01

    The potential of naturally occurring antioxidants to reduce the cellular oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied for more than a decade for their pharmacological application during cancer treatment. It is already known that radioprotective efficacy of phytochemicals might influence various end points of radiation damage. Flavonoids are well-known natural radioprotectors, and their biological effects depend upon their chemical structure. In the present study, radioprotective effect of black tea rich in flavonoids was evaluated against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage on normal lymphocytes and compared with erythroleukemic K562 cells. Pre-treatment with black tea extract (BTE) significantly reduced radiation-induced loss of cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis in normal lymphocytes compared to K562 cells. BTE also regulates the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The changes in the mRNA expression of bax, bcl2, p53 and Nrf2 were also followed to evaluate regulation of radiation-induced apoptosis by BTE. These findings suggest that black tea may have the potential of a natural radioprotective agent which can be used as adjunct with radiation during cancer treatment.

  12. Technological Study on Preparation of Low Caffeine Instant Black Tea with Fresh Tea Leaves%用鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展; 刘伟; 龚正礼

    2015-01-01

    以茶鲜叶为原料,采用正交试验,研究了低咖啡因速溶红茶的加工工艺.通过综合评估,鲜叶添加比例以7∶3最为合适,即每70 g脱咖啡因鲜叶中添加30 g切碎的鲜叶作为酶源发酵制成的脱咖啡因红茶胚品质最佳.4个因素对茶黄素浸提影响的主次关系为pH值,温度,固液比,时间,对茶红素浸提影响的主次关系则为固液比,时间,pH值,温度.鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶浸提的最优工艺参数为温度95℃,浸提时间30 min ,固液比1∶15, pH值为5.5.通过感官审评,发现用鲜叶制的低咖啡因速溶红茶品质更佳,且其得率也达到了21.4%,与传统加工方法相比差异也不大,故此工艺可以应用到产业化生产速溶红茶中.%This article is oriented in studying the process technology of low caffeine instant black tea by or‐thogonal test with fresh tea leaves as raw material .By means of comprehensive assessment ,the most ap‐propriate proportion of added fresh tea leavesis 7∶3 ,i .e .decaffeinated fresh leaves per 70 g by adding 30 g chopped fresh leaves ,working as a source of enzyme fermentation for making out the best quality de‐caffeinated tea embryo .Four factors affecting theaflavins extraction from primary to secondary are stated as follows :pH ,temperature ,solid‐liquid ratio ,time .However ,the factors affecting thearubigins extrac‐tion from primary to secondary are solid‐liquid ratio ,pH ,temperature ,time .The optimal process parame‐ter for extraction of processing low caffeine instant black tea is at the temperature of 95℃ ,for the duration of 30 min extraction time ,with a solid‐liquid ratio 1∶15 and pH5 .5 .Through organoleptic evaluation ,it has been found that the better quality low caffeine instant black tea is made of fresh leaves and that the yield is also coming to 21 .4% .Besides ,there is not much difference in comparison of tradition process technique

  13. Effect of Different Materials on the Physicochemical Property and Sensory Quality of Black Tea Cream%不同原料对红茶茶膏理化感官及色差的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭超; 刘华戎; 龚加顺; 张乃明

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore factors influencing the effects of different materials on the physicochemical property and sensory quality of black tea cream. Moreover, improve the black tea cream quality. The three kinds of tea cream (Keemun-Maofeng black tea, Sichuan-Mengding black tea, Fengqing-Dianhong black tea) was prepared by using enzyme treatment and vacuum concentration methods, and its major physicochemical property and active substance and sensory quality were analyzed. The results showed that the content of soluble protein, TF, caffeine, catechins, GC, EGC and EGCG of the Sichuan-Mengding black tea cream higher than other tea cream. The Fengqing-Dianhong black tea cream content of TR and soluble sugar was higher;the content of catechins content was relatively low. The content of nutrient and active substance on Keemun-Maofeng black tea cream were between Sichuan-Mengding and Fengqing-Dianhong black tea cream. Therefore, Sichuan-Mengding black tea was the most suitable for tea cream processing raw materials. The a value, b value, △E, Cab and Sab value correlation coefficient was higher by chromatic aberration. It can better reflect the liquor color and sensory score of black tea cream. It used as black tea cream quality measure.%  为了研究不同原料对红茶茶膏理化感官及色差品质的影响问题,提高红茶茶膏产品品质。将不同茶叶(祁红毛峰、四川蒙顶、凤庆滇红)利用酶解真空浓缩工艺制备工夫红茶茶膏,并对其理化、活性成分、色差及感官品质分析。结果表明:四川蒙顶茶膏蛋白含量,TF、咖啡碱、儿茶素、GC、EGC、EGCG较高。凤庆滇红茶膏茶红素、总糖含量较高,儿茶素含量相对较低。祁红毛峰营养素含量和活性成分均介于四川蒙顶和凤庆滇红之间。四川蒙顶红茶宜作为红茶茶膏加工原料。色差分析a值、b值、△E、Cab、Sab与汤色得分相关系数较高,能更好地反映茶

  14. DFT/TDDFT and Experimental Studies of Natural Pigments Extracted from Black Tea Waste for DSSC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. R. N. Kumara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results of combined experimental and theoretical studies of black tea waste extract (BTE as a potential sensitizer for TiO2-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. UV-vis absorption data revealed that BTE contains theaflavin. DSSC sensitized with pigment complexes of BTE showed a photon-energy conversion efficiency of %, while a significant increase (% is observed when pH of the pigment solution was lowered. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels were calculated using experimental data of UV-vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry. These calculations revealed a reduction of the band gap by 0.17 eV and more negativity of HOMO level of acidified pigment, compared to that of original pigment. Combined effect of these developments caused the enhanced efficiency of DSSC. Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT computational calculations were carried out to study the four theaflavin analogues which are responsible for the dark colour of BTE. According to the calculations, two theaflavin analogues, theaflavin and theaflavin digallate, are the most probable sensitizers in this dye-sensitized solar cell system.

  15. Induction of Apoptosis and Cytotoxic Activities of Iranian Orthodox Black Tea Extract (BTE Using in vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirala Aghbali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Plant-derivate therapeutic agents can perform cancer chemotherapeutic activity through triggering apoptotic cell death. Our aim was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of Iranian orthodox black tea extracts (BTEs and hydro methanolic purified fractions (40, 60, 80 and 100% in KB cells (oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: In order to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the BTEs, MTT (3-(4, 5- dimetylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Trypan-blue assays were performed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB. Furthermore, the apoptosis inducing action of the extracts was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death detection analysis. Results: Dichloromethane BTE and hydro methanol fractions (40 and 60% extract showed no cytotoxic effects; however, hydro methanol crude and hydro methanol fractions of BTE (80 and 100% significantly inhibited cell growth and viability in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, Cell death assay, TUNEL, and DNA fragmentation indicated induction of apoptosis by hydro methanol 80 and 100% fractions of BTE in KB cells. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by Duncan test and p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Conclusion: The results from the present study suggests that the hydro methanol crude and hydro methanol fractions of BTE (80 and 100% are significant source of compounds with the anti proliferative and cytotoxic activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemo preventive substances.

  16. Phytoestrogenic effects of black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) in an oophorectomized rat (Rattus norvegicus) model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Chandan

    2005-10-28

    The adverse side effects of currently available anti-osteoporotic agents warrant the search for compounds with less toxic effects. In this study, we assessed the phytoestrogenic potentiality of whole aqueous extract of black tea (BTE) in a bilaterally oophorectomized rat model (2.5%, 1 ml/100 g body weight/day for 28 days). Although the supplementation was given for 28 days but, sign of revival of copulation period (estrous stage) from non-receptive diestrous stage was first noticed after 21 days of BTE supplementation in bilaterally oophorectomized rats. This was accompanied by a significant increase in serum estradiol level. To test whether this increase in serum estradiol level could have an influence upon the oophorectomy-induced damage of bone, we assessed marker parameters of bone resorption and osteoclastic activity (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), collagen degradation (urinary hydroxyproline), bone loss (bone ash mineral content) and bone breaking strength (bone density). Results indicated that increase in serum estradiol level after BTE supplementation could significantly diminish oophorectomy-induced decaying changes in bone. This study proposes that aqueous BTE may be assessed as a phytoestrogenic compound for prevention against estrogen deficiency-related osteoporotic damages.

  17. Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Wang, Piwen; Abgaryan, Narine; Vicinanza, Roberto; de Oliveira, Daniela Moura; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Carpenter, Catherine L; Aronson, William J; Heber, David

    2013-03-01

    Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid, and polyhydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPAA) alone and in combination on bioavailability, intracellular metabolism, and antiproliferative activity were determined in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The concentration of phenolic metabolites was quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection and MS. Urine concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA), and polyhydroxy-γ-valerolactones were increased significantly in men drinking GT compared to control. Urine concentration of 3-O-methylgallic acid (3OMGA) was significantly increased in men drinking BT compared to control. Serum 3,4-DHPAA was significantly increased after consumption of GT and BT and 4-HPAA after GT consumption. In vitro treatment of HCT-116 colon cancer cells with 3,4-DHPAA and EGCG exhibited an additive antiproliferative effect, while methylation of 3,4-DHPAA was significantly decreased. 3OMGA exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity among the phenolic acids. The consumption of both, GT and BT, was associated with a significant increase in urinary and serum phenolic acids. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的研究进展%Research Progress in the Formation of Congou Black Tea Quality with Flowery-fruity Flavour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一斌; 孙云

    2014-01-01

    近年来,以乌龙茶栽培品种为原料,传统红茶工艺结合乌龙茶晒青、做青技术生产的花果香型工夫红茶,深受广大消费者青睐。其品质突破传统红茶甜香甜醇,带馥郁花果香,滋味鲜爽。本文就栽培品种、加工原料、加工技术和季节性等方面对花果香型工夫红茶品质形成的影响进行总结,以期为今后生产香型独特的红茶产品提供理论依据。%In recent years, Congou black tea with flowery-fruity flavour has been favored by consumers in general, which was processed with Oolong tea cultivars in the way of drawing on the traditional technology of black tea, combined with the sunlight withering and rocking of Oolong tea. It made a breakthrough in strong flowery-fruity flavour and brisk taste, compared to sweet aroma and taste of traditional black tea. In this paper, influencing factors were summarized in the formation of flowery-fruity flavour, present in Congou black tea, including tea cultivars, processing materials, processing technology and seasonal characteristics, so as to provide theoretical basis for the further developments of black tea with outstanding aroma in future.

  19. Influence of Steep Time on Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Black, Green, Rooibos, and Herbal Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. McAlpine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential health benefits of tea consumption are often attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Whether steep time, often variable in a real-life situation, makes a biological difference in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity is uncertain. The study objective was to characterize eight popular and commercially available teas for total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity in relation to steep time. Dragonwell (DW, Sencha (S, English Breakfast (EB, Golden Monkey (GM, Green Rooibos (GR, Red Rooibos (RR, Chamomile (C, and Peppermint (P loose leaf teas were individually steeped in water for 1–10 min at 1 min intervals. TPC increased with longer durations of steep time; however, the majority of polyphenols observed after 10 minutes were extracted in the first 5 min regardless of tea type. After 5 min of steeping, differences (p < 0.05 in TPC were observed across teas (JS~EB~P > DW > GM~GR~RR > C. Different teas also varied in their ability to inhibit the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH when normalized for polyphenol concentration (1 µg/mL and there was no effect due to steep time. Predicted antioxidant capacity of teas also demonstrated significant differences among teas after 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, steep time modulates TPC but not the antioxidative capacity of tea polyphenols.

  20. Black tea volatiles fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry combined with high concentration capacity sample preparation techniques: Toward a fully automated sensomic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Federico; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-06-15

    Tea prepared by infusion of dried leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, is the second world's most popular beverage, after water. Its consumption is associated with its chemical composition: it influences its sensory and nutritional quality addressing consumer preferences, and potential health benefits. This study aims to obtain an informative chemical signature of the volatile fraction of black tea samples from Ceylon by applying the principles of sensomics. In particular, several high concentration capacity (HCC) sample preparation techniques were tested in combination with GC×GC-MS to investigate chemical signatures of black tea volatiles. This platform, using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with multicomponent fiber as sampling technique, recovers 95% of the key-odorants in a fully automated work-flow. A group 123 components, including key-odorants, technological and botanical tracers, were mapped. The resulting 2D fingerprints were interpreted by pattern recognition tools (i.e. template matching fingerprinting and scripting) providing highly informative chemical signatures for quality assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea(Camellia sinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekera; Daya; Ratnasooriya; Walimuni; Prabhashini; Kaushalya; Mendis; Abeysekera; Chatura; Tissa; Dayendra; Ratnasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe(OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation.Methods:Five concentrations(0.125,0.250,0.500,1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew(BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification.Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG) was used as the reference agent(concentrations tested:0.012,0.025,0.050,0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL).Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid(from rooster comb)and bovine testicular hyaluronidase.Results:The results revealed that BTB had moderate[IC50=(1.09±0.12) mg/mL]and dose dependent(r2=0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity.EGCG also exhibited dose dependent(r2=0.93,P<0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior[IC50=(0.09±0.00) mg/mL]to BTB.Conclusions:Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP gradc black tca has promising antihyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical.In addition,it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy,some joint diseases and cnvenomation.

  2. 不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分比较分析%Comparative analysis of aroma compositions in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰; 张劲松

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Major aroma compositions of different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea were comparatively analyzed and their quality was assayed in order to provide guidance for enhancing Congou black tea production. [Method] Aroma substance was enriched using same distillation extract method and aroma compositions were analyzed using SDE/ GC-MS in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea samples comparatively. [ Result ]The results showed that different-grade Yunnan Congou black tea had nearly the same aroma compositions, but their contents varied a lot. The linalool, linalool oxide, α-Terpineol and geraniol contents were higher in superior Yunnan Congou black tea compared to those presenting in inferior one. However, inferior Yunnan black tea had higher leafaldehyde, benzaldehyde and benzeneac-etaldehyde content. [Conclusion] Higher-graded Yunnan Congou black tea had good fragrance quality and all different-graded Congou black teas presented strong fragrance, and high aroma and strong taste characteristics of Diangong time tea.%[目的]分析云南工夫红茶香气主要化学物质组成,比较不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分的差异,为提高云南红茶品质和指导生产实践提供理论依据.[方法]采用同时蒸馏萃取法富集云南工夫红茶香气物质,利用气相色谱—质谱法(GC-MS)对不同级别的云南红茶样品进行香气成分对比分析.[结果]不同级别的云南工夫红茶香气成分组成大致相同,但含量差异较大.其中,芳樟醇、芳樟醇氧化物、α-松油醇和香叶醇等在高级别红茶中的含量较低级别红茶的高;而青叶醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛等则在低级别红茶中含量较高.[结论]级别越高的云南工夫红茶其香气品质越好,但不同级别的云南工夫红茶均具有滇红工夫茶香气馥郁、香高味浓的风格特征.

  3. 茉莉酸甲酯诱导茶鲜叶制成的红茶中香气成分变化%Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang SHI; Li WANG; Cheng-ying MA; Hai-peng LV; Zong-mao CHEN; Zhi LIN

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of poly-phenol oxidase andβ-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time po-lymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase andβ-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P  创新要点:首次将茉莉酸甲酯应用于诱导茶叶香气品质提高,初步验证了茶叶香气品质提高的本质原因:相关酶活性提高,基因表达上调。  研究方法:采用顶空固相微萃取法(HS-SPME)对红茶香气进行富集,气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)进行解吸附分析,实时定量多聚酶链式反应(qRT-PCR)分析茶鲜叶中香气相关酶基因表达。  重要结论:茉莉酸甲酯诱导后的茶鲜叶中多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性上升,β-葡萄糖苷酶活性下降;PPO和β-樱草糖苷酶基因表达上调,β-葡萄糖苷酶基因表达下调。茉莉酸甲酯诱导后的茶鲜叶能明显提高由其制成的红茶香气品质,且萜烯醇类和萜烯类含量明显提高。

  4. Evidence for a prospective anti-osteoporosis effect of black tea (Camellia Sinensis) extract in a bilaterally ovariectomized rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Asankur Sekhuar; Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Mitra, Chandan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole aqueous black tea extract (BTE) prevents bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency. Eighteen 95-100 days old female albino rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups [sham -operated control (sham); bilaterally ovariectomized (ovx) and ovx + aqueous black tea extract (BTE) ] and sacrificed after 28 days. All animals were fed a standard laboratory diet with free access to deionized water except on days of urinary parameter studies when animals were given only calcium free deionized water during the entire 24 h period of urine collection. Body weight study revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher final body weight than rats in the sham group. This higher final body weight was not observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher abdominal fat mass and liver weight and significantly lower uterus, right kidney and left kidney weights than in other two groups. All these organ weight changes in ovx group also were not observed in animals receiving BTE. Results of urinary studies revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), phosphate, creatinine (Cr), calcium to creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratio (P< 0.001) and hydroxyproline (HPr) (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group. Significant recovery of all these parameters were observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher (P< 0.001) serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity than rats in the other two groups. These changes could not be seen in animals receiving BTE. Also, identical changes were seen in bone density experiments. Rats in the ovx group had significantly lower densities of the right femur (P<0.001), eighth thoracic rib (P< 0.001), eighth thoracic vertebra (P< 0.05), and fourth lumbar vertebra (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group; and significant improvement in densities of these

  5. Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine George

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary agents has received considerable importance because of their cost-effectiveness and wide safety margin. However, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials; therefore, combinations of chemopreventive agents are gaining increasing popularity. The present study aims to evaluate the combinatorial chemopreventive effects of resveratrol and black tea polyphenol (BTP in suppressing two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and TPA. Resveratrol/BTP alone treatment decreased tumor incidence by ∼67% and ∼75%, while combination of both at low doses synergistically decreased tumor incidence even more significantly by ∼89% (p<0.01. This combination also significantly regressed tumor volume and number (p<0.01. Mechanistic studies revealed that this combinatorial inhibition was associated with decreased expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and increased in total p53 and phospho p53 (Ser 15 in skin tissue/tumor. Treatment with combinations of resveratrol and BTP also decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse skin tissues/tumors than their solitary treatments as determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, histological and cell death analysis also confirmed that resveratrol and BTP treatment together inhibits cellular proliferation and markedly induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results for the first time lucidly illustrate that resveratrol and BTP in combination impart better suppressive activity than either of these agents alone and accentuate that development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention using dietary agents will be more beneficial against cancer. This promising combination should be examined in therapeutic trials of skin and possibly other cancers.

  6. 黑茶中茶多酚及咖啡碱的超临界CO2流体萃取研究%Extraction of Tea Polyphenols and Caffeine from Black Tea with Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志芳; 钟桐生; 彭晓赟; 李劼; 王科

    2012-01-01

      Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract tea polyphenols and caffeine from black tea. Conditions such as teperature, pressure, entrainer agents concentration and the dosage of entrainer were optimized with orthogonal test (extraction time was 2 hours). The content of tea polyphenols and caffeine were determined by spectrophotometry. According to the results of orthogonal test, it showed that the optimum conditions were: the extraction temperature 50℃, pressure 2 volume ratio) as cosolvent, and the most appropriate amount 100 mL/150 g for tea polyphenols;the extraction temperature 40℃, pressure 2 appropriate amount 300 mL/150 g for coffeine. The extraction rate was (0.190±0.004)%for tea polyphenols and (0.457±0.036)%for caffeine in this extraction condition.%  以益阳黑茶为原料,采用超临界CO2萃取技术提取黑茶中的茶多酚和咖啡碱,采用正交试验对萃取温度、萃取压力、夹带剂浓度和夹带剂用量等因素进行优化(固定萃取时间为2 h).采用分光光度法测定茶叶中茶多酚和咖啡碱的含量,根据正交试验极差分析结果得出茶多酚的最佳萃取条件:萃取温度50℃,萃取压力20 MPa,夹带剂采用体积分数为70%的乙醇,适宜用量为100 mL/150 g,得率为(0.190±0.004)%.咖啡碱的最佳萃取条件:萃取温度40℃,萃取压力20 MPa,夹带剂采用体积分数为70%的乙醇,适宜用量为300 mL/150 g,咖啡碱得率为(0.457±0.036)%.

  7. What is under the hump? Mass spectrometry based analysis of complex mixtures in processed food--lessons from the characterisation of black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and caramel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Nikolai; Dairpoosh, Farnoosh; Yassin, Ghada; Golon, Agnieszka; Jaiswal, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution we review our work on the characterisation of processed food. We review novel methods and analysis strategies developed to account for the composition of extraordinarily complex materials such as black tea thearubigins, coffee melanoidines and thermally treated carbohydrates. Our methods are mainly based on modern mass spectrometry and are introduced and critically discussed. A series of novel previously unpublished data interpretation strategies are presented as well. Finally an evaluation of the insight obtained in the composition of selected processed foods is given discussing potential consequences for assessing beneficial and adverse health effects of processed food.

  8. The relativity analysis between the main components of congou black tea and its quality%工夫红茶主要内含成分与品质的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌辉; 杜晓; 齐桂年

    2011-01-01

    通过对11种工夫红茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱、氨基酸、茶黄素、茶红素和茶褐素的含量的测定,并作了感官审评,比较了这些对品质影响较大的内含成分含量与品质之间的相关关系。结果表明,工夫红茶的水浸出物含量与工夫红茶香气得分呈极显著正相关,与汤色呈极显著正相关,与总得分呈极显著正相关;茶褐素含量与茶汤色得分呈极显著负相关,与滋味呈显著性负相关,与茶汤总得分呈显著性负相关;茶红素与茶黄素的比值和茶汤汤色得分呈二次曲线关系;氨基酸的含量与茶汤滋味品质有极显著正相关关系,与香气得分呈显著性正相关。%Determined 11 kinds of congou black tea ‘s aqueous extract, tea polyphenols, the coffeine, the amino acid, the theaflavin, the Congo red element and the dark brown element, and has made the feeling view appraisal. Compared with the realations between the main components of congou black tea and its quality. The result indicated that the free time black tea the water oozes the content and the free time black tea fragrance score assumes is extremely remarkable is being related, is extremely remarkable with tea soup color is being related, with always scores points assumes is extremely remarkable is being related. The dark brown element content and the tea soup color score assume the extremely remarkable inverse correlation, assumes the significance inverse correlation with the taste, always scores points with the tea soup assumes the significance inverse correlation. The Congo red element and tea flavine’s ratio and the tea soup color score assumes the conic section relations. The amino acid content and the tea soup taste quality have the extremely remarkable correlational dependence, assumes the significance with the fragrance score to be related.

  9. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  10. ‘桃源大叶’高香红茶应用加工技术研究%Application and processing techniques of high aroma black tea ‘Taoyuandaye’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚华春; 覃金保; 周艮平

    2015-01-01

    介绍‘桃源大叶’制作高香红茶的加工工艺技术,并与‘槠叶齐’、‘福鼎大白’进行对比,用‘桃源大叶’制作的高香红茶的品质特征优异。%In the paper, the processing techniques of high aroma black tea were introduced with ‘Taoyuandaye’ as the material. By contrast with ‘Zhuyeqi’ and ‘Fudingbaihao’, high aroma black tea ‘Taoyuandaye’ had superior quality.

  11. Comparison of fluoride concentration in several types of green tea consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maleki Kambakhsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is known as a source of fluoride that not only can prevent tooth decay but also can increase the risk of dental fluorosis in overuse or in combination with other sources of fluoride. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the fluoride concentration in three brands of green tea consumed in Iran. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Qazvin University of medical Science during 2012. Three brands of green tea (bag type and packed type were evaluated. Two bags of every bag type and two 1-gram samples of every packed type were selected. Each time, the samples were placed in 100 ml distilled boiling water and were restored in an incubator at 80 ºC. Three and ten minutes after tea brewing, the fluoride concentration of filtrated water was measured by chromatography and was recorded in milligram per liter. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA. Findings: The fluoride concentration in bag type green tea was more than packed type. The fluoride concentration was not different among three brands of green tea. The fluoride concentration after ten minutes brewing was not significantly different from the concentration after three minutes brewing. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that green tea brand and the brewing time does not affect fluoride release. The fluoride release in bag type green tea is more than packed type.

  12. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  13. A Technology Discussion on Making Black Tea with Meizhan(Camellia sinensis)%梅占品种加工红茶工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀英

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了以梅占品种加工红茶的工艺,以“重萎凋,偏轻发酵,文焙火”为宜。与黄棪、福云6号、菜茶采制的红茶进行对比,感官审评结果为紧细重实毫显,甜香、花香浓郁,汤色红亮,滋味浓爽带花香、甘香可口,叶底肥壮红亮,品质优异。%In this paper, we explored the processing technique of black tea made from Meizhan(Camellia sinensis)in Youxi County, and concluded the more suitable techniques, namely heavy wilting, bias light fermenting, and low-temperature and long roasting. Compared with the same type of products made from Huangdan(Camellia sinensis), Fuyun 6(Camellia sinensis) and Caicha (Camellia sinensis), sensory evaluation indicated that the black tea possessed the high quality of tight-heavy and tippy appearance outside, sweet and fragrance aroma, red and bright soup, heavy and brisk taste with flowery flavour, bold and bright securinega.

  14. 不同浸提、干燥方式对GABA速溶红茶中GABA含量的影响%Effects of Optimum Extraction and Drying Process on GABA Content of GABA Instant Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赟; 赵文芳; 马忠华; 葛亚中; 黄亚辉

    2015-01-01

    为研究不同浸提、干燥等工艺条件对优化GABA速溶红茶制备的问题,以‘金萱’品种的GABA红茶为原料,蒸馏水作为提取溶剂,以GABA含量为主要评价指标,采用正交试验优化GABA速溶红茶浸提参数,研究提取温度、提取时间和茶水比对GABA速溶红茶粉中GABA含量等的影响;在确定最佳浸提工艺条件基础上,分析喷雾干燥和冷冻干燥工艺对GABA含量的的影响,并确定制备GABA速溶红茶茶粉的最佳制备工艺条件.结果表明,在GABA速溶红茶浸提过程中,浸提温度对提取效果的影响最大,浸提温度与总固形物提取率具有极显著关系(P<0.01).经正交试验确定最佳提取工艺条件为:提取温度90℃,提取时间15 min,茶水比1∶15,在此最佳浸提工艺条件下,经冷冻干燥后获得GABA含量高达10.11 mg/g的GABA速溶红茶.%To investigate the extracting conditions and drying process of GABA instant tea,taking GABA black tea of ‘Jinxuan’ variety as raw material and distilled water as extraction solvent,orthogonal array design was used to optimize the extraction parameters of GABA instant black tea.On the basis of the optimum extraction process conditions,the effects of spray drying and freeze-drying on GABA instant black tea was investigated.Taking GABA content as the main evaluation index,the optimum technological condition for GABA instant black tea was as follows:90℃ as extraction temperature,extraction of tea for 15 min,1 to 15 as ratio of tea to water,freeze-drying.GABA instant black tea with 10.11 mg/g GABA was achieved under this condition.With high yield of GABA,this process could be helpful to the efficient producing of GABA instant-tea in industry.

  15. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  16. 四川引进茶树品种茗科1号、铁观音、黄棪的红茶适制性与香气成分分析%Analysis of the suitability for making black tea and aroma components of black tea produced by Mingke1, Tieguan-yin, and Huangyan introduced to Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自琴; 唐茜; 陈玖琳; 郭湘; 许燕

    2015-01-01

    以从福建茶区引进四川茶区种植的茗科1号、铁观音、黄横3个高香乌龙茶良种为供试材料,四川主栽且主产红茶的品种福鼎大白茶为对照,测定3个引进品种春、夏梢所制红茶的主要生化成分、香气组分,并进行感官审评,以了解其红茶适制性及制茶品质,筛选适宜四川茶区推广种植的适制红茶的省外良种.结果表明:3个g进品种春、夏季所制红茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、儿茶素含量均高于对照福鼎大白茶,其中春、夏季红茶的水浸出物含量为34.62%~40.25%,茶多酚含量为10.19% ~ 15.07%,儿茶素总量为13.98 ~25.45 mg/g;茶红素、茶黄素含量均较高,且茶红素与茶黄素比值为10.96~14.86.3个引进品种春、夏季红茶的咖啡碱含量为3.07%~4.04%,铁观音和黄横显著高于对照,茗科1号则低于对照;但氨基酸含量为2.74%~3.86%,均低于对照.春季红茶中均检测出50种香气成分,以醇类物质最丰富,且3个引进品种的香叶醇含量显著高于对照,芳樟醇及氧化物含量则低于对照,属于香叶醇占优势的香气类型.感官审评结果表明,3个引进品种所制红茶香高味浓,花果香或蜜香明显,品质均优于对照.%In this experiment, the Mingke 1, Tie guan-yin and Huangyan three Oolong tea varieties with high aroma which introduced from Fujian province to Sichuan province were tested.Fudingdabaicha which was the dominant variety that usually used to make black tea in Sichuan province used as a control.The main biochemical components, aroma components and sensory quality of the black tea made by the spring shoots and summer shoots of the three varieties had been studied.The suitability? and tea quality were studied in order to select suitable one (s) for making black tea and then plant widely in Sichuan tea region.The results showed that the contents of tea polyphenols, catechins of black tea produced by the spring shoots and summer

  17. The Automation and Apparatus for the Key Processing Stages for Keemun Black Tea%祁门红茶自动化加工关键技术与装备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建琴; 丁勇; 王昶

    2012-01-01

    通过对祁门红茶自动化加工关键技术与装备的研究,开发了自动萎凋机和发酵机等祁门红茶初制关键设备,并解决了生产线联接、自动控制等关键技术难题,建立起国内首条工夫红茶初制自动化生产线.使祁门红茶实现自动化、清洁化生产,提升了祁门红茶的品质与卫生质量安全。%The key techniques and equipments of automatic processing for Keemun black tea were studied. Automatic withering machine and fermenting machine were developed, and the key technical problems such as production line connection and automatic control were solved. The first domestic automatic processing line for Congou black tea was established. The automatic processing line could realize automatic and clean processing of Keemun black tea, and improve the quality and health safety of Keemun black tea.

  18. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea.

  19. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same ... teas (black tea and green tea) and the best result was achieved .... It helps to reduce the number of dimensions without much loss of information. The PCA ... values of the weights (Figure 3).

  20. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  1. Polyamines in tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  2. 茶枯对烟草小地老虎的防效%Control Effect of the Dregs of Tea-oil Tree Fruit on Tobacco Black Cutworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨通隆; 杨秀春; 杨天沛; 孔德懋

    2012-01-01

    To seek new drug source for organic tobacco production, and take full advantage of the dregs of tea-oil tree fruit, the control effect of the dregs of tea-oil tree fruit on tobacco black cutworm was studied by randomized block design in Tianzhu tobacco-growing area. The results showed that the control effect increased with increasing application amount of the dregs of tea-oil tree fruit. And could be up to 83. 78%when the application amount was 825 kg/hm2, which was close to that of 1 000 times of 2. 5% alphamethrin. Hole fertilization had higher control efficiency than drill fertilization, which was 78. 34% when the application amount was 675 kg/hm2.%为探索生产有机烟叶的新型杀虫药源,同时充分利用茶枯资源,采用随机区组设计方法,在天柱烟区进行了茶枯对烟草小地老虎防效试验.结果表明:随着茶枯施用量的增加其防效增加,用量达825kg/hm2时,其防效与施用2.5%高效氯氰聚酯1 000倍液的防效接近,达83.78%;窝施的防效优于条施,窝施用量达675 kg/hm2时,其防效达78.34%.

  3. A comparative study of volatile components in green, oolong and black teas by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhongda; Zhao, Chunxia; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2013-10-25

    The difference of volatile components in green, oolong and black teas was studied by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Simultaneous distillation extraction was proved to be a suitable technique to extract the analytes with interest. A total of 450 compounds were tentatively identified with comparison to the standard mass spectra in available databases, retention index on the first dimension and structured chromatogram. 33 tea samples, including 12, 12 and 9 samples of green, oolong and black tea were analyzed by using GC×GC-TOFMS. After peak alignment, around 3600 peaks were detected. Partial least squares - discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to classify these samples, then non-parametric hypothesis test (Mann-Whitney U test) and the variable importance in the projection (VIP) were applied to discover the key components to distinguish the three types of tea with significant difference amongst them. 74 differential compounds are defined to interpret the chemical differences of 3 types of tea. This study shows the power of GC×GC-TOFMS method combined with multivariate data analysis to investigate natural products with high complexity for information extraction.

  4. Alteration in bone geometric and mechanical properties, histomorphometrical parameters of trabecular bone, articular cartilage, and growth plate in adolescent rats after chronic co-exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green, black, red and white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk, Agnieszka; Muszyński, Siemowit; Radzki, Radosław

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent male Wistar rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, white, or green tea would have a protective effect on femur development during 12-week exposure to Cd and Pb (7mg Cd and 50mg Pb in 1kg of the diet). The animals were randomly divided (n=12) into a positive control (without Cd, Pb and teas), a negative control group (Cd and Pb), and groups supplemented additionally with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), and white tea (WT). Heavy metals reduced the geometric and densitometric parameters and the total thickness of articular cartilage irrespective of tea administration and influenced mechanical endurance, growth plate thickness, and trabecular histomorphometry depending on the tea type. It is difficult to indicate which tea has the best protective effects on bone and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.

  5. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage’s antiradical capacity and sensory value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer contain- ing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are poly- phenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. Material and methods. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. Results. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Conclusions. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components’ biological activity.

  6. In vitro antifungal activity against Candida species of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal potential of different grades of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea [orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1] belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high. Methods: Antifungal activity was assessed in vitro using methanolic extracts (300 µg/disc and agar disc diffusion bioassay technique against three Candida species, Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida glabrata (C. glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. ketoconazole and itraconazole mixture was used as positive control (10 µg/disc and methanol was used as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were also determined using standard protocols. Results: None of the extracts were effective against Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, orange pekoe grade tea belonging to all agro-climatic elevations did not induce any antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata as well. Conversely, Dust No. 1 belonging to all three agro-climatic elevations and low-grown BOPF showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Interestingly, the severity of the antifungal effect varied with agroclimatic elevations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 64.00–128.00 µg/mL against C. glabrata and 128.00-256.00 µg/mL against C. albicans. Conclusions: Sri Lankan Dust No. 1 and BOPF have marked antifungal activity in vitro and offer promise to be used as a supplementary beverage in prophylaxis and during drug treatment in candidiasis.

  7. 都匀红茶中金属元素含量的调查%Survey on the Content of Metal Elements in the Black Tea Produced in Duyun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿云光; 杨舒清; 罗在粉; 黎进堂

    2015-01-01

    近几年都匀毛尖茶产区内红茶的产量迅速增长,采用了都匀毛尖茶相同原料和金骏眉类似工艺生产的都匀红茶,其品质独树一帜。通过对10个主要茶叶产区生产的都匀红茶中的铜、锌、锰、铁、铝、镉、铅、砷、汞9种金属元素的含量进行检测,并对结果进行分析统计。表明都匀红茶中对人体有益的金属元素含量丰富,有害金属含量少,并具备了发展成有机茶的条件。%Recently in the producing area of Duyun Maojian tea, there has been a rapid increase in the production of the black tea, the quality of which is inimitable, adopting the same raw materials as Duyun Maojian and the similar technics to Jin Junmei. Testing and analyzing the content of 9 metal elements including copper, zincum, manganese, iron, aluminium, cadmium, plumbum, arsenic and hydragyrum in Duyun black tea produced in 10 main producing areas of tea, the results indicated that Duyun black tea was rich in metal elements which were good for health and low in harmful metal elements and that it had the necessary conditions of developing as organic tea.

  8. Fate of Mycotoxins during Beer Brewing and Fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INOUE, Tomonori; NAGATOMI, Yasushi; UYAMA, Atsuo; MOCHIZUKI, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    ...) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing...

  9. 福建大宗红茶市场现状分析与对策——以立顿成功经验为鉴%Countermeasure and Market Status Analysis on Staple Black Tea in Fujian -- Take the Successful Experiences of Lipton as Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红平; 刘艺蕾; 曾治浩

    2012-01-01

    Staple tea product caters to modern urbanite's consumption habits, and it will dominate the tea market in the future. This paper summarized the current situation and the existing problems of black tea market in Fujian, and analyzed the successful experiences on market development of Lipton black tea. Finally, the countermeasures to promote the development of staple black tea market in Fujina were put forward.%大宗茶产品符合现代都市人的消费习惯,在未来茶叶市场将占主导地位。该文总结了福建大宗红茶市场的现状及面临的问题,分析了立顿大宗红茶市场开发的成功经验,并据此提出促进福建大宗红茶市场发展的对策思路。

  10. Study on the optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions and green tea solution by multi-pulse laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Yan-Xiong; Yang Hai-Lin; Zhang Peng; Shen Xue-Ju; Jiang Nan; Chen Yan; Tang Fang

    2008-01-01

    The optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions(CBS)and green tea solution were studied by using an 8 ns laser pulse at 532nm.The optical limiting effects of the CBS and mixed liquid have been compared between 5 and 10 Hz repetition frequencies with nanosecond laser pulse.The experimental results indicate that the optical limiting threshold of the sample with the incidence laser at 10 Hz repetition frequency is lower than at 5 Hz repetition frequency.The possible reasons for the influence of the repetition frequency on the samples are discussed.And by observing the optical radiant distributions when the laser pulse passing through different samples,a possible mechanism for the observed effects is suggested.At the same time,the result shows that the optical limiting of CBS is the dominant factor to optical limiting ofthe mixed liquid.

  11. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  12. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Study on the optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions and green tea solution by multi-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu Yan-, Xiong; Yang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Peng; Shen, Xue-Ju; Jiang, Nan; Chen, Yan; Tang, Fang

    2008-09-01

    The optical limiting properties of the mixed liquid of carbon black suspensions (CBS) and green tea solution were studied by using an 8 ns laser pulse at 532 nm. The optical limiting effects of the CBS and mixed liquid have been compared between 5 and 10 Hz repetition frequencies with nanosecond laser pulse. The experimental results indicate that the optical limiting threshold of the sample with the incidence laser at 10 Hz repetition frequency is lower than at 5 Hz repetition frequency. The possible reasons for the influence of the repetition frequency on the samples are discussed. And by observing the optical radiant distributions when the laser pulse passing through different samples, a possible mechanism for the observed effects is suggested. At the same time, the result shows that the optical limiting of CBS is the dominant factor to optical limiting of the mixed liquid.

  13. Black Tea May Be a Prospective Adjunct for Calcium Supplementation to Prevent Early Menopausal Bone Loss in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankur Sekhar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the ability of black tea extract (BTE as a suitable alternative of adjunct for calcium supplementation in treating an ovariectomized rat model of early osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats weighing 140–150 g were divided into four groups consisting of six animals in each group: (A sham-operated control; (B bilaterally ovariectomized; (C bilaterally ovariectomized + BTE; (D bilaterally ovariectomized + 17β-estradiol. Results suggest that BTE could promote intestinal absorption of calcium significantly (P0.05. A comparative study with 17β-estradiol, a well-known adjunct for calcium supplementation, indicated that efficacy of BTE in maintaining skeletal health is close to that of 17β-estradiol. This study suggests that simultaneous use of BTE is promising as a prospective candidate for adjunctive therapies for calcium supplementation in the early stage of menopausal bone changes.

  14. Black tea may be a prospective adjunct for calcium supplementation to prevent early menopausal bone loss in a rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Asankur Sekhar; Banerjee, Maitrayee; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the ability of black tea extract (BTE) as a suitable alternative of adjunct for calcium supplementation in treating an ovariectomized rat model of early osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats weighing 140-150 g were divided into four groups consisting of six animals in each group: (A) sham-operated control; (B) bilaterally ovariectomized; (C) bilaterally ovariectomized + BTE; (D) bilaterally ovariectomized + 17 β -estradiol. Results suggest that BTE could promote intestinal absorption of calcium significantly (P 0.05). A comparative study with 17 β -estradiol, a well-known adjunct for calcium supplementation, indicated that efficacy of BTE in maintaining skeletal health is close to that of 17 β -estradiol. This study suggests that simultaneous use of BTE is promising as a prospective candidate for adjunctive therapies for calcium supplementation in the early stage of menopausal bone changes.

  15. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  16. Black tea extract and its thearubigins relieve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice: a possible role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hussam A S; Abdallah, Hossam M

    2014-11-01

    In this study we hypothesize that a standardized black tea aqueous extract (BTE) and thearubigins, its main polyphenolic pigments, will improve sildenafil-induced delay in gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit (SIT) in mice. Twenty groups of mice (n = 8) were given a phenol red meal, and three sets of experiments were performed. In the first and second sets, effects of different concentrations of BTE, thearubigins (TRs), and sildenafil (SLD), alone and in combinations, on GE and SIT were measured. In the third set, influence of nω -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) pretreatment on effects of these treatments was tested. Black tea extract (3% and 4.5%) and thearubigins (50 and 60 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased GE and SIT, whereas BTE 6% and thearubigins 70 mg/kg did not affect them. Sildenafil dose-dependently reduced both GE and SIT. Combination of metoclopramide, BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, or l-NAME with sildenafil (5 mg/kg) reversed its motility-delaying effects. Pretreatment with l-NAME followed by BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, BTE 4.5% + sildenafil 5, or thearubigins 60 + sildenafil 5 only partially affected the accelerating effects of BTE 4.5% and thearubigins 60. In conclusion, a standardized BTE and its thearubigins improve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice. This improvement was partially blocked by l-NAME suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide. Thus, BTE 4.5% or TRs 60 mg/kg solution could be considered a reliever therapy for the sildenafil-induced dyspepsia.

  17. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Maliakal, Pius; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The bioavailability and biotransformation of tea polyphenols, however, are key factors limiting these activities in vivo. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.

  18. Identification of Green, Oolong and Black Teas in China via Wavelet Packet Entropy and Fuzzy Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop an automatic tea-category identification system with a high recall rate, we proposed a computer-vision and machine-learning based system, which did not require expensive signal acquiring devices and time-consuming procedures. We captured 300 tea images using a 3-CCD digital camera, and then extracted 64 color histogram features and 16 wavelet packet entropy (WPE features to obtain color information and texture information, respectively. Principal component analysis was used to reduce features, which were fed into a fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM. Winner-take-all (WTA was introduced to help the classifier deal with this 3-class problem. The 10 × 10-fold stratified cross-validation results show that the proposed FSVM + WTA method yields an overall recall rate of 97.77%, higher than 5 existing methods. In addition, the number of reduced features is only five, less than or equal to existing methods. The proposed method is effective for tea identification.

  19. Time-dependent extraction kinetics of infused components of different Indian black tea types using UV spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Gani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent aqueous extraction of six tea types was carried out with leaf–water–ratio of 0.5 g/100 ml, temperature of extraction 90°C and time of extraction ranging from 1 to 10 min. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis in the range varying from 220 to 900 nm of the aqueous tea extracts showed a prominent peak at 273 nm in the ultraviolet region which can be associated with n → π* electronic transition of caffeine molecules. Parabolic diffusion, Power law, hyperbolic, Weibull’s and Elovich’s models were fitted to represent the aqueous soluble component extraction behaviour for time-dependent extraction of aqueous extractables. Parabolic diffusion model, Power law and Elovich’s model were a close fit to the experimental data for all the selected tea types with correlation coefficients (R2 ranging 0.8029–0.9953, whereas hyperbolic and Weibull’s models showed poor fitness to represent the extraction behaviour of fanning and AO leaf, LD, fanning and dust, respectively, with R2 < 0.8, for time-dependent aqueous soluble component extraction.

  20. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process.

  1. Progress in Brewing Science and Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W

    2017-06-07

    The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries.

  2. Low Molecular Weight Melanoidins in Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Roos, E.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are

  3. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. Th

  4. Low Molecular Weight Melanoidins in Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Roos, E.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are presen

  5. 红茶饮料液态发酵影响因素研究进展%Research Status of the Influencing Factors in Liquid Fermentation of Black Tea Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇宙; 午勇泉; 尹军峰; 夏珍珠; 王志岚

    2011-01-01

    In recent yeas, in order to solve the problems of the traditional black tea beverage industry, many scholars study the liquid fermentation which was using for producing the black tea beverage. This article mainly discussed the effects in liquid fermentation system of black tea beverage: included the substrate concentration and the activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, pretreatment of fresh leaves, temperature, pH, oxygen supplements, and time. By affecting the concentration and ratio of theaflavins, thearubigins and theabrownins, these factors can affect the system and the quality of black tea. They played the vital roles in liquid fermentation system of black tea beverage. According to the domestic and international tea beverage liquid fermentation technology, combining the current research situation of the existing problems, the author advanced some measures, such as raw material, enzyme and automatic control. They provided theoretical basis for lucubrating and extensive application of this technology.%为解决传统红茶饮料产业所面临的问题,近年来国内外许多学者对液态发酵生产红茶饮料产品进行了研究.主要从红茶饮料液态发酵体系中影响发酵效果的主要因素方面进行研究.包括底物浓度、多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶活性、鲜叶预处理和液态发酵的技术参数.这些因素通过影响体系中茶黄素、茶红素、茶褐素的含量和比例影响红茶品质.从而对红茶饮料液态发酵过程起着至关重要的作用.根据国内外红茶饮料液态发酵技术的研究现状,结合当前所存在的问题,从原料、酶和自动控制方面提出改进措施,为这一技术的深入研究和广泛应用提供理论基础.

  6. Realm of Black Tea and Zen of The History of Tea's Capital%《茶都旧事》的黑茶境界与禅境之会通

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄守愚

    2012-01-01

    The History of Tea's Capital the safety of black tea anthropomorphic treatment, and through which people and events of the interpretation to clarify black tea bitter sweet after, shame, where strict cold, lay down, static, nature and man the realm of deed in Buddhism, this realm of Zen and Buddhism will pass.%《茶都旧事》将安化黑茶拟人化处理,并通过其中人物与事件之诠释,澄明安化黑茶苦后回甘、忍辱、凡、严冷、放下、静、天人合一的境界,因契于佛理,此境界可与佛教禅境会通。

  7. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  8. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China.

  9. Silicon in beer and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Troy R; Bamforth, Charles W

    2010-04-15

    It has been claimed that beer is one of the richest sources of silicon in the diet; however, little is known of the relationship between silicon content and beer style and the manner in which beer is produced. The purpose of this study was to measure silicon in a diversity of beers and ascertain the grist selection and brewing factors that impact the level of silicon obtained in beer. Commercial beers ranged from 6.4 to 56.5 mg L(-1) in silicon. Products derived from a grist of barley tended to contain more silicon than did those from a wheat-based grist, likely because of the high levels of silica in the retained husk layer of barley. Hops contain substantially more silicon than does grain, but quantitatively hops make a much smaller contribution than malt to the production of beer and therefore relatively less silicon in beer derives from them. During brewing the vast majority of the silicon remains with the spent grains; however, aggressive treatment during wort production in the brewhouse leads to increased extraction of silicon into wort and much of this survives into beer. It is confirmed that beer is a very rich source of silicon. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The microbiology of malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bamforth, Charles W

    2013-06-01

    Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing.

  11. The Microbiology of Malting and Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing. PMID:23699253

  12. Polyphenol composition of a functional fermented tea obtained by tea-rolling processing of green tea and loquat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shii, Takuya; Tanaka, Takashi; Watarumi, Sayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Matsui, Toshiro; Kouno, Isao

    2011-07-13

    Phenolic constituents of a new functional fermented tea produced by tea-rolling processing of a mixture (9:1) of tea leaves and loquat leaves were examined in detail. The similarity of the phenolic composition to that of black tea was indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography comparison with other tea products. Twenty-five compounds, including three new catechin oxidation products, were isolated, and the structures of the new compounds were determined to be (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone 2-O-gallate, dehydrotheasinensin H, and acetonyl theacitrin A by spectroscopic methods. In addition, theacitrinin A and theasinensin H were obtained for the first time from commercial tea products. Isolation of these new and known compounds confirms that reactions previously demonstrated by in vitro model experiments actually occur when fresh tea leaves are mechanically distorted and bruised during the production process.

  13. Application of multivariate analysis to the effects of additives on chemical and sensory quality of stored coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Mónica; Sopelana, Patricia; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this work was to obtain a black coffee brew to be consumed hot by extension of its shelf life, by addition of additives. Four pH-regulator agents (sodium and potassium carbonates and bicarbonates), one pH regulator and antioxidant (sodium citrate), three antioxidants [sodium ascorbate, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite], and lactoserum were tested by sensory analysis. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were selected for a study of the physicochemical (soluble and volatile compounds related to the sensory properties) and sensorial quality of coffee brew stored for 90 days at 4 degrees C. Although both additives extended the shelf life of the coffee brew up to 60 days, sodium carbonate was the chosen additive because it was the most useful in limiting the pH decrease and perception of sourness, which are some of the main factors involved in the rejection of stored coffee brews, and it better maintained the aroma and taste/flavor. Moreover, the application of multivariate analysis facilitated first the description of the global changes of the coffee brews with or without additives throughout the storage using principal component analysis and second the obtainment of a simple equation only with pH and caffeic acid parameters to discriminate the three types of coffee brews and simplify the analytical process, by means of the stepwise discriminant analysis.

  14. Study on Thermal Analysis for the Distinguish of Black Buckwheat Tea and Raw Buckwheat%黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料的热分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静平

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of black buckwheat teas and raw buckwheat were studied by TG-DTG method in the static air. To understand the distinguish of the black buckwheat tea and the raw black buckwheat , then discuss if the nutrition of raw black buckwheat flowed away by industrial processing. By setting experimental conditions, we can get the DTA curves. By the analyses of the articulation and the weightless rate of the curves, the optimum conditions can be got. The analysis shows that the DTA curves were similar, and the tea's wave crest had one more peak than the raw black buckwheat. The industrial processing had few influence on the nutrition. The decomposition temperature of black buckwheat tea was 292.97 ℃,The decomposition temperature of raw black buckwheat was 303.65 ℃,The better experimental condition was 15 ℃/min for the heating rate, the mass of the samples are about 2 mg.%用差热-热重分析对黑苦荞茶和黑苦荞原料进行热分析.目的在于对比黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料的区别,探讨加工过程对黑苦荞原料的营养流失是否严重.通过实验确定其最佳条件.结果表明,黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料热分解曲线相似, 且比黑苦荞原料多一个峰. 加工过程对黑苦荞原料的营养流失影响不大. 黑苦荞茶开始分解的温度为292.97℃,黑苦荞原料开始分解的温度为303.65℃.以上材料在静态空气气氛下热分析实验条件均为:升温速率为15℃/min,样品质量2 mg左右.

  15. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  16. The Screening of Cultivars for High Quality Congu Black Tea%高档红条茶适制品种筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银霞; 郑红发; 黄怀生; 赵熙; 粟本文

    2014-01-01

    Sensory taste and analysis of chemical composition was conducted for the congu black teas made by cultiars Bixiangzao, Jianbohuang13, Taoyuan Big Leaf, Huangjincha1, Zhuyeqi and Fudingdabai. The result showes that Huangjincha1 is the best in quality and Jianbohuang13, Bixiangzao and Zhuyeqi also behave good in the experiment.%通过感官审评与理化成分分析,对碧香早、尖波黄13号、桃源大叶、保靖黄金茶1号、槠叶齐、福鼎大白茶等6个品种加工的高档红条茶进行品质比较分析。结果表明,保靖黄金茶1号具有明显的品质优势,审评总分最高,尖波黄13号、碧香早、槠叶齐亦表现优秀。

  17. Metabolic variation and antioxidant potential of Malus prunifolia (wild apple) compared with high flavon-3-ol containing fruits (apple, grapes) and beverage (black tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-11-15

    Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combination of HSCCC and Sephadex LH-20 methods An approach to isolation and purification of the main individual theaflavins from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjun; Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2008-01-01

    In order to separate the main individual theaflavin monomers from black tea, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography were applied. The results showed that theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3) can be obtained by HSCCC using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:3:1:6, v/v/v/v), but the TF1 was containing epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). Similarly, Sephadex LH-20 can also effectively separate TF2A(B) and TF3, but epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) contaminated TF1, too. Combination of HSCCC and Sephadex LH-20, the preferably purified TF1, TF2A(B) and TF3 were obtained than single separation technique. In addition, ECG and EGCG were also suggested to be able to be comprehensively separated by combination of the two techniques.

  19. Investigation of isomeric flavanol structures in black tea thearubigins using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole/ion mobility/time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ghada H; Grun, Christian; Koek, Jean H; Assaf, Khaleel I; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-11-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) when coupled to ion mobility (IMS)/orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry is a suitable technique for analyzing complex mixtures such as the black tea thearubigins. With the aid of this advanced instrumental analysis, we were able to separate and identify different isomeric components in the complex mixture which could previously not be differentiated by a conventional high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, the difference between isomeric structures theasinensins, proanthocyanidins B-type and rutin (quercetin-3O-rutinoside) were studied, and these are present abundantly in many botanical sources. The differentiation between these structures was accomplished according to their acquired mobility drift times differing from the traditional investigations in mass spectrometry, where calculation of theoretical collisional cross sections allowed assignment of the individual isomeric structures. The present work demonstrates UPLC-IMS-MS as an efficient technology for isolating and separating isobaric and isomeric structures existing in complex mixtures discriminating between them according to their characteristic fragment ions and mobility drift times. Therefore, a rational assignment of isomeric structures in many phenolic secondary metabolites based on the ion mobility data might be useful in mass spectrometry-based structure analysis in the future.

  20. Progress in brewing science and beer production

    OpenAIRE

    Bamforth, CW

    2017-01-01

    Copyright © 2017 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of tea as affected by the degree of fermentation and manufacturing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Lin, L L; Chung, K T

    1999-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus were used to test the antimicrobial activity of tea flush extract and extracts of various tea products. Among the six test organisms, P. fluorescens was the most sensitive to the extracts, while B. subtilis was the least sensitive. In general, antimicrobial activity decreased when the extents of tea fermentation increased. The antimicrobial activities of tea flush extract and extracts of tea products with different extents of fermentation varied with test organisms. Tea flush and Green tea, the unfermented tea, exerted the strongest antimicrobial activity followed by the partially fermented tea products such as Longjing, Tieh-Kuan-Ying, Paochung, and Oolong teas. On the other hand, Black tea, the completely fermented tea, showed the least antimicrobial activity. It was also noted that extracts of Oolong tea prepared in summer exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by those prepared in spring, winter and fall.

  2. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar M; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Tea that contains many antioxidants is a pleasant and safe drink that is enjoyed by people across the globe. Tea leaves are manufactured as black, green, or oolong. Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. The concept of "use of tea for promotion of human health and prevention and cure of diseases" has become a subject of intense research in the last decade. Diseases for which tea drinkers appear to have lower risk are simple infections, like bacterial and viral, to chronic debilitating diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis. Initial work on green tea suggested that it possesses human health-promoting effects. In recent years, the research efforts have been expanded to black tea as well. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases. For cancer prevention, evidence is so overwhelming that the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a plan for developing tea compounds as cancer-chemopreventive agents in human trials. Thus, modern medical research is confirming the ancient wisdom that therapy of many diseases may reside in an inexpensive beverage in a "teapot."

  3. An Old Town on the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    FOR centuries, Southwest China's Yunnan Province has been known as home of black tea. It was in the Tang Dynasty(618 - 907) that caravans began to transport bricks of tea from Xishuangbanna and Simao to India, passing through Yunnan's Dali and Lijiang and Tibet. The route became known as the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail.

  4. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma.

  5. Tea Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2013-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle and intangible cultural heritage Every spring, Chinese indulge in drinking copious amounts of fresh green tea picked and processed in the country's southern mountain areas. In particular, several days before and after the Tomb Sweeping Day (April 4), tea trees blessed with

  6. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed toward

  7. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  8. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastro...

  9. Sonme Factors that Affect the Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Tea Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Some factors that affect the free radical-scavenging activety of two tea extracts were studied in vitro. It was found that concentration of tea extract or heating tea extract or treating with activated carbon and diatomite all had obvious effect on the scavenging activety of green tea extract ,but heating or treating with diaomite had less effect on the scavenging activity of black tea extract. Ascorbic acid, for having synergic effect with tea extracts, could enhance the scavenging activity of tea extracts markedly, and the contrary was cupric ion. Reducing sugars such as fructose and glucose also had some syncrgic effect to tea extracts.

  10. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Incorporated in Negatively Charged Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Laat, de M.P.F.C.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2007-01-01

    The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules

  11. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Incorporated in Negatively Charged Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Laat, de M.P.F.C.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2007-01-01

    The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules

  12. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  13. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  14. GREEN TEA FESTIVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  15. Quality of Newly Developed Black Tea,Panyong Congou “Daxueshi”%坦洋工夫‘大学士’红茶的研制及品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 杨如兴; 陈芝芝; 郭聪; 郭光辉

    2014-01-01

    Fresh leaves from the new variety of tea,Tanyang Caicha ,were processed into the black tea,Panyong Congou “Daxueshi”.The sensory quality and aromatic constituents of the tea were determined.The sensory score of the tea was 4.25 points higher than the Super Panyong Congou tea available on the market,with better ratings on the shape,flavor and taste.The contents of water soluble matters,polyphenols,free amino acids,catechin and caffeine of the tea sample were 46.8%,16.8%,4.3%,3.1% and 3.98%,respectively.There were 43 aromatic compounds isolated from the tea.Among them,the alcohols had the highest concentration (51.91%,13.14%,and 9.91% were cis-geraniol,salicylic acid methyl ester and β-linalool,respectively).They rendered the characteristic sweet,flowery and fruity aroma of Panyong Congou “Daxueshi”.%以新选坦洋菜茶品系1芽1叶初展为原料,研制坦洋工夫“大学士”红茶样品,并对其进行感官品质审评及理化品质检测分析。结果表明:坦洋工夫“大学士”红茶的感官审评总得分比市售特级坦洋工夫红茶高4.25分,其外形、香气和滋味等感官品质达到或超过特级坦洋工夫红茶品质水平;干茶水浸出物含量46.8%、茶多酚总量为16.8%、游离氨基酸含量4.3%、儿茶素总量3.1%、咖啡碱含量为3.98%;共检测出香气成分47种,以具花果香的醇类物质为主体,其中香叶醇含量达51.91%、水杨酸甲酯含量达13.14%、β-芳樟醇含量达9.91%,新产品表现出“嫩甜香、花果香显”的香气特征。

  16. Rural brewing, exclusion, and development policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, M

    1996-10-01

    This article highlights the economic role of women in the brewing industry in rural and periurban areas of sub-Saharan African countries. Local beer drinking is a form of social exchange and a reward for time-intensive work. Modern beer brewing in rural areas is a family operation. Beer is produced for subsistence and for sale. Locally brewed beer has a lower alcohol content than commercial brews. The author refers to Pradervand's (1990) study of local brewing in five east and west African countries. Pradervand found that men spent an estimated CFAF 18 billion per year on local brews compared to the value of total national exports of CFAF 21 billion per year in 1996. The male Kitui in rural Kenya were found to spend 60% of their weekly income on beer. Women dominate brewing in eastern and southern Africa. Rural beers are grain based (maize, millet, or sorghum), but may also be made from bananas, bamboo, sugar cane, or coconut. An estimated 25% of women in a village survey in Tanzania reported that beer was brewed one to four times a month. Another survey in the 1980s found that 73% of women brewed beer at some time. Beer brewing is a very significant economic activity for rural women. It provides higher levels of income and employment. Urban brewing by women has a negative image that rural women's beer brewing does not have. Grain for brewing comes from family farms or markets. Women's clubs are used as income generation groups for loans and as support groups. Women's beer brewing is not supported by development interventions or recognized by UN agencies. There are resource implications due to an estimated 5%-30% of annual wood consumption used for beer brewing. If women's role in beer brewing is ignored, male-dominated commercial interests will further marginalize rural women.

  17. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Malir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B, being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source.

  18. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Pan; Hong-Ping Chen; Ming-Lu Zhang; Qing-Hua Wang; Ying Jiang; Xin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and blac...

  19. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  20. Simultaneous determination of polyphenols and major purine alkaloids in Greek Sideritis species, herbal extracts, green tea, black tea, and coffee by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Tsagiannidis, Anastasios; Sarakatsianos, Ioannis

    2012-02-01

    Herein, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic antioxidants: flavan-3-ols, (-)-epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-gallocatechin, a phenolic acid (gallic acid), a hydroxycinnamic acid (chlorogenic acid), flavones (apigenin), flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin), and purine alkaloids (caffeine theophylline, theobromine) in different herb extracts, tea, and coffee varieties. The developed method was validated and successfully applied in order to determine the polyphenolic content to estimate the antioxidant activity of the Sideritis species commonly known as Greek mountain tea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantitative determination of catechins and other polyphenols in Greek mountain tea. Acidic hydrolysis was necessary for the simultaneous determination of the aglycones of the target analytes. According to our results, chlorogenic acid, myricetin, apigenin, catechin, and epicatechin gallate are found in the Sideritis species.

  1. 不同极性色谱柱在滇红香气成分分析中的对比研究%A Comparative Study of Different Polarity Chromatographic Column in Analysis of Aroma Components in Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔阳; 杜丽平; 肖冬光

    2016-01-01

    The aroma components in black tea were extracted and analyzed by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two different polarity chromatographic columns were used for the separation of the aroma components in black tea. The result of semi-standard non-polar chromatographic column HP-5MS and standard polar chromatographic column CP-Wax were compared by analysis. The results indicated that the separation effect of two different polarity chromatographic column are satisfactory, and there are some differences between the analysis results. Therefore, in the analysis of different aroma components in black tea, we should select suitable chromatographic columns according to the various analytes.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)对滇红的香气成分进行富集,分别使用两种不同极性的色谱柱进行色谱分离,气质联用(GC-MS)检测分析,比较了非极性色谱柱 HP-5MS 和极性色谱柱 CP-Wax 对红茶香气成分分离效果的差异。结果表明,两种不同极性色谱柱对红茶香气成分的分离效果均表现良好,但分析结果存在一定的差异。因此在对红茶中不同的香气成分进行研究分析时,应根据分析目标的不同选择合适的色谱柱。

  2. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... and distribution costs. Based on information from the Annual Reports of the eight largest breweries in the world, the estimation proved a reduction in these costs of close to twenty percent when doubling the size of the brewing group. This finding verifies that the restructuring of the brewing industry creates...

  3. On beer, brewing and better thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Herder, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The art of brewing goes back to very ancient times. Though little has changed in the actual brewing process, the technical equipment has been improved considerably. Cooling the brew, gives also a need for thermal insulation. In the beginning cork has been used as an thermal insulation material, followed by cellular plastic foam and fibrous insulants in the past 30 years. All these materials gradually absorb water, caused by the phenomena that water vapour in the air tends to go into the direction of the cold pipe surface. In practice it appeared to be impossible to make the above insulation materials vapourtight. Water vapour will condensate in the insulation material into water. Water being the greatest enemy of insulation material. Cellular glass insulation, well-known in the petro-chemical industry, has proven to be 100% vapourtight, so an excellent choice for cold piping and equipment. 5 figs.

  4. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  5. Preparation of Black Tea Condensed Solution from Purple Tea Leaves and Research of the Stability of Its Color Rendering%紫芽茶制备红茶饮料浓缩液及其呈色稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵先明; 汪艳霞; 王孝仕; 杜晓

    2011-01-01

    以茶树紫色芽叶制备红茶浓缩液,利用其富含花青素,在酸性条件下呈稳定红色的特性,旨在解决冰红茶饮料呈红色不足的技术难题.研究表明:紫芽红茶浓缩液的固形物含量为28.72 g/L,花青素含量高达0.84 g/L,是绿芽红茶浓缩液的84倍.UV-Vis扫描表明:紫芽红茶浓缩液分别于274 nm和380 nm处有儿茶素类和茶黄素的2个强吸收峰,还在530 nm处有花青素的特征吸收峰,这与其呈色特征相关.在一般冰红茶饮料的酸性和浓度条件下,试样溶液的色价值为26.68± 1.26.稳定性实验表明:紫芽红茶浓缩液对pH值、光照、加热及柠檬酸、蔗糖和少量食盐等饮料添加成分均有相当耐受性,其红色明亮稳定,显色与着色性好,可以满足冰红茶饮料的生产条件要求.%The current ice black tea products suffer from the defect that the drink is not red enough in tint. In an attempt to solve this problem, purple young tea leaves were used to prepare black tea condensed solution (sample) as they contain abundant anthocyanidins and show a steady red under acid conditions. The soluble solid content of the sample was 28. 72 g/L, and the anthocyanidins content was 0. 84 g/L, being 84 times as high as that of the green tealeaf black tea condensed solution. UV-Vis scanning showed that the sample had 2 strong absorption peaks at 274 nm (catechins) and 380 nm (theaflavins) and had the anthocyanidins characteristic absorption peak at 530 nm, which was responsible for the red of the sample. In the acid and concentration conditions of common ice black tea drinks, the color value of the sample was 26. 68 ± 1. 26. Stability experiment results demonstrate that the sample had fairly great endurance to pH, sunlight, heating and beverage additives (including citric acid, sugar and a little salt), the red of the sample kept bright and stable, and its color rendering and coloration were good. The above results suggested that the sample could be

  6. 中国红、绿茶适制品种(系)遗传多样性与亲缘关系的SSR分析%Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Tea Cultivars and Lines Suitable for Making Green and Black Tea Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段云裳; 姜燕华; 王丽鸳; 成浩; 王玉花; 黎星辉

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨中国红、绿茶适制品种(系)的遗传多样性和亲缘关系,了解遗传背景对于品种适制性差异的影响与作用,为茶树育种研究提供分子生物学方面的参考.[方法]利用自主开发的具有多态性的39对SSR引物对中国157份红、绿茶适制品种(系)进行遗传多样性评价和亲缘关系分析.[结果]引物在供试材料中平均可检测4.90个等位基因,11.28个基因型,平均多态性信息量(PIC)0.53,基因多样性指数(H)0.57,遗传分化系数GST 0.19,说明81%的遗传多样性来自品种之间的遗传差异.各省份供试材料的遗传多样性以广东最高,江西最低.按照适制性分组分析,结果表明适制红茶品种(系)的遗传多样性水平最高,红绿茶兼制型品种次之,适制绿茶品种(系)最低.根据育种方式分组分析表明,系统选育法得到的品种(系)其遗传多样性水平高于杂交选育品种(系),高于地方品种(系).聚类分析显示,供试材料聚为了三大类,大部分品种(系)都按照其地理来源和遗传背景进行聚类,并未按照适制性相互聚类.[结论]中国红、绿茶适制品种(系)具有较高水平的遗传多样性.其中,适制红茶品种(系)的遗传多样性水平最高,红绿茶兼制型品种次之,适制绿茶品种(系)最低.同时,主要依据地理来源和遗传背景进行亲缘关系聚类.%[Objective]The genetic diversity and relationship of tea cultivars and strains suitable for manufacturing green and black tea were studied in order to learn the genetic effect on the manufacture suitability of tea plant and to provide some molecular information to support the effective tea breeding.[Method]The genetic diversity and cluster analysis of 157 cultivars and strains of tea plant were analyzed using 39 pairs of SSR markers.[Result]Totally 191 alleles and 440 genotypes were amplified by 39 SSR markers, with the average of 4.90 and 11.28.The average polymorphism information content (PIC

  7. Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles mediated by black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) extract: Catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction under ligand-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaschi, Sadaf; Hekmati, Malak; Veisi, Hojat

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to synthesize palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) through a facile and green route using non-toxic and renewable natural black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) extract, as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared Pd@B.tea NPs catalyst was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The Pd@B.tea NPs catalyst could be used as an efficient and heterogeneous catalyst for Suzuki coupling reactions between phenylboronic acid and a range of aryl halides (X=I, Br, Cl) and also the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using sodium borohydride in an environmental friendly medium. Excellent yields of products were obtained with a wide range of substrates and the catalyst was recycled 7 times without any significant loss of its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span.

  9. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Ceresini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis. However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA, to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2. As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  10. Swelling kinetics of tea in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhushan S; Farakte, Raosaheb A; Yadav, Geeta U; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the swelling kinetics of individual tea particles as well as bed of tea granules were investigated for different types of teas. The swelling experiments involved image analysis and volume measurements of tea particles. Each individual particle shows different swelling characteristics. Separating funnels and cylindrical columns of varying sizes were used to study the changes in volume of tea bed. Swelling in separating funnel was observed to be more than that in column. The effect of temperature, particle size, bed height and vessel diameter were investigated. The extent as well as the rate of swelling is found to increase with rise in temperature (60 to 80 °C) and reduction in particle size. A decrease in swelling is observed with increase in bed height as well as decrease in vessel diameter and vice a versa. About 70 to 75 % swelling occurs in the first 40 to 45 s. Two empirical models viz. Weibull and Peleg were used to fit the experimental data. The rate parameters obtained for a sample T5 at different temperatures were in the range of 0.012 to 0.016. The volume changes of all the teas were compared with their elution behavior, by measuring the absorbance of a diluted sample of brew at 272 nm. The activation energies for the process of tea swelling calculated for T1 (1.2 mm), T5 (2.2 mm) and T5 (0.72 mm) were 14.156, 8.37 and 13.42 kJ/mol respectively.

  11. Optimizing conditions for the extraction of catechins from green tea using hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Nguyen, Minh H; Roach, Paul D

    2011-11-01

    Six different factors involved in the extraction of catechins from green tea using water were examined for their impact on the yield of catechins and on the efficiency of water use. The best temperature and time combination for catechin extraction was at 80°C for 30 min. The yield of catechins was also optimal with a tea particle size of 1 mm, a brewing solution pH tea-to-water ratio at 50:1 (mL/g). In terms of efficient use of water in a single extraction, a water-to-tea ratio of 20:1 (mL/g) gave the best results; 2.5 times less water was used per gram of green tea. At the water-to-tea ratio of 20:1 mL/g, the highest yield of catechins per gram of green tea was achieved by extracting the same sample of green tea twice. However, for the most efficient use of water, the best extraction was found to be once at a water-to-tea ratio of 12:1 (mL/g) and once at a water-to-tea ratio of 8:1 (mL/g). Therefore, all six of the factors investigated had an impact on the yield of catechins extracted from green tea using water and two had an impact on the efficiency of water use.

  12. New yeasts-new brews: modern approaches to brewing yeast design and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B; Geertman, J-M A; Hittinger, C T; Krogerus, K; Libkind, D; Louis, E J; Magalhães, F; Sampaio, J P

    2017-06-01

    The brewing industry is experiencing a period of change and experimentation largely driven by customer demand for product diversity. This has coincided with a greater appreciation of the role of yeast in determining the character of beer and the widespread availability of powerful tools for yeast research. Genome analysis in particular has helped clarify the processes leading to domestication of brewing yeast and has identified domestication signatures that may be exploited for further yeast development. The functional properties of non-conventional yeast (both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces) are being assessed with a view to creating beers with new flavours as well as producing flavoursome non-alcoholic beers. The discovery of the psychrotolerant S. eubayanus has stimulated research on de novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids for low-temperature lager brewing and has led to renewed interest in the functional importance of hybrid organisms and the mechanisms that determine hybrid genome function and stability. The greater diversity of yeast that can be applied in brewing, along with an improved understanding of yeasts' evolutionary history and biology, is expected to have a significant and direct impact on the brewing industry, with potential for improved brewing efficiency, product diversity and, above all, customer satisfaction. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  14. 茗科1号和金牡丹工夫红茶游离氨基酸组成特征分析%Analysis on the Constituents of Free Amino Acids inMingke 1 and Jinmudan Congou Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玮; 潘玉华; 余成法; 叶小辉; 张丹丹; 陈静; 吴先寿; 叶乃兴

    2014-01-01

    采用氨基酸自动分析仪测定分析了茗科1号和金牡丹工夫红茶游离氨基酸组分,结果表明:茗科1号工夫红茶游离氨基酸总量为38.43 mg/g,金牡丹工夫红茶为37.20 mg/g。含量较高的氨基酸组分为茶氨酸、谷氨酸、天冬氨酸、丝氨酸,其中茗科1号工夫红茶茶氨酸比例为(73.02±3.63)%,金牡丹工夫红茶茶氨酸比例为(66.82±7.94)%。茗科1号和金牡丹工夫红茶的氨基酸组分含量总体差异较小,与铁观音工夫红茶均有较大差异。通过主成分分析结果表明,丙氨酸、苏氨酸、丝氨酸和赖氨酸可以作为金牡丹工夫红茶区分茗科1号、铁观音工夫红茶的氨基酸特征组分;半胱氨酸、天冬氨酸及酪氨酸可以作为茗科1号工夫红茶区分金牡丹、铁观音工夫红茶的氨基酸特征组分。%The compositions of free amino acids of congou black teas, which were made by cultivarsMingke 1(Camellia Sinensis) andJinmudan(Camellia Sinensis) have been analyzed in the study by using automatic amino acid analyzer. The results showed that the total amount of free amino acids inMingke 1 andJinmudancongou black teas were 38.43mg/g and 37.20 mg/g, respectively. In general, the contents of theanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and serine were higher than other amino acid components in the two congou black teas. Theanine accounted for(73.02±3.63)% of total amino acids in Mingke 1 congou black teas and(66.82±7.94)% inJinmudan congou black teas. As for the contents of amino acid constituents, small difference was observed betweenMingke 1 and Jinmudan congou black tea, but both of them showed a large difference comparing toTie guanyin(Camellia Sinensis)congou black tea. Furthermore, the principal component analysis results showed that the lanine, threonine, serine and lysine are the characteristic components of amino acids to distinguishJinmudan congou black teas fromMingke 1 andTie guanyin congou black teas. On

  15. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Liao, Jie; Yang, Guang-yu; Lu, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Tea and tea constituents have been shown by different investigators to inhibit lung tumorigenesis in different animal model systems. This includes lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-nitrosodiethylamine, benzo[a]pyrene, N-nitrosomethylurea, or cisplatin. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis has also been demonstrated in C3H mice treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. In most of these experiments, reduction in tumor number and tumor size has been observed in the tea-treated group, and in some experiments, decreased tumor incidence has also been observed. The green tea constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and the black tea constituent, theaflavins, have also been shown to be effective. Black tea preparations have been shown to reduce the incidence and number of spontaneously generated lung adenocarcinomas and rhabdomyosarcoma in A/J mice, as well as inhibit the progression of lung adenoma to adenocarcinoma. The mechanisms for the inhibitory action have not been well elucidated. It may be related to the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activities of tea constituents that have been demonstrated in some experiments. These activities may be a result of the inhibition of key protein kinases involved in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. Tea catechins, such as EGCG, have been suggested to be the effective components. However, a study suggests that caffeine is the key effective constituent for the inhibitory activity of lung tumorigenesis in Fisher 344 rats by black tea. In many of the experiments, tea consumption resulted in the reduction of body fat and body weight; these factors may also contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis.

  16. A Summary of the Processing Technology of Black Tea with Camellia sinensis cv. Mingke 1%茗科1号品种加工红茶工艺概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼萍; 陈志辉

    2012-01-01

      国家审定品种茗科1号(Camellia sinensis cv. Mingke 1)制作坦洋工夫滋味醇厚鲜爽,花果香明显,现已被广泛用于制作高端坦洋工夫红茶.本文从鲜叶原料、萎凋、揉捻、发酵、干燥等五个加工工艺介绍了茗科1号制作坦洋工夫红茶的初制技术.%  Mingke 1(Camellia sinensis cv. Mingke 1,was also called Jinguanyin)was a state authorized cultivar, the Tanyang congou black tea made with its leaves tasted mellow fresh, with obvious floral and fruity aromas, now it was widely applied to make top grade black tea, in this paper the primary processing technology were introduced, including five procedures such as the treatment of Jinguanyin fresh leaves, withering, rolling, fermentation and drying.

  17. Research progress in white tea and Anji white tea%白茶与安吉白茶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静; 王远兴; 丁建

    2013-01-01

    在中国六大茶(绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、白茶、黄茶和黑茶)中,安吉白荼属于绿茶,由于名称与白茶相似,且具有类似的药理功效,常易被混淆本文从白茶和安吉白茶的发展历史、药理学研究和产品开发三个方面对白茶和安吉白荼进行综述,并对两者的发展前景进行展望.%White tea is one of China's six major teas (green tea,black tea,oolong tea,white tea,yellow tea and dark tea);Anji white tea,which has similar name and pharmacological effects with white tea,actually belongs to green tea. In this article,history of white tea and Anji white tea was briefly introduced,pharmacological effects and product development of white tea and Anji white tea were reviewed,and future prospects of research on white tea and Anji white tea were also proposed.

  18. Present situation of "Panyong congou" black tea industry in Fu'an city and countermeasure for further development%福安市“坦洋工夫”红茶产业发展现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣华

    2012-01-01

    Present situation and existence question of "Panyong congou" tea industry in Fu'an city was analyzed,and itscountermeasures for further development,such as accelerating tea cultivates structural adjustment,speeding up black tea industrialization process,producing a series of graded products,exploring the establishment of tea estate and so on were put forward.%分析福安市"坦洋工夫"红茶产业发展现状及存在的问题,并提出加快茶叶种植结构调整、红茶产业化进程,生产系列等级产品,弘扬茶文化等发展对策。

  19. Studies on the Effect of Processing Methods on the Antihyperglycemic activity of Herbal Teas from Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Okafor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del (Asteraceae was processed into herbal tea using the black and green tea processing techniques. The green tea obtained was used as such while a portion of the black tea was flavored with O. basilicum or O. gratissimum. Methanol extracts of the flavored and unflavored herbal teas, obtained by cold maceration, were subjected to pharmacological studies for antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats and pytochemical analysis. Results showed that single oral administration of the tea extracts reduced blood glucose level of diabetic rats to varying the extents. Extract of green tea (GTE caused a moderate reduction in blood glucose levels while black tea (BTE evoked a mild dose-related effect. Extracts of the flavored tea caused significant (PBTOGE>GTEblack tea technique may be preferred for processing leaves of V. amygdalina into herbal tea since it preserved the antihyperglycemic activity. Green tea method may reduce the antihyperglycemic effect even though it preserves the phytochemical constituents better than black tea technique. Flavoring of black tea with Ocimum spp enhances the antihyperglycemic effect due to their inherent hypoglycemic activity.

  20. Policy Fight Brews over Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    A new report finding that black and Hispanic students are far more likely to be kicked out of school when they break the rules adds to a growing chorus of concern over the discipline policies being used in K-12 schools. Over the past two years, an increasing number of reports and initiatives have pointed out problems with 'zero tolerance"…

  1. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asgari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of Al in tea infusion for 10 min infusion was 1.59 and 18.60 mg.L-1 respectively in this regard Baroti and Bamdad tea show the highest and lowest concentration respectively in term of Al, Also Statistical analysis with pair T-test showed that infusion time doesn,t significantly effects on aluminum leaching into infusion (P>0.05. Calculation of percentage "available" Al to the human system showed that 1 L of tea can provide 17.68 % of the daily dietary intake of Al, the percentage "available" for absorption in the intestine is only 8.49 % for overall mean Al concentration. Conclusion: Therefore based on our results, tea consumption in medium values cannot cause toxic effects on human. Although it is necessary to note that tea consumption might be toxic because of effects on people with absorption or secretion problems

  2. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  3. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases.

  4. Effect of black tea in diethylnitrosamine-induced esophageal carcinogenesis in mice Efeito do chá preto sobre a carcinogênese esofágica induzida por dietilnitrosamina em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila Varela Velho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of black tea on esophageal carcinogenesis induced by the oral administration of diethylnitrosamine (DEN. METHODS: A population of 120 female mice (Mus musculus, strain CF1 were studied for 160 days. The animals were assigned to two control groups and three treatment groups. The control groups received water or tea throughout the study period, while the three experimental groups received DEN weekly, for three consecutive days, and water, tea, or both, in the other days of the week. On completion of the 160-day period, the animals were killed and their esophagi promptly examined macroscopically and subsequently submitted to histopathology (using the hematoxylin-eosin technique. RESULTS: In the comparative analysis between the treatment groups, tumor incidence (macroscopy was significantly lower in those animals that received black tea besides the carcinogen. As regards the histopathologic changes, there was a greater number of low grade epithelial lesions in the same groups (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do chá preto sobre a carcinogênese esofágica experimental induzida pela administração oral de dietilnitrosamina (DEN. MÉTODOS: Durante 160 dias foi estudada uma população de 120 camundongos fêmeas, gênero Mus musculus, da cepa CF1, dividida em dois grupos controles e três grupos de tratamento. Os grupos controles receberam água ou chá durante todo o período do estudo. Os três grupos tratados receberam DEN semanalmente, durante três dias consecutivos, e água, chá ou ambos, nos demais dias da semana. Ao completar o período de 160 dias foram efetuadas as eutanásias dos animais e seus esôfagos foram analisados macroscopicamente (a fresco e, posteriormente, à histopatologia (empregando a técnica da hematoxilina e eosina - HE. RESULTADOS: Na análise comparativa entre os grupos de tratamento, a incidência tumoral (macroscopia foi significativamente menor naqueles animais que receberam chá preto, al

  5. [Cancer prevention with green tea: reality and wishful thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Barbara; Bartsch, H

    2002-01-01

    Different processing of the leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis yields green or black tea, the subject of numerous investigations on the preventive effects on chronic degenerative diseases. The tea polyphenols, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found to account for most of the protective effects. Since the concentration of EGCG is 5 times higher in green than in black tea, it is assumed that green tea possesses a greater preventive potential. Protection against cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the most important biomedical effects. In experimental models the preventive activity of tea is well documented for tumors at many organ sites. In humans, tea was reported to be protective against tumors of the lung, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, were shown to exert cancer-protective activity by the following mechanisms: they inhibit the metabolic activation of carcinogens and induce at the same time detoxifying enzymes. They inhibit signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and tumor growth such as protein kinase C and the release of tumor necrose factor-alpha from cells. Tea polyphenols reactivate processes which are impaired in tumor cells, such as the programmed cell death and the tumorsuppressor gene p53. Finally, tea polyphenols can also block angiogenesis leading to a starvation of the tumor. By inactivation of proteolytic enzymes they inhibit the development of metastases. This short review summarizes relevant recent findings on the protective effects of green tea constituents.

  6. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  7. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Thea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  8. QTL mapping of sake brewing characteristics of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katou, Taku; Namise, Masahiro; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    A haploid sake yeast strain derived from the commercial diploid sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 showed better characteristics for sake brewing compared to the haploid laboratory yeast strain X2180-1B, including higher production of ethanol and aromatic components. A hybrid of these two strains showed intermediate characteristics in most cases. After sporulation of the hybrid strain, we obtained 100 haploid segregants of the hybrid. Small-scale sake brewing tests of these segregants showed a smooth continuous distribution of the sake brewing characteristics, suggesting that these traits are determined by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To examine these sake brewing characteristics at the genomic level, we performed QTL analysis of sake brewing characteristics using 142 DNA markers that showed heterogeneity between the two parental strains. As a result, we identified 25 significant QTLs involved in the specification of sake brewing characteristics such as ethanol fermentation and the production of aromatic components.

  9. The Influence of Milk Tea Beverage Flavor Characteristics with Different Fat Content of Milk%脂肪含量不同的奶源对奶茶饮料风味的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫岚

    2016-01-01

    Controlling of other variables,analysis the influence of milk tea beverage flavor characteristics with different fat content of milk. Try to make milk tea by brewing method.Firstly,made certain of the timing of leaching,the temperature of leaching and the proportion of tea and water,People could make certain of the production of tea juice.Secondly,Make certain the dosage of supplementary material and milk.Finally,Finish the milk tea beverage by joining the different mike. Through analysis the six milk tea samples of sensory quality and biochemical components,we could provide the basis for milk tea production in people's daily life and lead to those conclusions:Firstly,the way of making tea juice:one black tea bag (2g),the proportion of tea and water is 1:75,the temperature of leaching is 90℃,the timing of leaching is 6min.Secondly, milk tea beverages with different fat content of milk have fickle flavor characteristics. Milk tea beverages with higher fat content of milk has more milk aroma and milk flavor and sweet. Fourthly,the best flavor characteristics is the milk tea beverages with low-fat liquid milk.It is up to the standard of the requirement of tea drink's sensory.If you want to choose the best milk powder,you could choose low-fat milk powder. If you want to choose the best liquid milk,low-fat liquid milk is the best for making milk tea beverages.%主要研究脂肪含量不同的奶源对奶茶饮料风味的影响。通过控制其他的变量而分析不同脂肪含量的奶源对奶茶的风味特征的影响。通过冲泡法制作奶茶,首先分别确定浸提时间、浸提温度、茶水比来确定茶汁的制备方法,接着确定辅料和牛奶的用量,最后加入不同的奶源制成成品。通过对六组奶茶样品的感官品评和生化成分的分析,得出结论:1)茶汁的制备方法:红茶茶包一个(2g)、茶水比1∶75、浸提温度90℃、浸提时间为6min;2)不同脂肪含量的奶源制作的奶

  10. Design and Experimental Investigation of Congou Black Tea Visual Aerobic Fermentation Machine%工夫红茶可视化富氧发酵机设计及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董春旺; 叶阳; 江用文; 朱宏凯; 何华锋; 桂安辉; 高明珠; 黄藩

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the existing problems caused by loose combination of black tea fermentation equipment and fermentation process, including instable fermentation temperature and humidity, difficult mixing, oxygen deficit and non-uniform quality, a congou black tea visual aerobic fermentation machine was designed. Our study described the overall design scheme of the machine and its key parts such as the fermentation tube, mixing and heat tunnel device, and then determines the key parameters. By conducting a fermentation performance test, it was found that the fermentation processing achieved the optimal effect with more than 90% of humidity at 30 ℃ fermentation temperature for 3.5 h. Compared with traditional fermentation, the aroma, taste and more have been significantly improved and sensory quality score was 2.1 points higher. The machine is simple in structure and convenient to operate. It can well meet the fermentation requirements of high-quality black tea and possessed a good application prospects.%针对目前红茶发酵设备与发酵工艺结合不紧密而造成的发酵温湿度不稳定、难翻拌、缺氧、品质不稳定等问题,设计了一种工夫红茶可视化富氧发酵机。文章描述了机器的总体设计方案,并对发酵筒、翻拌装置和隧道加热等装置进行了设计,确定了其关键参数值。该研究进行了发酵性能试验,最佳工艺参数为发酵温度30℃、湿度大于90%、发酵时间3.5 h。与传统发酵相比,香气、滋味等有明显提高,感官品质总分高于传统发酵2.1分。本研制机型结构简单、操作方便,能很好地满足优质红茶的发酵工艺技术要求,具有很好的推广应用前景。

  11. Analysis of physico-chemical property and chemical composition of theabrownins of and black tea%红茶茶褐素化学组成及理化性质的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钦; 张峰; 龚加顺

    2012-01-01

    Using theabrownin of black tea as the research object, these physicochemical property and Chemical composition of theabrownins was both analysed. The results showed that the content of each component had some differences by grading theabrownin of black tea, and the most abundant was 80% methanol dissolve content in theabrownin of black tea. There was also a certain difference of the basic elements of different concentraction methanol dissolve contents,but the polyphenols, protein and polysaccharide of these were all hold the larger proportion, the content of total acidic group, carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl and catechin were relatively low. And the optical density value of different concentraction methanol dissolve contents were measured and different in different pH and wavelengths. Their trends were similar respectively and the fluctuation range of optical density value was the largest with the change of pH in the 380 nm.%以红茶茶褐素为研究对象,分析了其化学组成和理化性质。结果表明:红茶茶褐素经分级所得各组分的含量有一定的差异,其中红茶茶褐素是80%甲醇溶出物含量最多。对红茶茶褐素不同浓度甲醇溶出物的基本成分进行了测定,基本成分各自含量存在差异,但在茶褐素分级物中都是茶多酚、蛋白质和多糖占较大比重;酸性基、羧基、酚羟基和儿茶素则含量相对较低。且不同甲醇浓度提取物的红茶茶褐素在不同pH、不同波长下测得的吸光度不同,其各自变化趋势相似且都是在380nm条件下,吸光值随pH变化其波动幅度最大。

  12. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL Oxidation in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, H.M.G.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Blonk, C.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Langius, J.A.E.; Meinders, A.E.; Pijl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Intake of flavonoids is associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Oxidation of LDL is a major step in atherogenesis, and antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. Because tea is an important source of flavonoids which are strong antioxidants, we have assessed in a randomized, placebo-control

  13. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL Oxidation in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, H.M.G.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Blonk, C.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Langius, J.A.E.; Meinders, A.E.; Pijl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Intake of flavonoids is associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Oxidation of LDL is a major step in atherogenesis, and antioxidants may protect LDL from oxidation. Because tea is an important source of flavonoids which are strong antioxidants, we have assessed in a randomized,

  14. Kinetics Study on Black Tea Infusion: Effects of Super-comminuting Process and Temperature on the Extraction Rate of the Soluble Solid Contents%红茶汤动力学研究:超微粉碎工艺和温度对茶汤可溶性固形物成分萃取率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彦祥; 杨文雄

    2005-01-01

    本文研究了红茶叶和超微茶粉可溶性固形物含量的萃取动力学过程.不同温度(40~80℃)下茶汤的Brixs通过数字折射计测量,实验结果通过一级稳态模型加以解释,等级常数由Brixs随时间的增加率决定.结果表明:茶汤可溶性固形物含量随萃取温度的升高而增加,超微茶粉的等级常数是红茶叶的1.22~2.22倍.%The kinetics of extracting the soluble solid contents from black tea leaves in super-comminuted tea powder was studied.The Brixs of infusion was measured by digital refractometer at different temperatures from 40 to 80 ℃.The first order rate constant was determined from the rate of increase of the Brixs concentration in the tea infusion time and the result was interpreted by using a steady state model. The results showed that the first order rate constant of the super-comminuted tea powder was 1.27~2.22 times as large as that of black tea leaves, and that the Brixs increased when the extraction temperature increased.

  15. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to ce...

  16. Advertising and concentration in the brewing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    The opening of the markets in East Asia and Eastern Europe in the 1990s changed the structure of the beer markets and in the following years a large wave of mergers and acquisitions took place. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012, discusses some of the main...... on information from the Annual Reports of the eight largest breweries, the estimation proved a reduction in these costs of ten percent when doubling the size of the brewing groups....

  17. Performance factors of Czech brewing industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chmelíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and subsequently quantify the intensity of relation between selected value drivers of Czech brewing industry companies and thus answer the question of what the significance level of partial indicators influencing the economic value added in the Czech brewing industry is. The aim was achieved by construction and application of multifactorial model for value generators explanation, which represents a synthesis of the INFA model and performance system Balanced Scorecard. The features typical for the first part of the model are algorithmized relations and financial character of the elements, while in the second with non-financial elements the ability of algorithmization is lost and the connection are defined solely on the basis of causality. This inconsistency also implied the difference in the character of analysis results. The proposed model made it possible to identify the most significant generators of value in the Czech brewing industry and it thus became an important guideline for brewery management. The results of the analysis offer a comprehensive overview of the most important value generators and thus enable the company managers to attain the goals of the owners more effectively.

  18. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  19. Low molecular weight melanoidins in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekedam, E Koen; Roos, Ellen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-06-11

    Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are present in LMw coffee brew material. LMw coffee fractions differing in polarity were obtained by reversed-phase solid phase extraction and their melanoidin, sugar, nitrogen, caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid, and phenolic groups contents were determined. The sugar composition, the charge properties, and the absorbance at various wavelengths were investigated as well. The majority of the LMw melanoidins were found to have an apolar character, whereas most non-melanoidins have a polar character. The three isolated melanoidin-rich fractions represented 56% of the LMw coffee melanoidins and were free from non-melanoidin components. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the melanoidins isolated showed similar features as high molecular weight coffee melanoidins. All three melanoidin fractions contained approximately 3% nitrogen, indicating the presence of incorporated amino acids or proteins. Surprisingly, glucose was the main sugar present in these melanoidins, and it was reasoned that sucrose is the most likely source for this glucose within the melanoidin structure. It was also found that LMw melanoidins exposed a negative charge, and this negative charge was inversely proportional to the apolar character of the melanoidins. Phenolic group levels as high as 47% were found, which could be explained by the incorporation of chlorogenic acids in these melanoidins.

  20. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Geissinger, Cajetan; Hofer, Katharina; Schüler, Jan; Moghari, Sarah; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Some information is available about the fate of Fusarium toxins during the brewing process, but only little is known about the single processing steps in detail. In our study we produced beer from two different barley cultivars inoculated with three different Fusarium species, namely, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium avenaceum, producing a wide range of mycotoxins such as type B trichothecenes, type A trichothecenes, and enniatins. By the use of multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution methods we were able to follow the fate of Fusarium toxins during the entire brewing process. In particular, the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol showed similar behaviors. Between 35 and 52% of those toxins remained in the beer after filtration. The contents of the potentially hazardous deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and the type A trichothecenes increased during mashing, but a rapid decrease of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside content was found during the following steps of lautering and wort boiling. The concentration of enniatins greatly decreased with the discarding of spent grains or finally with the hot break. The results of our study show the retention of diverse Fusarium toxins during the brewing process and allow for assessing the food safety of beer regarding the monitored Fusarium mycotoxins.

  1. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  2. Chemoprevention of lung cancer by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie; You, Ming

    2006-02-01

    Tea is the second only to water as the most consumed beverage in the world. Both green and black teas have been studied for their health benefits for a variety of diseases, particularly cancer. Lung cancer is the predominant cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. Smokers' risk of lung cancer is 20 times that of persons who have never smoked. Epidemiological studies on the cancer-preventive effects of tea produce inconsistent results, which could in part be attributed to the lack of a universal standard for tea preparations. However, most animal studies indicate that tea has strong chemopreventive effects against lung tumorigenesis. The reported mechanisms for chemopreventive activity of green tea are antioxidation, induction of phase II enzymes, inhibition of TNFalpha expression and release, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by green tea are probably the two most significant factors. Future studies are needed to determine how green tea affects the genes associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis during the mouse lung carcinogenesis process.

  3. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  4. Determination and comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in pu-erh and other types of Chinese tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Wei, Zhen-zhen; Yuan, Wen-xia; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Chun-hua; Xue, Xiao-ting; Zhou, Hong-jie

    2011-04-27

    Two previous studies have reported that pu-erh tea contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has several physiological functions. However, two other researchers have demonstrated that the GABA content of several pu-erh teas was low. Due to the high value and health benefits of GABA, analysis of mass-produced pu-erh tea is necessary to determine whether it is actually enriched with GABA. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of GABA in tea, the results of which were verified by amino acid analysis using an Amino Acid Analyzer (AAA). A total of 114 samples of various types of Chinese tea, including 62 pu-erh teas, 13 green teas, 8 oolong teas, 8 black teas, 3 white teas, 4 GABA teas, and 16 process samples from two industrial fermentations of pu-erh tea (including the raw material and the first to seventh turnings), were analyzed using HPLC. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the GABA content in pu-erh tea was significantly lower than that in other types of tea (p content decreased during industrial fermentation of pu-erh tea (p content in pu-erh tea. In addition, the GABA content in white tea was found to be significantly higher than that in the other types of tea (p < 0.05), leading to the possibility of producing GABA-enriched white tea.

  5. A RP-HPLC method for the determination of tea catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khokhar, S.; Venema, D.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    An HPLC method with gradient elution for the quantification of catechins ((−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), ( )-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechingallate (EGCg) and (−)-epicatechingallate (ECg)) in tea was developed. The method was used to determine catechins in black tea, green tea

  6. A RP-HPLC method for the determination of tea catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khokhar, S.; Venema, D.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    An HPLC method with gradient elution for the quantification of catechins ((−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), ( )-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechingallate (EGCg) and (−)-epicatechingallate (ECg)) in tea was developed. The method was used to determine catechins in black tea, green tea

  7. GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Black Tea Extract and its Application in Cigarette%红茶提取物挥发性成分GC/MS分析及在卷烟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢清桃; 王坤波; 董颖; 姚瑞; 谢春桥; 李建军; 董德华

    2012-01-01

    为开发和丰富烟用天然香精香料,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取正山小种红茶提取物挥发性成分,用GC/MS法对挥发性成分进行了分离鉴定,共鉴定出35种挥发性成分,主要有苯乙醛、香叶醇、芳樟醇及氧化物、苯乙醇、苯甲酸苄酯、棕榈酸乙酯、植醇、亚油酸乙酯、亚麻酸乙酯等。将该提取物用于卷烟加香,能够明显丰富烟香,减小刺激性和改善卷烟余味。%In order to develop a new natural cigarette flavor, the volatile oil from the Lapsang Souchong black tea ex-tract was extracted by SDE and analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that 35 volatile constituents were identified in the oil and the major components were benzeneacetaldehyde, (E) - geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide, phenylethyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, phytol, linoleic acid ethyl ester and linolenic acid ethyl ester. The black tea extract was added into cigarettes as tobacco flavoring and evaluated by panelists, and the results indicated that the ex-tract could enrich the tobacco flavor, reduce the irritancy of smoke, and improve taste obviously.

  8. Tea, coffee, and milk consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005-07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91-2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk.

  9. Analysis of the hybrid genomes of brewing yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolat, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the best guarded secrets of brewers is represented by the brewing yeast employed in beer fermentation, due to its profound impact upon the specific flavour profile of the final product. The current research tackles the genome diversity of lager brewing strains as well as their impact on

  10. Analysis of the hybrid genomes of brewing yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolat, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the best guarded secrets of brewers is represented by the brewing yeast employed in beer fermentation, due to its profound impact upon the specific flavour profile of the final product. The current research tackles the genome diversity of lager brewing strains as well as their impact on impor

  11. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their melanoidi

  12. Incorporation of Chlorogenic Acids in Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the release

  13. 红条茶加工过程中茶黄素组分的动态变化%The Dynamic Mechanism of Theaflavin Components in Black tea Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志华; 刘昆言; 刘林峰; 向奕; 丰金玉

    2016-01-01

    By using one bud two leaves spring leaves of Political and white tea which was suitable for Black tea processing as material, the enzyme activity and its ratio of PPO and POD during processing of black tea were analy to discusses the catechins components and thealfavin components dynamic mechanism. The results indicated that in withering process PPO and POD enzyme activity reach to the maximum in the withering stage ,after the continued decline, catechins decreased slightly, thealfavins component TF to rise slightly, PPO/POD ratio decreased from 0.78 to 0.33;In rolling process, catechin content decreased faster, ECG, GCG, EC decreased greatly, theaflavin components rapid rise, the biggest and the growth of TFDG, the ratio of PPO/POD to 0.28;In fermenting process, catechin composition content decreased with rolling period slow, thealfavin components and the total fermentation in the 4 h reached a maximum value, then started to decline, the ratio of PPO/POD in the fermentation of 3 h down to a minimum of 0.27, then began to rise; In drying process, catechin content slightly reduced, which EGCG the largest decline, thealfavins composition decreased, its total to 0.47%dry weight, PPO/POD ratio increased to 0.47.From the results of this study shows, can be considered in the processing of black tea thealfavins catechin components and component variation is PPO and POD enzyme activity and its ratio of driven results,and can determine the withering, rolling, fermenting, drying process appropriate standards according to the ratio of PPO/POD.%以适制红茶茶树品种政和大白茶春季一芽二叶新梢为原料,通过分析其红条茶加工中多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)酶活性及其比值,探讨儿茶素组分与茶黄素组分动态变化。结果表明,萎凋期间,PPO、POD酶活性在萎凋末期达到最大值,儿茶素总量小幅下降,茶黄素组分TF小幅上升,PPO/POD比值从0.78下降到0.33;揉捻阶段,儿

  14. Effects of tea infusions of various varieties or different manufacturing types on inhibition of mouse mast cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda-Yamamoto, M; Kawahara, H; Matsuda, N; Nesumi, K; Sano, M; Tsuji, K; Kawakami, Y; Kawakami, T

    1998-11-01

    We investigated effects of various tea infusions on mast cell activation using mouse mast cells. Among various tea extracts, infusions from cultivar 'Benihomare' and Taiwan lineage strongly inhibited histamine release after Fc epsilon RI cross-linking. Among three types of tea (from cultivar 'Benihomare'), extract from oolong tea or black tea inhibited histamine release more strongly than green tea extract. Furthermore, 'Benihomare' oolong tea extract suppressed tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins after Fc epsilon RI cross-linking, but polyvinyl polypyrrolidone treatment of the extract to remove phenolic compounds, weakened the suppressive effect.

  15. Phytochemical profile and biological potential of mulberry teas (Morus nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čestić, Slađana; Radojković, Marija M.; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Mašković, Pavle; Đurović, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Black mulberry is the most medicinally important plant of the genus Morus. This study examines the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of mulberry leaves tea. The tea drinks were prepared in water (70, 80, 90 ° C and boiling temperature). This study has shown that mulberry teas have high antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Experimental investigation has shown that the best conditions for preparing mulberry tea are with boiling water. Mulberry...

  16. Tea boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Tea Boxing Blow is a term in boxing for a punch that makes contact, and suggests a fist has landed on an opponent to bring the applier closer to victory. Boxing is a tense and often exhilarating experience: the punch, the tension of anticipation, the adrenalin from delivering and receiving, the bell dinging, the ring, and the bay of the crowd. Occasionally however, the blow of the punch does not make contact. It becomes an impossible proposition, a never to be seen, an experience left to ...

  17. Effect of tea on iron absorption from the typical Tunisian meal 'couscous' fed to healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M; Hedhili, A; Doghri, T; Tritar, B

    1994-01-01

    Black and green tea decoctions are popular beverages in Tunisia, especially after eating. Our study was performed to examine the effect of graded amounts of black and green tea decoction prepared under realistic Tunisian conditions on nonheme iron absorption from a typical Tunisian meal, 'couscous', by extrinsic radioiron labeling in rats. Concentrations of 300, 200 and 100 micrograms/ml of black tea decreased dramatically nonheme iron bioavailability from couscous, but 50 micrograms/ml did not influence iron absorption. The inhibition of nonheme iron from couscous varied from 36 to 61% with black tea and 30.5% with green tea. Taken together, our findings show that the tea decoction in Tunisia has a great inhibitory power and may constitute an important factor for the development of iron deficiency anemia throughout Tunisia.

  18. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

    2008-03-01

    In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol content of herbal teas was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu's procedure. Antioxidant activities of herbal teas were evaluated by the effect of extracts on DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Antioxidant activity was defined as the amount of the sample to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50% as efficient concentration, EC50. Antiradical activity [AE] was calculated as 1/EC50. Values were evaluated statistically. Results support the view that none of the herbal teas showed antidiabetic effect on glucose diffusion using in vitro model glucose absorption. Teas were arranged in the order of green tea > peppermint > thyme > black tea > relax tea > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > sage > roselle > olive leaves according to their total phenol contents. Among ten herbal teas, green tea had the highest hydrogen-donating capacity against to DPPH radical. Ranking of the herbal teas with respect to their DPPH radical scavenging activity were green tea > peppermint > black tea > thyme > relax tea > absinthium > roselle > olive leaves > sage > shrubby blackberry. It was determined that adding flavoring substances such as lemon, bergamot, clove and cinnamon, which are commonly used in preparation of black tea in Turkey resulted to have synergistic effect on total antioxidant activities of black and peppermint teas. The highest hydrogen peroxide inhibition value (65.50%) was obtained for green tea at a 250 microl/ml concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of herbal teas decreased in the order green tea > peppermint > relax tea > black tea > thyme > olive leaves

  19. Labrador tea--the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin, processing and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests.

  20. Drinking Tea May Lower Bad Cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; Doering; 郑凤听

    2003-01-01

    喝茶,有益于健康。本文所说的是“红茶”(black tea),而非“绿茶”(green tea)。在美国喝茶者简直与时俱增:…total sales of tea in 2002 were$5.03 billion,up from$1.84 billion in 1990!本文用深入浅出的语言对喝茶的益处作了说明,同时,其文字表达也不乏可以品味处,如下句中的动词saw:Those who bad regular tea saw their LDL levels drop about 11 percent comparedwith the caffeine placebo.

  1. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy for simultaneous geographical and varietal classification of tea infusions simulating a home-made tea cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino

    2016-02-01

    In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins.

  2. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  3. Enantioselective Dissipation of Acephate and Its Metabolite, Methamidophos, during Tea Cultivation, Manufacturing, and Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hongping; Wang, Chen; Wang, Qinghua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-26

    The enantioselective dissipation of acephate and its metabolite, methamidophos, was investigated during tea cultivation, manufacturing, and infusion, using QuEChERS sample preparation technique and gas chromatography coupled with a BGB-176 chiral column. Results showed that (+)-acephate and (-)-acephate dissipated following first-order kinetics in fresh tea leaves with half-lives of 1.8 and 1.9 days, respectively. Acephate was degraded into a more toxic metabolite, methamidophos. Preferential dissipation and translocation of (+)-acephate may exist in tea shoots, and (-)-methamidophos was degraded more rapidly than (+)-methamidophos. During tea manufacturing, drying and spreading (or withering) played important roles in the dissipation of acephate enantiomers. The enantiometic fractions of acephate changed from 0.495-0.496 to 0.479-0.486 (P ≤ 0.0081), whereas those of methamidophos changed from 0.576-0.630 to 0.568-0.645 (P ≤ 0.0366 except for green tea manufacturing on day 1), from fresh tea leaves to made tea. In addition, high transfer rates (>80%) and significant enantioselectivity (P ≤ 0.0042) of both acephate and its metabolite occurred during tea brewing.

  4. Immobilization: A Revolution in Traditional Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Linko, Matti

    In nature many micro-organisms tend to bind to solid surfaces. This tendency has long been utilized in a number of processes, for example in producing vinegar and acetic acid in bioreactors filled with wood shavings. Acetobacteria are attached to the surface of these shavings. In modern technical language: they are immobilized. Also yeast cells can be immobilized. In the brewing industry this has been the basis for maintaining efficient, continuous fermentation in bioreactors with very high yeast concentrations. The most dramatic change in brewing over recent years has been the replacement of traditional lagering of several weeks by a continuous process in which the residence time is only about 2h. Continuous primary fermentation is used on a commercial scale in New Zealand. In this process, instead of a carrier, yeast is retained in reactors by returning it partly after separation. In many pilot scale experiments the primary fermentation is shortened from about 1week to 1-2days using immobilized yeast reactors. When using certain genetically modified yeast strains no secondary fermentation is needed, and the total fermentation time in immobilized yeast reactors can therefore be shortened to only 2days.

  5. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf and Tea Poly-phenols (TP from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions were determined using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, 80% aqueous ethanol of, eluent volume of 4 times of Bed Volume (BV. After column separation, the purity of Caf was enhanced from 6 to 23%, TP from 38 to 61% and with the final yield of 16.9% following the separation by D101 resin. This study demonstrated macro-porous resin can effectively separated Caf and TP from instant tea waste liquor.

  6. 不同茶类茶汤pH值的研究%Preliminary on pH of different tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭桂义; 葛国平

    2012-01-01

    The pH of green tea,black tea,Oolong tea,Pu-er tea liquor were measured.Different tea acid and alkaline differs somewhat.Green tea,black tea,and the weak acidic acid relatively strong tea,but for weakly acidic pH,tea and tea types and production methods.%对不同绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶和黑茶4种茶类茶汤的pH进行了测定,结果表明,不同茶叶的酸碱性有所不同。绿茶酸性最弱,红茶酸性最强,青茶和普洱茶酸性介于中间,但都为弱酸性,说明茶汤酸碱度与茶叶种类和制作方法有关。

  7. The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golem Devon L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle soreness and decreased performance often follow a bout of high-intensity exercise. By reducing these effects, an athlete can train more frequently and increase long-term performance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a high-potency, black tea extract (BTE alters the delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cortisol (CORT responses to high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Methods College-age males (N = 18 with 1+ yrs of weight training experience completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects consumed the BTE (1,760 mg BTE·d-1 or placebo (PLA for 9 days. Each subject completed two testing sessions (T1 & T2, which occurred on day 7 of the intervention. T1 & T2 consisted of a 30 s Wingate Test plus eight 10 s intervals. Blood samples were obtained before, 0, 30 & 60 min following the interval sessions and were used to analyze the total to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG, 8-isoprostane (8-iso, CORT, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 secretion. DOMS was recorded at 24 & 48 h post-test using a visual analog scale while BTE or PLA continued to be administered. Significance was set at P . Results Compared to PLA, BTE produced significantly higher average peak power (P = 0.013 and higher average mean power (P = 0.067 across nine WAnT intervals. BTE produced significantly lower DOMS compared to PLA at 24 h post test (P and 48 h post test (P . Compared to PLA, BTE had a slightly higher GSH:GSSG ratio at baseline which became significantly higher at 30 and 60 min post test (P . AUC analysis revealed BTE to elicit significantly lower GSSG secretion (P = 0.009, significantly higher GSH:GSSG ratio (P = 0.001, and lower CORT secretion (P = 0.078 than PLA. AUC analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total IL-6 response (P = 0.145 between conditions. Conclusions Consumption of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract led to improved recovery and a reduction in

  8. The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle soreness and decreased performance often follow a bout of high-intensity exercise. By reducing these effects, an athlete can train more frequently and increase long-term performance. The purpose of this study is to examine whether a high-potency, black tea extract (BTE) alters the delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), oxidative stress, inflammation, and cortisol (CORT) responses to high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Methods College-age males (N = 18) with 1+ yrs of weight training experience completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects consumed the BTE (1,760 mg BTE·d-1) or placebo (PLA) for 9 days. Each subject completed two testing sessions (T1 & T2), which occurred on day 7 of the intervention. T1 & T2 consisted of a 30 s Wingate Test plus eight 10 s intervals. Blood samples were obtained before, 0, 30 & 60 min following the interval sessions and were used to analyze the total to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), 8-isoprostane (8-iso), CORT, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion. DOMS was recorded at 24 & 48 h post-test using a visual analog scale while BTE or PLA continued to be administered. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Compared to PLA, BTE produced significantly higher average peak power (P = 0.013) and higher average mean power (P = 0.067) across nine WAnT intervals. BTE produced significantly lower DOMS compared to PLA at 24 h post test (P < 0.001) and 48 h post test (P < 0.001). Compared to PLA, BTE had a slightly higher GSH:GSSG ratio at baseline which became significantly higher at 30 and 60 min post test (P < 0.002). AUC analysis revealed BTE to elicit significantly lower GSSG secretion (P = 0.009), significantly higher GSH:GSSG ratio (P = 0.001), and lower CORT secretion (P = 0.078) than PLA. AUC analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total IL-6 response (P = 0.145) between conditions. Conclusions Consumption of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract led to improved recovery and a

  9. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    P. Diakabana; M. Mvoula-Tsiéri; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; D. Louembé

    2013-01-01

    The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a swee...

  10. A comparative study between wild ancient tea and tea garden tea%野生古茶树茶与茶园茶的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓华; 董玄; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    The appearance, liquor color, taste and aroma of wild ancient tea and tea garden tea were evaluated and determined by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis method. Both of the appearances were stripy. The color of ,dried wild ancient tea was red-yellow and liquor color is yellow-red, while the dried tea garden tea was green-black and liquor color was green-yellow. The wild ancient tea tasted soft, sweet, and a little bitter, while the tea garden tea was much bitter and slightly sweet at the beginning. The contents of tea polyphenols and flavonoid compounds of both were the same, which were about 28. 9% and 7%. The five kinds of catechins which were determined in wild ancient tea were two times more of that in tea garden tea. The tea garden tea's caffeine content was nearly two times more than wild ancient tea. The content of free amino acids ( Aas) in wild ancient tea was higher, while the tea garden tea had a higher content (4. 60% ) than wild ancient tea (3. 82% ) in soluble sugar. Fifty-eight kinds of aroma compounds were measured in wild ancient tea and 74 kinds of aroma compounds in tea garden tea, and there were 12 common components in both. In all, the wild ancient tea was far superior to the tea garden tea, but the effects of catechins and aroma compounds on the human body needed to be further studied.%采用感官审评和化学分析手段,对野生古茶树茶和茶园茶的外形、颜色、滋味、香气等进行审评、测定和比较.两者都为条索,在颜色方面,野生古茶树茶的干品偏向红黄,汤色黄红,茶园茶的干品呈绿黑,茶汤绿黄色;滋味方面,野生古茶树茶苦涩味较淡,醇和,回甘,茶园茶苦涩味比之更盛,味微短,入口略甜.茶多酚、黄酮类化合物两者基本一样,分别是28.9%左右和7%左右,测定的5种儿茶素,茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的两倍多,咖啡碱茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的约两倍,游离氨基酸野生古茶树茶比茶园茶高,

  11. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...... and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted...

  12. Determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras comerciais de chás verde e preto - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae = Determination of phenolic componds in commercial samples of green and black tea - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O chá de Camellia sinensis é rico em compostos fenólicos antioxidantes, responsáveis por efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as determinações da concentração de fenóis totais e flavonoides de sete amostras comerciais dos chás preto e verde. Os teores de fenóis totais variaram de 4,80 a 26,60 mg de pirogalol g-1 de amostra e os de flavonoides, de 0,46 a 1,10 mg de quercetina g-1 de amostra. A análise anatômica do conteúdo das amostras permitiu caracterizar a autenticidade dos produtos,observando-se os marcadores anatômicos típicos da espécie (estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio e esclereides.The tea from Camellia sinensis (green tea and black tea is rich in antioxidant phenolic compounds, responsible for beneficial effects to human health. In this work, determinations were carried out on theconcentration of total phenols and flavonoids in seven commercial samples of black tea and green tea. The samples presented concentrations of total phenols varying between 4.80 and 26.60 mg of pyrogallol g-1 and concentrations of flavonoids from 0.46 to 1.10 mg of quercetin g-1. With the purpose of characterizing the authenticity of the product contained in the sachets, the samples were fixed for histological studies. The samples presented the typical anatomical markers of the species (anomocytic stomata, unicellular non-glandulartrichomes, dorsiventral mesophyll, calcium oxalate druses and sclereids.

  13. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  14. Comparison of the mineral composition of leaves and infusions of traditional and herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac T. Rampedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on teas has focused on organic composition and less attention has been given to the mineral composition. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the mineral compositions (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Al of eight commonly consumed teas. The teas included three traditional black or green teas (from Africa, China and Sri Lanka and five herbal teas – two from South America (maté and coca and three from South Africa (rooibos, honeybush and Athrixia phylicoides. Analyses were conducted on five samples of dry tea leaves of each of the teas and their infusions (steeping time: 6 min using identical techniques in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. It was found that each tea has a unique mineral profile. Dry tea leaves and their respective infusions also exhibited different mineral profiles. The tea infusions that contained relatively higher concentrations of beneficial minerals were maté, coca and Athrixia. High levels of aluminium were found in the traditional black and green teas whilst rooibos was high in sodium. Although teas are not rich sources of nutrients, the consumption of maté could contribute significantly to dietary manganese requirements.

  15. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2017-10-15

    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr(6+). Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  17. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  18. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  19. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab †

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Brian K.; Usman Alam; Samantha J Dacanay; Amanda K. Lee; Shaffer, Justin F.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol co...

  20. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  1. Analysis of trace metals and perfluorinated compounds in 43 representative tea products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai; Li, Jian-Long; Li, Hai-Hang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Li, Hua-Shou

    2014-06-01

    Six trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn) and 2 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were analyzed in 43 representative tea products (including 18 green, 12 Oolong, and 13 black teas) from 7 main tea production provinces in China, using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer for trace metals analysis and HPLC-MS/MS for PFOS and PFOA analysis. The average contents of the 3 essential metals Mn, Cu, and Zn ions in the tea samples were 629.74, 17.75, and 37.38 mg/kg, whereas 3 toxic metals Cd, Cr, and Pb were 0.65, 1.02, and 1.92 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in the 3 types of tea were in the order of black tea > Oolong tea > green tea. Both PFOS and PFOA contents were low and PFOA content was higher than PFOS in the tea samples. The highest concentration of PFOA was 0.25 ng/g dry weight found in a Hunan green tea. The Principal component analysis was performed with the trace metals and PFCs to analyze the relationships of these indices. The results showed that black teas had higher trace metals and PFCs than green and Oolong teas, and the teas from Hunan and Zhejiang provinces had higher Pb and Cr than others. This paper reports trace metals, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in wide range of tea products produced in the south China area. This paper also warns the low PFOS and PFOA pollution in tea. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Anti-cancer properties of green Tea Probed viaquantum mechanics calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Chitsazan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10.13005/ojc/310147Tea, from the plant camellia sinensis, is consumed in different parts of the world as green, black or oolong tea. Among all of these, however, the most significant effects on human health have been observed with the consumption of green tea. Green tea contains polyphenols, which include flavanols, flavandiols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Most of the green tea polyphenols (GTPs are flavonols, commonly known as catechins. There are four kinds of catechins mainly find in green tea: epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and EGCG. Green tea catechins have demonstrated significant antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, thermogenic, probiotic, and antimicrobial properties in numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies. In the present study, four type catechins of green tea were studied. For each catechin ab initio method was employed for calculations and related parameters were computed.

  3. 古茶园与台地茶园鲜叶常量成分及成茶品质比较研究%Comparison of Old Plant Tea and Tableland Tea on Convention Components of Fresh Leaf and Tea Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继伟; 梁名志; 王立渡; 杨毅坚; 罗正飞; 李朝云; 夏丽飞; 王丽

    2011-01-01

    tea was higher significantly than that of tableland tea, while catechins content, phenolic/ammonia significantly below tableland tea; (3) From sensory quality, old plant tea were superior tableland tea.Old plant tea tasted thick, harmonious and sweety, while tableland tea tasted thin, bitter, poorly harmonious.From brewing times, old plant tea could brew 5 times, one times more than tableland tea.It indicated that old plant tea had better resistance of bubble.Anyhow, old plant tea was more acceptable than tableland tea.

  4. Genome sequence of the lager brewing yeast, an interspecies hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoshihiro; Kanamori, Takeshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Rainieri, Sandra; Nakamura, Norihisa; Shimonaga, Tomoko; Hattori, Masahira; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2009-04-01

    This work presents the genome sequencing of the lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) Weihenstephan 34/70, a strain widely used in lager beer brewing. The 25 Mb genome comprises two nuclear sub-genomes originating from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and one circular mitochondrial genome originating from S. bayanus. Thirty-six different types of chromosomes were found including eight chromosomes with translocations between the two sub-genomes, whose breakpoints are within the orthologous open reading frames. Several gene loci responsible for typical lager brewing yeast characteristics such as maltotriose uptake and sulfite production have been increased in number by chromosomal rearrangements. Despite an overall high degree of conservation of the synteny with S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, the syntenies were not well conserved in the sub-telomeric regions that contain lager brewing yeast characteristic and specific genes. Deletion of larger chromosomal regions, a massive unilateral decrease of the ribosomal DNA cluster and bilateral truncations of over 60 genes reflect a post-hybridization evolution process. Truncations and deletions of less efficient maltose and maltotriose uptake genes may indicate the result of adaptation to brewing. The genome sequence of this interspecies hybrid yeast provides a new tool for better understanding of lager brewing yeast behavior in industrial beer production.

  5. An Invitation to Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TEA-drinking is very popular in southwest China’s Sichuan Province, especially in the provincial capital Chengdu. Some people estimate that the number of tea houses in Chengdu is greater than that of restaurants in Beijing. I, too, have developed the habit of having a cup of tea in the morning. On holidays, when I am free in the morning, I get up early to rush to a tea house,

  6. Drifting Fragrant Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ORIGINATING in China, tea drinking as well as tea culture has a long standing history of three to four thousand years. The formal tea ceremony had been in gradual decline since the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties but gradually began to re-develop in the 1980s owing to the demands of people from all walks of life. The prosperity of the local tea culture is witnessed by the

  7. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LAPHET LABORATORY PROCESS AND TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS PRODUCTS BETWEEN CHINA AND MYANMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyie Phyo Maung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of extraction method on the flavonoids and antioxidant activity was investigated. The flavonoid contents of Laphet(fermented pickled tea leaves possessed more than twice as much than fresh tea leaves. Chinese green tea had higher flavonoid contents than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar black tea’s flavonoid contents were higher. In laphet, both countries tea’s products possessed similar contents. Antioxidant activity of tea extracts were determined by using DPPH assay. The antioxidant activity of Laphet increased slightly from fresh tea leaves after fermentation. The comparison of tea products between China and Myanmar, Chinese green tea possessed the higher antioxidant activity than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar’s black tea and Laphet contained more antioxidant activity than china tea products. According to the results, Chinese green tea may give healthier than other tea because Chinese green tea possessed the highest flavonoids (214.44±2.98 mg/g and antioxidant (85% activity.

  8. The Effect of Different Tea Varieties on Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. K.; Karim, R.

    2016-12-01

    The chief objectives of this experiment are to distinguish which type of tea of four variants, pomegranate blackberry green, green, lemon chamomile (herbal), and earl grey (black), are capable of chelating the most iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) through titration. We hypothesized that if each tea variety chelates differing amounts of iron chloride, and if we conduct an experiment in which four different teas are mixed in the same amount of water, iron chloride, and iron chloride indicator EDTA, then the pomegranate blackberry green tea will bind to the most iron due to its large amount of fruit antioxidants. To summarize our methodology, we prepared three solutions of each tea, dissolved with 1 gram of FeCl3 to test three trials per tea variety. The chelation process took place overnight as teas cooled. Six drops of iron chloride indicator added to each solution began the titration. The necessary amount of 0.1M EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) drops required for each solution to turn to a universal amber color from its original dark tone indicates how many free iron molecules were left unbound by the tea solution. After careful analysis of the data, we discovered that blackberry pomegranate green tea possessed the best chelating abilities with 97.48% of FeCl3 adsorbed. Green tea followed with 96.67%. Herbal tea chelated 94.24% of the iron while earl grey absorbed the least amount at 93.43%. From our conclusion, we drew that since blackberry pomegranate green tea contained the highest amount of polyphenols and antioxidants as well as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green teas, it was able to chelate the most amount of iron. The substances mentioned in blackberry pomegranate green tea possess the ability to form strong bonds with multiple heavy metals, such as iron (III) chloride atoms. Overall, each variety of tea contains different organic substances. Each of these substances possesses a unique chelating ability, determining how well the type of tea can

  9. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  10. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  11. An overview on Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on types of tea, its processing methods, bioactive compounds which are present in it, health benefits, toxic effects, interaction with drugs and herbs, formulations involving tea polyphenols. Tea has been found to possess various bioactive leads and need of the hour is to characterize these leads for better product development.

  12. Estimation of tea catechin levels using micellar electrokinetic chromatography: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection was used to determine seven catechins and one xanthine (caffeine) in tea. All the compounds were successfully separated (15kV) within a 15-min migration period with a high number of theoretical plates (>8.0×10(4)) in a running buffer (pH 7) containing 10mmoll(-1) sodium tetraborate, 4mmoll(-1) sodium phosphate, and 25mmoll(-1) SDS. The regression lines of all standard catechins were linear within the range of 0.03-4μgml(-1). Green tea infused at 95°C for 10min showed higher levels of catechins (especially epigallocatechin galate, epicatechin gallate, and epicatechin) than tea infused at 80°C. In addition, major differences were observed in the levels of catechins in the first and second infusions (both brewed at 95°C for 10min). Finally, green tea leaves were infused separately with tap water, deionised water, spring water, reverse osmosis water, and distilled water at 95°C, and the catechin content of the infusions was investigated by the proposed method. In the infusion brewed with tap water, catechins appeared to be epimerisation from the epistructure to the nonepistructure. This epimerisation may take place more readily in tap water than in distilled water owing to the complexity of the ions present in tap water.

  13. 茶叶的超声波提取工艺研究及其在真丝染色中的应用%Study of the Ultrasonic Extraction Process of Black Tea and it Application in Silk Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁娟; 赵坤伟; 吴晋川; 韩丽娟; 葛俊伟

    2016-01-01

    探讨了超声波提取茶叶色素的工艺,通过与沸水提取工艺比较,研究了超声波提取功率、超声处理时间对提取效果的影响,确定了最佳超声波提取工艺为超声波功率960 W,超声处理时间10 min。并将提取的茶叶色素用于阳离子改性真丝染色,固色处理后真丝织物的摩擦牢度和耐皂洗牢度均有所提高。%The ultrasonic extraction process of black tea was studied.Compared with common extraction process,the influences of ultrasonic power and ultrasonic time on the extraction effects were discussed.The optimal extraction process was ultrasonic power of 960 W and ultrasonic time of 10 min.The extraction solution was used in silk dyeing which modified by cationic agent STC-6,and the fabric was dye-fixing treated with WQG-2.The color fastness of the treated fabric was improved.

  14. Phytochemical profile and biological potential of mulberry teas (Morus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čestić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry is the most medicinally important plant of the genus Morus. This study examines the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of mulberry leaves tea. The tea drinks were prepared in water (70, 80, 90 ° C and boiling temperature. This study has shown that mulberry teas have high antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Experimental investigation has shown that the best conditions for preparing mulberry tea are with boiling water. Mulberry teas could be regarded as a promising source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and herbal remedy.

  15. Evaluation of transfer rates of multiple pesticides from green tea into infusion using water as pressurized liquid extraction solvent and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide residues could be transferred from tea into its infusion and by-products, and subsequently consumed by humans. Extra extraction conditions may induce more pesticide leaching into the infusion and by-products of tea and cause greater damage to humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the infusion of multiple pesticides from green tea into hot water via pressurized liquid extraction. The results showed that pesticides in spiked samples generally have higher leaching (0.8-45.0%) than those in the positive samples. There was a marked rise of transfer rates when water solubility increased from 20mgL(-1) to 450mgL(-1) and LogKow decreased from 6 to 4. All pesticides had more leaching into hot water using pressurized liquid extraction than traditional tea brewing. This study helps in risk assessment of pesticide residues and in the formulation of maximum residue levels (MRLs) in tea and its by-products.

  16. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.

  17. Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

  18. A Literature Review of Some Deseases Can Cured With Tea Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Anggraini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis very rich in flavonoids and one of the important plant in the world. The six major flavan-3-ols occurring in tea are catechin (C, gallocatechin (GC, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, epicatechin-3-gallate (EGG, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Theaflavins and thearubigins are a group of polyphenol pigments formed during the fermentation of black tea This paper identified the deaseas can cured with the tea properties by literature reviewed. Besides the tea component itself, cancer can prevent with synergyc with capsicum. At a ratio of 25 parts green tea concentrate to 1 part Capsicum preparation, the resultant product exhibited efficacy in the killing of cancer cells in culture 100-times that of green tea on a weight basis. The tea property/polyphenols can use for cancer such as pancreatic cancer, tumor, immortalized keratinocytes and skin cancer cell lines, breast cancer, breaks in bone marrow cells of leukaemic, reduce skin tumor cell, anti-inflammatory, prevent influenza infection in children. Tea pyphenols in black tea nor green tea can reduce human cancer cells, tumor, breast cancer, anti-inflammatory, leukemia and to prevent influenza. EGCG to treat pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, reduce skin tumor cell and keratinocytes. EC for anticancer therapy against acute myeloid leukemia and TF, TR for treating human skin cancer cells.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of kombucha made from Rtanj tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage with special therapeutic properties produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in sweetened black tea (traditional cultivation medium. The antimicrobial activity of kombucha (for consumption made from black tea and Rtanj tea, as well as particular control samples, was examined by the modified disc diffusion method. Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Sarcina lutea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Rhodotorula sp. Candida pseudotropi-calis and Saccharomyces cerevisae have been used as test organisms. Acetic acid and kombucha samples show significant antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except Sarcina lutea. The other control samples (neutralized kombucha, tea and a "model sistem" show less bacteriostatic activity. Kombucha and acetic acid solution show borderline inhibitory activity against some moulds, while was no activity against yeasts.

  20. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  1. Assessment of Anti-nutritive Activity of Tannins in Tea By-products Based on Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritive values of green and black tea by-products and anti-nutritive activity of their tannins were evaluated in an in vitro rumen fermentation using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycols (PEG, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as tannin-binding agents. Significant improvement in gas production by addition of PEG4000, 6000 and 20000 and PVP was observed only from black tea by-product, but not from green tea by-product. All tannin binding agents increased NH3-N concentration from both green and black tea by-products in the fermentation medium, and the PEG6000 and 20000 showed relatively higher improvement in the NH3-N concentration. The PEG6000 and 20000 also improved in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of both tea by-products. It was concluded that high molecular PEG would be suitable to assess the suppressive activity of tannins in tea by-products by in vitro fermentation. Higher responses to gas production and NH3-N concentration from black tea by-product than green tea by-product due to PEG indicate that tannins in black tea by-product could suppress rumen fermentation more strongly than that in green tea by-product.

  2. 我国苦茶资源主要生化成分的鉴定评价%Analysis and Evaluation of Biochemical Components in Bitter Tea Plant Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新超; 姚明哲; 马春雷; 陈亮

    2008-01-01

    Bitter tea is a special kind of tea germplasm in China. The major biochemical components of 24 bitter teas and other 8 Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and 8 C. sinensis var. assamica tea germplasms, which were stored in the China National Germplasm Hangzhou Tea Repository (CNGHTR), were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that no significant differences of major biochemical components affecting the tea quality were found between bitter tea and common tea. According to the processing suitability index, bitter tea was suitable for the manufacturing of black tea; while according to evolutionary indices such as the composition and content of catechin, bitter tea was similar to C. sinensis var. assamica belonging to the relatively primitive type in evolution. The results of cluster analysis indicated that bitter tea was clustered with C. sinensis var. assamica, so it could be considered to belong to C. sinensis var. assamica.

  3. Determination of tea components with antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Carmen; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen

    2003-07-16

    Levels of essential elements with antioxidant activity, as well as catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine levels, in a total of 45 samples of different teas commercialized in Spain have been evaluated. Chromium, manganese, selenium, and zinc were determined in the samples mineralized with HNO(3) and V(2)O(5), using ETAAS as the analytical technique. The reliability of the procedure was checked by analysis of a certified reference material. Large variations in the trace element composition of teas were observed. The levels ranged from 50.6 to 371.4 ng/g for Cr, from 76.1 to 987.6 microg/g for Mn, from 48.5 to 114.6 ng/g for Se, and from 56.3 to 78.6 ng/g for Zn. The four major catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC)], gallic acid (GA), and caffeine were simultaneously determined by a simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector. In all analyzed samples, EGCG ranged from 1.4 to 103.5 mg/g, EGC from 3.9 to 45.3 mg/g, ECG from 0.2 to 45.6 mg/g, and EC ranged from 0.6 to 21.2 mg/g. These results indicated that green tea has a higher content of catechins than both oolong and fermented teas (red and black teas); the fermentation process during tea manufacturing reduces the levels of catechins significantly. Gallic acid content ranged from 0.039 to 6.7 mg/g; the fermentation process also elevated remarkably gallic acid levels in black teas (mean level of 3.9 +/- 1.5 mg/g). The amount of caffeine in the analyzed samples ranged from 7.5 to 86.6 mg/g, and the lower values were detected in green and oolong teas. This study will be useful for the appraisal of trace elements and antioxidant components in various teas, and it will also be of interest for people who like drinking this beverage.

  4. Studies on Rheological Properties of Konjac-tea Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jie; XU Qiu-lan; SUN Yu-jing; ZHANG Fu-sheng; TIAN Shi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Konjac black tea(sugar-free) and konjac glucomannan(KGM) solution were studied by using rheometer,refractometer etc.The relationship between their rheological properties and temperature or concentration was discussed in detail.The results showed that viscosity was significantly affected by temperature and concentration;and pH stability of Konjac-tea was related to the molecular property of KGM.

  5. Incorporation of chlorogenic acids in coffee brew melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekedam, E Koen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-03-26

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the released QA and CA were quantified. For all melanoidin fractions, it was found that more QA than CA was released. QA levels correlated with melanoidin levels, indicating that QA is incorporated in melanoidins. The QA level was correlated with increasing ionic charge of the melanoidin populations, suggesting that QA may contribute to the negative charge and consequently is, most likely, not linked via its carboxyl group. The QA level correlated with the phenolic acid group level, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, indicating that QA was incorporated to a similar extent as the polyphenolic moiety from CGA. The QA and CA released from brew fractions by enzymes confirmed the incorporation of intact CGAs. Intact CGAs are proposed to be incorporated in melanoidins upon roasting via CA through mainly nonester linkages. This complex can be written as Mel=CA-QA, in which Mel represents the melanoidin backbone, =CA represents CA nonester-linked to the melanoidin backbone, and -QA represents QA ester-linked to CA. Additionally, a total of 12% of QA was identified in coffee brew, whereas only 6% was reported in the literature so far. The relevance of the additional QA on coffee brew stability is discussed.

  6. An investigation on Fujian Tea districts%福建茶区考察小记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳

    2012-01-01

    Districts of white tea, black tea and oolong tea in East and North Fujian Province were investigated. It focused on the present situation and the historical cultural heritage of Fuding, the township of the Chinese white tea, Tongmuguan, the place where black tea was originated, and Wuyi Mountain, kingdom" of various tea cuhivars%本文实地记录了福建福鼎和武夷茶区的白茶、红茶、乌龙茶考察之旅,重点记录了中国白茶之乡——福鼎、世界红茶发源地——桐木关、茶树品种的“王国”——武夷山的茶业现状及历史文化积淀。

  7. The Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Tea and Its Polyphenols on in vitro and in vivo N—Nitrosation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYong-Ning; WANGHuai-Zhou; 等

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Chinese tea as a natrural inhibitor of N-nitrosation,and to compare the relative inhibitory potency of various kinds of Chinese tea in vitro and in vivo.Studies on the inhibitory effect of 145 samples of Chinese tea on the formation of N-nitrosomorpholine(NMOR)showed that the inhibitory potency of the 7 types of Chinese tea differed greatly,the average blocking rate of green ta(89.04%,n=60),crush,tear,and curl(CTC)black tea(86.99%,n=13),brick tea(85.40%,n=7),fasmine tea (84.99%,n=21),Oolong tea(82.37%,n=9),sun-dried tea(61.99%,n=13)and Chinese Gongfu black tea(54.98%,n=22),wre ositively correlated with thir polyphenols contents.The inhibitory effect of greeen tea and black tea on endogenous N-nitrosation was also confirmed in 3 human volunteer experiments.Drinking tea after meal had a greatr effect than drinking it before meal.It is concluded that Chinese tea can exert a relatively strong inhibitory potency for N-Nitroso compounds(NOC)formation both in vitro and in humans,and the active constitutents may be related to their polyphenols contents,especially the tea catechin derivatives.The results also demonstrated that the amounts of NMOR formed in vitro depended on the molecular structure of tea catechin derivatives and their molar rations to nitrite.

  8. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  9. Processing procedures of brick tea and their influence on fluorine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C; Yan, Z; Jianwei, L

    2001-09-01

    China is the only country that produces brick tea, and more than 90% of the brick tea is consumed in the western minority nationality regions of China. The high fluorine content of brick tea is possibly associated with the special processing procedures, but no investigation has been conducted in this field. To explore the characteristic features of brick tea manufacturing and the alterations in fluorine content during the processing procedures, we performed a field survey involving two brick tea factories and the nearby tea plantations. For the fluorine contents of the initial, intermediate and final processing products, altogether eight types of specimens were collected and determined by using the ion-selective electrode standard curve technique. It was found that the raw material tea leaf for brick tea processing was old, coarse and not the tender delicate tea leaf used for ordinary green or black tea processing. For the fluorine content of the raw material tea leaf, the intermediate and the final products showed that the fresh raw leaf contained a fluorine content as high as 489.31-512.68 mg/kg. During one fermentation-like processing procedure, the fluorine content rose by 4.67% and 1.88% in the specimens from the two factories, respectively, which revealed no statistical significance (P>0.5). These results suggest that the high fluorine content in brick tea might be due to the high content in the raw material and not related with the processing procedures.

  10. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  11. Mutagenizing brewing yeast strain for improving fermentation property of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengran; Zhang, Guangyi; Sun, Yunping

    2008-07-01

    A brewing yeast mutant with perfect sugar fermentation capacity was isolated by mutagenizing the Saccharomyces pastorianus transformant, which carries an integrated glucoamylase gene and has one copy of non-functional alpha-acetolactate synthase gene. The mutant was able to utilize maltotriose efficiently, and the maltotriose fermentability in YNB-2% maltotriose medium increased from 32.4% to 72.0% after 5 d in shaking culture. The wort fermentation test confirmed that the sugar fermentation property of the mutant was greatly improved, while its brewing performances were analogous to that of the wild-type strain and the characteristic trait of shortened beer maturation period was retained. Therefore, we believe that the brewing yeast mutant would benefit the beer industry and would be useful for low caloric beer production.

  12. Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the Brewing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileoni, Valeria; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an exhaustive description of the use of Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy in the brewing industry. This technique is widely used for quality control testing of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products, as well as process monitoring during malting and brewing. In particular, most of the reviewed works focus on the assessment of barley properties, aimed at quickly selecting the best barley varieties in order to produce a high-quality malt leading to high-quality beer. Various works concerning the use of NIR in the evaluation of raw materials, such as barley, malt, hop, and yeast, are also summarized here. The implementation of NIR sensors for the control of malting and brewing processes is also highlighted, as well as the use of NIR for quality assessment of the final product.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Tea Polysaccharides in Different Types of Teas%茶叶中茶多糖含量的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋励修; 秦建

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To analyze tea polysaccharide content in different types of teas.[Method] Tea polysaccharides were isolated by water extraction from different types of tea, and its content was determined through sulfuric acid-phenol colorimetry.[ Result] In teas derived from different preparation technology, green and dark tea had higher tea polysaccharide content than yellow tea and black tea.In green tea from dif-ferent regions, tea polysaccharide content in Zhejiang tea was higher than that of Anhui tea .In addition, we also found that plain tea exhibited higher tea polysaccharide compared with flower tea.[Conclusion] There are significant differences of tea polysaccharide in different types of teas.This research is helpful for fully understanding tea polysaccharides in different types of teas, and provides theoretic guidance for tea planting, processing and quality evaluation.%[目的]比较分析不同种类代表茶叶中茶多糖含量。[方法]采用水提法提取各种代表茶叶中的茶多糖,用硫酸-酚比色法测量茶叶中的茶多糖含量。[结果]在不同制备工艺茶叶中,青茶和黑茶的茶多糖含量较高,而黄茶和红茶的含量较低;在不同产地绿茶中,浙茶茶多糖含量比较高而徽茶的含量较低;在不同熏花种类中,素茶茶多糖含量较花茶高。[结论]不同种类茶叶茶多糖的含量存在较大差异。该研究为全面了解不同种类茶叶茶多糖含量提供了参考依据,为茶叶的种植、加工及质量评估提供了理论指导。

  14. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  15. 40 CFR 63.2161 - What performance tests and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol? 63.2161 Section 63.2161 Protection of Environment... and other procedures must I use if I monitor brew ethanol? (a) You must conduct each performance test... performance test simultaneously with brew ethanol monitoring to establish a brew-to-exhaust...

  16. Biological remediation of the petropolluted soil by a brewing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Rudenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of application of one of the basic waste of brewing manufacture – spent grains and fulfilled diatomite – for clearing of the petropolluted soils are studied. Results of field researches of influence of a waste of brewing on degree of removal of hydrocarbons from a chernozem soil having various degree of pollution by oil are resulted. It is shown, that the spent grains and fulfilled diatomite stimulate process of removal of hydrocarbons and can be applied to remediation of the petropolluted soil.

  17. Spent grains : a new support for brewing yeast immobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; A.A. Vicente; Cruz, José Machado; Teixeira, J. A

    2001-01-01

    A novel carrier obtained from spent grains, a brewing by-product, was used for brewing yeast immobilisation in a continuous bubble-column reactor. The multiple-layer cell adhesion to the carrier particles resulted in a maximum cell load of 430 mg dry cell gˉ¹ dry carrier (d.c.). After 120 h of reactor operation, the cell load of DEAEmodified carrier was below 40 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. while the values for non-modified carrier reached at least 100 mg dry cell gˉ¹ d.c. The changes in ...

  18. Comparison on Quality Compositions of Broken Black Tea between Elite Germplasm in Yunnan and Kenyan Cultivar 6/8%云南优质红碎茶资源与肯尼亚品种6/8的品质成分比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 杨盛美; 宋维希; 马玲; 刘本英; 汪云刚; 唐一春

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote the screen of quality broken black tea variety and the improvement of general quality of broken black tea in Yunnan, and to strengthen the international market competitiveness of it, the chemical compositions, the quality and the thealfavins content of broken black tea were analyzed and compared between 20 samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan and Kenyan cultivar 6/8. The results showed that in the samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan, the contents of tea polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, water extracts, and ratio of tea polyphenols to amino acid were 26.00%~36.23%, 3.70%~5.75%, 1.71%~4.18%, 41.73%~49.24%, and 6.22~21.19, respectively. t-test results indicated that there were not signiifcant differences in biochemical components between 20 samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan and Kenyan cultivar 6/8, the sensory score of seven samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan exceeded that of Kenyan cultivar 6/8, the thealfavin content of nine samples of elite germplasm in Yunnan exceeded that of Kenyan cultivar 6/8. Therefore, Yunnan large-leaf tea germplasm resources have material basis for processing quality broken black tea.%为了加速优质红碎茶品种的选育,促进云南红碎茶总体品质的提升及增强国际市场竞争力,对20份云南优质红碎茶资源与肯尼亚品种6/8的化学成分、红碎茶品质、茶黄素含量进行了分析比较。结果表明,云南优质红碎茶资源的茶多酚含量为26.00%~36.23%,咖啡碱含量为3.70%~5.75%,氨基酸含量为1.71%~4.18%,水浸出物含量为41.73%~49.24%,酚氨比为6.22~21.19,测验表明,云南优质红碎茶资源与肯尼亚品种6/8的生化成分没有显著性差异,红碎茶感官审评得分超过肯尼亚品种6/8的有7份,茶黄素含量超过肯尼亚品种6/8的有9份,云南大叶茶资源具备加工优质红碎茶的物质基础。

  19. Mechanism of hydrolysis of native and cooked starches from different botanical sources in the presence of tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzar, Igor; Ragaee, Sanaa; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to highlight the mechanism of inhibition of hydrolysis and differences in hydrolysis among starches from different sources in the presence of green or black tea extract. The first experiment showed that black tea extract was more effective at reducing final viscosity for all starches. The second experiment showed that black tea was more effective at inhibiting starch hydrolysis compared to green tea when starch, tea extract, and pancreatin were added at the beginning of pasting. The third experiment, when starches were pretreated with tea extracts, showed that both treatments reduced starch hydrolysis. Analysis of supernatant free phenolic content and of soluble dextrins showed that amyloglucosidase activity was affected, with exceptions for potato starch. These observations suggest that starch hydrolysis is affected by interactions and also by the impact on specific enzymes based on starch structure.

  20. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  1. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  2. 茶叶水浸液对部分肠道致病菌的抑菌作用%BACTERIOSTATIC ACTION OF TEA INFUSION ON SOME ENTEROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韵阳; 张超英; 闫志勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the bacteriostasis of infusions of different kinds of tea. Methods Incubating plate with foveolae was used to study the inhibition of tea infusions to Staphylococcus aureus, E. Coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio parahemolyticus. Results The primary infusions of ordinary green tea, black tea, chrysanthemum tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea produced in Sri Lanka and brick tea showed bacteriostatic action on Vibrio parahemolyticus; that of ordinary green tea, black tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea produced in Sri Lanka, and brick tea on Salmonella typhimurium; and ordinary green tea, black tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea of Sri Lanka, and brick tea on Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion Tea has a bacteriostatic action on enteropathogenic bacteria.%目的 了解普通绿茶、红茶、菊花茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对肠道致病菌的抑菌作用.方法 采用平板孔穴法检测茶叶水浸液对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、鼠伤寒沙门菌、副溶血性弧菌的抑制作用.结果 普通绿茶、红茶、菊花茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对副溶血性弧菌有抑菌作用;普通绿茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对大肠杆菌有抑菌作用;普通绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对鼠伤寒沙门菌、金黄色葡萄球菌有抑菌作用.结论 茶叶对肠道致病菌有抑菌作用.

  3. Tea Culture in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGLinghui; PUNCOGZholma

    2004-01-01

    The air in Tibet does not contain sufficient oxygen, and people living in that part of the world love food that is "dry", such as meat ancl roasted qingke barley flour called zanba. This kind of life calls for tea. And Tibetans have been drinking tea for eons.

  4. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Brewing for Students: An Inquiry-Based Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Sato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to improve and assess student learning, there has been a push to increase the incorporation of discovery-driven modules and those that contain real-world relevance into laboratory curricula. To further this effort, we have developed, implemented, and assessed an undergraduate microbiology laboratory experiment that requires students to use the scientific method while brewing beer. The experiment allows students to brew their own beer and characterize it based on taste, alcohol content, calorie content, pH, and standard reference method. In addition, we assessed whether students were capable of achieving the module learning objectives through a pre-/posttest, student self-evaluation, exam-embedded questions, and an associated worksheet. These objectives included describing the role of the brewing ingredients and predicting how altering the ingredients would affect the characteristics of the beer, amongst others. By completing this experimental module, students accomplished the module objectives, had greater interest in brewing, and were more likely to view beer in scientific terms. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices.

  6. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  7. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…