WorldWideScience

Sample records for black smoker hydrothermal

  1. Basic mathematical model for the normal black smoker system and the hydrothermal megaplume formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A tube model to simulate the normal black smoker system has been built, where the Darcy flow equation, the Ergun equation and the turbulent pipe flow equation are used respectively to describe the dynamic process of different key areas in the hydrothermal circulation system. At the same time, a convection-diffuse Equation for the temperature field is used for describe the exchange of thermal energy and the law of temperature variation. Combining the above facts and using efficient mathematical algorithms and programming with the MatLab programming language, the variation curves of temperature, pressure and mass flow rate are determined, while also the dynamic heat equilibrium and pressure equilibrium within the black smoker system are analyzed. On the basis of the model of the normal black smoker system, a megaplume formation model is further built. For instance, the hydrothermal venting plume on the Juan de Fuca Ridge has been simulated and the simulation results are fairly consistent with Baker's imputed data in 1986. On the basis of the above productive simulation, a series of factors for megaplume formation and the effectiveness of the main parameters of the periodicity of the megaplume formation, temperature and the maximum mass flow rate are systematically discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: The normal black smoker system can evolve into a megaplum eruption. In fact, the passageway of the hydrothermal discharge is blocked by the hydrothermal sediments during the black smoker period, which leads to a hydrothermal fluid accumulation, rise of temperature and increase of buoyancy pressure under the seabed. After a period of 2~3 a, the megaplume hydrothermal eruption will occur when the increasing buoyancy pressure is high enough to crack the blockage (cap).Meanwhile, the temperature of the heat source must exceed 500 ℃, while the highest temperature of the eruption fluid may be high up to 413 ℃, which is fairly consistent with the surveying data

  2. The sound generated by mid-ocean ridge black smoker hydrothermal vents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Crone

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues.

  3. Flow rate perturbations in a black smoker hydrothermal vent in response to a mid-ocean ridge earthquake swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S. D.; McDuff, Russell E.

    2010-03-01

    Although there is indirect evidence for strong connections between tectonic processes and mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal flow, there are no direct observations of these links, primarily because measuring flow in these systems is difficult. Here we use an optical analysis technique to obtain a 44 day record of flow rate changes in a black smoker vent in the Main Endeavour field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We show that variations in the flow rate coincide with an earthquake swarm observed using an ocean bottom seismometer array. These observations indicate that connections between tectonics and flow are indeed strong, that hydraulic connections within this hydrothermal system are long ranging, and that enhanced tidal pumping of fluids may be initiated by earthquake activity. Because the effects of the swarm cross over an intervening vent field, we infer that the upflow zones feeding this field are narrow. Using the time lag between the swarm onset and the flow rate changes we estimate that the bulk permeability of the crust on the Endeavour segment ranges from 3.0 × 10-13 m2 to 6.0 × 10-12 m2.

  4. Microbial diversity of a sulfide black smoker in main endeavour hydrothermal vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Peng, Xiaotong; Meng, Jun; Wang, Fengping; Ai, Yuncan

    2009-06-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are among the least-understood habitats on Earth but have been the intense focus of research in the past 30 years. An active hydrothermal sulfide chimney collected from the Dudley site in the Main Endeavour vent Field (MEF) of Juan de Fuca Ridge was investigated using mineralogical and molecular approaches. Mineral analysis indicated that the chimney was composed mainly of Fe-, Zn-and Cu-rich sulfides. According to phylogenetic analysis, within the Crenarchaeota, clones of the order Desulfurococcales predominated, comprising nearly 50% of archaeal clones. Euryarchaeota were composed mainly of clones belonging to Thermococcales and deep-sea hydrothermal vent Euryarchaeota (DHVE), each of which accounted for about 20% of all clones. Thermophilic or hyperthermophilic physiologies were common to the predominant archaeal groups. More than half of bacterial clones belonged to epsilon-Proteobacteria, which confirmed their prevalence in hydrothermal vent environments. Clones of Proteobacteria (gamma-, delta-, beta-), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) and Deinococcus-Thermus occurred as well. It was remarkable that methanogens and methanotrophs were not detected in our 16S rRNA gene library. Our results indicated that sulfur-related metabolism, which included sulfur-reducing activity carried out by thermophilic archaea and sulfur-oxidizing by mesophilic bacteria, was common and crucial to the vent ecosystem in Dudley hydrothermal site. PMID:19557339

  5. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important

  6. Measuring Black Smoker Fluid Flow Rates Using Image Correlation Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, T. J.; Wilcock, W. S.; McDuff, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a desire to find non-invasive methods for obtaining time-series measurements of fluid flow rates through mid-ocean ridge black smokers, we are developing an image-based velocimetry technique that will provide this information through the analysis of video sequences showing the turbulent structures of black smoker effluent jets. Our ultimate goal is to develop an autonomous seafloor instrument suitable for use with a cabled seafloor observatory that can provide extended time-series measurements of black smoker discharge rates with little user intervention. The method we are developing is based on the two-dimensional cross-correlation of an array of overlapping subimages from two sequential image frames within a sequence. For each pair of images this yields a two- dimensional representation of the instantaneous velocity field in the imaged flow. For each video sequence, the set of these "image velocity fields" from all image pairs is temporally averaged to yield a smoothed representation of the time-averaged image flow field. A transformation is then applied to convert the image flow fields into a relative discharge rate. We have developed a computational algorithm to implement this technique and have successfully applied it to video sequences collected in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing the discharge of black smokers in the Main Endeavour field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge over the course of weeks and months. We are able to resolve velocity fields that are qualitatively consistent with those predicted by plume theory from 5 seconds of video (150 image pairs), but it is difficult to calibrate or assess the precision of the technique with field data alone. In order to address these issues, as well as refine the computational algorithm, we have conducted laboratory simulations of black smoker jets with known discharge rates over a range of Reynolds numbers. We have recorded these simulations to obtain video image sequences that are similar to those

  7. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA) Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA)); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Somerville, C.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

  8. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, W L; Deming, J W; Somerville, C C; Colwell, R R; Baross, J A

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples in titanium syringes and Go Flo Niskin bottles from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. The relative purity of the vent fluids collected was determined by Mg content as an indicator of seawater entrainment. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically by using the dye Hoechst 33258. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml (n = 4; mean(enz) = 0.23 +/- 0.05; mean(fp) = 0.26 +/- 0.05), while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml (n = 4; mean(enz) = 0.97 +/- 0.68; mean(fp) = 1.05 +/- 0.54). Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345 degrees C) flange samples (mean(enz) = 0.14 +/- 0.10; mean(fp) = 0.12 +/- 0.14) were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357 degrees C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent field and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids. PMID:16348193

  9. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducted with urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1990-08-01

    In order to characterize the tobacco-derived mutagens excreted in the urine of tobacco smokers, 32P-postlabelling techniques were used to examine DNA adducts formed from these mutagens with calf thymus DNA in the presence of a metabolic activation system (rat liver S9, Aroclor 1254-induced, with or without acetyl coenzyme A). Using either nuclease P1 or butanol extraction procedures, four-six and three spots, respectively, were reproducibly found on the autoradiograms in the case of the urine extract from two smokers of black tobacco. Using the urinary extract from a non-smoker, only three faint spots were detected after nuclease P1 enrichment. DNA adducts produced in smokers' urine were then compared with those formed by four N-hydroxyarylamines, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine and N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl. Visual inspection revealed that none of the reference aromatic amines contributed to the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagen(s). However, primary aromatic amines are mainly implicated as urinary mutagens because: (i) they produce frameshift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, (ii) they are easily extractable with blue cotton and (iii) their mutagenicity is abolished by a nitrite treatment procedure for deamination. PMID:2387016

  10. A laboratory and theoretical study of the growth of ``black smoker'' chimneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. S.; Campbell, I. H.

    1987-03-01

    Observational evidence suggests that black smoker chimneys are formed by the precipitation of anhydrite from seawater producing a solid framework which is replaced successively by iron, zinc and copper sulfides. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this process using a laboratory model in which KNO 3 is first crystallized from a warm, nearly saturated solution round an inflowing plume of cold K 2CO 3. The chimney grows in length at a nearly constant rate and, at the same time, it thickens as heat conduction causes further crystallization. The dynamic replacement process has been modelled separately, with CuSO 4 passed through a previously formed chimney of KNO 3 and flowing out through the porous walls when the flow rate, and hence the pressure difference, is increased. The formation of chimneys at a line or slit source has also been investigated in the laboratory. It has been shown that, in this case, the slit is quickly blocked off by crystallization over most of its length and that the growth is concentrated at just a few points to form a small number of nearly axisymmetric chimneys. A theory has been developed which predicts both the diameter of the outlet vent and the sign of the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of an axisymmetric chimney of constant internal diameter for a specified flow rate and density difference. It suggests that changes in flow rate or in the internal diameter of the chimney can cause fluid to flow in or out through the porous wall, leading to changes in the position of mineral stability fields within the evolving chimney. The theory has been extended to describe the pressure distribution in tapering interior conduits and it leads to the conclusion that the direction of flow through a porous chimney can reverse along its length.

  11. Evolving patterns of the fluids within the TAG hydrothermal field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The mixing of seawater/hydrothermal fluid within the large seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits plays a key role in the formation processes of the sulfide deposits.Some issues attract considerable attentions in the study of seafloor hydrothermal system in recent years,such as the relationships among different types of vent fluids,the characteristics of chemical compositions and mineral assemblages of the hydrothermal deposits and their governing factors.Combined with the measured data of hydrothermal fluid in the TAG field,the thermodynamic model of mixing processes of the heated seawater at different temperatures and the hydrothermal fluid is calculated to understand the precipitation mechanism of anhydrite and the genetic relationships between the black and white smoker fluids within the TAG mound.The results indicate that the heating of seawater and the mixing of hydrothermal fluid/seawater are largely responsible for anhydrite precipitation and the temperature of the heated seawater is not higher than 150 ℃ and the temperature of the end-member hydrothermal fluid is not lower than 400℃.Based on the simulated results,the evolving patterns of fluids within the TAG deposit are discussed.The mixed fluid of the end-member hydrothermal fluid and the seawater heated by wall rock undergoes conductive cooling during upflowing within the deposit and forms "White Smoker" eventually.In addition,the end-member hydrothermal fluid without mixed with seawater,but undergoing conductive cooling,vents out of the deposit and forms "Black Smoker".

  12. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  13. Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is

  14. Metal sources of black smoker chimneys, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Pb isotope constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Huiqiang, E-mail: hqyao11@yahoo.com [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Huaiyang, E-mail: zhouhy@tongji.edu.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Peng Xiaotong [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Bao Shenxu [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Zijun; Li Jiangtao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun Zhilei; Chen Zhiqiang; Li Jiwei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); National Key Lab of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Guangqian [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Hydrothermal chimney sulfides, vent cap chimney samples, Fe-oxide and basalts from sediment-starving Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Endeavour segment, exhibit a range of Pb isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.658-18.769; {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 15.457-15.566; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 37.810-38.276). The data array is not parallel to the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs indicating a possible sediment component within the sulfides. By assuming that the potential end-member sediment component has a {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.70) similar to Middle Valley sediment, it is suggested the potential end-member sediment component may have {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.90; {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 38.82. Basalt-derived Pb for the Endeavour segment hydrothermal system involves about 50/50 leaching of E-MORB and T2-MORB. Detailed observations show the Mothra field derives more Pb from T2-MORB than the Main Endeavour field does. According to the binary mixing model, the results show little Pb (<1.5%) or no Pb derivation from sedimentary sources. However, the high NH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 4} and Br/Cl ratios in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with a sediment component within the segment. Reconciling the Pb isotope data with the chemistry data of hydrothermal fluids, it is suggested that the sediment component may be located in a lower temperature recharge zone where Pb could not be mobilized from the sediment.

  15. Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava

  16. 32P Postlabelling analysis of urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco implicates 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) as a major DNA-damaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Friesen, M; Garren, L; Hautefeuille, A; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1991-04-01

    When mutagens extracted from the urine of two smokers of black tobacco were reacted with DNA in vitro in the presence of a metabolic activation system, several DNA adducts were detected by 32P-postlabelling analysis. Some of these adducts were also visible, but only faintly, on the autoradiogram for a non-smoker's urine. DNA adducts produced in vitro by 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[3,5-b]pyridine could not account for the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagens. However, three or four 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-related DNA adducts were present among the five or six adducts observed for smokers in the autoradiograms of urinary mutagen-adducted nucleotides. Mutagenicity testing combined with HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts also supported the postlabelling data which implicates PhIP as a mutagen in the urine of smokers of black tobacco. PMID:2013135

  17. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  18. Submarine Hydrothermal Systems - No Two Fields Are Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Over 300 hydrothermal systems have been discovered since the first finding of Galapagos vents over three decades ago. The size, morphology, chemistry and associated biology show a rich diversity that is in part governed by their host rocks and tectonic setting. Each vent system is unique in terms of the morphology of black smoker edifices and associated diffuse flow, which suggests that local processes and feedback loops govern the nature and evolution of these dynamic systems. In fast-spreading environments (e.g. EPR), vent fields are spaced far apart and individual structures are small in number and size. In contrast, to date, the highest concentrations of fields per kilometer of ridge segment, and the largest individual black smokers occur in intermediate-spreading systems (e.g. Endeavour hosting 45 m-tall chimneys). The largest complexes occur in intermediate and slow-spreading environments (e.g. TAG at 200 m across). The highest temperature vents are transient, with temperature excursions at or above the critical point of seawater. Extremely high temperatures are associated with diking and eruptive events that likely vaporize subsurface fluids, forcing them across the two-phase boundary briefly. Along slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges, the character of vents is strongly controlled by faulting, in particular, long-lived detachment faults that expose variably deformed and altered ultramafic rocks. Here, vent systems evolve from high-temperature black smokers within the axial valley with fluids rich in CO2, to black smokers with mantle and basaltic signatures along the axial valley walls, to end member systems such as the Lost City Field with chimneys and fluid chemistries never before seen: 60 m tall limestone towers that vent 90°C, metal-poor, pH 9-11 fluids devoid of CO2, yet rich in H2, CH4 and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons formed abiotically. This relatively stable environment, free from volcanic events, promotes venting for >150,000 years.

  19. Extensive hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau basin revealed by ROV dives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. A.; Tebo, B.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, B.; Davis, R.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Rubin, K. H.; Shank, T. M.; Walker, S. L.; Arculus, R. J.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Buck, N. J.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Crowhurst, P. V.; Mitchell, E.; Olson, E. J.; Ratmeyer, V.; Richards, S.; Roe, K. K.; Kenner-Chavis, P.; Martinez-Lyons, A.; Sheehan, C.; Brian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dives with the QUEST 4000 ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) in September 2012 discovered nine hydrothermal sites in the arc and rear-arc region of the NE Lau Basin in 1150 m to 2630 m depth. These sites, originally detected by water column and seafloor surveys conducted in 2008-2011, include: (1) a paired sulfur-rich/black smoker field on the summit of a tectonically deformed magmatic arc volcano (Niua), (2) fracture-controlled black smoker venting on several small en echelon seamounts (north Matas) that lie between the magmatic arc and the backarc spreading center and (3) a magmatic degassing site on the summit of a dacite cone within a large (~12 km diameter) caldera volcano (Niuatahi). Dives at West Mata Seamount, which was undergoing strombolian volcanic activity and effusive rift-zone eruptions from 2008 to 2010, revealed a dormant volcanic phase in September 2012, with continued low-temperature diffuse venting. The high-temperature venting is likely driven by magmatic heat indicative of underlying partial melt zones and/or melt pockets distributed through the region. The occurrence of the youngest known boninite eruptions on the Mata volcanoes is consistent with subduction fluid flux melting extending into the rear-arc zone. Extension related to the transition from subduction to strike-slip motion of the northern Tonga Arc over the active Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault probably contributes to the enhanced volcanism/hydrothermal activity in the NE Lau Basin. Chemosynthetic ecosystems at these sites range from mostly motile, lower diversity ecosystems at the eruptive/magmatically-degassing sites to higher diversity ecosystems with less mobile faunal components at the black-smoker systems. The wide range of fluid chemistry, water depth and geologic settings of the hydrothermal systems in this area provides an intriguing template to study the interaction of hydrothermal fluid chemistry, chemosynthetic habitats and their geologic underpinning

  20. Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Ingram, Amber; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Despite the well-established adverse birth and childhood health outcomes associated with maternal smoking, smoking rates among pregnant women remain high. Psychosocial health attributes, including anxiety, depression, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and personality characteristics, have especially important roles in smoking behavior. Understanding who smokes during pregnancy and what factors influence this behavior choice may be key to improving the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention programs. We use data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to understand the psychosocial health profiles of women who choose to smoke during pregnancy compared to the profiles of women who do not smoke or successfully quit smoking during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on 1518 non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women assessed the association between smoking status and psychosocial health while controlling for demographic characteristics. Higher levels of perceived stress, depression, neuroticism, negative paternal support, and perceived racism among non-Hispanic blacks were associated with higher odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (pconstellation of psychosocial adversities than women who did not smoke. Given the psychosocial needs and personality profiles experienced by smokers, more attention to the psychosocial strengths and weaknesses of these women may allow for more tailored smoking cessation programs, enhancing both the short- and long-term effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:22000409

  1. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field

    OpenAIRE

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in natu...

  2. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  3. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    . Heinrich, C. A., and P. A. Candela (2014), 13.1 - Fluids and Ore Formation in the Earth's Crust, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), edited by H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian, pp. 1-28, Elsevier, Oxford. Jupp, T., and A. Schultz (2000), A thermodynamic explanation for black smoker temperatures, Nature, 403(6772), 880-883.

  4. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  5. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host. PMID:26914590

  6. Hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence measurements with acoustic scintillation instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Iorio, D.; Xu, G.

    2009-12-01

    Acoustically derived measurements of hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence were obtained from the active black smoker Dante in the Main Endeavour vent field, using scintillation analysis from one-way transmissions. The scintillation transmitter and receiver array formed a 93 m acoustic path through the buoyant plume 20 m above the structure. The acoustic path was parallel to the valley sidewall where the M2 tidal currents are approximately aligned along ridge due to topographic steering by the valley walls and hence most of the plume displacement is expected to occur along the acoustic path. On one deployment, data were collected for 6.5 weeks and vertical velocities range from 0.1 to 0.2 m/s showing a strong dependence on the spring/neap tidal cycle. The refractive index fluctuations which can be paramaterized in terms of the root-mean-square temperature fluctuations also shows a strong tidal modulation during spring tide.

  7. Microbial Activity and Volatile Fluxes in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding geographically and biologically the production or utilization of volatile chemical species such as CO2, CH4, and H2 is crucial not only for understanding hydrothermal processes but also for understanding life processes in the oceanic crust. To estimate the microbial effect on the transport of these volatiles, we consider a double-loop single pass model as shown in Figure 1 to estimate the mass fluxes shown. We then use a simple mixing formulation: C4Q4 = C3 (Q1 -Q3)+ C2Q2, where C2 is the concentration of the chemical in seawater, C3 is the average concentration of the chemical in high temperature focused flow, C4 is the expected concentration of the chemical as a result of mixing, and the relevant mass flows are as shown in Figure 1. Finally, we compare the calculated values of CO2, CH4, and H2 in diffuse flow fluids to those observed. The required data are available for both the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the East Pacific Rise 9°50' N systems. In both cases we find that, although individual diffuse flow sites have observed concentrations of some elements that are greater than average, the average concentration of these volatiles is smaller in all cases than the concentration that would be expected from simple mixing. This indicates that subsurface microbes are net utilizers of these chemical constituents at the Main Endeavour Field and at EPR 9°50' N on the vent field scale. Figure 1. Schematic of a 'double-loop' single-pass model above a convecting, crystallizing, replenished AMC (not to scale). Heat transfer from the vigorously convecting, cooling, and replenished AMC across the conductive boundary layer δ drives the overlying hydrothermal system. The deep circulation represented by mass flux Q1 and black smoker temperature T3 induces shallow circulation noted by Q2. Some black smoker fluid mixes with seawater resulting in diffuse discharge Q4, T4, while the direct black smoker mass flux with temperature T3 is reduced

  8. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007

  9. Heat and mass flux estimation of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Shikui; WANG Xingtao; YU Zenghui

    2006-01-01

    Research on heat and mass flux yielded by modern seafloor hydrothermal activity is very important, because it is involved not only in the base of ocean environment research, but also in the historical evolution of seawater properties. Currently, estimating heat flux is based on the observation data of hydrothermal smokers, low-temperature diffusive flow and mid-ocean ridge mainly. But there are some faults, for example, there is lack of a concurrent conductive item in estimating the heat flux by smokers and the error between the half-space cooling model and the observation data is too large. So, three kinds of methods are applied to re-estimating the heat flux of hydrothermal activity resepectively, corresponding estimation is 97.359 GW by hydrothermal smoker and diffusive flow, 84.895 GW by hydrothermal plume, and 4.11 TW by exponential attenuation method put forward by this paper. Research on mass flux estimation is relatively rare, the main reason for this is insufficient field observation data. Mass fluxes of different elements are calculated using hydrothermal vent fluid data from the TAG hydrothermal area on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge for the first time. Difference of estimations by different methods reflects the researching extent of hydrothermal activity, and systematically in-situ observation will help to estimate the contribution of hydrothermal activity to ocean chemical environment, ocean circulation and global climate precisely.

  10. Deep-sea smokers: windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, J W; Baross, J A

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115 degrees C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150 degrees C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions. PMID:11538298

  11. Geochronology of TAG and Snakepit hydrothermal fields, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Witness to a long and complex hydrothermal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochronological studies of a large number of precipitates from the TAG hydrothermal field and of few samples from Snakepit hydrothermal field of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show intermittent repeated hydrothermal events at both sites. 210Pb/Pb and 230Th/234U measurements of sulfides, iron and manganese oxides, and 14C measurements of carbonates combined with observations of hydrothermal events recorded as discrete layers in sediment cores provide the basis for unravelling the temporal history of the fields. The TAG field shows intermittent activity over the past 120,000 years as evidenced by ages of low-temperature Mn oxides. The presently active black smoker mound first formed about 40,000-50,000 years ago with precipitation of massive sulfides. It has had intermittent, pulsed high-temperature activity every 5000-6000 years over the past 20,000 years which may reflect renewed magmatic actvity at the ridge axis. Fluid flow is focussed at the mound site by structural and tectonic control suggested by the intersection of N-S ridge parallel lystric normal faults and an E-W transform fault. Periods of inactivity are marked by covering of the mound with pelagic carbonate ooze which is probably partially dissolved and reprecipiated as aragonite at the end of each high-temperature event. The Snakepit field had an initial event about 4000 years ago, probably shortly after the eruption of the volcanic ridge on which it sits. A recent renewal, still presently active, was probably initiated by recent fissuring of the volcanic pile. (orig.)

  12. A six-month crossover chemoprevention clinical trial of tea in smokers and non-smokers: methodological issues in a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Chiranjeev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoprevention crossover trials of tea can be more efficient than parallel designs but the attrition and compliance rates with such trials are unknown. Methods Attrition (dropouts and compliance with treatment were assessed in a 25-week randomized, placebo controlled, crossover, feasibility clinical trial of four tea treatments to investigate the effect of tea on oral cancer biomarkers. Each treatment lasted 4 weeks with 2 weeks of washout in between. Participants were 32 smokers and 33 non-smokers without any evidence of premalignant oral lesions. The interventions consisted of packets of green tea, black tea, caffeinated water, or placebo. Participants were assigned to each treatment for four weeks, and were instructed to drink five packets per day while on the treatment. Dropout from the trial and compliance (consumption of ≥ 85% of the prescribed treatment packets are the main outcome measures reported. Results There was a high rate of dropout (51% from the study, and the rates were significantly higher among smokers (64% than non-smokers (36%. Among participants who completed the study the rate of compliance was 72%. The highest rates of dropouts occurred between the first and second treatment visits in both smokers (38% dropout and non-smokers (18% dropout. Throughout the study smokers were more likely to dropout than non-smokers. Black tea treatment was associated with the highest rates of dropout among smokers (37%, but was associated with the lowest rate of dropout among non-smokers (4%. Conclusions In a study conducted to test the feasibility of a four-treatment crossover tea trial, a high rate of dropout among smokers and non-smokers was observed. Multi-arm crossover tea trials might pose a higher burden on participants and research is needed to improve adherence and treatment compliance in such trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN70410203

  13. Maximizing help for dissonant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, M

    2000-01-01

    'Consonant' smokers know and accept the risks associated with tobacco consumption, and do not wish to change their smoking, whereas 'dissonant' smokers are tobacco consumers whose attitudes differ from their behaviour. Dissonant smokers have several options: to quit smoking (the optimal solution), reduce their smoking, switch products or brands, or do nothing. To date, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is the best-established medical aid to smoking cessation, but several important factors impact on NRT use. As smokers constitute a diverse group there is a need for various different formulations, some of which will suit certain smokers better than others. Smokers should be allowed to select their preferred products in order to increase compliance, and should also be permitted to combine various products if desired. Adequate dosage regimens should be stressed in order to avoid under-dosing, which is common with NRT. It is also essential that the medical system focuses increasingly on the diagnosis and treatment of those smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. High nicotine dependence correlates with a high risk of pulmonary and cardiovascular disease; because these smokers cannot quit, cessation efforts have little impact on the incidence of tobacco-related diseases in this population. Additional smoking control interventions, such as smoking reduction therapy, are therefore required to treat this group. Our experience in Vienna shows that these smokers can be targeted through approaches that utilize new messages offering alternatives to cessation. PMID:10723817

  14. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary...

  15. Behaviors of 210Pb and 210Po around hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永亮; 日下部正志; 山本惠幸

    2002-01-01

    Vertical profiles for the uranium-series radioisotopes 210Pb and 210Po were obtained at the two hydrothermal vent sites, the Iheya Ridge and the Minami-Ensei Knoll, in the Mid-Okinawa Trough in 1993 and 1994, respectively. In 1995, both radioisotopes were measured at the Minami-Ensei Knoll again. At the Iheya Ridge, where the hydrothermal activity is not active as reflected by the CH4 and 222Rn data, both the total 210Pb and 210Po activities show deficiency relative to their parents, and the mean residence time of 210Pb and 210Po is approximately equal to 20 and 2~ 5 a, respectively. At the Minami-Ensei Knoll, which is characterized by black smokers, the total 210Pb(0.167 × 10-3 ~2.5 × 10-3 Bq/kg) around the plumes is deficient relative to 226Ra but the total 210Po activities ( 1.83 × 10- 3 ~ 2.83× 10-3 Bq/kg) are in excess relative to 210Pb. The 210Po activities are higher than those in the East China Sea and the Okinawa Trough and excess 210Po has been found. The 210Pb/226Ra and 210Po/210Pb activity ratios are 0.1~ 0.4 and 1.1 ~ 7.8, respectively. 210Pb is preferentially scavenged in the hydrothermal plumes. The possible mechanisms governing the concentration of 210Pb in the Minami-Ensei Knoll involve a lateral transport of 210Pb via diffusion. The high 210Po/210Pb activity ratios in the hydrothermal plumes suggest a depletion of 210Pb and addition of 210Po in the hydrothermal vent area.

  16. Hydrothermal flow at Main Endeavour Field imaged and measured with Cable Operated Vent Imaging Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Initial acoustic monitoring of hydrothermal flow in the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) captures the spatial distribution of diffuse and focused discharge and shows potential for flux determinations. Our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) was connected to the NEPTUNE Canada Endeavour Observatory in September 2010. Using a customized Reson 7125 multi-beam sonar, COVIS acquired a 29 day time series of black smoker plume and associated diffuse hydrothermal flow from Grotto, a 30 m diameter vent cluster in the MEF, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Detection of the spatial patterns of diffuse flow utilizes phase decorrelation of the acoustic signal (200kHz) by buoyancy-driven turbulence (acoustic scintillation) to produce a time series of maps. Substantial fluctuation in the detected diffuse flow area (0.1 - 18 m^2) was observed over the 29 days of observation, although position remained stable. Acoustic imaging of focused flow (400 kHz) utilizes high volume backscatter (attributed to particles and turbulent sound speed fluctuations) to image in 3D the initial tens of meters of rise of buoyant plumes. Spectral analysis of bending inclination of a strong plume from multiple fast smokers on the NW end of Grotto (north tower) indicates that the dominant modes correspond with the ambient mixed semi-diurnal tide (based on current meter data at a mooring 2.9 km to the north and on a tidal model), with at least one secondary mode attributable to sub-inertial flow related to inflow to the axial valley. A weaker plume from several slower smokers is present on the NE end of Grotto. On first analysis, the bending inclination of the weaker plume appears to be affected by the stronger plume. Quantification of flow velocity and volume flux of plumes begins with measuring the Doppler phase shift through plume cross-sections beginning at 5 m above source vents where discharge merges. The volume flux measurements enable calculation of entrainment coefficients, which prior work on the same

  17. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    ridge system, sulfide minerals crystallize from the hot water directly onto the volcanic rocks surrounding the hydrothermal vent leading to the formation of hollow, chimney like sulfide structure through which the hot water continues to flow... systems, which are in turn an integral component of global mid-ocean ridge system. Hydrothermal systems are composed of convection cells in the crust and upper mantle through which seawater freely circulates reacting with magmatic material, which...

  18. Hydrothermal vents near a mantle hot spot: the Lucky Strike vent field at 37°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C.; Humphris, S.; Fornari, D.; Van Dover, C.; Von Damm, K.; Tivey, M. K.; Colodner, D.; Charlou, J.-L.; Desonie, D.; Wilson, C.; Fouquet, Y.; Klinkhammer, G.; Bougault, H.

    1997-04-01

    The Lucky Strike hydrothermal field occurs in the summit basin of a large seamount that forms the shallow center of a 65 km long ridge segment near 37°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The depth and chemistry of the ridge segment are influenced by the Azores hot spot, and this hydrothermal field is the first Atlantic site found on crust that is dominated by a hot spot signature. Multiple hydrothermal vents occur over an area of at least 300 m by 700 m. Vent morphologies range from flanges and chimneys with temperatures of 200-212°C, to black smoker chimneys with temperatures up to 333°C. Cooler fluids from northern vents have higher chlorinities and lower gas volumes, while hotter, southern fluids have chlorinities 20% below seawater with higher gas volumes, suggesting phase separation has influenced their compositions. All gas volumes in fluids are higher than those at TAG and Snake Pit hydrothermal fields. Black smokers exhibit their typical mineralogy, except that barite is a major mineral, particularly at lower-temperature sites, which contrasts with previously investigated Atlantic sites. The fluid chemistry, distribution of the relict sulfide deposits on the seamount summit in the areas investigated using DSV Alvin, and contact relationships between active vent sites and surrounding basaltic and sulfide substrate suggest that the hydrothermal system has a long history and may have recently been rejuvenated. Fauna at the Lucky Strike vent sites are dominated by a new species of mussel, and include the first reported sea urchins. The Lucky Strike biological community differs considerably from other vent fauna at the species level and appears to be a new biogeographic province. The Lucky Strike field helps to constrain how variations in the basaltic substrate influence the composition of hydrothermal fluids and solids, because basalt compositions at Lucky Strike are 10-30 times enriched in incompatible elements compared to other Atlantic hydrothermal sites such as

  19. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  20. Detection of COPD in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Geijer, R.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is the main risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), formerly known as lung emphysema or ‘chronic bronchitis’. Early detection of COPD and smoking cessation may result in significant health gain. In a thesis titled ‘Detection of COPD in smokers’ the results of 6 studies in middle-aged male smokers, conducted between 1998 and 2003 in IJsselstein, a town in the center of The Netherlands, are presented. At the baseline survey, among 702 male smokers, mean age 50 year...

  1. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  2. Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, without Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158913.html Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, Without Diagnosis It's not clear how many ... smokers have symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) even before they've been diagnosed with the ...

  3. Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, without Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158913.html Many Smokers Have COPD Symptoms, Without Diagnosis It's not clear how many ... smokers have symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) even before they've been diagnosed with the ...

  4. Smoker's face: an underrated clinical sign?

    OpenAIRE

    Model, D

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective survey of patients attending a general medical outpatient clinic roughly half the current cigarette smokers who had smoked for 10 years or more were identified, using defined criteria, by their facial features alone. These facial features, designated "smoker's face," were present in three (8%) of those who had smoked cigarettes for 10 years or more in the past and in none of the non-smokers. The association of smoker's face with current smoking that had continued for 10 years...

  5. The dynamics of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems: Splitting plumes and fluctuating vent temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumou, Dim; Driesner, Thomas; Geiger, Sebastian; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Matthäi, Stephan

    2006-05-01

    We present new, accurate numerical simulations of 2D models resembling hydrothermal systems active in the high-permeability axial plane of mid-ocean ridges and show that fluid flow patterns are much more irregular and convection much more unstable than reported in previous simulation studies. First, we observe the splitting of hot, rising plumes. This phenomenon is caused by the viscous instability at the interface between hot, low-viscosity fluid and cold, high-viscosity fluid. This process, known as Taylor-Saffman fingering could potentially explain the sudden extinguishing of black smokers. Second, our simulations show that for relatively moderate permeabilities, convection is unsteady resulting in transiently varying vent temperatures. The amplitude of these fluctuations typically is 40 °C with a period of decades or less, depending on the permeability. Although externally imposed events such as dike injections are possible mechanisms, they are not required to explain temperature variations observed in natural systems. Our results also offer a simple explanation of how seismic events cause fluctuating temperatures: Earthquake-induced permeability-increase shifts the hydrothermal system to the unsteady regime with accompanying fluctuating vent temperatures. We demonstrate that realistic modelling of these high-Rayleigh number convection systems does not only require the use of real fluid properties, but also the use of higher order numerical methods capable of handling high-resolution meshes. Less accurate numerical solutions smear out sharp advection fronts and thereby artificially stabilize the system.

  6. Temporal evolution of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: Insights from vent fluid chemistry and bathymetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, E. P.; Thal, J.; Schaen, A.; Ono, S.; Seewald, J.; Bach, W.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of hydrothermal fluids from back-arc systems is poorly constrained, despite growing evidence for dynamic magmatic-hydrothermal activity, and imminent commercial mining. Here we discuss surveys of diverse vent fluids from multiple hydrothermal fields in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, sampled in 2006 and 2011. Effects of host rock composition, and dynamic magmatic volatile inputs on fluid chemistry are evaluated to understand changes in these systems. Highly acidic and SO4-rich moderate temperature fluids (~48-215°C), as well as SO4-poor black smoker fluids (up to 358°C), were collected at the PACMANUS, SuSu Knolls and DESMOS areas in 2006 and 2011. Acidic, milky white SuSu and DESMOS fluids, rich in elemental S and SO4, exit the seafloor with Na, K, Mg, and Ca diluted conservatively up to 30% relative to seawater, implying subsurface mixing of seawater with SO2-rich aqueous fluids exsolved from magma, analogous to subaerial fumarole discharge. SO2 disproportionation during cooling and mixing of magmatic fluids contributes acidity, SO4, H2S and S(0)(s), as well as widespread S outcrops on the seafloor. Nearby black smoker fluids indicate entrainment and reaction of magmatic fluid into convecting fluids at depth, and additional hybrid-type fluids appear to consist of evolved seawater and unreacted magmatic fluid SO2 derivatives. Fluids at DESMOS in 2006 indicate increased magmatic SO2 relative to 1995, despite constant low venting temperatures (~120°C). In contrast, dramatic changes in bathymetry and seafloor morphology point to substantial continuous eruption of volcaniclastic material between 2006 and 2011 at SuSu Knolls, burying fumarolic vents from 2006. Compositions of new 2011 acidic, sulfate-rich fluids there suggest reaction with less altered, fresher rock. At the PACMANUS area, farther from the arc, direct magmatic degassing to the seafloor is not occurring presently, but entrainment and reaction of similar acid

  7. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea

  8. Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development

  9. Discovery of hydrothermally active and extinct talc mounds on the Mid-Cayman Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1977, hydrothermal vents have been the subject of intense scientific interest due to their role in cooling the oceanic crust and global geochemical cycles. Until now, two types of hydrothermal system have been identified: one, driven by magmatic heat extruding ';black smoker' fluids; and another, involving serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks and the precipitation of carbonate/brucite chimneys. Here, we present details of a new, off-axis type of hydrothermal system consisting of mounds of predominately botryoidal talc (a magnesium-silicate) with accessory silica and copper sulphides, and chimneys exhaling fluids of moderate temperature and pH. Discovered on the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in 2010, the Von Damm Vent Field (VDVF) features a NNW-ESE-trending line of four overlapping cones, the largest of which is 75 m high by 150 m in diameter. The VDVF is hosted in the gabbroic footwall of the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex (MDOCC), which includes serpentinised peridotite at depth. The largest cone vents clear fluids from two main orifices at its summit, with primary temperatures of 215°C. Elsewhere, both focussed and diffuse flow areas emit fluids with temperatures of up to 150°C. The surrounding ~1 m thick pelagic sediment contains abundant pockmarks that emit methane-rich fluids at temperatures of less than 10°C. During the return to the MCR in early 2013, several other talc mounds were discovered within a kilometre of the active VDVF. These inactive mounds also comprise an assemblage of botryoidal talc, silica, disseminated sulphides (including chalcopyrite) and sulphates. One of these mounds (Mystic Mount) is double the volume of the active VDVF. The unique dominance of talc as the major mineral forming the hydrothermal structures indicates unusual vent fluid compositions that are able to carry both copper (at high-temperatures) and precipitate magnesium silicate. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that talc precipitates on mixing a moderately acidic, silica

  10. Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillermo Bastida; Belén Beltrán

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor that interferes in the establishment and clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Firstly, the risk of smoking status impact in the development of UC is reviewed, showing that current smoking has a protective association with UC.Similarly, being a former smoker is associated with an increased risk of UC. The concept that smoking could have a role in determining the inflammatory bowel disease phenotype is also discussed. Gender may also be considered, as current smoking delays disease onset in men but not in women. No clear conclusions can be driven from the studies trying to clarify whether childhood passive smoking or prenatal smoke exposure have an influence on the development of UC, mainly due to methodology flaws. The influence of smoking on disease course is the second aspect analysed. Some studies show a disease course more benign in smokers that in non-smokers, with lower hospitalizations rates, less flare-ups, lower use of oral steroids and even less risk of proximal extension. This is not verified by some other studies. Similarly, the rate of colectomy does not seem to be determined by the smoking status of the patient.The third issue reviewed is the use of nicotine as a therapeutic agent. The place of nicotine in the treatment of UC is unclear, although it could be useful in selected cases, particularly in recent ex-smokers with moderate but refractory attacks of UC. Finally, the effect of smoking cessation in UC patients is summarised. Given that smoking represents a major worldwide cause of death,for inpatients with UC the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Thus, physicians should advise,encourage and assist UC patients who smoke to quit.

  11. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  12. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Rogers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp., stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae, bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more

  13. Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Tivey, M.K. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

    1992-12-10

    A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

  14. Psychophysiological reactivity to environmental tobacco smoke on smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; González-Javier, Francisca; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an air pollutant with a relevant impact on public health. In addition, ETS is a significant stimulus that may elicit different responses depending on previous experience and current status regarding smoking. Exposure to cigarette cues has been shown to be a reliable method for inducing subjective and physiological responses. However, the role of ETS as a stimulus has not received, to date, enough attention in the research literature. This study aimed to analyse both the autonomic and subjective responses of smokers and non-smokers to exposure to ETS. To that end, 41 non-smokers and 57 smokers were exposed to ETS, in a controlled laboratory setting. We measured the subjective perception of smoke, unpleasantness, heart rate and skin conductance to compare the reactions of smokers and non-smokers to ETS. Additionally, subjective tobacco craving after exposure was assessed for current smokers. We found different psychophysiological responses to ETS exposure for smokers and non-smokers. Smokers showed a generalised increase in autonomic activity, significantly greater than that of non-smokers. In addition, heart rate increase during exposure to ETS was positively correlated with subjective craving. Our data suggested that ETS was an important stimulus and acted as a relevant cue for smokers; it induced both psychophysiological reactions and subjective craving. Hence, this kind of stimulus within the cue-reactivity research paradigm may be useful for studying the effect of ETS on smokers' reactions, craving, quitting attempts, or relapse probabilities. PMID:22465376

  15. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P.

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  16. Subaqueous cryptodome eruption, hydrothermal activity and related seafloor morphologies on the andesitic North Su volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, Janis; Tivey, Maurice; Yoerger, Dana R.; Bach, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    North Su is a double-peaked active andesite submarine volcano located in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea that reaches a depth of 1154 m. It hosts a vigorous and varied hydrothermal system with black and white smoker vents along with several areas of diffuse venting and deposits of native sulfur. Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 and 2011 combined with morphologic features identified from repeated bathymetric surveys in 2002 and 2011 documents the emplacement of a volcanic cryptodome between 2006 and 2011. We use our observations and rock analyses to interpret an eruption scenario where highly viscous, crystal-rich andesitic magma erupted slowly into the water-saturated, gravel-dominated slope of North Su. An intense fragmentation process produced abundant blocky clasts of a heterogeneous magma (olivine crystals within a rhyolitic groundmass) that only rarely breached through the clastic cover onto the seafloor. Phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions beneath the seafloor cause mixing of juvenile and pre-existing lithic clasts and produce a volcaniclastic deposit. This volcaniclastic deposit consists of blocky, non-altered clasts next, variably (1-100%) altered clasts, hydrothermal precipitates and crystal fragments. The usually applied parameters to identify juvenile subaqueous lava fragments, i.e. fluidal shape or chilled margin, were not applicable to distinguish between pre-existing non-altered clasts and juvenile clasts. This deposit is updomed during further injection of magma and mechanical disruption. Gas-propelled turbulent clast-recycling causes clasts to develop variably rounded shapes. An abundance of blocky clasts and the lack of clasts typical for the contact of liquid lava with water is interpreted to be the result of a cooled, high-viscosity, crystal-rich magma that failed as a brittle solid upon stress. The high viscosity allows the lava to form blocky and short lobes. The pervasive volcaniclastic cover on North Su is

  17. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  18. Relation of resistin levels with C-reactve protein, homocysteine and uric acid in smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Esbah

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We found that smoking may have influence on resistin levels and in smokers, insulin resistance is related to resistin levels, but in smoker and non-smokers body mass may not have any association with resistin. Resistin also may not have a role in C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid levels both in smokers and non-smokers.

  19. STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeena Bano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

  20. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend;

    1999-01-01

    changes in their own smoking behaviour such as avoiding smoking in the presence of non-smokers. In general practice settings, these percentages were higher among smokers. Smokers who were thinking of stopping smoking in the near future were in addition more likely to take and to read smoking related...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...

  1. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  2. He, Ne and Ar isotope compositions of fluid inclusions in hy-drothermal sulfides from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG; Zhigang; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Rona, P. A. , Klinkhammer, G. , Nelsen, T. A. et al. , Black smokers, massive sulphides and vent biota at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Nature, 1986, 321: 33.[2]Edmonds, H. N. , German, C. R. , Green, D. R. H. et al. , Continuation of the hydrothermal fluid chemistry time series at TAG, and the effects of ODP drilling, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1996, 23: 3487.[3]Charlou, J. L. , Donval, J. P. , Jean-Baptiste, P. et al. , Gases and helium isotopes in high temperature solutions sampled before and after ODP Leg158 drilling at TAG hydrothermal field (26°N, MAR), Geophys. Res. Lett., 1996, 23: 3491. [4]Rudnicki, M. D. , Elderfield, H. , Helium, radon and manganese at the TAG and Snakepit hydrothermal vent fields, 26°and 23°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1992, 113: 307. [5]Butterfield, D. A. , Massoth, G. J. , McDuff, R. E. et al. , Geochemistry of fluids from Axial Seamount hydrothermal emissions study vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Subseafloor boiling and subsequent fluid-rock interaction, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95: 12895. [6]Baker, E. T. , Lupton, J. E. , Changes in submarine hydrothermal 3He/heat ratios as an indicator of magmatic/tectonic activity, Nature, 1990, 346: 556. [7]Jean-Baptiste, P. , Fouquet, Y. , Abundance and isotopic composition of helium in hydrothermal sulfides from the East Pacific Rise at 13°N, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1996, 60: 87. [8]Stuart, F. M. , Turner, G. , Duckworth, R. C. et al. , Helium isotopes as tracers of trapped hydrothermal fluids in ocean-floor sulfides, Geology, 1994, 22: 823. [9]Stuart, F. M. , Duckworth, R. , Turner, G. et al. , Helium and sulfur isotopes in sulfide minerals from Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 1994, 139: 387. [10]Turner, G. , Stuart, F. , Helium/heat ratios and deposition temperatures of sulphides from the ocean floor, Nature, 1992, 357: 581.[11

  3. Telephone Counselling for Pregnant Smokers: Essential Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Sharon E.; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Anderson, Christopher M.; Quinlan-Downs, Raechelle; Harris, Patricia; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Counselling pregnant smokers to quit is as difficult as it is essential. This article discusses a telephone counselling protocol designed to promote tobacco cessation among pregnant smokers. The protocol, validated in a large randomised, controlled trial, addresses three key elements of change for addictive behaviour —motivation, cognition and skill building — in ways tailored to pregnant smokers’ unique needs. Details concerning scheduling, counsellor training and broader applicability are a...

  4. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  5. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Bommelé

    Full Text Available Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers.A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way.We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. 'Receptive' hardcore smokers (36% perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. 'Ambivalent' hardcore smokers (59% were rather undecided towards quitting. 'Resistant' hardcore smokers (5% saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of 'receptive' smokers (30% and 'ambivalent' smokers (54%. However, a third group consisted of 'disengaged' smokers (16%, who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting.Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers.

  6. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  7. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  8. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontit...

  9. Discovering New Mantle-Hosted Submarine Ecosytems: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.; Karson, J. A.; Yoerger, D.; Fruh-Green, G. L.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lilley, M.

    2003-12-01

    In April-May 2003, the Lost City Hydrothermal Field was investigated during 19 Alvin dives and 17 missions with the autonomous vehicle ABE to examine the linkages among geological, chemical and biological processes associated with a submarine hydrothermal system hosted on mantle material. In concert, these two programs resulted in 1) delineation of the geologic features that control hydrothermal flow in this area; 2) an extremely high-resolution bathymetric map (meter scale) of the field and adjacent areas of the Atlantis Massif; 3) interdisciplinary sampling of 10 individual venting sites within the field; and 4) documentation of a nearly continuous zone of deformation at the top of the massif that is very likely the surface expression of a long-lived detachment fault that caps the massif. This hydrothermal system, which is driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions beneath the Atlantis Massif, is unlike any known field examined to date. It is hosted on 1-2 my old variably altered mantle material, it contains more than 30 carbonate chimneys that reach up to 60 m in height, and generation of diffusely venting 40-90C fluids with pH 9-11 that are enriched in methane, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons support dense microbial communities. ABE bathymetry shows that a linear array of the largest structures within the field is controlled by an E-W trending, 200 m long lineament intersected by a N-S trending fault. Mapping of the near vertical cliffs adjacent to the field indicates that much of the subsurface flow within this area is controlled by very gently west-dipping faults that result in a nearly horizontal, sheet-like style of flow. Venting of diffuse fluids directly from the near vertical walls forms perpendicular growths of carbonate flanges, and results in the formation of vertical spires, and massive, shingled deposits that cascade down the cliff faces. The plumbing system within this area is very different from the vertical conduits that typify black smoker

  10. Eicosanoid production and lymphatic responsiveness in human cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinzinger, H; Kaliman, J; Oguogho, A

    2000-03-01

    Leg lymphatic segments were isolated from 10 patients (4 cigarette smokers and 6 non-smokers) undergoing conventional lymphography. Prostaglandin (PG) levels and PG synthesis in the lymphatics and in a variety of body fluids and the effects of eicosanoids on lymphatic contractility were determined. Leg lymphatics from 4 smokers generated less PGI2 and contained more 8-epi-PGF2 alpha when compared with leg lymphatics in 6 non-smokers. Similarly, levels of 8-epi-PGF2 alpha in smokers compared with non-smokers were higher in plasma (28.6 cf 19.7 pg/ml), leg lymph (146.7 cf 65.3 pg/ml), serum (299.0 cf 204.1 pg/ml), and urine (473.4 cf 241.0 pg/mg creatinine). Lymphatics from smokers also showed a higher contractile response, less 14C-arachidonic acid conversion to PGI2 and less PGI2-formation with various stimuli compared with non-smokers. Together these findings suggest that smoking induces oxidation injury, promotes altered (iso-)eicosanoid production and impacts on the function and dysfunction of peripheral lymphatics under normal circumstances and in a variety of clinical disorders. PMID:10769813

  11. In situ Raman-based detections of the hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, and their associated biological communities play an important role in global carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles. Most of the studies of fluid composition geochemistry are based on recovered samples, both with gas-tight samplers and as open specimens, but the in situ conditions are difficult to maintain in recovered samples. Determination in situ of the chemical signals of the emerging fluids are challenging due to the high pressure, often strongly acidic and temperature in which few sensors can survive. Most of those sensors used so far are based on electrochemistry, and can typically detect only a few chemical species. Here we show that direct measurement of critical chemical species of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps can be made rapidly and in situ by means of a new hybrid version of earlier deep-sea pore water Raman probe carried on the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian. The fluid was drawn through the probe by actuating a hydraulic pump on the ROV, and measured at the probe optical cell through a sapphire window. We have observed the concentrations of H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, HSO4‑, CO2, and H2 in hydrothermal vent fluids from the Pacmanus and Desmos vent systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Two black smokers (279° C and 186° C) at the Pacmanus site showed the characteristic loss of SO42‑, and the increase of CO2 and well resolved H2S and HS‑ peaks. At the white smoker of Onsen site the strong HSO4‑peak observed at high temperature quickly dropped with strong accompanying increase of SO42‑and H2 peaks when the sample contained in the Raman sensing cell was removed from the hot fluid due to rapid thermal deprotonation. We report here also the finding of a new lower temperature (88° C) white smoker "Kexue" field at the Desmos site with strong H2S, HS‑ and CO2 signals. We also have detected the concentrations of CH4,H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, and S8 in cold seep fluids and the surrounding

  12. PULMONARY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKER AND NON-SMOKER MODERN DANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Agopyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the harmful effects of smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been established for a long time, the effect on physiological and physical parameters in modern female dancers is not well documented. Objective: To determine differences in selected pulmonary functions, biochemical parameters, and body composition in female smoker and non-smoker modern dancers who are university or graduate students. Methods: A total of twenty-two female modern dancers (mean age of 24.6 ± 4.3 years, who were non-smokers (n = 11 and smokers (n = 11, voluntarily participated in the study. The smokers had been smoking 1 to 20 cigarettes per day for an average period of seven years. The pulmonary function test Mir Spirobank Spirometer, (Italy was applied; selected biochemical parameters were tested, and various anthropometric measurements (height, weight and seven skinfold thickness were performed. The results of body composition were evaluated using Jackson-Pollock equations. Intergroup comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Result: No significant differences were found between smoker and non-smoker dancers in terms of body composition (body fat, % body fat, lean body fat and selected biochemical parameters (p > 0.05. However, non-smokers had prediction values of forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1 and peak expiratory flow (PEF significantly better (p < 0.05. The effect of smoking on the performance of female modern dancers should be examined in a longitudinal study, with a higher number of participants. Conclusion: It was observed that smoking reduces lung pulmonary capacity at a certain rate, although the biochemical parameters and body composition of the female smoker and non-smoker dancers were similar.

  13. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  14. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS;

    2013-01-01

    -smokers (p = 0.34). Further, we could not demonstrate a significant association between striatal DAT and the number of cigarettes per day or total lifetime cigarette packages in smokers and ex-smokers. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that large differences in striatal DAT availability...

  15. Influence of Hydrothermal Temperature on Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Guan; Fangying Ji; Qingkong Chen; Peng Yan; Weiwei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Porous calcium silicate hydrate (PCSH) was synthesized by carbide residue and white carbon black. The influence of hydrothermal temperature on phosphorus recovery efficiency was investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Hydrothermal temperature exerted significant influence on phosphorus recovery performance of PCSH. Hydrothermal temperature 170°C for PCSH was more proper to recover phosphorus. PCSH could re...

  16. First hydrothermal active vent discovered on the Galapagos Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, C.; Li, H.; Wu, G.; Su, X.; Zhang, G.; Chinese DY115-21 Leg 3 Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    The Galapagos Microplate (GM) lies on the western Gaplapagos Spreading Center (GSC), representing one of the classic Ridge-Ridge-Ridge (R-R-R) plate boundaries of the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific plates. The presence of the 'black smoke' and hydrothermal vent community were firstly confirmed on the GSC. Lots of hydrothermal fields were discovered on the center and eastern GSC, while the western GSC has not been well investigated. During 17th Oct. to 9th Nov. 2009, the 3rd leg of Chinese DY115-21 cruise with R/V Dayangyihao has been launched along 2°N-5°S near equatorial East Pacific Rise (EPR). Two new hydrothermal fields were confirmed. One is named 'Precious Stone Mountain', which is the first hydrothermal field on the GM. The other is found at 101.47°W, 0.84°S EPR. The 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field (at 101.49°W, 1.22°N) is located at an off-axial seamount on the southern GM boundary, with a depth from 1,450 to 1,700m. Hydrothermal fluids emitting from the fissures and hydrothermal fauna were captured by deep-tow video. Few mineral clasts of pyrite and chalcopyrite were separated from one sediment sample, but no sulfide chimney was found yet. Hydrothermal fauna such as alive mussels, crabs, shrimps, tubeworms, giant clams, as well as rock samples were collected by TV-Grab. The study of the seafloor classification with Simrad EM120 multi-beam echosounder has been conducted on the 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field. The result indicates that seafloor materials around the hydrothermal field can be characterized into three types, such as the fresh lava, hydrothermal sediment, and altered rock.

  17. Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on α-1,4 and β-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on α-1,4 sugars, β-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately

  18. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardar, Kripasindhu [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

  20. Neural correlates of cigarette health warning avoidance among smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stothart, George; Maynard, Olivia M; Lavis, Rosie J; Munafo, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eye-tracking technology has indicated that daily smokers actively avoid pictorial cigarette package health warnings. Avoidance may be due to a pre-cognitive perceptual bias or a higher order cognitive bias, such as reduced emotional processing. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study aimed to identify the temporal point at which smokers' responses to health warnings begin to differ.METHOD: Non-smokers (n=20) and daily smokers (n=20) viewed pictorial cigarette package health...

  1. GENOMIC LANDSCAPE OF NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER IN SMOKERS AND NEVER SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Ding, Li; Griffith, Malachi; Subramanian, Janakiraman; Dees, Nathan D.; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Maher, Christopher A.; Fulton, Robert; Fulton, Lucinda; Wallis, John; Chen, Ken; Walker, Jason; McDonald, Sandra; Bose, Ron; Ornitz, David; Xiong, Donghai; You, Ming; Dooling, David J.; Watson, Mark; Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We report the results of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 17 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We identified 3,726 point mutations and over 90 indels in the coding sequence, with an average mutation frequency more than 10-fold higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Novel alterations in genes involved in chromatic modification and DNA repair pathways were identified along with DACH1, CFTR, RELN, ABCB5, and HGF. Deep digital sequencing revealed diverse clonality patterns in both never smokers and smokers. All validated EFGR and KRAS mutations were present in the founder clones, suggesting possible roles in cancer initiation. Analysis revealed 14 fusions including ROS1 and ALK as well as novel metabolic enzymes. Cell cycle and JAK-STAT pathways are significantly altered in lung cancer along with perturbations in 54 genes that are potentially targetable with currently available drugs. PMID:22980976

  2. A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY ON LIPID PROFILE IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the environmental factors which can alter normal lipid profile. It is one of the major risk fa ctors in the genesis of coronary atherosclerosis and development of coronary heart disease. AIMS: To evaluate and compare the lipid profile in both groups and to evaluate the existence of dose de pendent relationship and durational significance between smoking and lipid profile among smokers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Out of 100 apparently healthy male subjects of age group 21-4 0yrs, 50 were smokers and 50 were non smokers. All the subjects were non alcoholic, non – obese, normotensives and from same socioeconomic status. Subjects who smoke more than equal 10 cigarettes for more than 2 years were considered as smokers group. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The subjects were asked to fast overnight and early morning blood samples colle cted and analyzed for lipid profile by appropriate methods. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The student’s unpaired “t” test was used for statistical analysis. P-value of < 0.05 or P va lue <0.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In our study we found serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL w ere higher in smokers as compared to non smokers and the serum HDL level was significantly decreased in smokers compared to non smokers showing greater risk of thes e persons to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Conclusions: - We conclude our study with the obser vation that smoking causes alteration in lipid profile. Increased amount and duration of smok ing causes more dyslipidaemia .This alteration in serum lipid levels increases risk for coronary artery disease.

  3. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Saad, Helmi; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Ben Essghaier, Mejda; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS).Methods: Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n = 36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n =...

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST BETWEEN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dibakar; Shrabani; Jyotismita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smokers are prone to develop Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) than non-smokers. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) includes chronic bronchitis, bronchial Asthma, and emphysema. Pulmonary function test is a routine procedure for assessment and monitoring diseases. OBJECTIVE To estimate the Pulmonary function test like Forced Vital Capacity(FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second(FEV₁), FEV₁/FVC ratio and Peak Expiratory Flow ...

  5. Uranium hydrothermal deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2012 - (Vasiliev, A.; Sidorov, M.), s. 211-244 ISBN 978-1-62081-207-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : uranium * hydrothermal deposits * uraninite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction. In......This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During the...... hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by...

  7. Comparative study of adenosine deaminase activity, insulin resistance and lipoprotein(a) among smokers and healthy non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Ramasamy; Sathish Babu Murugaiyan; Arulkumaran U.; Sathiya R.; Kuzhandai Velu V.; Niranjan Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adenosine deaminase also known as adenosine aminohydrolase involved in purine metabolism. Its primary function is development and maintenance of immune system. The main objective of the study was to estimate adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme and find its correlation with lipoprotein(a) and insulin resistance among smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: Fifty smokers and fifty healthy non-smokers were selected based on WHO definition. ADA, lipid profile and glucose was estimat...

  8. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Meulman, Tatiana; Peruzzo, Daiane; Renato C V Casarin; Giorgetti, Ana Paula; Barbagallo, André; Casati, Márcio Z.; Sallum, Enilson A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo B.; Francisco H. NOCITI Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST). Methods: Non-smokers (n=10) and smokers (n=10) presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD) (≥5 mm), bleeding on probing (BoP), and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), BoP, PPD, relative gin...

  9. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  10. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  11. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality

  12. Somatotype, physical growth, and sexual maturation in young male smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, K B; Singhi, S; Gurnani, M.; Singhi, P; O. P. Garg

    1980-01-01

    One thousand school boys aged 8 to 16 were examined for their somatotype, physical growth, sexual maturation, and smoking habits. Fifty-two boys were found to be smokers, of whom 30 were regularly smoking between two and 20 bidis or cigarettes a day for a mean duration of 2.5 years. The mean height and weight of the smokers was significantly lower than that of the non-smokers at all ages, more so in regular than occasional smokers. Sixty-nine per cent of the smokers had mesomorphic type of bo...

  13. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  14. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT findings in healthy smokers` lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Yang, Keun Mung; Lee, Chang Joon; Joo, Dong Il; Kim, Yang Soo [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lung changes in healthy smokers, as seen on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Twenty-seven healthy smokers (light smokers, below 20 pack-years, n=16; heavy smokers, above 20 pack-years, n=11) and 25 nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT. All healthy smokers had normal pulmonary function and chest radiography. Parenchymal and subpleural micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and septal line were evaluated on inspiratory scan and by air-trapping on expiratory scan. According to the findings of HRCT, heavy smokers and higher frequency of parenchymal micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, and air-trapping than nonsmokers and light smokers. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...... constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  16. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  17. Telomerase mutations in smokers with severe emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Susan E.; Chen, Julian J. L.; Podlevsky, Joshua D.; Alder, Jonathan K; Hansel, Nadia N.; Rasika A Mathias; Qi, Xiaodong; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Wise, Robert A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Kathleen C. Barnes; Armanios, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the essential telomerase genes TERT and TR cause familial pulmonary fibrosis; however, in telomerase-null mice, short telomeres predispose to emphysema after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we tested whether telomerase mutations are a risk factor for human emphysema by examining their frequency in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Across two independent cohorts, we found 3 of 292 severe COPD cases carried deleterious mutations in TERT (1%). This p...

  18. Teens' images of smoking and smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, D; Allen, P; Arian, G.; Crawford, M.; Headen, S.; Spigner, A. C.; Tassler, P.; Ureda, J.

    2001-01-01

    The authors used qualitative and quantitative data to identify and interpret specific images teens have about smoking and smokers. Qualitative data were collected in 1996 from 793 teenagers participating in 125 focus groups at eight different sites across the United States. Most focus groups were homogeneous with respect to gender, ethnicity, and smoking status. Ages ranged from 12 to 18 years, and about half of the participants were female. The majority of participants (62%) were white and A...

  19. Approach bias modification in inpatient psychiatric smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machulska, Alla; Zlomuzica, Armin; Rinck, Mike; Assion, Hans-Jörg; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Drug-related automatic approach tendencies contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive behavior. The present study investigated whether a nicotine-related approach bias can be modified in smokers undergoing inpatient psychiatric treatment by using a novel training variant of the nicotine Approach-Avoidance-Task (AAT). Additionally, we assessed whether the AAT-training would affect smoking behavior. Inpatient smokers were randomly assigned to either an AAT-training or a sham-training condition. In the AAT-training condition, smokers were indirectly instructed to make avoidance movements in response to nicotine-related pictures and to make approach movements in response to tooth-cleaning pictures. In the sham-training condition, no contingency between picture content und arm movements existed. Trainings were administered in four sessions, accompanied by a brief smoking-cessation intervention. Smoking-related self-report measures and automatic approach biases toward smoking cues were measured before and after training. Three months after training, daily nicotine consumption was obtained. A total of 205 participants were recruited, and data from 139 participants were considered in the final analysis. Prior to the trainings, smokers in both conditions exhibited a stronger approach bias for nicotine-related pictures than for tooth-cleaning pictures. After both trainings, this difference was no longer evident. Although reduced smoking behavior at posttest was observed after both trainings, only the AAT-training led to a larger reduction of nicotine consumption at a three-month follow-up. Our preliminary data partially support the conclusion that the AAT might be a feasible tool to reduce smoking in the long-term in psychiatric patients, albeit its effect on other smoking-related measures remains to be explored. PMID:26874269

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis and physicochemical properties of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikhtiarenko, A., E-mail: dikhtiarenkoalla@uniovi.es [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Khainakov, S.A.; Garcia, J.R.; Gimeno, J. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Pedro, I. de; Fernandez, J. Rodriguez [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ruthenium nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average size of the nanoparticles are depend on the reducing agent used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic response seems to be dominated by a paramagnetic contribution characteristic of the band electronic magnetism of the ruthenium(0) nanoparticles. - Abstract: The synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles in hydrothermal conditions using mild reducing agents (succinic acid, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate) is reported. The shape of the nanoparticles depends on the type of the reducing agent, while the size is more influenced by the pH of the medium. The magnetic response seems to be dominated by a paramagnetic contribution characteristic of the band electronic magnetism of the nanoparticles.

  1. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non-smokers in Ibadan, Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe O Arowojolu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups comprising of 117 smokers (cases and 96 non-smokers (control. Intra oral examination was done using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and Gingival index (GI. Results: The mean age of the smokers was 31.2 ± 12.6 years and that of the non-smokers 32.8 ± 9.5 years. The mean Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S was 1.15 ± 0.51 for the non-smokers and 2.19 ± 0.62 for the smokers (P < 0.05. The mean GI was 1.06 ± 0.55 for the non-smokers and 1.62 ± 0.58 for the smokers (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study shows that smoking is associated with increased severity of gingival disease. It is, therefore, recommended that smokers should be encouraged to visit a dentist for preventive procedure more regularly than the non-smokers and better still, smokers should be encouraged to quit smoking as gingival disease is not without consequences if allowed to persist.

  2. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  3. Comparative study of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers who have experienced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa Diogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of smoking on in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction and to assess the association between smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors and clinical data. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed 121 patients, including 54 smokers, 35 ex-smokers, and 32 nonsmokers. RESULTS: Using the chi-square test (P<0.05, an association between smoking and the risk factors sex, age, and diabetes was documented. Among the morbidity and mortality variables, only acute pulmonary edema showed a statistically significant difference (OR=9.5; 95% CI, which was greater in the ex-smoker group than in the nonsmoker group. CONCLUSION: An association between smoking and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed, but no statistical difference in morbidity and mortality was observed in the groups studied, except for the variable acute pulmonary edema.

  4. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  5. GENOMIC LANDSCAPE OF NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER IN SMOKERS AND NEVER SMOKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Ding, Li; Griffith, Malachi; Subramanian, Janakiraman; Nathan D Dees; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Maher, Christopher A.; Fulton, Robert; Fulton, Lucinda; Wallis, John; Chen, Ken; Walker, Jason; McDonald, Sandra; Bose, Ron; Ornitz, David

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 17 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We identified 3,726 point mutations and over 90 indels in the coding sequence, with an average mutation frequency more than 10-fold higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Novel alterations in genes involved in chromatic modification and DNA repair pathways were identified along with DACH1, CFTR, RELN, ABCB5, and HGF. Deep...

  6. Secondhand smoke and respiratory ill health in current smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, T; Ho, L; Hedley, A.; Adab, P.; Fielding, R.; McGhee, S; Leung, G; Aharonson-Daniel, L

    2005-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have concluded that secondhand smoke (SHS) is harmful to non-smokers but controversy persists regarding its effects on smokers. The impact of SHS exposure on the acute respiratory health of current active smokers was examined using a cross sectional design. Methods: 9923 uniformed staff in the Hong Kong Police Force completed a standardised questionnaire on current and past smoking, SHS exposure at home and at work, acute respiratory symptoms, and recent physician...

  7. Smokers' Beliefs About The Inability to Stop Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We recruited 367 current daily smokers via the Internet and randomized them to rate the causes of an inability to stop smoking, inability to stop problem alcohol use, or inability to lose excess weight in a fictional scenario. Most smokers attributed inability to stop smoking to addiction (88%), habit (88%) and stress (62%). Surprisingly, equal numbers of smokers agreed and disagreed that inability to stop smoking was due to lack of willpower or motivation. Most disagreed that it was due to b...

  8. Understanding the experiences of heavy smokers after exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Chasandra, Mary; Athanasios KOLOVELONIS; Chroni, Stiliani Ani; Olympiou, Alkistis; Goudas, Marios; Theodorakis, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    There is now strong evidence that exercise has an acute effect on the urge to smoke and the accompanying withdrawal symptoms. However, the perceptions by heavy smokers of exercise and its relationship to the urge to smoke have not been well documented. The aim of the present study is to understand the experiences of heavy smokers with regard to exercise and its effect on their urge to smoke. Five physically inactive, heavy smokers are asked to abstain from smoking the night bef...

  9. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  10. Chronic smoker lung dosimetry of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine how cigarette smoking affects the dose of radon progeny in the lungs. An extensive survey of the medical literature suggests that about six physiological parameters may influence deposition as well as clearance of radon progeny and thus, affecting the resulting doses received by sensitive bronchial target cells. The calculations reflect a difference between the dose of a nonsmoker lung and the lung of the heavy long-term smoker, of a multiplicative factor 1,8. (authors)

  11. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  12. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  13. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBFCPT/rest), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBFCPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  14. Smoking patterns in waterpipe smokers compared with cigarette smokers: an exploratory study of puffing dynamics and smoke exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Pulcu, Erdem; McNeill, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Aim: It is estimated that globally there are about 100 million people who smoke waterpipes daily yet exposure resulting from smoking waterpipes is under-researched relative to cigarette smoking. This exploratory study assesses smoke exposure and puffing profiles among waterpipe smokers in comparison with cigarette smokers in Turkey, where there is a concern that waterpipe smoking prevalence is increasing. Method: A convenience sample of waterpipe (n=20) and cigarette smokers (n=110) was recru...

  15. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea L Smith; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Objective When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Design Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). Participants 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28–68 years; 9 male...

  16. Even "Healthy" Smokers Have Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史梦

    1998-01-01

    本文自称是“网虫”的史梦小姐在Monday July 13从网上拷下后通过email发给我们的。吸烟有害健康,这已是一个老话题。我们仍愿将此文在本专栏推出。美国人还在对这个“老话题”做认真的不懈的研究,并不断有所发现。 有些吸烟者被认为,或自认为是"Healthy"Smokers,其实,这是一个错误的感觉而已。本文集中研究了吸烟者的血管内壁的变化,并指出:… the arteries of smokers don’t dilate properly, which can raise their blood pressure and increase the riskof a heart attack or stroke. 文章的另一个可贵之处在于, 虽然加州大学的博士作了潜心研究, 并有所发现, 但是他们仍然谦虚地认为: they did not yet understand how smoking interfereswith the arteries.

  17. Tide-related variability of TAG hydrothermal activity observed by deep-sea monitoring system and OBSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kantaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kato, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Misumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Kinoshita, Masataka; Nishizawa, Azusa

    1997-12-01

    Hydrothermal activities were monitored by an ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBSH) and a composite measuring system (Manatee) including CTD, current meter, transmission meter and cameras at a small depression on the TAG hydrothermal mound in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low-frequency pressure pulses detected by the hydrophone with semi-diurnal periodicity seem to correspond to cycles of hydrothermal upflow from a small and short-lived smoker vent close to the observing site. The peaks of pressure pulses are synchronous with the maximum gradient of areal strain decrease due to tidal load release. Microearthquakes with very near epicenters occur sporadically and do not appear to be directly correlatable to hydrothermal venting. Temporal variations in bottom water temperature also have semi-diurnal periodicity but are more complicated than the pressure events. Temperatures may be affected both by upwelling of hot water and by lateral flow of the bottom current changing its directions with ocean tide.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl, J S; Wood, D J; Milne, S J [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-22

    A hydrothermal method of synthesizing hydroxyapatite by heating a precipitate, formed by mixing Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} with distilled water, in a hydrothermal reactor at 200 deg. C for 24-72 hrs is described. A treatment time of 24 hrs produced single phase (as shown by XRD) hydroxyapatite powder, however for longer treatment times XRD patterns were indicative of the presence of a secondary phase, monetite (CaHPO{sub 4}). SEM examination of the treated powders displayed particles of rod-like morphology with dimensions 100-500 nm in length and 10-60 nm in diameter. Preliminary results on the use of the particles for the infiltration of dentine tubules are presented.

  19. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  20. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  1. Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

  2. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  3. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  4. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  5. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

  6. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Carsten Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...

  7. Lower gray matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared with never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A Eden

    2016-07-01

    Although nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. This study aimed to (1) evaluate gray matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures were related to smoking behavior. We compared structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gray matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never smokers. Compared with controls, smokers had lower gray matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Gray matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lPFC) and semantic processing/emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain's salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, were also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). PMID:25990865

  8. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    Full Text Available The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  9. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from ot...

  10. “白烟型”热液喷流岩研究进展%Progress of Research on "White Smoke Type"Exhalative Hydrothermal Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦鑫; 柳益群; 周鼎武; 汪双双; 南云; 周宁超; 杨焱钧

    2013-01-01

    The " black smoker" hydrothermal activities in the bottom of the sea/lake and its related diagene-sis, mineralization and paleontology, which are mentioned in both modern and historical geology, have become a hotspot in the multi-disciplinary study nowadays. But comparatively speaking, the relative research on " white smoke type" exhalative hydrothermal rocks is obviously inadequate. Based on reading a large number of domestic and foreign literatures, combined theory with authors' practical research work, this paper reviews the historic and present situation of the study of exhalative hydrothermal rocks. In this article, the authors put emphasis on introducing the progress on the origin of dolomite, as a symbolic low-temperature hydrothermal mineral. The authors believe that the "white smoke type" exhalative hydrothermal dolostone is the typical sample of primary dolostone. A-vailable information indicates that the layers of "white smoke type" exhalative rocks which has been reported, that is, Xiagou Formation in Jiuxi basin and Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu basin, are important hydrocarbon source rock in their respective regions. According to this information, the following issues are worthy to be taken into consideration.①The special environment of the hydrothermal activities and their related thermophilic bacteria and food chain makes the organic matter, which could provide material basis for the generation of oil and gas, enriched. ② Mantle-originated material is likely to bring mantle-originated hydrocarbons. ③Hydrothermal activities would increase the geotemperature of sedimentary basin generally, as a result, it may accelerate the maturity of hydrocarbon source rocks. Lastly, the authors give their questions and proposals for further research in this field.%现代和地质历史中的海底、湖底的“黑烟囱型”热液活动及相关成岩、成矿和古生物活动已成为当今多学科的研究热点,而与“白烟型”热液喷流岩

  11. Channelling of hydrothermal fluids during the accretion and evolution of the upper oceanic crust: Sr isotope evidence from ODP Hole 1256D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Milton, James A.; Teagle, Damon A. H.

    2015-04-01

    strongly dependent on the eruption style. Sheet and massive flow dominated lava sequences typical of fast spreading ridges may experience relatively restricted circulation, but there may be much more widespread circulation through pillow lava-dominated sections. In addition, the Hole 1256D sheeted dikes display a much greater extent of Sr-isotopic exchange compared to dikes from Hole 504B. Because seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids must transit the dikes during their evolution to black smoker-type fluids, the different Sr-isotope profiles for Holes 504B and 1256D suggest there are significant variations in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems at fast and intermediate spreading ridges, which may impact geochemical cycles of elements mobilised by fluid-rock exchange at different temperatures.

  12. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers.Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers.Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our ...

  13. Ore-forming matter sources of hydrothermal black smoker chimneys in the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge:sulfur isotope constraints%胡安·德富卡洋脊因代沃段热液黑烟囱体成矿物质来源:硫同位素的限制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚会强; 周怀阳; 彭晓彤; 何高文

    2010-01-01

    选取胡安·德富卡洋脊(Juan de Fuca Ridge,JDFR)因代沃(Endeavour)段的17个热液黑烟囱体样品对其中的硫同位素进行分析测定,讨论了因代沃段热液活动区内黑烟囱体成矿的物质来源、将硫同位素数据与已发表的热液流体及硫化物数据耦合,并结合前人的成果得到如下认识:(1)因代沃段硫化物的硫同位素组成与其他无沉积物覆盖的洋脊硫化物硫同位素组成相似,然而其相比于南胡安·德富卡洋脊(South Juan de Fuca Ridge,SJFR)硫化物亏损重同位素;(2)结合前人研究成果,如果SJFR硫化物的硫全部来自基底玄武岩的淋洗与海水中的硫酸盐,那么因代沃段硫化物的硫可能有1%~3%来自沉积物的贡献,故提出因代沃段成矿系统中的硫来源主要来自基底玄武岩,同时伴随有少量海水硫酸盐来源及沉积物来源的硫加入;(3)将硫同位素数据与已发表的热液流体及硫化物数据进行耦合发现热液流体中的沉积物信号与硫化物中的硫可能来自不同的源,并提出沉积物端元可能位于下渗区.

  14. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  16. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  17. Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite clay are usually taken to have the form of conversion of this clay mineral to other species, such as illite, disregarding microstructural alteration and cementation caused by precipitation of silica and other compounds. The report is focussed on identification of the primary processes that are involved in such alteration, the release of silica and the microstructural changes associated with heating being of major interest. In the first test phase, Na montmorillonite in distilled water was investigated by XRD, rheology tests and electron microscopy after heating to 60-2250C for 0.01 to 1 year. The preliminary conclusions are that heating produces contraction of the particle network to form dense 'branches', the effect being most obvious at the highest temperature but of significance even at 60-1000C. Release of substantial amounts of silica gas been documented for temperatures exceeding 1500 and precipitation of silica was observed on cooling after the hydrothermal testing under the closed conditions that prevailed throughout the tests. The precipitates, which appeared to be amorphous and probably consisted of hydrous silica gels, were concluded to have increased the mechanical strength and caused some brittleness, particularly of the dense clays. The nature of the silica release, which is assumed to be associated with beidellitization, may be closely related to an unstable state of a certain fraction of tetrahedral silica at heat-inducted transfer between two different crystal modes of montmorillonite. (orig.)

  18. Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine and annual rate of decline in FEV1 in male smokers and ex-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, R. G.; Joyce, H; E. Gross; Holland, F.; Pride, N. B.

    1985-01-01

    We examined the relations between bronchial reactivity, baseline FEV1, and annual decline of height corrected FEV1 (delta FEV1/ht3) over 7.5 years in 227 men (117 smokers, 71 ex-smokers, and 39 non-smokers). Men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma or receiving bronchodilator treatment were excluded. Bronchial reactivity was determined as the provocation concentration (PC20) of inhaled histamine sufficient to reduce FEV1 by 20%; subjects were divided into reactors (PC20 less than or equal to 1...

  19. Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

  20. Micronuclei as prognostic indicators in oral cytological smears: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originated from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis and are used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damage. Micronuclei are characteristically seen in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa and urinary bladder wall in precancerous and cancerous conditions. Oral habits of smoking tobacco or chewing areca nut damage the oral tissues. An assessment of the damage is feasible by the detection of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of the oral tissues using smears. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the presence or increase of micronuclei in buccal smears of individuals with tobacco habits against a control group of teetotalers. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers of 50 individuals each were examined. Buccal smears of all participants were taken using cytobrush and stained with standard Papanicolaou′s (PAP stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed under Χ100 magnification and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results were analyzed statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Smears of individuals with tobacco habits showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell counts. There was a definite correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A paradoxical age related increase in middle-aged groups was also observed. Conclusions: The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. This is present even in the absence of clinically evident changes. This observation is vital in utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients

  1. Social relations and smoking abstinence among ever-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels; Boesen, Sidsel Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers....

  2. Photoluminescence properties and synthesis of a PZT mesostructure obtained by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.F., E-mail: mina.guilher@gmail.com [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Zaghete, M.A.; Gasparotto, G.; Costa, M.G.S. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Espinosa, J.W.M. [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus de Catalao, Engenharia de Producao, Avenida Dr. Lamartine Pinto de Avelar, 1120 CEP 75700-000 (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective of this work is the synthesis of mesocrystal PZT by microwave hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scanning electron microscopy indicates mesocrystals formed by micro-cubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PZT particles present photoluminescent (PL) behavior in green region, around 600 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL analysis is an efficient technique for the available structural order-disorder of materials. - Abstract: Micro-cube-shaped lead zirconate titanate was synthesized using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Photoluminescence and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used for monitoring the formation of mesocrystals. Based on these results, a growth mechanism was then proposed which involved nanoparticle aggregation, nanoplate self-assembly on specific architecture and the final formation of mesoscopic micro-cube-shaped lead zirconate titanate.

  3. Effects of Smoking Opportunity on Attentional Bias in Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wertz, Joan M.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    The emotional Stroop task was used to examine the influence of opportunity to smoke on attentional bias to smoking-related stimuli. At the outset of the study, 92 nicotine-deprived smokers were told that they (a) would, (b) would not, or (c) might be able to smoke during the experiment. Next, participants completed an emotional Stroop task, in which they were presented with smoking-related or -unrelated words in an unblocked format. Smokers demonstrated interference to the smoking words, rela...

  4. An EEG investigation of learning and decision making in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Retzler, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of addiction treatments it is important to understand the learning and behavioural processes involved. The experimental work presented here aims to further our understanding of the behaviour and related brain activity of smokers, using a range of experimental paradigms and Electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques. A range of behavioural tasks adapted from the animal literature for use with humans, were utilised to explore the choices made by smokers and the effect of s...

  5. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  6. Recruiting unmotivated smokers into a smoking induction trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S; Staggs, Vincent S; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult smokers with low motivation to quit. Over 15 months, 33% of smokers who inquired about the study were enrolled. Common recruitment methods included word-of-mouth, print advertisements and clinic referrals. Frequently mentioned reasons for participating included to: gain financial incentives (44.7%), learn about research or help others quit (43%), learn about smoking and risks (40%) and help with future quits (i.e. Quit Assistance, 23.9%). Separate regression models predicting study outcomes at 26 weeks indicated that smokers who said they participated for Quit Assistance reported higher motivation to quit (B 1.26) and were more likely to have made a quit attempt (OR 2.03) compared to those not mentioning this reason, when baseline characteristics were controlled. Understanding reasons for unmotivated smokers' interest in treatment can help practitioners and researchers design effective strategies to engage this population. PMID:27081187

  7. WAVELET DE-COMPOSITION AND FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR HRV AND ECG SIGNAL ANALYSIS FOR SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Rajput

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This current approach deals with study of Heart Rate Variability (HRV and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis for some volunteers, who were divided into two group’s smokers and non-smokers. Although the preliminary results of frequency domain analysis of HRV showed some dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers, they were not found to be statistically significant. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (Db 6 wavelet family. No significant difference was observed between the smokers and nonsmokers which apparently suggested that HRV does not affect the conduction pathway of heart. Normally clinicians compute the overall heart rate by counting the number of QRS complexes over an interval of one minute. The ‘Heart Rate Variability’ has become the conventionally accepted term to describe variations for both instantaneous HR and R-R intervals.

  8. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica;

    2014-01-01

    can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed by dehy-dration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of the product are mostly de-pendent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass consists of various com-ponents such as......Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided into...... biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass into...

  9. Comparison of Hoffmann Reflex Latency of Tibial Nerve in 20-40 Years Old Smokers and Non Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rahbar; Sh. Taghizadeh; S.M. Jazayeri Shoshtari; S.H. Tabatabaie

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objectives: In recent studies, the negative effects of smoking on different parts of body have been cleared. Nevertheless other negative effects of smoking are being investigated. One of those effects is central and peripheral nervous system problem. The aim of this investigation was comparison of Hoffmann (H) reflex latency of tibial nerve in male smokers and non smokers between 20-40 y/o. In addition, correlation between height and H-reflex latency was investigated. Materials...

  10. Changes in bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine over four years in middle aged male smokers and ex-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, T K; Taylor, R. G.; WATSON, A.; Joyce, H; Pride, N. B.

    1988-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine in smokers is associated with an accelerated annual decline in FEV1 and low baseline FEV1 values. The evolution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and whether it precedes or follows the accelerated decline in FEV1 and reduction in FEV1 is unknown. Measurements of the provocative concentration of inhaled histamine required to reduce FEV1 by 20% (PC20) were repeated after a four year interval in 27 male smokers (mean age 59 years, smoking on aver...

  11. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  12. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouachi Kamal; Sajid Khan; Mahmood Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared b...

  13. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  14. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  15. Smoking behavior and motivational flexibility in light and heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Susan; Lobel, Marci

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the consistency of people's reasons for smoking and how these might influence the amount of smoking in individuals. Therefore, we developed a new concept, motivational flexibility, which suggests that a behavior is more common when people have multiple reasons for engaging in it and when the primary reason changes across occurrences of the behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine motivational flexibility in cigarette smokers. We hypothesized that smoking would be associated with greater number of reasons for smoking and greater frequency of change (shifting) in the most important motive for smoking among light smokers. Student cigarette smokers (N=116) completed daily entries for 14 days: whether they smoked or not and their reasons for doing so, with importance ratings for each reason listed. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the relationship between motivational flexibility and daily cigarette smoking. Shifting among the most important motive over the 14-day assessment was associated with greater frequency of smoking in light but not daily smokers. Also, smoking for craving and social reasons was associated with smoking fewer cigarettes and on fewer days. Results confirm the applicability of the motivational flexibility concept to smoking. The association between motive shifting and greater frequency of smoking may indicate a greater responsiveness to environmental cues. That we found this association in light but not daily smokers who are likely addicted to cigarettes may indicate that light smokers are affected more by triggers for smoking, or that they may rationalize their smoking behavior more than heavier smokers. PMID:22370522

  16. Hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yuyan, E-mail: yuyan1993@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Dezhen; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jianyi [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Li, Xian-wei [Baosteel R and D Institute, Shanghai, 201900 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first study to apply Fe-sulfate in hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first study to comprehensively evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on dioxin decomposition and heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation, and to support the experimental data by the calculation results. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI fly ash was performed in this paper with a purpose to reduce its dioxin content. First a hydrothermal reactor was set up with a mixture of ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate serviced as the reactant, then the effects caused by reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pre-treatment by water-washing and reactant dosage were checked; the results showed that as a promising technology, hydrothermal treatment exhibited considerable high efficiencies in decomposition of PCDDs/PCDFs and good stabilization of heavy metals as well. Experimental results also showed that for dioxin destruction, higher reaction temperature is the most important influencing factor followed by Fe addition, and pre-treatment of raw fly ash by water-washing increased the destruction efficiencies of dioxins only very slightly. Finally with help of Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation. The calculation results were supported by the experimental data. The leaching toxicities of hydrothermal products were higher than upper limits defined in the latest Chinese standard GB 16889-2008 for sanitary landfill disposal, thus an auxiliary process is suggested after the hydrothermal treatment for heavy metal

  17. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  18. Radon-induced lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers: risk implications using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of data (population statistics in non-smokers, data from an investigation of the smoking habits of British doctors and a study of Colorado uranium miners) were used to analyse lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and smoking. One of the aims was to derive implications for radon risk estimates. The data were analysed using a two-mutation radiation carcinogenesis model and a stepwise determination of the model parameters. The basic model parameters for lung cancer were derived from the age dependence fit of the spontaneous lung cancer incidence in non-smokers. The effect of smoking was described by two additional parameters and, subsequently, the effect of radon by three other parameters; these five parameters define the dependence of the two mutation steps on smoking and exposure to radon. Using this approach, a consistent fit and comprehensive description of the three sets of data have been achieved, and the parameters could, at least partly, be related to cellular radiobiological data. The model results explain the different effect of radon on non-smokers and smokers as seen in epidemiological data. Although the analysis was only applied to a limited number of populations, lung cancer incidence as a result of radon exposure is estimated to be about ten times higher for people exposed at the age of about 15 than at about 50, although this effect is masked (especially for smokers) by the high lung cancer incidence from smoking. Using the model to calculate the lung cancer risks from lifetime exposure to radon, as is the case for indoor radon, higher risks were estimated than previously derived from epidemiological studies of the miners' data. The excess absolute risk per unit exposure of radon is about 1.7 times higher for smokers of 30 cigarettes per day than for non-smokers, even though, as a result of the low spontaneous tumour incidence in the non-smokers, the excess relative risk per unit exposure for the smokers is about 20 times

  19. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  20. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olatunde; A; Olayanju; Sheu; K; Rahamon; Ijeboime; O; Joseph; Olatunbosun; G; Arinola

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis.METHODS:Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent.They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20(aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis(S+P);24(40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis(S-P);and 25(53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis(NS+P).An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis.The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed.About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles.Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Student’s t test was used to deter-mine significant differences between the means.Values of P < 0.05 were regarded as significant.RESULTS:No significant differences were observed in the mean salivary levels of the immunoglobulin classes(IgG,IgA,IgM and IgE) when S+P was compared with S-P.Mean salivary levels of IgA(520.0 ± 155.1 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.000) and IgM(644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group.Salivary IgA(570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL,P = 0.008) and IgM(703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL,P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group.Only one(5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.20 IU/mL).Similarly,only one smoker(4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE(0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers(9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE(0.24 IU/mL).CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  1. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Prochaska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.

  2. Bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT and the relationship to clinical and other morphological features on CT. Thin-section CT images of 503 cigarette smokers were assessed for the profusion and location of diverticula in the major airways. The extent of the bronchial diverticula was recorded as follows: grade 0, none; grade 1, one to three diverticula; grade 2, more than three diverticula. The extent of emphysema, bronchial wall thickness, clinical features, and pulmonary function were compared in the sub-groups stratified according to the extent of bronchial diverticula. A total of 229/503 (45.5%) smokers had bronchial diverticula, with 168/503 (33.3%) and 61/503 (12.2%) having grade 1 and 2 bronchial diverticula respectively. Subjects with grade 2 bronchial diverticula were heavier smokers, reported a history of coughing more frequently, and showed more severe functional impairment, greater extent of emphysema and more severe bronchial wall thickening compared with subjects with grade 1 and those individuals without bronchial diverticula (P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only bronchial wall thickness predicted the extent of the bronchial diverticula (P<0.0001). Bronchial diverticula are a frequent finding in the major airways of smokers, and they are associated with other markers of smoking-related damage. (orig.)

  3. Do anti-smoking media campaigns help smokers quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, W J; Potter, L D; Bal, D G; Johnson, M D; Duerr, J M; Quinn, V

    1993-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the 1990-91 anti-tobacco media campaign carried out by the California Department of Health Services, a study was conducted among 417 regular smokers who had quit during the period of the media campaign. In brief telephone interviews, all respondents identified up to three events or experiences that had influenced them to quit. In response to uncued questions, 6.7 percent of those interviewed indicated that they had been influenced to quit by an advertisement they had seen or heard on radio, television, or billboards. In response to direct questions about the media campaign, 34.3 percent of the respondents indicated that the media campaign's advertisement had played a part in their decision to quit. Applying the 6.7 percentage to the number of Californians who quit smoking in 1990-91, it can be estimated that for 33,000 former smokers, the anti-tobacco media advertisements were an important stimulus in their quit decision. Multiplying the 34.3 percent by the number of former California smokers who quit in 1990-91, the estimate of former smokers for whom the media campaign's advertisements played at least some part in their decision to quit rises to 173,000 persons. While causal attributions from such investigations should be made with caution, the evidence suggests that the 1990-91 campaign did influence substantial number of smokers in California to quit. PMID:8341788

  4. An assessment of pulmonary emphysema in smokers using CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the relationship between PE and smoking in 639 cases (411 males and 228 females with age ranged 21-86 years) who underwent CT scans during the period, from December 1997 to December 1998, under suspicion of respiratory disease on chest radiograph or some respiratory complaints. PE was diagnosed by the existence of low attenuation areas in CT scan and not by pulmonary function tests. CT was performed with 10 mm collimation in a standard algorithm. PE, regardless of the grade, was seen: in 189 out of 348 (54.3%) cases in male smokers and in only 2 out of 63 (3.2%) cases in male non-smokers; and in 5 out of 25 (20.0%) female smokers and in 4 out of 203 (2.0%) female non-smokers. PE was observed in more than half of male smokers. High incidence of PE was also observed in even younger generation, and its severity progresses with advancing age and increasing smoking index. (author)

  5. Bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Ingegnoli, Anna [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Calabro, Elisa; Pastorino, Ugo [National Cancer Institute, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Randi, Giorgia; La Vecchia, Carlo [Mario Negri Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano, Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry ' ' G. A. Maccacaro' ' , Milan (Italy); Marchiano, Alfonso [National Cancer Institute, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin [Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Zompatori, Maurizio [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of bronchial diverticula in smokers on thin-section CT and the relationship to clinical and other morphological features on CT. Thin-section CT images of 503 cigarette smokers were assessed for the profusion and location of diverticula in the major airways. The extent of the bronchial diverticula was recorded as follows: grade 0, none; grade 1, one to three diverticula; grade 2, more than three diverticula. The extent of emphysema, bronchial wall thickness, clinical features, and pulmonary function were compared in the sub-groups stratified according to the extent of bronchial diverticula. A total of 229/503 (45.5%) smokers had bronchial diverticula, with 168/503 (33.3%) and 61/503 (12.2%) having grade 1 and 2 bronchial diverticula respectively. Subjects with grade 2 bronchial diverticula were heavier smokers, reported a history of coughing more frequently, and showed more severe functional impairment, greater extent of emphysema and more severe bronchial wall thickening compared with subjects with grade 1 and those individuals without bronchial diverticula (P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only bronchial wall thickness predicted the extent of the bronchial diverticula (P<0.0001). Bronchial diverticula are a frequent finding in the major airways of smokers, and they are associated with other markers of smoking-related damage. (orig.)

  6. Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor. PMID:24871233

  7. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khemiss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS. Methods: Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60 and ECS (n=60 groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively. Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively. However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04 and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively. Conclusions: Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss.

  8. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2014-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR=4.59) and former smokers (OR=1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR=1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR=1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR=1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers. PMID:21340632

  9. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The

  10. Using direct mail to prompt smokers to call a quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Carlin-Menter, Shannon M; Celestino, Paula B; Bax, Patricia; Brown, Anthony; Cummings, K Michael; Bauer, Joseph E

    2008-07-01

    Telephone quitlines efficiently deliver cessation services, but few smokers use them. This article describes an unsolicited direct mail campaign designed to increase calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline. Two post-cards advertising the quitline and the availability of free nicotine patches were sent to 77,527 smoker households between August and October 2005. One postcard emphasized the effectiveness of the nicotine patch, whereas the other contrasted the risks of smoking and patch use. Response was evaluated using geographically linked calls to the quitline 15 days before and after each mailing. The postcard campaign increased call volume by 36%, with no difference between the two postcard versions. Those who reported calling the quitline in response to a mailing were more likely to request nicotine patches (91% versus 82%, p Direct mail can be used to increase quitline call volume and should be one of the promotional tools used by quitlines. PMID:18308952

  11. THE CORRELATION OF FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR CORRESPONDING TO PULMONARY FUNCTION IN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Dwarakanath,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Back ground and Objectives: Smoking is one of the major causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Cigarette smoke is a heterogeneous aerosol contains 4000 chemicals, on chronic exposure reduces small air ways function, increase inflammatory cells in lung, which produce free radicals. The oxidative stress increases progressive deterioration of lung function and affects all the parameters of pulmonary function test. Our work is aimed to highlight the changes in FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR in smokers so that early intervention prevents the morbidity and mortality. Methods: This study include 50 healthy male subjects aged between 40 - 55yrs. Out of them 25 are non-smokers and 25 are smokers, who smoke 11 - 25 cigarettes per day for the past 15 yrs. All of these underwent computerized pulmonary function tests (WinspiroPRO. Results: The results showed that there is significant decrease in mean values of FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR in smokers as compared to the non-smokers with significant P value < 0.001. Interpretation and Conclusion: The irritants present in the smoke cause release of elastase from alveolar macrophages that degrades structural elements of the lung which leads to loss of elastic recoil causing decrease in FVC%, FEV1%, PEFR in our present study.

  12. Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise trained (>2 hrs per wk and untrained smokers matched for age, in response to a high fat test meal. We report here that low volume exercise training can attenuate postprandial lipid peroxidation, but has little impact on blood TAG and other markers of oxidative stress. Higher volumes of exercise may be needed to allow for clinically meaningful adaptations in postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress.

  13. Addiction to the nicotine gum in never smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Etter Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Addiction to nicotine gum has never been described in never smokers or in never users of tobacco. Methods Internet questionnaire in 2004–2006 in a self-selected sample of 434 daily users of nicotine gum. To assess dependence on nicotine gum, we used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Cigarette Dependence Scale. Results Five never smokers used the nicotine gum daily. They had been using the...

  14. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  15. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  16. Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in non-smokers and smokers: Implementation of viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (9 non-smokers, 8 smokers), and the retained particles were magnetized and detected by a SQUID. Stochastic particle transport due to cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages (relaxation) and directed particle motion in a weak magnetic twisting field were investigated with respect to viscous and elastic properties of the cytoskeleton. Relaxation and cytoskeletal stiffness were not influenced by cigarette smoking. Relaxation and particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. Viscous and elastic data obtained from relaxation correlated with particle twisting, indicating that the proposed simple model is a reasonable approximation of cytoskeletal mechanical properties

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Metal Silicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lii Kwang-Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Organically templated metal phosphates have been extensively studied because of interesting structural chemistry and potential applications in catalysis. However, in most cases the organic templates cannot be removed without collapse of the frameworks. This is in contrast to the high thermal stability and extensive applications of zeolites in refinery and petrochemical processes.Therefore, studies have been directed to the synthesis of transition metal silicates to produce more stable frameworks. Our synthetic methods are twofold, namely mild hydrothermal reactions in Teflon-lined autoclaves at 100-200 ℃ using organic amines as templates and high-temperature,high-pressure hydrothermal reactions in gold ampoules contained in a high-pressure reaction vessel at ca. 550 ℃ and 150 Mpa using alkali metal cations as templates. In this presentation I will report the high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structures, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of a number of new silicates of indium, uranium, and transition metals.

  18. Characteristics of smoking cessation in former smokers in a rural area of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Personal health concerns in former smokers in Nanao, Japan were the predominant motivation for quitting smoking, with the vast majority of former smokers achieving successful smoking cessation by themselves.

  19. Tips From Former Smokers – Brett

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    Brett had gum disease—a danger for all smokers. Brett talks about having most of teeth pulled during one long surgery.  Created: 7/7/2014 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  20. How Can We Balance Ethics and Law When Treating Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderovich, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A physician is a valued member of society on whom many individuals rely for both professional advice and support during times when they may feel to be at a disadvantage, whether it be physically or mentally. An issue on the rise today concerns the population of smokers in our society. Many are coming to share the opinion that physicians should not provide treatments for smokers. Some of the opinions are based on the claim that smokers are morally responsible for their medical conditions. But, providing care in a fair manner includes not treating differently those who suffer from addiction. Moreover, it is important to recognize that allocating medical resources based on moral responsibility will undermine the physician-patient relationship which is necessary for the practice of medicine. Many countries have codes and policies that physicians must legally follow in terms of providing treatments. With acceptance of the fact that the patient may be unable to execute the decisions made by the physician, it is the legal duty of the physician to provide care and not abandon the patient. An analysis of the many policies around the world brings forward certain changes that must be made in order to make sure that physicians fulfil their legal duty, which is to provide care. As such, this article looks into the existing ethical dilemma in treating smokers around the world, with a review of some policies that will guide our approach in this matter. PMID:27101222

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF COUGH FOR ENHANCING MUCUS CLEARANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using monodisperse aerosols radiolabeled with 99mTc, we studied the effectiveness of ough and rapid inhalations for clearing mucus in en asymptomatic smokers. On three eparate study days, each subject breathed 5 um (MMAD) 99mTc-iron oxide particles under ontrolled breathing condi...

  2. Addiction to the nicotine gum in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction to nicotine gum has never been described in never smokers or in never users of tobacco. Methods Internet questionnaire in 2004–2006 in a self-selected sample of 434 daily users of nicotine gum. To assess dependence on nicotine gum, we used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Cigarette Dependence Scale. Results Five never smokers used the nicotine gum daily. They had been using the nicotine gum for longer than the 429 ever smokers (median = 6 years vs 0.8 years, p = 0.004, and they had higher NDSS-gum Tolerance scores (median = 0.73 vs = -1.0, p = 0.03, a difference of 1.5 standard deviation units. Two never smokers had never used smokeless tobacco, both answered "extremely true" to: "I use nicotine gums because I am addicted to them", both "fully agreed" with: "after a few hours without chewing a nicotine gum, I feel an irresistible urge to chew one" and: "I am a prisoner of nicotine gum". Conclusion This is to our knowledge the first report of addiction to nicotine gum in never users of tobacco. However, this phenomenon is rare, and although the long-term effect of nicotine gum is unknown, this product is significantly less harmful than tobacco.

  3. Use of spirometry in detecting airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To detect spirometric abnormalities in asymptomatic smokers in relation to duration of smoking. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at PNS Shifa from Oct 2006 to June 2007. Subjects and Methods: Hundred individuals were included in this study who fulfilled the required criteria. Spirometry was done after briefing the patient about the procedure. Smokers were divided into two groups. Group I (5 to 9 pack years) and group II (= 10 pack years). All relevant information were recorded on Performa (Annex-A). The data was analyzed through SPSS-10, in terms of Mean +- SD (Standard Deviation) for numeric response variables and independent sample T test was applied to compare significance of proportion for numeric response variables at p < 0.05. Categorical variables were compared by applying Chi-square test at p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: Significant statistical difference was found between the mean age in the two groups with p-value of 0.011. This may be due to the longer duration of smoking history in Group II. Strong association was found between number of cigarette smoked and the pattern of airway obstruction as significant statistical difference of airway obstruction and early airflow limitation was found between the two groups of smokers at p value of 0.004. Conclusion: There is strong association between duration of smoking and development of airway obstruction even before the smoker become symptomatic. (author)

  4. Unique Relationships between Facets of Mindfulness and Eating Pathology among Female Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Claire E.; McVay, Megan Apperson; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study exam...

  5. Up-regulation of alveolar macrophage matrix metalloproteinases in HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Kaner, Robert J.; Santiago, Francisco; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    HIV1+ smokers develop emphysema at an earlier age and with a higher incidence than HIV1– smokers. Since human alveolar macrophages (AMs) are capable of producing proteases that degrade extracellular matrix components, we hypothesized that up-regulation of AM matrix metalloproteinases may be associated with the emphysema of HIV1+ smokers. Microarray analysis was used to screen which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) genes were expressed by AM of HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema. For each of t...

  6. Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis PZT of Nanometer Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxing LIU; Hong DENG; Yan LI; Yanrong LI

    2004-01-01

    It was focused on the applications and developments of microwave hydrothermal synthesis piezoelectric ceramic powder. The microwave hydrothermal vessel was designed and manufactured. The microwave hydrothermal synthesis system was established and the PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder was synthesized. XRD and TEM have been used to characterize the products in detail. The diameter of the PZT powder particle is from 40 to 60 nm.

  7. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  8. 热液喷口生物体对成矿作用的影响%The effect of deep-sea hydrothermal vent organisms on the mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤继元; 周鼎武; 朱晓辉

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and associated biological group is one of the most important scientific achievements in global ocean science in the last 20 years.Around the Black Smoker,there is an extreme environment with high-temperature,high-pressure,darkness,hypoxia,sulfur,etc.,and there is a special biological community in the deep-sea.As the primary producers,thermophilic bacteria and archaea not only affect the deposition of minerals around the vents,but also directly or indirectly affect the dissolution,adsorption,extraction,and transformation of mineral elements,which causes the generation of Fe,Mn,non-ferrous metal oxide,sulfide,silicate and carbonate minerals and compounds in precipitation.It is important for the deep-sea mineral deposit enrichment.%深海热液喷口及相关生物群体的发现是近20年来全球海洋科学取得的最重要的科学成就之一。在海底黑烟囱周围高温、高压、黑暗、缺氧、含硫等极端环境中,生活着特殊的深海生物群落,它们的初级生产者嗜热细菌和古细菌在其自身的生活史中不仅影响了喷口周围矿物的沉积,而且直接和间接影响了矿物元素的溶解、吸附、萃取、转化,生成包括Fe,Mn及有色金属的氧化物、硫化物、硅酸盐及碳酸盐化合物的矿物与沉淀,对热液喷口矿床富集具有重要意义。

  9. High-resolution computed tomography of the lung in smokers: Visual and computer-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It has been the aim of the study to assess parenchymal changes in the lung with high-resolution CT in healthy heavy, moderate, and non-smokers. Material and methods: We prospectively evaluated CT changes in 42 healthy heavy smokers (gr. (group) 2, ≥30 pack-years), 40 moderate smokers (gr. 1, R, Kontron GmbH, Munich, Germany). Results: Productive cough, dyspnoea and chronic bronchitis were more common in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.05). Pathological CT-findings were found in 6/38 non-smokers and in 71/82 smokers (p<0.01). In particular, in smokers (gr. 1 [%[, gr. 2 [%[) the following pathological findings were found: Dystelectases in dependent lung areas in 50% (62, 38), centrilobular emphysema in 44% (43, 20), pleural thickening in 38% (38, 38), panlobular emphysema in 36% (52, 20), ground-glass pattern in 33% (36, 30), paraseptal emphysema in 21% (31, 10), prominent or thickened interlobular septa in 18% (29, 8) and centrilobular micronodules in 13% (10, 18). Computer-based analysis demonstrated thicker bronchial walls in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Conclusion: Although feeling healthy, smokers demonstrate various parenchymal abnormalities in the lung. In smokers, subpleural dystelectases, centrilobular and panlobular emphysema are dependent on cigarette consumption, ground glass pattern centrilobular micronodules, pleural thickening and bronchial wall thickening are independent on cigarette consumption. (orig.)

  10. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  11. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  12. HYDROTHERMAL CRACKING OF RESIDUAL OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrothermal cracking of heavy oils, such as Canadian oil sand bitumen and Arabian heavy vacuum residue, as well as their model compound were performed over sulfided Ni/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts under 663~703 K and 6.0~8.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure in a batch autoclave reactor. According to the reaction mechanism of hydrothermal cracking, a small amount of free redical initiators, such as di-tert-peroxide, sulfur, etc., was added into the feed to generate free redicals at lower temperature, and obviously showed promotional effect on the conversion of hydrocarbons. The reaction mechanisms of hydrothermal cracking as well as the enhancing effect of initiators were studied by a probe reaction with 1-phenyldodecane as a model compound. The hydrothermal cracking of hydrocarbon proceeded via free redical mechanism and hydrogenating quench. The initiators might easily generate free redicals under reaction temperature, these redicals might abstract H from hydrocarbon molecule and reasonably initiate the chain reactions, therefore, promote the conversion of hydrocarbon even at lower reaction temperature.

  13. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.

    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  14. A dual center study to compare breath volatile organic compounds from smokers and non-smokers with and without COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, A; Holz, O; Nell, C; Schuchardt, S; Lavae-Mokhtari, B; Kruse, L; Boas, U; Langejuergen, J; Allers, M; Zimmermann, S; Vogelmeier, C; Koczulla, A R; Hohlfeld, J M

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) have the potential to support the diagnosis and management of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. In this study we used a novel breath sampling device to search for COPD related VOCs. We included a large number of healthy controls and patients with mild to moderate COPD, recruited subjects at two different sites and carefully controlled for smoking. 222 subjects were recruited in Hannover and Marburg, and inhaled cleaned room air before exhaling into a stainless steel reservoir under exhalation flow control. Breath samples (2.5 l) were continuously drawn onto two Tenax(®) TA adsorption tubes and analyzed in Hannover using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Data of 134 identified VOCs from 190 subjects (52 healthy non-smokers, 52 COPD ex-smokers, 49 healthy smokers, 37 smokers with COPD) were included into the analysis. Active smokers could be clearly discriminated by higher values for combustion products and smoking related VOCs correlated with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the validity of our data. Subjects from the study sites could be discriminated even after exclusion of cleaning related VOCs. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 89.4% of COPD patients in the non/ex-smoking group (cross validation (CV): 85.6%), and 82.6% of COPD patients in the actively smoking group (CV: 77.9%). We extensively characterized 134 breath VOCs and provide evidence for 14 COPD related VOCs of which 10 have not been reported before. Our results show that, for the utilization of breath VOCs for diagnosis and disease management of COPD, not only the known effects of smoking but also site specific differences need to be considered. We detected novel COPD related breath VOCs that now need to be tested in longitudinal studies for reproducibility, response to treatment and changes in disease severity. PMID:27082437

  15. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  16. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  17. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  18. The risk of arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass surgery: do smokers have a paradox effect?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sarraf, Nael

    2010-11-01

    Smoking is reported to increase the risk of arrhythmias. However, there are limited data on its effects on arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This is a retrospective review of a prospective database of all CABG patients over an eight-year period. Our cohort (n=2813) was subdivided into: current (n=1169), former (n=837), and non-smokers (n=807). Predictors of arrhythmias following CABG in relation to smoking status were analysed. Atrial arrhythmias occurred in 942 patients (33%). Ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 48 patients (2%) and high-grade atrioventricular block occurred in five patients (0.2%). Arrhythmias were lower in current smokers than former and non-smokers (29% vs. 40% vs. 39%, respectively P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed 30% arrhythmia risk reduction in smokers compared to non-smokers [odds ratio (OR) 0.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-0.8] and this effect persisted after accounting for potential confounders while former smokers had the same risk as non-smokers (OR 1.04, CI 0.9-1.3). There were no significant differences in mortality. Smokers are less prone to develop arrhythmias following CABG. This paradox effect is lost in former smokers. This effect is possibly due to a lower state of hyper adrenergic stimulation observed in smokers than non-smokers following the stress of surgery.

  19. Influence of Hydrothermal Temperature on Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous calcium silicate hydrate (PCSH was synthesized by carbide residue and white carbon black. The influence of hydrothermal temperature on phosphorus recovery efficiency was investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Hydrothermal temperature exerted significant influence on phosphorus recovery performance of PCSH. Hydrothermal temperature 170°C for PCSH was more proper to recover phosphorus. PCSH could recover phosphorus with content of 18.51%. The law of Ca2+ and OH− release was the key of phosphorus recovery efficiency, and this law depended upon the microstructure of PCSH. When the temperature of synthesis reached to 170°C, the reactions between CaO and amorphous SiO2 were more efficient. Solubility of SiO2 was a limiting factor.

  20. Influence of Hydrothermal Temperature on Phosphorus Recovery Efficiency of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous calcium silicate hydrate (PCSH) was synthesized by carbide residue and white carbon black. The influence of hydrothermal temperature on phosphorus recovery efficiency was investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Hydrothermal temperature exerted significant influence on phosphorus recovery performance of PCSH. Hydrothermal temperature 170°C for PCSH was more proper to recover phosphorus. PCSH could recover phosphorus with content of 18.51%. The law of Ca2+ and OH− release was the key of phosphorus recovery efficiency, and this law depended upon the microstructure of PCSH. When the temperature of synthesis reached to 170°C, the reactions between CaO and amorphous SiO2 were more efficient. Solubility of SiO2 was a limiting factor.

  1. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  2. Predictors of neutrophilic airway inflammation in young smokers with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    asthmatic smokers not on steroid treatment, including analysis of tobacco history and bacterial colonization. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 52 steroid-free, current smokers with asthma were examined with induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function, ACQ6 score, mannitol and...... methacholine challenge. A sample from the sputum induction was taken for bacterial analysis using 16S gene PCR technique and sequencing. Results: Using one-way analysis of variance and binary and linear regression models, only age and ACQ6 score were found to be significant predictors for airway neutrophilia....... The investigation also included analysis for effect of pack years, current tobacco consumption, body mass index, lung function, FeNO; methacholine and mannitol responsiveness, atopy, gender, asthma history and presence of bacteria. The most common potentially pathogenic bacteria found were...

  3. Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

    1994-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

  4. Constant-load exercise decreases the serum concentration of myeloperoxidase in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Olaf Holz,1,* Stefan Roepcke,2,* Henrik Watz,3 Uwe Tegtbur,4 Gezim Lahu,2 Jens M Hohlfeld1 1Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, BREATH, Hannover, Germany; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International GmbH, Glattpark-Opfikon, Switzerland; 3Pulmonary Research Institute at Lung Clinic Grosshansdorf, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, ARCN, Grosshansdorf, 4Institute for Sports Medicine, Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers related to pathophysiological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Short-term intense exercise is known to increase the peripheral blood levels of cytokines. Therefore, we tested the potential and the repeatability of an exercise challenge to amplify seven serum biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL6], C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], leukotriene B4, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and von Willebrand factor [VWF] in smokers with and without COPD. Twenty-three smokers with moderate COPD (GOLD 2 and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy smokers underwent up to 30-minute submaximal, constant-load exercise (75% of maximum work load on two occasions separated by 4 weeks (second challenge n=19/20. Serum samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after the start, at the end of exercise (maximum 30 minutes or until exhaustion, and after additional 20 minutes of rest. The median (interquartile range exercise time until exhaustion in the two challenges was 10.0 (4.0 minutes and 10.0 (8.0 minutes in smokers with COPD and 22.0 (16.0 minutes and 26.5 (14.5 minutes in healthy smokers. The exercise challenge significantly increased the serum concentrations of IL6 and VWF, but decreased the concentrations of MPO. Healthy smokers showed a significantly greater increase (at

  5. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram; Teimori, Soheila; Amirpour, Afshin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451 girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having...

  6. Statement on the safety of ?-carotene use in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to conclude on the possible link between the ingestion of β-carotene and cancer enhancement in heavy smokers. The safety of (synthetic β-carotene [E 160a (ii] has been evaluated previously by JECFA (1975 and by the SCF (2000a.  In 2000, the SCF concluded that there were insufficient data to set a precise figure for a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL of β-carotene (SCF, 2000b. Unexpectedly, two independent trials revealed that heavy smokers (at least 1 package/day for 36 years on average receiving long-term β-carotene (20 mg/day supplementation or β-carotene (30 mg/day + retinol (25 000 International Unit (IU vitamin A supplementation, showed increased rather than decreased incidences of lung cancer. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT demonstrated absence of any protective effect associated with β-carotene supplementation with regard to cancer risk. Epidemiological studies reported no increased lung cancer incidence in heavy smokers at supplemental dose levels of β-carotene varying from 6 – 15 mg/day for about 5 up to 7 years. The Panel concluded that exposure to β-carotene from its use as food additive and as food supplement at a level below 15 mg/day do not give rise to concerns about adverse health effects in the general population, including heavy smokers.

  7. Interest in marijuana treatment programs among teenage smokers and nonsmokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheer, Amy J.; Gorelick, David A.; Collins, Charles C.; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Heishman, Stephen J.; Leff, Michelle K.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about adolescents’ interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smoker...

  8. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of...

  9. Prediagnostic Adiponectin Concentrations and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Weinstein, Stephanie; Pollak, Michael; Tao, Yuzhen; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, has insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. The authors conducted a nested case-control study in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort, a cohort of male Finnish smokers aged 50–69 years at baseline, to test whether prediagnostic adiponectin concentrations are associated with pancreatic cancer. Between January 1985 and October 2004, 311 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cas...

  10. Comparison of Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide non communicable diseases are increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity.The disorder is defined in various ways. This study determine the 6Tcomparison of indicators of metabolic syndrome in Iranian smokers population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,024 Iranian subjects aged 30 to 70 participated in this cross sectional study. Standard questionnaire was completing regarding smoking habits, medications, past medical history, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting blood suger, total cholestrol HDL and triglycerides. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the IDF criteria. Results: As defined by the modified IDF criteria, (45.9% had the MS at baseline assessment. The risk of incidence of the metabolic syndrome among smokers was9T 6T9Tsignificantly6T9T 6T9T(p<0.008 greater6T than nonsmokers. Among men without the MS at entry, body weight gain, compared with never smokers, was significantly6T (p<0.007 6Thigher in smokers who had quit smoking. It is important for the prevention of the MS not only to quit smoking but also to prevent weight gain after smoking cessation. Conclusion: Although many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs can be treated or prevented many people die from CVDs. Reducing the rate of cigarette smoking, body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose all have a benefit impact on major biological cardiovascular risk factors. Behaviors such as stopping smoking, taking regular physical activity and eating a healthy diet promote health and have no known harmful effects.

  11. AWARENESS OF HARMFUL EFFECTS OF SMOKING AMONG SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is the preventable risk factor for many non - communicable diseases like COPD, atherosclerotic diseases, stroke and many malignancies. Many smokers smoke their 1 st cigarette at early age due to various social factors. Ma ny of the smokers doesn’t know the harmful effects of the smoking on individual systems. METHODS : Prospective study conducted on 102 smokers attending to outpatient department of the Government fever hospital, Guntur. They were surveyed about their smoking preferences. After taking the preliminary details they are enquired about the level of awareness of harmful effects of smoking. RESULT : More than half the members (n=56 , 54.90% smoke in their houses. They don’t know about effect of second hand smoke on th e health of the members. Only few members know the complication of the smoking like Skin diseases (17 , 16.66%, Cerebrovascular accidents (26 , 25.49% and endocrine complications including diabetes (n=2, 1.8%. Most of subjects know risk of Carcinomas (92,90 .19%, Cardiovascular diseases (34,33.33% and Respiratory diseases (85,83.33%. People continue smoking inspite of awareness of complications of smoking due their addiction. CONCLUSIONS : Newer policies should raise towards educating the people about the exact impact of smoking on health. Policies should target the younger people that should stop smoking their 1 st cigarette or beedi

  12. Oxidative stress in smokers supplemented with vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Royall, D; Allard, J P

    1999-01-01

    The ability of vitamin C supplement to influence lipid peroxidation and pulmonary function tests in healthy smokers was investigated. In this randomized double blind controlled trail, 56 smokers (S) received either 500 mg of vitamin C (C) or placebo (P) daily for 4 weeks. All completed the trial. Both groups were comparable and the number of cigarettes smoked were C: 14.2 +/- 1.8 and P: 18.3 +/- 2.0 pack-years. Plasma vitamin C concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.005) only in the group supplemented with vitamin C. Lipid peroxidation measured by breath pentane output (BPO) (C: 7.5 +/- 1.4 vs P: 7.0 +/- 1.3 pmol.kg-1.min-1) and plasma HPLC-separated malondialdehyde (MDA) (C: 0.58 +/- 0.05 vs P: 0.47 +/- 0.05 nmol.ml-1) were not significantly different between the 2 groups at baseline and did not change after four weeks of vitamin C supplementation (BPO: C: 5.3 +/- 0.9 vs P: 5.5 +/- 0.9 pmol.kg-1.min-1; HPLC-MDA: C: 0.50 +/- 0.07 vs P: 0.42 +/- 0.07 nmol.ml-1). No changes were detected in pulmonary function tests even in heavy smokers. Therefore, 4 week supplementation with 500 mg of vitamin C did not change lipid peroxidation indices and had no effect on pulmonary function tests. PMID:10052021

  13. Emphysema in heavy smokers with normal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the severity and extent of emphysema in heavy smokers by high-resolution CT (HRCT) and to correlate the findings with spirometric tests (STs) and symptomatology. Material and Methods: Fifty adult smokers with a mean age of 53 years with a smoking history of more than 30 pack years and normal chest radiographs underwent HRCT of the chest and ST (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR). Among these, 22 had symptoms of pulmonary disease and 28 were asymptomatic. Quantification of emphysema was done using a density mask program and the visual scoring method. The results were correlated with ST and symptomatology. Results: 58% (29 out of 50) of the subjects had significant emphysema on HRCT. Eleven out of 15 with normal ST showed emphysema on HRCT while 2 with airflow obstruction on ST showed normal CT scores. 14% (4 out of 28) asymptomatic subjects had severe emphysema compared to 64% of symptomatic subjects. Emphysematous changes were predominantly seen in upper lung zones in 48% of the patients while in 52% it was distributed equally in both upper and lower zones. The number of pack years of smoking showed a positive correlation with CT scores. The correlation between HRCT scores and ST was statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant number of asymptomatic and clinically undiagnosed smokers tend to have significant emphysema. HRCT helps in early detection of disease and thus helps implementation of preventive measures

  14. Emphysema in heavy smokers with normal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sashidhar, K.; Monga, S.; Suri, S. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Radiodiagnosis; Gulati, M.; Gupta, D. [Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the severity and extent of emphysema in heavy smokers by high-resolution CT (HRCT) and to correlate the findings with spirometric tests (STs) and symptomatology. Material and Methods: Fifty adult smokers with a mean age of 53 years with a smoking history of more than 30 pack years and normal chest radiographs underwent HRCT of the chest and ST (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR). Among these, 22 had symptoms of pulmonary disease and 28 were asymptomatic. Quantification of emphysema was done using a density mask program and the visual scoring method. The results were correlated with ST and symptomatology. Results: 58% (29 out of 50) of the subjects had significant emphysema on HRCT. Eleven out of 15 with normal ST showed emphysema on HRCT while 2 with airflow obstruction on ST showed normal CT scores. 14% (4 out of 28) asymptomatic subjects had severe emphysema compared to 64% of symptomatic subjects. Emphysematous changes were predominantly seen in upper lung zones in 48% of the patients while in 52% it was distributed equally in both upper and lower zones. The number of pack years of smoking showed a positive correlation with CT scores. The correlation between HRCT scores and ST was statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant number of asymptomatic and clinically undiagnosed smokers tend to have significant emphysema. HRCT helps in early detection of disease and thus helps implementation of preventive measures.

  15. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  16. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization of waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (in acronym, HTC) is a thermochemical conversion process through which it is possible to directly transform wet organic substrates into a carbonaceous material, referred as hydrochar. Hydrochar has chemical and physical characteristics that make it similar to fossil peats and lignite. Depending on the process conditions, mostly temperature and residence time, this material can be enriched in its carbon content, modifying its structure and providing it interesting ch...

  18. Salt effects in hydrothermal synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Avola, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on hydrothermal water as solvent and reaction medium. Water is abundant, non-toxic and environmentally benign, but at room temperature it does not dissolve most of the materials used in organic chemistry. When raising the temperature, though, its strong hydrogen bonds are weakened. At supercritical conditions water behaves similar to an unpolar solvent. However, high pressure, temperature and corrosion are technical challenges when reaching supercritical conditions. Al...

  19. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

  20. Presence of Helicobacter pylori Detected by PCR in Saliva of Male Smokers and Non Smokers with Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Rajiv Kishor; Aziz, Abdul Samad; Kalekar, Madhav Govind; Mol, J. P. Milsee; Suryakar, Adinath Narayan; Tabita, Benjamin; Shirahatti, Ravi Vasudev; Medikeri, Raghavendra Shrishail

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the comparative presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in saliva of smokers and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis. Study Design: Male individuals diagnosed with chronic periodontitis with and without smoking habits were enrolled in the study. The unstimulated whole saliva was subjected to H. pylori DNA detection using real time PCR. The percent presence of H. pylori DNA among the groups, were statistically compared. Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Bioch...

  1. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS) cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Solesse Anne; Jeanpetit Yasmine; Vicaut Eric; Stoebner-Delbarre Anne; Peiffer Gérard; Aubin Henri-Jean; Bonnelye Geneviève; Thomas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1) to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2) to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3) to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4) to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in th...

  2. Prevalence and correlates of pulmonary emphysema in smokers and former smokers. A densitometric study of participants in the ITALUNG trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camiciottoli, Gianna [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento Area Critica, Firenze (Italy); Cavigli, Edoardo; Grassi, Luca; Orlandi, Ilaria; Picozzi, Giulia; Mascalchi, Mario [Universita di Firenze, Radiodiagnostica, Dipartimento Fisiopatologia Clinica, Firenze (Italy); Diciotti, Stefano [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Firenze (Italy); Zappa, Marco; Paci, Eugenio [Centro di Studio e Prevenzione Oncologica, Firenze (Italy); Pegna, Andrea Lopes [Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria di Careggi, Pneumologia, Firenze (Italy); Falaschi, Fabio [Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Pisana, Radiodiagnostica II, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    We assessed with computed tomography (CT) densitometry the prevalence of emphysema in 266 (175 men and 91 women; mean age 64{+-}4 years) smokers and former smokers enrolled in the ITALUNG trial of lung cancer screening with low-dose thin-slice CT. Whole-lung volume and the relative area at -950 Hounsfield units (RA{sub 950}) and mean lung attenuation (MLA) in 1 of every 10 slices (mean, 24 slices per subject) were measured. Lung volume, MLA and RA950 significantly correlated each other and with age. Average RA950>6.8% qualifying for emphysema was present in 71(26.6%) of 266 subjects, with a higher prevalence in men than in women (30.3% vs 19.8%; p=0.003). Only in smokers was a weak (r=0.18; p=0.05) correlation between RA950 and packs/year observed. In multiple regression analysis, the variability of RA950 (R2=0.24) or MLA (R2=0.34) was significantly, but weakly explained by age, lung volume and packs/year. Other factors besides smoking may also have a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. (orig.)

  3. Solid surface spectroscopic methodology for ultra-trace urinary nickel monitoring in smokers and non-smokers' subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talio, María Carolina; Luconi, Marta O; Masi, Adriana N; Fernández, Liliana P

    2010-09-01

    Nickel chemical enrichment on nylon membranes previously treated with eosin (eo) is proposed for subsequent quantification by spectrofluorimetry (lambda(em)=547 nm, lambda(exc)=515 nm). Operational variables which have influence on quantitative metal retention have been studied. At optimal experimental conditions, quantitative recovery was reached (superior to 99%), with a detection limit of 0.13 ng L(-1) and quantification limit of 0.44 ng L(-1). The calibration sensitivity was of 6x10(13) ng L(-1) for the new methodology with a linear range of 0.44-410 ng L(-1) Ni(II). The tolerance levels, respect to cations and anions as potential interferents, were studied, with good results. The methodology was validated by standard addition method and satisfactorily applied to urinary nickel determination of 50 subjects including smokers, second hand smokers and non-smokers' samples without previous treatment. Stability of biological samples was daily studied for a period of 1 month. Within-day precision was better than 0.02 CV. The reproducibility (between-day precision) was also evaluated over 3 days by performing six determinations each day with a CV of 0.052. The different groups were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test with satisfactory results. PMID:20219313

  4. Prevalence and correlates of pulmonary emphysema in smokers and former smokers. A densitometric study of participants in the ITALUNG trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed with computed tomography (CT) densitometry the prevalence of emphysema in 266 (175 men and 91 women; mean age 64±4 years) smokers and former smokers enrolled in the ITALUNG trial of lung cancer screening with low-dose thin-slice CT. Whole-lung volume and the relative area at -950 Hounsfield units (RA950) and mean lung attenuation (MLA) in 1 of every 10 slices (mean, 24 slices per subject) were measured. Lung volume, MLA and RA950 significantly correlated each other and with age. Average RA950>6.8% qualifying for emphysema was present in 71(26.6%) of 266 subjects, with a higher prevalence in men than in women (30.3% vs 19.8%; p=0.003). Only in smokers was a weak (r=0.18; p=0.05) correlation between RA950 and packs/year observed. In multiple regression analysis, the variability of RA950 (R2=0.24) or MLA (R2=0.34) was significantly, but weakly explained by age, lung volume and packs/year. Other factors besides smoking may also have a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. (orig.)

  5. Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

    2006-12-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation reactions. In contrast to their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are often characterized by high arsenic concentrations of more than 500-times seawater

  6. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  7. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bold, Krysten W.; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Fucito, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment ...

  8. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  9. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition (δ 13C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka (14C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions

  10. Sustainable carbon materials from hydrothermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The production of low cost and environmentally friendly high performing carbon materials is crucial for a sustainable future. Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processes describes a sustainable and alternative technique to produce carbon from biomass in water at low temperatures, a process known as Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC). Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processes presents an overview of this new and rapidly developing field, discussing various synthetic approaches, characterization of the final products, and modern fields of application fo

  11. Preparation high photocatalytic activity of CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites with hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Weinan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ni Liang, E-mail: xingweinan3@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huo Pengwei; Lu Ziyang; Liu Xinlin; Luo Yingying; Yan Yongsheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS/HNTs had better photocatalytic activity for degradation of tetracycline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of halloysite nanotubes both improved its photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: A novel nanocatalyst CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was synthesized by hydrothermal method with direct growth of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of HNTs. The as-prepared photocatalysts had been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of the sample was evaluated by the degradation of tetracycline (TC) under visible light irradiation. Benefit from the excellent properties of CdS and HNTs, the photocatalyst exhibited good photocatalytic activity and stability. In order to find out the optimum synthesis condition to obtain the best photocatalytic activity, a series of experiments were performed with different CdS loading capacity, different sources of sulfide and different hydrothermal temperatures, etc. The best photodegradation rate could reach 93% in 60 min under visible light irradiation. Therefore, the combination of CdS nanoparticles with HNTs endowed this material with a potential use in environmental treatments in industries.

  12. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  13. Less demand for tobacco smokers in the marriage market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sreedharan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In order to control the tobacco scourge, an array of measures is required. Aims : To determine the attitude of unmarried females toward tobacco smokers and ascertain their attitude toward marrying a smoker. Settings and Design : Female students from randomly selected colleges in Kannur district, Kerala state, India, were the participants for this cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : Sample consisted of 1800 unmarried female students from two colleges. A self-administered, structured, close-ended pilot-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were collected after obtaining verbal consent from them. Statistical Analysis : Data collected were entered into an excel spread sheet and analyzed using PASW 17 software. Results : The participants′ age ranged between 17 and 25 years. About 59.6% revealed that their parents (father used tobacco products. Of those with no family history of tobacco use, 96.5% had negative attitude toward tobacco smokers, whereas of the participants with family history of tobacco use among parents, 89% were with a negative attitude toward tobacco use or their parent′s habit. This association was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001; 79% expressed negative attitude toward their male co-students who use tobacco products. Of the total, 99.3% expressed their unwillingness to marry a person with the habit of tobacco use, whereas 0.7% were willing to marry a person with tobacco habit with the belief that they could bring about a change in their male partner′s tobacco habit. Conclusion : More comprehensive tobacco control activities can be undertaken in the community and colleges by incorporating female students as facilitators.

  14. Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In non-smokers, ozone (O3) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and dead space (VD) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (SN). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O3 boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19 M, 11 F, 24 ± 4 years, 6 ± 4 total years smoking,4 ± 2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17 M, 13 F, 25 ± 6 years) exercised for 1 h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30 ppm O3. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV1 (− 9.5 ± 1.8% vs − 8.7 ± 1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of VD (− 6.1 ± 1.2%) and SN (9.1 ± 3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (VD/VT) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4 ± 2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O3 and, uniquely, experience changes in VD that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in SN. - Highlights: • We previously found lung function responses to O3 bolus exposure in smokers. • Here, we describe their responsiveness to continuous O3 exposure with exercise. • Spirometry and capnography were used to assess pulmonary function changes. • Enhanced bronchoconstriction in smokers increases parenchymal delivery of O3

  15. Frontoparietal Attentional Network Activation Differs Between Smokers and Nonsmokers during Affective Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Froeliger, Brett; Modlin, Leslie A.; Kozink, Rachel V.; Wang, Lihong; Garland, Eric L; Addicott, Merideth A.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Smoking withdrawal-induced disruption of affect and cognition is associated with dysregulated prefrontal brain function although little is known regarding the neural foci of smoker-nonsmoker differences during affective cognition. Thus, the current study utilized fMRI to identify smoker-nonsmoker differences in affective cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (17 smokers, 17 nonsmokers) underwent fMRI during an affective Stroop task (aST). The aST includes emotional cue-reactivity trials, ...

  16. Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Bos, J.A.; A. R. Khan; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B.; Wollmer, P.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to...

  17. ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Gehricke, Jean-G.; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L; Chan, Vivien; Doan, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate, atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the st...

  18. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  19. [Stress and smoking in treatment-seeking smokers].

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Patrick; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2012-01-01

    Fear of not controlling stress is the most frequently reported obstacle to smoking cessation. We report a retrospective study involving 70 smokers whose files were randomly selected from a smoking cessation clinic's recruitment. Stress management as a motive to smoke (SMMS) was systematically explored at the first visit, before quit date. SMMS mean score was 7.36 (+/- 2.4) on a 10 point scale. The score was higher in females than in males (p = 0,048). A multivariate logistic regression showed...

  20. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniuk JN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available James N Baraniuk,1 Begona Casado,1 Lewis K Pannell,2 Peter B McGarvey,3 Piera Boschetto,4 Maurizio Luisetti,5,† Paolo Iadarola6 1Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Mitchell Cancer Center, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 3Innovation Center for Biomedical Informatics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA; 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 5SC Pneumologia, Dipartimento Medicina Molecolare, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 6Lazzaro Spallanzani Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy †Maurizio Luisetti passed away on October 20, 2014 Rationale: Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective: To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods: Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7 and smokers with normal lung function (n=13, mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11, obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15, and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10 were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results: Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of

  1. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  2. Do anti-smoking media campaigns help smokers quit?

    OpenAIRE

    Popham, W J; Potter, L D; Bal, D G; Johnson, M.D.; Duerr, J M; Quinn, V.

    1993-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the 1990-91 anti-tobacco media campaign carried out by the California Department of Health Services, a study was conducted among 417 regular smokers who had quit during the period of the media campaign. In brief telephone interviews, all respondents identified up to three events or experiences that had influenced them to quit. In response to uncued questions, 6.7 percent of those interviewed indicated that they had been influenced to quit by an advertisement they h...

  3. Statement on the safety of ?-carotene use in heavy smokers

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) was asked to conclude on the possible link between the ingestion of β-carotene and cancer enhancement in heavy smokers. The safety of (synthetic) β-carotene [E 160a (ii)] has been evaluated previously by JECFA (1975) and by the SCF (2000a).  In 2000, the SCF concluded that there were insufficient data to set a precise figure for a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of ...

  4. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam;

    2013-01-01

    girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...... social norms leading to cigarette and hookah smoking may help policy makers develop comprehensive interventions to prevent smoking among adolescents....

  5. Heavy metals and its relationships with biomarkers of oxidative stress in chronic smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salazar-Lugo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated in 50 chronic smokers, both females and males (30 to 84 years. Smokers were divided into two groups (1-5 cigarettes/day, 25, and smokers of more than 6 cigarettes/day, 25. Metal concentrations in whole blood and urine were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with inductively coupled (ICP; hematological and biochemical assays were performed to determine total proteins, fractionated proteins and total thiols. Smokers had higher concentrations of Fe regardless of the number of cigarettes smoked and lower concentrations of Zn, Cr and Ni, No di erences were observed in Cu blood concentrations. Smokers show Cd concentrations between 5.0-10.0 μg/L and non-smokers between 0,0-5,0 μg/L. No signi cant di erences were observed in of Hb, Hct and MCHC concentrations, neither albumin and globulins concentrations; an increased in leukocytes and total thiol was observed in smokers. Blood Fe concentrations were correlated with leucocytes and with Cd. Also, it was showed correlation between albumin and thiols. Zn and Cu concentrations were increased in urine of smokers. According to these results, in chronic smokers, the distribution of Fein the body plays a central role in the possible progression and development of diseases related to smoking.

  6. Effect of smoking on active male smokers across various age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of smoking in the world is cigarette smoking, which is one of the leading causes of lung cancer, blood pressure, emphysema9, bronchitis, heart attack etc5… In the present study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used for analysis of saliva sample for the detection of markers for smokers. The analysis included 7 individuals. The samples were classified as 2 samples from smokers of group 10-25, 2 samples from smokers of group 25-40, 1 sample from smokers of group 40-60 and 2 samples from smokers ofgroup 60 & above. Several interesting peaks have been identified as markers for smokers from saliva sample. Many peaks were significantly altered in absorption level of different age groups. The peaks at 754 cm-1, 1644 cm-1, 2136 cm-1, 3408 cm-1 were altered differently in different age groups as compared to non-smokers. Our study indicates that a stable marker was possible for active smokers by analysing the spectral graph obtained from the FTIR technique2. These parameters could be used for developing a spectral method of detection of active smokers along with predicting their duration of smoking by studying the effect of smoking in the different age groups.

  7. Aging-related systemic manifestations in COPD patients and cigarette smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is often associated with age-related systemic abnormalities that adversely affect the prognosis. Whether these manifestations are linked to the lung alterations or are independent complications of smoking remains unclear.To look for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening in COPD patients and smokers with minor lung destruction responsible for a decline in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO corrected for alveolar volume (KCO.Cross-sectional study in 301 individuals (100 with COPD, 100 smokers without COPD, and 101 nonsmokers without COPD.Compared to control smokers, patients with COPD had higher aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV, lower bone mineral density (BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI, and shorter telomere length (TL. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were similar between control smokers and COPD patients. Smokers did not differ from nonsmokers for any of these parameters. However, smokers with normal spirometry but low KCO had lower ASMMI values compared to those with normal KCO. Moreover, female smokers with low KCO, had lower BMD and shorter TL compared to those with normal KCO.Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening.

  8. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  9. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  10. Macrophage-stimulating protein differently affects human alveolar macrophages from smoker and non-smoker patients: evaluation of respiratory burst, cytokine release and NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunella, Gabriele; Bardelli, Claudio; Amoruso, Angela; Viano, Ilario; Balbo, Piero; Brunelleschi, Sandra

    2006-06-01

    Macrophage activation is a key feature of inflammatory reactions occurring during bacterial infections, immune responses and tissue injury. We previously demonstrated that human macrophages of different origin express the tyrosine kinase receptor recepteur d'origine nantaise, the human receptor for MSP (RON) and produce superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) when challenged with macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), the endogenous ligand for RON. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of MSP in alveolar macrophages (AM) isolated from healthy volunteers and patients with interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), either smokers or non-smokers, by evaluating the respiratory burst, cytokine release and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. MSP effects were compared with those induced by known AM stimuli, for example, phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide.MSP evokes O(2)(-) production, cytokine release and NF-kappaB activation in a concentration-dependent manner. By evaluating the respiratory burst, we demonstrate a significantly increased O(2)(-) production in AM from healthy smokers or smokers with pulmonary fibrosis, as compared to non-smokers, thus suggesting MSP as an enhancer of cigarette smoke toxicity. Besides inducing interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production, MSP triggers an enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release, especially in healthy and pulmonary fibrosis smokers. On the contrary, MSP-induced IL-10 release is higher in AM from healthy non-smokers. MSP activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB; this effect is more potent in healthy and fibrosis smokers (2.5-fold increase in p50 subunit translocation). This effect is receptor-mediated, as it is prevented by a monoclonal anti-human MSP antibody. The higher effectiveness of MSP in AM from healthy smokers and patients with pulmonary fibrosis is suggestive of its role in these clinical conditions

  11. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  12. Adiponectin and Mortality in Smokers and Non-Smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Graciela E; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A decreased concentration of adiponectin has been reported in smokers. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cigarette smoking on the concentration of adiponectin and potassium in active smokers (AS) and life-time non-smokers (NS) of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study, and the use of these two markers for risk prediction. Smoking status was assessed by a questionnaire and measurement of plasma cotinine concentration. The serum concentration of adiponectin was measured by ELISA. Adiponectin was binned into tertiles separately for AS and NS and the Cox regression was used to assess the effect on mortality. There were 777 AS and 1178 NS among the LURIC patients. Within 10 years (median) of follow-up 221 AS and 302 NS died. In unadjusted analyses, AS had lower concentrations of adiponectin. However, after adjustment for age and gender there was no significant difference in adiponectin concentration between AS and NS. In the Cox regression model adjusted for age and gender, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality in AS, but not in NS, with hazard ratio (95 % CI) of 1.60 (1.14-2.24) comparing the third with first tertile. In a model further adjusted for the risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, body mass index, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality with hazard ratio of 1.83 (1.28-2.62) and 1.56 (1.15-2.11) for AS and NS, respectively. We conclude that increased adiponectin is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in both AS and NS. The determination of adiponectin concentration could be used to identify individuals at increased mortality risk. PMID:27358181

  13. Nicotine dependence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI, cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02 and less light-intensity physical activity (β = −9.6, P = 0.03 and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = −0.14, P = 0.003 than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Conclusion: Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  14. The Relationship between Nicotine Dependence and Age among Current Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent study indicates that the incidence of smoking cessation varies with age. Although nicotine dependence (ND has been regarded as one of the most significant barriers of successful smoking cessation, few researches have focused on the relationship between nicotine dependence and age.A cross-sectional study (conducted in 2013 with 596 Chinese rural male current smokers was performed to study the relationship between ND and age. The ND level was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND scale. The univariate two-degree fractional polynomials (FPs regression was used to explore the relation of ND to age.The mean of FTND scores in the middle-aged group (45-64 yr old was higher than that in the younger (<45 yr old and older groups (≥65 yr old. The FPs regression showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age.The middle-aged current smokers had higher degree of ND than the younger and the older groups, which showed an inverse U-shaped relationship between ND and age. This finding needs to be confirmed by further researches.

  15. Adherence to Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among HIV-Infected Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Kristine K; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K; Diaz, Philip; Koletar, Susan L; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2016-03-01

    High prevalence of tobacco use and low success in quitting remain significant problems for reducing disease burden among HIV-infected persons. This study's purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to pharmacotherapy, counseling, and abstinence. Development and testing of interventions to improve adherence to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment is warranted. PMID:25855045

  16. Study of the crevicular fluid flow rate in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, G M; Lucas, G Q; Lucas, O N

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if smoking--a risk factor in periodontal disease-affects the crevicular fluid (CF) flow rate. Twenty-nine dental students were included in the control group--non-smokers- (NS) and 34 in the experimental group--smokers- (S). All subjects were enrolled in a rigorous dental hygiene program (RDHP). The Greene-Vermillion plaque index, and Löe-Silness gingival index (GI) were recorded. CF was obtained and measured with the Periotron 8000. These recordings were made before and after the RDHP. The results show that the CF mean flow rate was slightly lower in the S group than in the NS group, for both recordings. The analysis of the relation between the CF flow rate and the GI recorded in the dental surfaces, revealed a significantly lower flow rate in the S group for GI 1 (p < 0.01) and GI 3 (p < 0.05). The difference observed between the S and NS groups, may be due to the vasoconstrictor action of the cigarette components (nicotine and/or metabolites) on the gingival vasculature. PMID:11885468

  17. The variations in Body Mass Index of different types of cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Agnihotri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of both active and second hand smoking on Body Mass Index of adult smokers in rural areas of Chandigarh. The relationship of body mass index with smoking status was also assessed in current daily and intermittent smokers. The male subjects (N=240 of 20-30 years and 30-40 years age category were divided into four groups of 30 subjects each based on Global Adult Tobacco Survey Questionnaire, India as follows: Group 1 - Current daily cigarette smokers, Group 2 - current intermittent cigarette smokers, Group 3 - Second hand cigarette smokers and Group 4 - Non-smokers (Control group. One way ANOVA test showed non-significant differences between and within all the groups in body mass index (F=1.11, p>0.05 in 20-30 years age category. In 30-40 years age category, significant differences (F=4.11, p<0.05 were observed between and within all the groups. Post hoc Scheffe test in 30-40 years category also revealed significant mean differences between current daily smokers and non-smokers. Karl Pearson’s correlation test showed a highly significant inverse linear relationship (p<0.001 between pack years and BMI in both current daily and intermittent smokers. Current smoking of moderate intensity has an effect to alter relative fatness (or BMI of the body. There may be no substantial difference in BMI with moderate and light smoking as well as exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in younger adults. The greater the number of cigarettes smoked, the lower the adult smoker's BMI in both current moderate and intermittent light smokers.

  18. Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Lopes Santoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among neversmokers with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285 between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable, gender (female vs. male, smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker, the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable, histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma, AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging, and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support. RESULTS: Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32% and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%. Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2. The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.

  19. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: alejandroescobedo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  20. Preparation of ZnO nanosheets by a novel microemulsion-based hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Junying [College of Chemistry and Ecological Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006 (China); Wenshan Middle School, Weifang 261300 (China); Huang Zaiyin, E-mail: zaiyinhuang2010@163.com [College of Chemistry and Ecological Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006 (China); Tan Shengwei; Li Yanfen; Wang Guotao; Tan Xuecai [College of Chemistry and Ecological Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized ZnO nanosheets via a novel hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnO nanosheets exhibited a clearly electrocatalytic response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnO nanosheets exhibited an intense green-yellow luminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discussed the formation mechanism of the prepared ZnO nanosheets. - Abstract: ZnO nanosheets have been successfully synthesized via a novel microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal route at 80 Degree-Sign C for 12 h. The compositions and morphologies of the as-prepared nanosheets were characterized by X-ray power diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction analysis (SAED). Electrochemical (EA) and photoluminescence analysis (PL) were employed to study their electrochemical behaviors and optical properties. It was found that these ZnO nanosheets had a single crystal hexagonal wurtzite structure with lattice constants of a = 0.3249 nm and c = 0.5205 nm. And they exhibited a clearly electrocatalytic response, indicating that the ZnO nanosheets could accelerate electron transfer of the electrochemical probe. The PL spectrum of ZnO nanosheets exhibited an intense green-yellow luminescence at the wavelength of 569 nm, which can be ascribed to the defects related to oxygen vacancies. The formation mechanism of the nanostructures was also proposed and discussed.

  1. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi Rema A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25 and in-depth interviews (9 were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries.

  2. Attitudes, perceptions, habits of smoker non-smoker general practitioners and why they fail to motivate patients to quit smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate attitudes, perceptions and habits of General Practitioners (GPs) who smoke and those who do not smoke cigarettes, with particular attention to smoking cessation. Two physician groups were targeted: GPs who smoke and those who do not smoke. They were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A unique country-specific questionnaire was developed to conduct a 20-minute telephonic interview. Survey was started from December 2006 and completed in May 2007. Simple statistical calculations were used to interpret the data. GPs view smoking as the most harmful behaviour among the risk factors. 94% agreed that smoking should be classified as a medical condition and if it were so would encourage more smokers to quit smoking and they have suggested the need of prescription therapies for their patients to quit smoking. Significant discontent exists between physicians and smokers. The main cause of this discontent is physician perceived inability to provide successful solutions to quit smoking due to low awareness level and lack of training. This issue, when properly addressed, can be useful as an additional tool to aid patients in quitting. (author)

  3. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata

    2010-04-01

    An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.

  4. Using numerical models and volume rendering to interpret acoustic imaging of hydrothermal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, K. G.; Bennett, K.; Takle, J.; Rona, P. A.; Silver, D.

    2009-12-01

    Our acoustic imaging system will be installed onto the Neptune Canada observatory at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, which is a Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Site. Thereafter, 16-30 Gb of acoustic imaging data will be collected daily. We are developing a numerical model of merging plumes that will be used to guide expectations and volume rendering software that transforms volumetric acoustic data into photo-like images. Hydrothermal flow is modeled as a combination of merged point sources which can be configured in any geometry. The model stipulates the dissipation or dilution of the flow and uses potential fields and complex analysis to combine the entrainment fields produced by each source. The strengths of this model are (a) the ability to handle a variety of scales especially the small scale as the potential fields can be specified with an effectively infinite boundary condition, (b) the ability to handle line, circle and areal source configurations, and (c) the ability to handle both high temperature focused flow and low temperature diffuse flow. This model predicts the vertical and horizontal velocities and the spatial distribution of effluent from combined sources of variable strength in a steady ambient velocity field. To verify the accuracy of the model’s results, we compare the model predictions of plume centerlines for the merging of two relatively strong point sources with the acoustic imaging data collected at Clam Acres, Southwest Vent Field, EPR 21°N in 1990. The two chimneys are 3.5 m apart and the plumes emanating from their tops merge approximately 18 mab. The model is able to predict the height of merging and the bending of the centerlines. Merging is implicitly observed at Grotto Vent, Main Endeavour Field, in our VIP 2000 data from July 2000: although there are at least 5 vigorous black smokers only a single plume is discernable in the acoustic imaging data. Furthermore, the observed Doppler velocity data increases with height

  5. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Presynaptic Dopamine Function of Addicted Male Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademacher, Lena; Prinz, Susanne; Winz, Oliver;

    2016-01-01

    ventral putamen of consuming smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a lower dopamine synthesis capacity in nicotine-dependent smokers that appears to normalize with abstinence. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of dopamine in nicotine addiction to help develop smoking prevention and...

  6. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. PMID:26541521

  7. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  8. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  9. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  10. Inhibition control impairments in adolescent smokers: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junsen; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Cheng, Jiadong; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Sha, Shi; Shen, Xiaomin; Zhang, Ben; Xue, Ting; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during adolescence may promote nicotine dependence later on in life. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the neural mechanisms of adolescent smokers. As inhibition control is emphasized in several contemporary theoretical models of addiction, in the current study, we focused on the electrophysiological evidence of inhibition control deficits in adolescent smokers. By using relatively homogenous groups of adolescent smokers (n = 18) and matched nonsmokers (n = 18), we employed event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the N200 and P300 amplitude and latency differences during a Go/NoGo task between the adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, more NoGo response errors, reduced NoGo P300 amplitude, and longer P300 latency were observed in adolescent smokers. Correlation analysis revealed that the NoGo P300 amplitudes were significantly correlated with NoGo errors in both adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for inhibitory control impairments in adolescent smokers. It is hoped that our results may enhance understanding of the pathology of inhibitory control in adolescent smokers. PMID:26093534

  11. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Thanoon Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

  12. Does "smoker's paradox" exist in clopidogrel-treated Turkish patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kirdök, Ali Hikmet; Kınay, Ahmet Ozan; Tekin, Ümit İlker; Taş, Sedat; Alpaslan, Erkan; Pabuccu, Mustafa Türker; Akdeniz, Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Previously conducted studies revealed that smoking enhanced the efficacy of clopidogrel by increasing formation of the active metabolite (AM) from the prodrug through induction of the cytochrome CYP1A2. The expression of cytochrome enzymes depends on genotype and no data exists in literature conducted in Turkish patients comparing the clopidogrel responsiveness between active smokers and non-active smokers treated with clopidogrel. In this study, our aim was to investigate the clopidogrel responsiveness in clopidogrel-treated Turkish acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients according to their smoking status. We retrospectively enrolled 258 patients who were hospitalized due to ACS. Clinical variables of the patients, especially smoking status were recorded. Clopidogrel resistance was evaluated by using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregometry. Clopidogrel resistance was detected as a change in maximal aggregation ≤20% from baseline. A total of 139 patients were active smokers while 12 were former smokers. 107 patients did not have a history of smoking. Ten of the smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel, whereas 36 of non-smokers were hyporesponsive to clopidogrel (p 612.5 predicted the clopidogrel resistance with a sensitivity of 60% (OR: 100.65, %95 CI = 19.996-506.615 p aspirin than in non-smokers receiving the same drug regimen. This finding indicates that smoking was related to an enhanced clopidogrel responsiveness in Turkish patients hospitalized due to ACS, suggesting that "smoker's paradox" probably exists in Turkish ACS patients. PMID:26367336

  13. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  14. A comparison of oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers: an in vivo human quantitative study of n-3 lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Brian M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is believed to cause oxidative stress by several mechanisms, including direct damage by radical species and the inflammatory response induced by smoking, and would therefore be expected to cause increased lipid peroxidation. The aim was to carry out the first study of the relationship of smoking in humans to the level of n-3 lipid peroxidation indexed by the level of ethane in exhaled breath. Methods Samples of alveolar air were obtained from 11 smokers and 18 non-smokers. The air samples were analyzed for ethane using mass spectrometry. Results The two groups of subjects were matched with respect to age and gender. The mean cumulative smoking status of the smokers was 11.8 (standard error 2.5 pack-years. The mean level of ethane in the alveolar breath of the group of smokers (2.53 (0.55 ppb was not significantly different from that of the group of non-smokers (2.59 (0.29 ppb; p = 0.92. With all 29 subjects included, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between ethane levels and cumulative smoking status was -0.11 (p = 0.58, while an analysis including only the smokers yielded a corresponding correlation coefficient of 0.11 (p = 0.75. Conclusion Our results show no evidence that cigarette smoking is related to increased n-3 lipid peroxidation as measured by expired ethane.

  15. Nitrogen-doped hydrothermal carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; White, Robin J. [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. of Colloid Chemistry; Zhao, Li [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. of Colloid Chemistry; National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon materials are now playing an important role in cutting edge innovations for energy conversion and storage technologies such as supercapacitors and proton exchange membrane fuel cells as well as in catalytic applications, adsorption and CO{sub 2} capture. The production of such materials using benign aqueous based processes, mild temperatures and renewable precursors is of great promise in addressing growing environmental concerns for cleaner power sources at a time of increasing global demand for energy. In this perspective, we show that nitrogen doped carbons prepared using sustainable processes such as ''Hydrothermal Carbonisation'' has advantages in many applications over the conventional carbons. We also summarize an array of synthetic strategies used to create such nitrogen doped carbons, and discuss the application of these novel materials. (orig.)

  16. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  17. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  18. What characterises smokers who quit without using help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of smoking cessation aids are available; however, the majority of smokers quit unaided. We know little of the differences between users and non-users of cessation support. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES) conducted in 2007......-2008. In all, 6445 persons reporting quitting successfully within the last 5 years were included in analyses. Users and non-users of cessation aid (medical or behavioural support) were compared with regards to age, education, years smoked, tobacco amount, tobacco type and smoking-related disease using...... logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Quitting unaided was reported by 63%. Adjusted analyses showed that men were more likely to quit unaided than women, and younger compared with older were more likely to quit unaided (eg, OR among women age 45-59 versus age 14-29 were 0.18, 95% CI 0.12 to 0...

  19. Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mian-Ying

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noni (Morinda citrifolia juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118 mL TNJ. Plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels were measured pre and post-intervention. Results After 30 days, mean SAR decreased from 0.26 ± 0.14 to 0.19 ± 0.10 μmol/mL in the 29.5 mL dose group (P P P P Conclusion The results suggest an antioxidant activity from noni juice in humans exposed to tobacco smoke, thereby replicating the results found previous chemical and in vivo tests.

  20. Neural responses to smoking stimuli are influenced by smokers' attitudes towards their own smoking behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Stippekohl

    Full Text Available An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users whereas others are discontent (dissonant users. Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant

  1. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.

  2. Antimutagenic dietary phenolics as antigenotoxic substances in urothelium of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1998-06-18

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of PhIP-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified ABP-dG adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n=18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (e.g., quercetin, isorhamnetin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited non-competitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Onion, lettuce, apples and red wine are important sources of dietary flavonoids which are probably responsible for the anti-mutagenicity associated with foods and beverages. After HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts, the distribution profile of anti-mutagenic activity corresponded roughly to that of onion and wine extract combined. Overall, our study strongly suggests that smokers ingesting dietary phenolics, probably flavonoids, are partially protected against the harmful effects by tobacco carcinogens within their bladder mucosal cells. PMID:9675288

  3. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  4. The Guaymas Basin Hiking Guide to Hydrothermal Mounds, Chimneys, and Microbial Mats: Complex Seafloor Expressions of Subsurface Hydrothermal Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Teske, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; McKay, Luke J.; Margaret K. Tivey; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Hoer, Daniel; Lloyd, Karen G.; Lever, Mark A.; Røy, Hans; Albert, Daniel B.; Mendlovitz, Howard P.; MacGregor, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal mats, mounds, and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview, we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediment...

  5. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  6. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. METHODS/RESULTS: Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals

  7. Hydrothermal plumes and processes in Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sands, Carla Marie

    2006-01-01

    The predicted cycling of the whole ocean through hydrothermal plumes is comparable to the mixing time of the oceans (few thousand years). Hence, understanding hydrothermal plume processes is crucial if their impact on the global geochemical cycles of elements is to be assessed. One of the most important processes that has been demonstrated to modify the gross chemical flux from venting to the oceans is the oxidative precipitation of dissolved Fe (II). It has been hypothesised t...

  8. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  9. Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also

  10. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers. PMID:27373532

  11. Inverse correlation between serum C-reactive protein and magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamamd Atif Ata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking plays a key role in increasing the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP. Aims: To examine inverse correlation between CRP and magnesium levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 healthy adult male subjects were included in the present study, out of which 96 were smokers and the remaining 96 were nonsmokers having age range from 20 to 40 years, and all the subjects belonged to District Matyari of Hyderabad. Serum CRP was measured by NycoCard standard kit method and magnesium levels by DiaSys standard kit method in smokers and nonsmokers. Results: The levels of serum CRP in smokers (14.62 ± 0.16 mg/L is high as compared to nonsmokers (4.81 ± 0.38 mg/L, which is highly significant (P < 0.001. However, inverse results were seen for serum magnesium levels which were significantly higher (P < 0.001 in nonsmokers (2.52 ± 0.18 mg/L as compared to the smokers (1.09 ± 0.38 mg/dL. A significant (P < 0.001 inverse relationship between serum CRP and magnesium concentrations were seen in smokers. Conclusion: This result shows that smoking increases serum CRP, an inflammatory marker parallel to decrease in serum magnesium levels in smokers having 20-40 years of age.

  12. Effects of 7.5% Carbon Dioxide Inhalation on Anxiety and Mood in Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Ataya, Alia F.; Bailey, Jayne E.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with elevated risk of anxiety and mood disorder. Using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of anxiety induction, we examined the effects of smoking status and abstinence from smoking on anxiety responses. Physiological and subjective responses to CO2 and medical air were compared in smokers and non-smokers (Experiment One) and in overnight abstinent and non-abstinent smokers (Experiment Two). CO2 induced greater increases in blood pressure in non-smokers compared with smokers (ps < 0.043), and greater increases in anxiety (p = 0.005) and negative affect (p = 0.054) in non-abstinent compared with abstinent smokers. CO2 increased physiological and subjective indices of anxiety. There were differences across smoking groups indicating that the CO2 inhalation model is a useful tool for examining the relationship between smoking and anxiety. The findings suggested that both acute smoking and acute abstinence may protect against anxious responding. Further investigation is needed in long-term heavy smokers. PMID:24763184

  13. Alterations in the sputum proteome and transcriptome in smokers and early-stage COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Schneider, Thomas; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Dijon, Sophie; Luettich, Karsta; Guedj, Emmanuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peck, Michael J; Chaudhary, Nveed I; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-10-14

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. In this parallel-group clinical study we investigated to what extent the transitions in a chronic-exposure-to-disease model are reflected in the proteome and cellular transcriptome of induced sputum samples. We selected 60 age- and gender-matched individuals for each of the four study groups: current asymptomatic smokers, smokers with early stage COPD, former smokers, and never smokers. The cell-free sputum supernatant was analyzed by quantitative proteomics and the cellular mRNA fraction by gene expression profiling. The sputum proteome of current smokers clearly reflected the common physiological responses to smoke exposure, including alterations in mucin/trefoil proteins and a prominent xenobiotic/oxidative stress response. The latter response also was observed in the transcriptome, which additionally demonstrated an immune-cell polarization change. The former smoker group showed nearly complete attenuation of these biological effects. Thirteen differentially abundant proteins between the COPD and the asymptomatic smoker group were identified including TIMP1, APOA1, C6orf58, and BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1). In summary, our study demonstrates that sputum profiling can capture the complex and reversible physiological response to cigarette smoke exposure, which appears to be only slightly modulated in early-stage COPD. PMID:26306861

  14. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  15. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  16. Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Melissa L., E-mail: mlbates@pediatrics.wisc.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Degree Program in Physiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Division, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Brenza, Timothy M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz [Interdisciplinary Graduate Degree Program in Physiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bascom, Rebecca [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Eldridge, Marlowe W. [Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Division, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); John Rankin Laboratory of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Ultman, James S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Degree Program in Physiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In non-smokers, ozone (O{sub 3}) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV{sub 1}) and dead space (V{sub D}) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (S{sub N}). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O{sub 3} boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19 M, 11 F, 24 ± 4 years, 6 ± 4 total years smoking,4 ± 2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17 M, 13 F, 25 ± 6 years) exercised for 1 h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30 ppm O{sub 3}. Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV{sub 1} (− 9.5 ± 1.8% vs − 8.7 ± 1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of V{sub D} (− 6.1 ± 1.2%) and S{sub N} (9.1 ± 3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (V{sub D}/V{sub T}) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4 ± 2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O{sub 3} and, uniquely, experience changes in V{sub D} that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in S{sub N}. - Highlights: • We previously found lung function responses to O{sub 3} bolus exposure in smokers. • Here, we describe their responsiveness to continuous O{sub 3} exposure with exercise. • Spirometry and capnography were used to assess pulmonary function changes. • Enhanced bronchoconstriction in smokers increases parenchymal delivery of O{sub 3}.

  17. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this study emphasizes how diverse the microbial community in Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal environment was. We propose the diversity is at least partially due to the availability of various energy sources in this depositional environment including reducing chemicals and sunlight. PMID:26189535

  18. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah

  19. Comparison of thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (ESEM-CL) properties between hydrothermal and metamorphic quartzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topaksu, M., E-mail: mtopaksu@adiyaman.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Topak, Y. [Adiyaman University, Vocational High School, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Goeksu, H.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    This paper reports on the Thermoluminescence (TL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky quartz specimens from Hakkari in Turkey, labeled THQ, and Madrid in Spain, labeled SHQ, and metamorphic quartz from Madrid, in Spain, labeled SMQ. Both hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples display similar UV-IR CL spectra consisting of five groups of components centered at 330 nm and 380 nm linked to [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers, 420 nm due to intrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and impurities which modify the crystal structure, 480 nm associated with [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers of substitutional Al{sup 3+}, and a red broad band related to the hydroxyl defects in the quartz lattice as precursors of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) and substitutional point defects. The Turkish quartz specimen exhibits higher CL intensity in the UV region (up to 330 nm) than the Spanish specimens probably linked to the presence of Ca (0.95% in THQ and less than 0.1% in SHQ and SMQ). At wavelengths greater than 330 nm, SMQ (formed at high pressure 6000 bars and temperatures over 500-600 Degree-Sign C) shows higher intensity than the hydrothermal (growth at 2000 bars and temperatures 200-300 Degree-Sign C) samples associated with the formation process. The natural blue TL glow curves of both THQ and SHQ display a weaker TL intensity than the SMQ, attributable to the Al (0.32%), Ti (0.14%), K (0.01%) and Zr (76 ppm) content. It is shown that mineralogical formation, crystallinity index and the content of the impurities seem to be the main parameters of influence in the shape intensity of the CL and TL glow curve emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reported on the TL and CL emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky and metamorphic quartz specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples displayed similar UV-IR CL spectra. Black

  20. Quantitative differentiation of dendritic cells in lung tissues of smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yan-wei; XU Yong-jian; LIU Xian-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to be an inflammatory immune response disease. In most cases, the disease is caused by cigarette smoke, but it has been demonstrated that only 10% to 20% of smokers will definitely suffer from COPD. Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be the promoter of immune responses.However, the underlying mechanisms involved are still unrevealed. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quantitative differentiation of pulmonary DC in smokers with or without COPD to explore the possible role of DCs in smokers suffering COPD.Methods Peripheral lung specimens from non-smokers without airflow obstruction (control group, n=7), smokers without airflow obstruction (smoker group, n=7) and patients with COPD (COPD group, n=7) were investigated to detect the quantity of S-100 and CD1a positive cells by immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent assay.Results In smokers with COPD, the number of S-100+ DCs was higher than in the controls and smokers without COPD (P 0.05). An inverse correlation was found between the number of DCs and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)% pred (r=-0.75, P <0.05), which was also found between the number of DCs and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.72, P <0.05). The mean number of CD1a+ DCs, increased from non-smokers to non-COPD smokers to COPD patients, with significant differences between each group (P <0.01).Conclusions The quantity of DCs significantly increased in smokers with COPD compared with non-smokers or smokers without COPD. The results suggest that DCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced COPD, and the upregulation of DCs may be a potential maker to identify the smokers who have more liability to suffer from COPD.

  1. Endothelin receptor-antagonists suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release from alveolar macrophages of non-smokers, smokers and COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kathrin; Köhler-Bachmann, Stefanie; Jungck, David; Körber, Sandra; Yanik, Sarah; Knoop, Heiko; Wehde, Deborah; Rheinländer, Sonja; Walther, Jörg W; Kronsbein, Juliane; Knobloch, Jürgen; Koch, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Smoking-induced COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, which becomes enhanced by bacterial infections resulting in accelerated disease progression called exacerbation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) release endothelin-1 (ET-1), IL-6, CCL-2 and MMP-9, all of which are linked to COPD pathogenesis and exacerbation. ET-1 signals via ETA- and ETB-receptors (ETAR, ETBR). This is blocked by endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), like bosentan, which targets both receptors, ETAR-selective ambrisentan and ETBR-specific BQ788. Therefore, ERAs could have anti-inflammatory potential, which might be useful in COPD and other inflammatory lung diseases. We hypothesized that ERAs suppress cytokine release from AM of smokers and COPD subjects induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the most important immunogen of gram-negative bacteria. AM were isolated from the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of n=29 subjects (11 non-smokers, 10 current smokers without COPD, 8 smokers with COPD), cultivated and stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of ERAs. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Endothelin receptor expression was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. AM expressed ETAR and ETBR mRNA, but only ETBR protein was detected. LPS and ET-1 both induced IL-6, CCL-2 and MMP-9. LPS-induced IL-6 release was increased in COPD versus non-smokers and smokers. Bosentan, ambrisentan and BQ788 all partially reduced all cytokines without differences between cohorts. Specific ETBR inhibition was most effective. LPS induced ET-1, which was exclusively blocked by BQ788. In conclusion, LPS induces ET-1 release in AM, which in turn leads to CCL-2, IL-6 and MMP-9 expression rendering AM sensitive for ERAs. ERAs could have anti-inflammatory potential in smoking-induced COPD. PMID:26526351

  2. Are marketing campaigns in Taiwan by foreign tobacco companies targeting young smokers?

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, C; T. Chen; Tsai, Y; Tsai, S; Chung, W.; Cheng, T.; Levy, D; Hsu, C.; Peterson, R.; Liu, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of promotions on cigarette sales in Taiwan after the cigarette market opened to foreign companies, and to assess whether young smokers were targeted by these companies.

  3. Evaluating smokers' reactions to advertising for new lower nicotine quest cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph; Strasser, Andrew A; Pinto, Angela; Hornik, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Quest cigarettes are a relatively new (2003) product that has been marketed as a way for smokers to gradually reduce the nicotine they receive from cigarettes in order to, according to marketing materials, become nicotine free. However, despite lower levels of nicotine, Quest cigarettes do not have reduced tar levels and, thus, still pose health hazards. This study evaluated beliefs about Quest cigarettes following exposure to a single print advertisement among 200 regular smokers who had never heard of the brand itself. Descriptively, smokers made several specific false inferences about Quest cigarettes after exposure (i.e., lower in tar, healthier, less likely to cause cancer). Two individual-differences variables, need for cognition and perceived vulnerability, moderated smokers' health beliefs about Quest cigarettes. PMID:16536669

  4. Do different styles of antismoking ads influence the types of smokers who call quitlines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; MacMonegle, Anna J

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between television antismoking advertisements and the proportion of smokers who call a smokers' quitline who are ready to quit or have high confidence in quitting. The primary data of interest came from completed intake interviews of smokers. Using a generalized linear model, we modeled the proportion of Quitline callers who are ready to quit and/or have high confidence in quitting. The primary explanatory variable was monthly target audience rating points (TARPs) for antismoking advertisements, a measure of broadcast media exposure, obtained from the state's media buyer. The proportions of callers ready to quit and with high confidence in quitting were negatively associated with total TARPs. This result, over all ad types, was driven by why to quit-graphic ads. These results suggest that why to quit-graphic ads influence smokers who are less ready to quit or have lower confidence they can quit, likely new quitters, to call the Quitline. PMID:22843327

  5. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  6. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  7. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  8. The hydrothermal power of oceanic lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Grose

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have estimated the power of ventilated hydrothermal heat transport, and its spatial distribution, using a set of recently developed plate models which highlight the effects of hydrothermal circulation and thermal insulation by oceanic crust. Testing lithospheric cooling models with these two effects, we estimate that global advective heat transport is about 6.6 TW, significantly lower than previous estimates, and that the fraction of that extracted by vigorous circulation on the ridge axes (<1 Ma is about 50% of the total, significantly higher than previous estimates. This low hydrothermal power estimate originates from the thermally insulating properties of oceanic crust in relation to the mantle. Since the crust is relatively insulating, the effective properties of the lithosphere are "crust dominated" near ridge axes (yielding lower heat flow, and gradually approach mantle values over time. Thus, cooling models with crustal insulation predict low heat flow over young seafloor, implying that the difference of modeled and measured heat flow is due to the heat transport properties of the lithosphere, in addition to ventilated hydrothermal circulation as generally accepted. These estimates may bear on important problems in the physics and chemistry of the Earth because the magnitude of hydrothermal power affects chemical exchanges between the oceans and the lithosphere, thereby affecting both thermal and chemical budgets in the oceanic crust and lithosphere, the subduction factory, and convective mantle.

  9. Selective solid-phase extraction of uranium by salicylideneimine-functionalized hydrothermal carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hang; Ma, Lijian; Cao, Kecheng; Geng, Junxia; Liu, Jun; Song, Qiang; Yang, Xiaodan [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Shoujian, E-mail: sjli000616@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbon material as solid-phase extractant matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An excellent hexavalent cation ligand, salicylideneimine, is grafted on the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorbent shows high affinity and selectivity to U(VI) in simulated nuclear effluent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process is fast, endothermic, spontaneous, and pseudo-second-order chemisorption. - Abstract: A new salicylideneimine-functionalized hydrothermal-carbon-based solid-phase extractant was developed for the purpose of separating uranium selectively for sustainability of uranium resources. The resulting adsorption material was obtained via hydrothermal carbonization, calcination at mild temperature (573.15 K), amination, and grafting with salicylaldehyde in sequence. Both Fourier transform infrared spectra and elemental analysis proved the successful grafting of salicylideneimine onto hydrothermal carbon matrix. Adsorption behaviors of the extractant on uranium(VI) were investigated by varying pH values of solution, adsorbent amounts, contact times, initial metal concentrations, temperatures, and ionic strengths. An optimum adsorption capacity of 1.10 mmol g{sup -1} (261 mg g{sup -1}) for uranium(VI) was obtained at pH 4.3. The present adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H = +8.81 kJ mol{sup -1}, {Delta}S = +110 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}G = -23.0 kJ mol{sup -1}) indicated the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Results from batch adsorption test in simulated nuclear industrial effluent, containing Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, La{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, and Gd{sup 3+}, showed the adsorbent could separate uranium(VI) from those competitive ions with high selectivity. The adsorbent might be promising for use in certain key steps in any future

  10. Study of the patterns of periodontal destruction in smokers with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Sukumaran

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for periodontitis and carries an increased risk for loss of periodontal attachment as well as for bone loss. Aims: The purpose of the study was to investigate the pattern of the intraoral distribution of periodontal destruction among cigarette smokers with periodontitis by assessing the periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: Thirty smokers with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in th...

  11. The implication of frontostriatal circuits in young smokers: A resting-state study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Guan, Yanyan; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances. Additionally, mediation analysis was carried out to test whether the frontostriatal RSFC mediates the relationship between striatum morphometry and cognitive control behaviors in young smokers when applicable. We revealed increased volume of right caudate and reduced RSFC between caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex in young smokers. Significant positive correlation between right caudate volume and QSU as well as negative correlation between anterior cingulate cortex-right caudate RSFC and FTND were detected in young smokers. More importantly, DLPFC-caudate RSFC strength mediated the relationship between caudate volume and incongruent errors during Stroop task in young smokers. Our results demonstrated that young smokers showed abnormal interactions within frontostriatal circuits, which were associated with smoking behaviors and cognitive control impairments. It is hoped that our study focusing on frontostriatal circuits could provide new insights into the neural correlates and potential novel therapeutic targets for treatment of young smokers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2013-2026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918784

  12. Elevated Blood Pressure and Serum γ -Glutamyltransferase as Significant Characteristics of Smokers With Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Noborisaka, Yuka; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamazaki, Michiko; Honda, Ryumon; Yamada, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is speculated that only a small subset of sensitive smokers develop CKD. Objectives: We aimed to reveal the characteristics of such smokers sensitive to the renal effects of smoking with respect to cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with smoking and/or CKD. Patients and Methods: Renal functions and CVD risk factors were assessed in middle-aged male workers. The patients were comprised of 336 nonsmokers...

  13. Characteristics of Cigarette Smokers Who Want to Quit Now versus Quit Later

    OpenAIRE

    Burris, Jessica L.; Wahlquist, Amy E; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated factors associated with adult smokers’ immediate readiness to quit. Eligible smokers were proactively recruited online and invited to participate in either a telephone-based study for those who intend to quit in the next 30 days (Quit Now) or a telephone-based study for those who intend to quit, but not in the next month (Quit Later). Thirty-five percent of smokers declined participation altogether. Of those who remained, 25% chose Quit Now participation. Baseline data we...

  14. To study the hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects of garlic in smokers in the North Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Jayballabh Kumar; Gaurav Kumar; Farhan Ahmad Khan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Garlic, latin name Allium Sativum, belongs to the onion family Alliaceae, have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases like atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Methods: This prospective study conducted on male smokers (n=40) in the department of physiology of Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre. Selected smokers were further evaluated before and after...

  15. What is behind smoker support for new smokefree areas? National survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some countries have started to extend indoor smokefree laws to cover cars and various outdoor settings. However, policy-modifiable factors around smoker support for these new laws are not well described. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project derives its sample from the NZ Health Survey (a national sample. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376. Results For the six settings considered, 59% of smokers supported at least three new completely smokefree areas. Only 2% favoured smoking being allowed in all the six new settings. Support among Maori, Pacific and Asian smokers relative to European smokers was elevated in multivariate analyses, but confidence intervals often included 1.0. Also in the multivariate analyses, "strong support" by smokers for new smokefree area laws was associated with greater knowledge of the second-hand smoke (SHS hazard, and with behaviours to reduce SHS exposure towards others. Strong support was also associated with reporting having smokefree cars (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.21 - 2.34; and support for tobacco control regulatory measures by government (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.32 - 2.01. There was also stronger support by smokers with a form of financial stress (not spending on household essentials. Conclusions Smokers from a range of population groups can show majority support for new outdoor and smokefree car laws. Some of these findings are consistent with the use of public health strategies to support new smokefree laws, such as enhancing public knowledge of the second-hand smoke hazard.

  16. PULMONARY LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS PRESENTING AS SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX IN A NON-SMOKER PATIENT

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vaziri; A. Pazooki L. Zahedi

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare idiopathic disorder that primarily affects young adult cigarette smokers. Affected patients often present with cough and dyspnea and about 20% of patients present with or later develop pneumothorax. It is striking that more than 90% of patients are smokers. We report a very unusual case of PLCH in a 20-year- old male patient with no smoking history in whom a life- threatening complication such as simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax was ...

  17. Perceptions of Addiction, Attempts to Quit, and Successful Quitting in Nondaily and Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Sterling, Kymberle; DeSisto, Carla; Pinsker, Erika A.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to qualitatively examine differences in perceptions of addiction, attempts to quit, and successful quitting among nondaily versus daily college student smokers. We conducted 16 focus groups with a total of 73 college student smokers from the southeastern U.S. Focus groups were homogenous in terms of gender, smoking status (nondaily, daily), and type of school (2-year college, 4-year university). Questions centered on perceptions of addiction, their own addiction, what constitutes a q...

  18. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  19. Haemoglobin adducts formed by aromatic amines in smokers: sources of inter-individual variability.

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, G.; Vineis, P; Bryant, M S; Skipper, P. L.; Tannenbaum, S R

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study we found that aromatic amines, particularly 4-aminobiphenyl, formed haemoglobin adducts at higher concentrations in the blood of smokers compared to non-smokers. We re-analyse here data on haemoglobin adducts of 14 aromatic amines in order to ascertain if the inter-individual variability left unexplained by tobacco smoking could be attributed to differences in individual metabolic patterns. For this purpose we computed residuals from analysis of variance in order to adjust...

  20. Population-based survey of cessation aids used by Swedish smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Rutqvist Lars E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most smokers who quit typically do so unassisted although pharmaceutical products are increasingly used by those who want a quitting aid. Previous Scandinavian surveys indicated that many smokers stopped smoking by switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco in the form of snus. However, usage of various cessation aids may have changed in Sweden during recent years due to factors such as the wider availability of pharmaceutical nicotine, the public debate about the heal...

  1. Decreased leukotriene B4 synthesis in smokers' alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Laviolette, M.; Coulombe, R; Picard, S.; Braquet, P; Borgeat, P

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that alveolar macrophages (AM) are able to release leukotrienes (LTs). Since cigarette smoking inhibits the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in the AM, we evaluated the LT production by AM from smokers and nonsmokers. AM were obtained from 35 volunteers, 16 nonsmokers, and 19 smokers. The cells were incubated under various conditions including stimulation with 30 microM arachidonic acid, 2 microM ionophore A23187, or both. Each experiment was per...

  2. Higher stimulus control is associated with less cigarette intake in daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Schüz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that environmental stimuli influence smoking in light, and to a lesser degree, heavy smokers. A 2-factor model of dependence suggests that the influence of stimulus control is masked among heavier smokers who primarily smoke for nicotine maintenance. The current study aimed to assess the influence of stimulus control across a range of moderate to heavy daily smokers. Furthermore, as local tobacco control policies may change the role of stimulus control, the study aimed to replicate previous U.S. findings on stimulus control in an Australian setting marked by strong tobacco control policies. In 2 Ecological Momentary Assessment studies, 420 participants monitored antecedents of smoking and nonsmoking situations. In a set of idiographic logistic regression analyses, situational antecedents were used to predict smoking occasions within each individual's data. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the association between stimulus control and smoking rate, and to test for differences between the 2 samples. Daily smokers' smoking was under considerable stimulus control, which was weaker at higher smoking rates. Overall, there was greater stimulus control in the Australian sample. Daily smokers also experience a degree of stimulus control, which is less influential in heavier smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766542

  3. [Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and lipid parameters in Tunisian smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Ezzaher, Asma; Araoud, Manel; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at examine the effect of cigarettes smoking on paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and lipid profile. Our study included 102 smokers aged 35.5 +/- 16.0 years and 98 non-smokers aged 38.5 +/- 21.9 years. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), HDL cholesterol (CHDL) and LDL-cholesterol (cLDL) were determined by enzymatic colorimetric methods. ApoA1 and ApoB and Lp(a) were analyzed by immunoturbidimetry on Konélab 30, PON1 activity was measured by a kinetic method. Plasma CT, TG, cLDL, Lp(a) and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio appeared significantly higher in the smokers when compared to nonsmokers, since cHDL levels were lower. In addition, TG values were significantly higher in subjects smoking more than 30 cigarettes/day as compared to those smoking 5-10 cigarettes/day. We noted a significant decrease of PON1 activity in smokers compared to non smokers (94 +/- 104 vs 158 +/- 133 IU/L), with regression of PON1 activity according number of cigarettes/day. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of cHDL, high levels of ApoB/ApoA1 and significant decrease of PON1 activity confirm the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. PMID:20348046

  4. White matter integrity in young smokers: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Baohua; Liu, Jixin; Dong, Minghao; Jin, Chenwang; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Ying; Gu, Yu; Xue, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies revealed contradictory effects of smoking on fractional anisotropy (FA). Multiple DTI-derived indices may help to deduce the pathophysiological type of white matter (WM) changes and provide more specific biomarkers of WM neuropathology in the whole brain of young smokers. Twenty-three young smokers and 22 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy non-smoking controls participated in this study. Tract-based spatial statistics was employed to investigate the WM microstructure in young smokers by integrating multiple indices, including FA, mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). Compared with healthy non-smoking controls, young smokers showed significantly increased FA with increased AD and decreased RD in several brain regions, while no difference in MD was observed. Specifically, the overlapped WM regions with increased FA, increased AD and decreased RD were found in the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, the right external capsule and the right superior corona radiata. Additionally, average FA and RD values in the WM regions mentioned earlier were significantly correlated with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, while no correlation in AD was found. The WM tracts with increased FA may be more associated with RD, rather than AD in young smokers. We suggested that WM properties of several fibres in young smokers may be the biomarker as the cumulative effect and severity of nicotine dependence. PMID:25752453

  5. Emphysematous changes and normal variation in smokers and COPD patients using diffusion 3He MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: This study aims to quantify global and regional changes of diffusive motion of 3He gas within the lung, as determined by hyperpolarized 3He MR apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement, in non-smokers, smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods: Age-matched groups of six healthy non-smokers, five healthy smokers and five patients with COPD. The experiments were performed with approval from the local Research Ethics Committee. Diffusion imaging was performed following hyperpolarized 3He gas inhalation, producing ADC maps. Mean and standard deviation of the ADCs were used to compare the subject groups and assess regional variations within individuals. Results: The intra-individual standard deviation of ADC in the healthy smokers was significantly larger than that of the non-smoking group (P < 0.02). Compared to the non-smoking group, COPD patients had significantly higher mean and standard deviation of ADC (P < 0.01). The mean ADC in the anterior half of the chest was systematically higher than in the posterior half in the healthy non-smoking subject group. Discussion: This study suggests that there are regional trends in the ADC values of healthy volunteers that may have implications for the clinical interpretation of ADC values. Less homogeneous ADC values have been detected in asymptomatic smokers, indicative of damage to the distal air spaces

  6. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  7. LUNG DIFFUSION CAPACITY CAN PREDICT MAXIMAL EXERCISE IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY HEAVY SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Chetta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to tobacco smoking may damage lung and heart function. The aim of this study was to assess maximal exercise capacity and its relationship with lung function in apparently healthy smokers. We recruited 15 heavy smokers (age 47 years ± 7, BMI 25 kg/m2 ± 3, pack/years 32 ± 9 without any cardiovascular or pulmonary signs and symptoms. Fifteen healthy non smoking subjects were enrolled as a control group. All subjects underwent pulmonary function tests, electrocardiograms at rest and graded cycle exercise tests. In smokers and controls, resting lung and cardiac function parameters were in the normal range, apart from diffusing lung capacity (TLCO values which were significantly lower in smokers (p < 0.05. As compared to controls, smokers presented lower maximal exercise capacity with lower values at peak of exercise of oxygen uptake (peak VO2, workload, oxygen uptake/watt ratio and oxygen pulse (p < 0.05 and higher dyspnoea perception (p < 0.05. Moreover, peak VO2, maximal workload and oxygen pulse at peak exercise were related to and predicted by TLCO (p < 0. 05. Our study confirms that maximal exercise capacity is reduced in apparently healthy heavy smokers, and shows that TLCO explains some of the variance in maximal exercise

  8. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Man, George; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  9. Hyper-resting brain entropy within chronic smokers and its moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Fang, Zhuo; Hager, Nathan; Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, and remains a premier cause of morbidity and mortality. Functional neuroimaging has been used to assess differences in the mean strength of brain activity in smokers' brains, however less is known about the temporal dynamics within smokers' brains. Temporal dynamics is a key feature of a dynamic system such as the brain, and may carry information critical to understanding the brain mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking. We measured the temporal dynamics of brain activity using brain entropy (BEN) mapping and compared BEN between chronic non-deprived smokers and non-smoking controls. Because of the known sex differences in neural and behavioral smoking characteristics, comparisons were also made between males and females. Associations between BEN and smoking related clinical measures were assessed in smokers. Our data showed globally higher BEN in chronic smokers compared to controls. The escalated BEN was associated with more years of smoking in the right limbic area and frontal region. Female nonsmokers showed higher BEN than male nonsmokers in prefrontal cortex, insula, and precuneus, but the BEN sex difference in smokers was less pronounced. These findings suggest that BEN mapping may provide a useful tool for probing brain mechanisms related to smoking. PMID:27377552

  10. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  11. Changes of Protein Kinase Cα and Cyclin D1 Expressions in Pulmonary Arteries from Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向敏; 刘先胜; 曾大雄; 王苒; 徐永健

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of protein kinase Cα(PKCα) and cyclin D1 expressions in pulmonary arteries from smokers with normal lung function and smokers with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).The peripheral lung tissues were obtained from 10 non-smokers with normal lung function(non-smoker group),14 smokers with normal lung function(smoker group),11 smokers with mild to moderate COPD(COPD group).The morphological changes of pulmonary arteries were obs...

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of size-controllable Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO{sub 4}) nanoparticles and its application in photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R.M., E-mail: redama123@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Harraz, F.A. [Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Mkhalid, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of YVO{sub 4} nanopowders prepared at different hydrothermal times; where Y{sub 1} = 4 h, Y{sub 2} = 8 h, Y{sub 3} = 12 h and Y{sub 4} = 24 h. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size control of Yttrium Orthovanadate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of direct blue dye. - Abstract: Sized-controlled YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method by changing hydrothermal time from 4 to 24 h. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) measurements. The results showed that the size of as-synthesized YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles was in the range of 11-40 nm and was extremely dependent on the hydrothermal time. Photocatalytic measurement showed that the YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles with particle size of about 11 nm (prepared by 4 h hydrothermal time) possess superior photocatalytic properties in the decolorization of direct blue dye. Due to simple preparation, high photocatalytic oxidation of direct blue dye and low cost, the YVO{sub 4} photocatalyst is a potential candidate for pollutants removal and will find wide application in the coming future in photocatalytic oxidation processes. The overall kinetics of photodegradation of direct blue dye using YVO{sub 4} nanopowders photocatalyst was found to be of first order. The photocatalyst could be easily removed from the reaction mixture and its recyclability with no loss of activity was possible for six times. The catalytic performance was found to decrease by 5% after run number six.

  13. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-09-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, with 30 wt.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture.

  14. The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

  15. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  16. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO2 and H2O, with 30 wt.% H2O2 as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture

  17. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  18. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X; Yi, Zan X; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers' response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers' impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  19. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.)

  20. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschakelen, J.A.; Scheinbaum, K.; Bogaert, J.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demedts, M.; Lacquet, L.L. [Department of Pneumology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 59 refs.

  1. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Vanadium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Livage

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of vanadium oxides have been obtained via the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous V(V solutions. They exhibit a large variety of nanostructures ranging from molecular clusters to 1D and 2D layered compounds. Nanotubes are obtained via a self-rolling process while amazing morphologies such as nano-spheres, nano-flowers and even nano-urchins are formed via the self-assembling of nano-particles. This paper provides some correlation between the molecular structure of precursors in the solution and the nanostructure of the solid phases obtained by hydrothermal treatment.

  3. Quantitative assessment of pulmonary function using low dose multi-slice spiral CT in smoker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of low dose MSCT for quantitative assessment of pulmonary function in smokers. Methods: One hundred and forty-six patients with chronic objective pulmonary disease (COPD) including 109 smokers (74.6%) and 37 non-smokers (25.3%) underwent pulmonary function test and low-dose MSCT scan. All data were analyzed using computer-aided lung analysis software. Pulmonary function parameters from low-dose MSCT were compared between smokers and non-smokers and also compared with pulmonary function test in non-smokers (Pearson test). Results: In smokers, the average volume at full inspiratory phase (Vin) was (5125 ± 862 ) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-902 ± 26) HU, mean lung density was (0.0984 ± 0.0260 ) g/cm3, emphysema volume was (2890 ±1370) ml. The average volume at full expiratory phase (Vex) was (2756 ±1027) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-811 ±62) HU, mean lung density was (0.1878 ±0.0631) g/cm3, emphysema volume was (685 ±104) ml. In non-smokers, the average Vin was (3734 ± 759) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-876 ±40) HU,mean lung density was (0.1244 ±0.0401)g/cm3, emphysema volume was ( 1503 ± 1217) ml. The average Vex was (1770 ± 679) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-765 ± 56) HU, mean lung density was (0.2360 ± 0.0563) g/cm3, emphysema volume was (156 ± 45) ml. There were significant differences between smokers and non-smokers (P<0.01). The Vex/Vin was correlated with residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC, r=0.60, P<0.01), and Vin was correlated with TLC (r=0.58, P<0.01), Vex with RV (r=0.59, P<0.01). Pixel index (PI) -950 in was correlated with FEV 1% pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.53, -0.62, respective, P<0.01), Pl-950ex was correlated with FEV1 % pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.71, -0.77, respective, P<0.01). Conclusion: Low-dose MSCT can be a potential imaging tool for quantitative pulmonary function assessment in smokes. (authors)

  4. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  5. The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadoll, Patrick; Angerer, Thomas; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; French, David; Walshe, John

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a well-recognized petrogenetic indicator and is a common accessory mineral in many ore deposits and their host rocks. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of hydrothermal magnetite for provenance studies and as a pathfinder for mineral exploration. A number of studies have investigated how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of the respective magnetite. Two fundamental questions underlie these efforts — (i) How can the composition of igneous and, more importantly, hydrothermal magnetite be used to discriminate mineralized areas from barren host rocks, and (ii) how can this assist exploration geologists to target ore deposits at greater and greater distances from the main mineralization? Similar to igneous magnetite, the most important factors that govern compositional variations in hydrothermal magnetite are (A) temperature, (B) fluid composition — element availability, (C) oxygen and sulfur fugacity, (D) silicate and sulfide activity, (E) host rock buffering, (F) re-equilibration processes, and (G) intrinsic crystallographic controls such as ionic radius and charge balance. We discuss how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of magnetite and review studies that investigate the chemistry of hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from various mineral deposits and their host rocks. Furthermore, we discuss the redox-related alteration of magnetite (martitization and mushketovitization) and mineral inclusions in magnetite and their effect on chemical analyses. Our database includes published and previously unpublished magnetite minor and trace element data for magnetite from (1) banded iron formations (BIF) and related high-grade iron ore deposits in Western Australia, India, and Brazil, (2) Ag–Pb–Zn veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, United States, (3) porphyry Cu–(Au)–(Mo) deposits and associated (4) calcic and magnesian skarn deposits in the southwestern United

  6. “You're made to feel like a dirty filthy smoker when you're not, cigar smoking is another thing all together.” Responses of Australian cigar and cigarillo smokers to plain packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Caroline L; Ettridge, Kerry A; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences of cigar and cigarillo smokers under Australian laws requiring plain packaging (PP) and strengthened graphic health warnings (GHWs). Methods In February/March 2014, we conducted: in-depth interviews with 10 regular premium cigar smokers; two focus groups with occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers (n=14); four focus groups with non-premium cigarillo smokers (n=28); and a national online survey of cigar and/or cigarillo smokers (n=268). Results Premium cigar smokers had limited exposure to PP, with many purchasing fully branded cigars in boxes duty free or online and singles in non-compliant packaging. Those who were exposed noticed and were concerned by the warnings, tried to avoid them and felt more like ‘dirty smokers’. Changes in perceived taste, harm and value were minimal for experienced premium cigar smokers. Occasional premium cigar and premium cigarillo smokers with higher PP exposure (gained by purchasing boxes rather than singles) perceived cigar/package appeal and value had declined and noticed the GHWs. Non-premium cigarillo smokers reported high PP exposure, reduced perceived appeal, quality, taste, enjoyment and value, somewhat increased perceived harm, greater noticeability of GHWs and concealment of packs and more contemplation of quitting. Online survey participants reported increased noticeability of GHWs (33%), decreased appeal of packaging (53%) and reduced consumption of cigars (42%) and cigarillos (44%) since PP implementation. Conclusions Non-premium cigarillo smokers appear to have been most exposed and influenced by PP, with cigar smokers less so, especially regular premium cigar smokers who have maintained access to fully branded products.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films with a wedgelike structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lina [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Yang, Haibin, E-mail: yanghb@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Fu, Wuyou; Li, Minghui; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Jinwen [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wedgelike In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films are synthesized on FTO substrate via a hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Facile control the morphology and thickness of the films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tartaric acid play key role in the formation of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wedgelike In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films exhibit higher photocurrent than previous reports. - Abstract: Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films with a wedgelike structure were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a facile hydrothermal method. By properly monitoring the experimental conditions, including the reaction time, concentrations of tartaric acid, precursor concentration ratio and the reaction temperature, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films with different morphologies and thickness could be obtained, and the growth mechanism of {beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films was also proposed in this work. Furthermore, UV-vis absorption study revealed that the absorption range broadened with the growth of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} crystals. In addition, a photocurrent of 0.48 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained under 100 mW cm{sup -2} UV-visible illuminations of the wedgelike In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  8. Comparative evaluation of clinical, hematological and systemic inflammatory markers in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Kanakdande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Systemic conditions, especially chronic infections, have a direct impact on the general health and well-being of an individual. Similarly, the long-standing inflammatory changes seen during periodontitis have been associated with the altered diabetic control, preterm, low birth weight infants, and cardiovascular disease. Being a low-grade infection, the signs may not be as severe as seen in other systemic conditions, but they definitely cannot be ignored. Aims: The present study was designed to compare clinical, hematological, and systemic inflammatory markers in patients with chronic periodontitis. Subjects and Methods: A total of 90 chronic periodontitis patients were selected for the present study from the outpatient department of the Department of Periodontology, and the various clinical and hematological parameters were then assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Z-test was used to compare the probing depth, clinical attachment loss, hematological parameter, and interleukin-6 values between Group A and Group B. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare gingival index, plaque index, and bleeding on probing between Group A and Group B. Results: The results of the study were based on the comparison of the clinical, hematological, and systemic inflammatory markers in smokers and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis and came out to be statistically highly significant. Conclusions: With the resurgence of emphasis on significance of oral diseases related to systemic health, the medical professionals also need to familiarize themselves with the oral cavity and the oral-systemic inter-relationships to treat or reduce the morbidity of the underlying medical condition. Furthermore, the oral health care professionals must reach out to the medical community and the general public to improve patient care through education and communication about the oral health-systemic health link.

  9. A brief measure of Smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lisa M; Richards, Vincent F; Leal, Viola B; Housten, Ashley J; Bevers, Therese B; Cantor, Scott B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Escoto, Kamisha H; Godoy, Myrna C B; Linder, Suzanne K; Munden, Reginald F; Volk, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    We describe the development and psychometric properties of a new, brief measure of smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Content experts identified key facts smokers should know in making an informed decision about lung cancer screening. Sample questions were drafted and iteratively refined based on feedback from content experts and cognitive testing with ten smokers. The resulting 16-item knowledge measure was completed by 108 heavy smokers in Houston, Texas, recruited from 12/2014 to 09/2015. Item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Group differences based upon education levels and smoking history were explored. Several items were dropped due to ceiling effects or overlapping constructs, resulting in a 12-item knowledge measure. Additional items with high item uncertainty were retained because of their importance in informed decision making about lung cancer screening. Internal consistency reliability of the final scale was acceptable (KR-20 = 0.66) and test-retest reliability of the overall scale was 0.84 (intraclass correlation). Knowledge scores differed across education levels (F = 3.36, p = 0.04), while no differences were observed between current and former smokers (F = 1.43, p = 0.24) or among participants who met or did not meet the 30-pack-year screening eligibility criterion (F = 0.57, p = 0.45). The new measure provides a brief, valid and reliable indicator of smokers' knowledge of key concepts central to making an informed decision about lung cancer screening with LDCT, and can be part of a broader assessment of the quality of smokers' decision making about lung cancer screening. PMID:27512650

  10. Intra-regional and inter-regional abnormalities and cognitive control deficits in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Yuan, Kai; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use during later adolescence and young adulthood may cause serious neurophysiological changes; rationally, it is extremely important to study the relationship between brain dysfunction and behavioral performances in young adult smokers. Previous resting state studies investigated the neural mechanisms in smokers. Unfortunately, few studies focused on spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers from both intra-regional and inter-regional levels, less is known about the association between resting state abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Therefore, we used fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate the resting state spontaneous activity differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A correlation analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between neuroimaging findings and clinical information (pack-years, cigarette dependence, age of onset and craving score) as well as cognitive control deficits measured by the Stroop task. Consistent with previous addiction findings, our results revealed the resting state abnormalities within frontostriatal circuits, i.e., enhanced spontaneous activity of the caudate and reduced functional strength between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in young adult smokers. Moreover, the fALFF values of the caudate were correlated with craving and RSFC strength between the caudate and ACC was associated with the cognitive control impairments in young adult smokers. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in young smokers by providing regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties as well as their association with cognitive control impairments. PMID:26164168

  11. HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H;

    2014-01-01

    without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random.......09]). There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I (2) always above 50%; I (2) was little changed after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI. In this study population, current smokers had a prevalence of diabetes that was 1.30% higher as screened by HbA1c and 0.52% lower...... as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes....

  12. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trajano, Heather L.; Engle, Nancy L.; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. de...

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass ...

  14. Hydrothermal systems and the emergence of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews current thought about life originating in hyperthermophilic microorganisms. Hyperthermophiles obtain food from chemosynthesis of sulfur and have an RNA nucleotide sequence different from bacteria and eucarya. It is postulated that a hyperthermophile may be the common ancestor of all life. Current research efforts focus on the synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems.

  15. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  16. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  17. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  18. The Biogeochemistry of Sulfur in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Mitchell; Rogers, K. L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. Understanding how sulfur became prevalent in biochemical processes and many biomolecules requires knowledge of the reaction properties of sulfur-bearing compounds. We have previously estimated thermodynamic data for thiols, the simplest organic sulfur compounds, at elevated temperatures and pressures. If life began in hydrothermal environments, it is especially important to understand reactions at elevated temperatures among sulfur-bearing compounds and other organic molecules essential for the origin and persistence of life. Here we examine reactions that may have formed amino acids with thiols as reaction intermediates in hypothetical early Earth hydrothermal environments. (There are two amino acids, cysteine and methionine, that contain sulfur.) Our calculations suggest that significant amounts of some amino acids were produced in early Earth hydrothermal fluids, given reasonable concentrations H2, NH3, H2S and CO. For example, preliminary results indicate that glycine activities as high as 1 mmol can be reached in these systems at 100 C. Alanine formation from propanethiol is also a favorable reaction. On the other hand, the calculated equilibrium log activities of cysteine and serine from propanethiol are -21 and -19, respectively, at 100 C. These results

  19. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained. PMID:25758192

  20. Reciprocal associations between smoking cessation and depression in older smokers:Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab, Lion; Gilchrist, Gail; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Shankar, Aparna; West, Elizabeth; West, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a particular problem in older people and it is important to know how it affects and is affected by smoking cessation. Aims To identify reciprocal, longitudinal relationships between smoking cessation and depression among older smokers. Method Across four waves, covering six years (2002-2008), changes in smoking status and depression, measured using the 8-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were assessed among recent ex-smokers and smokers (n = 2375...

  1. Reciprocal associations between smoking cessation and depression in older smokers: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab, L; Gilchrist, G.; Hagger-Johnson, G.; Shankar, A; West, E; West, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Depression is a particular problem in older people and it is important to know how it affects and is affected by smoking cessation. Aims: To identify reciprocal, longitudinal relationships between smoking cessation and depression among older smokers. Methods: Across four waves, covering six years (2002–2008), changes in smoking status and depression, measured using the 8–item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were assessed among recent ex-smokers and smokers (N=2,...

  2. Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadfar, Behshid, E-mail: bbehdadfar@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, Ahmad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat [School of Pharmacy, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morales, Maria del Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Mozaffari, Morteza [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm{sup 2}/kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO3·2H2O and anatase TiO2 in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 °C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 and Bi12TiO20, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi1.43Ti2O6(OH)0.29(H2O)0.66 is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO3 and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO3·2H2O and TiO2 as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: ► NaBiO3 and TiO2 under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. ► Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. ► Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. ► A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated

  4. Voltammetric Investigation Of Hydrothermal Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eKleint

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vent fluids are highly enriched in iron (Fe compared to ambient seawater, and organic ligands may play a role in facilitating the transport of some hydrothermal Fe into the open ocean. This is important since Fe is a limiting micronutrient for primary production in large parts of the world`s surface ocean. We have investigated the concentration and speciation of Fe in several vent fluid and plume samples from the Nifonea vent field, Coriolis Troughs, New Hebrides Island Arc, South Pacific Ocean using competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE - AdCSV with salicylaldoxime (SA as the artificial ligand. Our results for total dissolved Fe (dFe in the buoyant hydrothermal plume samples showed concentrations up to 3.86 µM dFe with only a small fraction between 1.1% and 11.8% being chemically labile. Iron binding ligand concentrations ([L] were found in µM level with strong conditional stability constants up to log K[L],Fe3+ of 22.9. Within the non-buoyant hydrothermal plume above the Nifonea vent field, up to 84.7% of the available Fe is chemically labile and [L] concentrations up to 97 nM were measured. [L] was consistently in excess of Felab, indicating that all available Fe is being complexed, which in combination with high Felab values in the non-buoyant plume, signifies that a high fraction of hydrothermal dFe is potentially being transported away from the plume into the surrounding waters, contributing to the global oceanic Fe budget.

  5. Graphene oxide assisted hydrothermal carbonization of carbon hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Deepti; Raidongia, Kalyan; Shao, Jiaojing; Huang, Jiaxing

    2014-01-28

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass such as glucose and cellulose typically produces micrometer-sized carbon spheres that are insulating. Adding a very small amount of Graphene oxide (GO) to glucose (e.g., 1:800 weight ratio) can significantly alter the morphology of its HTC product, resulting in more conductive carbon materials with higher degree of carbonization. At low mass loading level of GO, HTC treatment results in dispersed carbon platelets of tens of nanometers in thickness, while at high mass loading levels, free-standing carbon monoliths are obtained. Control experiments with other carbon materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, carbon black, and reduced GO show that only GO has significant effect in promoting HTC conversion, likely due to its good water processability, amphiphilicity, and two-dimensional structure that may help to template the initially carbonized materials. GO offers an additional advantage in that its graphene product can act as an in situ heating element to enable further carbonization of the HTC products very rapidly upon microwave irradiation. Similar effect of GO is also observed for the HTC treatment of cellulose. PMID:24298909

  6. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively, v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively, and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only

  7. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18-55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20-45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  8. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G; St Claire, Ann W

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers' decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers' efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation. PMID:27322301

  9. Detection of 210Pb in the lungs of smokers by in-vivo gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since mainstream smoke is highly enriched in 210Pb, alpha radiation from inhaled cigarette smoke particles has been proposed as a cancer-producing agent in cigarette smokers. 210Po and 210Pb have been observed in tobacco, cigarette smoke and in the lungs of smokers. Since 210Pb is highly enriched in mainstream smoke, there have been estimates of yearly excesses of 210Pb in the lungs of one-pack-a-day smokers of 3 to 10 pCi (0.11 to 0.37 Bq). The ORNL Whole Body Counter was used to verify this estimate by the methodology of high-resolution, in vivo gamma spectrometry. Measurements were made on 113 adult male non-radiation workers who have either smoked at least one pack of cigarettes per day for at least five years, or have never smoked cigarettes. An analysis-of-variance table was generated based on the Pb-ratio for each individual which revealed that there was no statistically significant increase in the amount of 210Pb in the lungs of smokers over those of non-smokers. Sources of error are also discussed

  10. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  11. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18–55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20–45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  12. Mu Opioid Receptor Binding Correlates with Nicotine Dependence and Reward in Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Kuwabara

    Full Text Available The rewarding effects of nicotine are associated with activation of nicotine receptors. However, there is increasing evidence that the endogenous opioid system is involved in nicotine's rewarding effects. We employed PET imaging with [11C]carfentanil to test the hypotheses that acute cigarette smoking increases release of endogenous opioids in the human brain and that smokers have an upregulation of mu opioid receptors (MORs when compared to nonsmokers. We found no significant changes in binding potential (BPND of [11C]carfentanil between the placebo and the active cigarette sessions, nor did we observe differences in MOR binding between smokers and nonsmokers. Interestingly, we showed that in smokers MOR availability in bilateral superior temporal cortices during the placebo condition was negatively correlated with scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Also in smokers, smoking-induced decreases in [11C]carfentanil binding in frontal cortical regions were associated with self-reports of cigarette liking and wanting. Although we did not show differences between smokers and nonsmokers, the negative correlation with FTND corroborates the role of MORs in superior temporal cortices in nicotine addiction and provides preliminary evidence of a role of endogenous opioid signaling in frontal cortex in nicotine reward.

  13. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  14. Investigation into extremely acidic hydrothermal fluids off Kueishan Tao, Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chentung A; WANG Bingjye; HUANG Jungfu; LOU Jiannyuh; KUO Fuwen; TU Yuehyuan; TSAI Hsienshiow

    2005-01-01

    Kueishan Tao (24°51'N, 121 °55′E) is located at a tectonic junction of the fault system extension of Taiwan and the southern rifting end of the Okinawa Trough. A cluster of over 30 vents, at a water depth of about 10~20 m off the eastern tip of the tao emits hydrothermal fluids and volcanic gases such as H2S. A sulfur chimney or mound, formed by condensation of the sulfur contained in the hydrothermal fluid, can usually be seen around the vents. The tallest chimney reaches 6 m. Vents discharging a yellowish fluid have temperatures between 92 and 116 ℃ and flow rates as high as 158 t/h; vents discharging a whitish fluid have lower temperatures of between 48 and 62 ℃ and lower flow rates of about 7.0 t/h. These world-record, breaking low pH (as low as 1.52) fluids are totally different from those found in the black and white-chimneys of the mid-ocean ridges. Magnesium and SiO2 data indicate that these hydrothermal fluids probably originate from a depth of 915~1 350 m below the surface.While the ratios of major ions relative to the sodium of these hydrothermal fluids are quite similar to open ocean water, the ratios of SO4 and chloride to sodium seem to be higher for some of the vents. It is suggested that the volcanic gases contribute SO4 and ohlorine to the fluids, hence increasing their ratios relative to sodium. Some hydrothermal fluids, however, are found to be depleted of the major elements which can have been caused by phase separation. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the fluids are much lower than those found in the mid-ocean ridges, while the aluminium content is higher. Four species of benthos (Xenograpsus testudinatus, a snail, a sea anemone, and a Sipuncala), 1 species of algae (Corallinaceae), and 1 species of fish (Siganus fusescens) were recorded near the hydrothermal vents. A mitoehondria DNA sequence comparison of Xenograpsus testudinatus with 6 other decapod species shows the greatest number of nitrogen base differences in the

  15. Promoter methylation of RASSF1A and DAPK and mutations of K-ras, p53, and EGFR in lung tumors from smokers and never-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies indicate that some characteristics of lung cancer among never-smokers significantly differ from those of smokers. Aberrant promoter methylation and mutations in some oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are frequent in lung tumors from smokers but rare in those from never-smokers. In this study, we analyzed promoter methylation in the ras-association domain isoform A (RASSF1A) and the death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) genes in lung tumors from patients with primarily non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the Western Pennsylvania region. We compare the results with the smoking status of the patients and the mutation status of the K-ras, p53, and EGFR genes determined previously on these same lung tumors. Promoter methylation of the RASSF1A and DAPK genes was analyzed by using a modified two-stage methylation-specific PCR. Data on mutations of K-ras, p53, and EGFR were obtained from our previous studies. The RASSF1A gene promoter methylation was found in tumors from 46.7% (57/122) of the patients and was not significantly different between smokers and never-smokers, but was associated significantly in multiple variable analysis with tumor histology (p = 0.031) and marginally with tumor stage (p = 0.063). The DAPK gene promoter methylation frequency in these tumors was 32.8% (40/122) and did not differ according to the patients' smoking status, tumor histology, or tumor stage. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, tumor histology and stage showed that the frequency of promoter methylation of the RASSF1A or DAPK genes did not correlate with the frequency of mutations of the K-ras, p53, and EGFR gene. Our results showed that RASSF1A and DAPK genes' promoter methylation occurred frequently in lung tumors, although the prevalence of this alteration in these genes was not associated with the smoking status of the patients or the occurrence of mutations in the K-ras, p53 and EGFR genes, suggesting each of

  16. Cerebral monoamine oxidase A inhibition in tobacco smokers confirmed with PET and [11C]Befloxatone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibition of cerebral monoamine oxidases (MAOs) by cigarette smoke components could participate to the tobacco addiction. However, the actual extent of this inhibition in vivo in smokers is still poorly known. We investigated cerebral MAO-A availability in 7 tobacco-dependent subjects and 6 healthy nonsmokers, using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MAO-A selective radioligand [11C]befloxatone. In comparison to nonsmokers, smokers showed a significant overall reduction of [11C]befloxatone binding potential (BP) in cortical areas (average reduction, -60%) and a similar trend in caudate and thalamus (-40%). Our findings confirm a widespread inhibition of cerebral MAO-A in smokers. This mechanism may contribute to tobacco addiction and for a possible mood-modulating effect of tobacco. (authors)

  17. The Effects of Inhaled Budesonide on Lung Function in Smokers and Nonsmokers With Mild Persistent Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Lamm, Carl Johan; Busse, William W;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested reduced benefit from inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in smoking asthmatics. The objective of this post-hoc study was to study the effects of low dose inhaled budesonide on lung function in smokers and nonsmokers with mild persistent asthma. METHODS: Adult...... difference being -83.1 mL (p < 0.001). Budesonide treatment was associated with a statistically significant 3-year increase in post-bronchodilator FEV(1) in both groups. The effect of budesonide vs placebo was + 71.5 mL (p = 0.011) in smokers and + 46.5 mL (p = 0.001) in nonsmokers. The corresponding effect...... are similar in smokers and nonsmokers with mild persistent asthma....

  18. Gold standard program for heavy smokers in a real-life setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit L; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-intensity smoking cessation programs generally lead to more continuous abstinence, however, lower rates of success have been reported among heavy smokers. The aim was to evaluate continuous abstinence among heavy smokers during the intensive 6-week Gold Standard Program (GSP) and...... to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Methods: In this nationwide clinical study based on 36,550 smokers attending an intensive cessation program in Denmark. Heavy smoking was defined as ≥7 points in the Fagerström Nicotine Dependency Test, smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily...... population. Attending GSP with an individual format (vs. group/other, OR 1.23-1.44); in a hospital setting (vs. pharmacy/municipality services, OR 1.05-1.11); and being compliant (attending the planned meetings OR 4.36-4.89) were associated with abstinence. Abstinence decreased in a dose-dependent manner...

  19. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  20. Evidence for Hydrothermal Vents as "Biogeobatteries" (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Girguis, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are unique systems that play an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycles. As chemically reduced hydrothermal fluid mixes with cold oxic seawater, minerals precipitate out of solution resulting in chimney structures composed largely of metal sulfides and anhydrite. Pyrite, which is a natural semi-conductor, is the primary sulfide mineral, but other minerals within chimneys are also conductive (e.g. chalcopyrite, wurtzite, and some iron oxides). Sulfide chimneys are also known to host an extensive endolithic microbial community. Accordingly, submarine hydrothermal systems appear to be examples of biogeobatteries, wherein conductive mineral assemblages span naturally occuring redox gradients and enable anaerobic microbes to access oxygen as an oxidant via extracellular electron transfer (or EET). To test this hypothesis, we ran a series of electrochemical laboratory experiments in which pyrite was used as an anode (in a vessel flushed with hydrothermal-like fluid). When placed in continuity with a carbon fiber cathode, pyrite was found to accept and conduct electrons from both abiotic and biological processes (microbial EET). Specifically, electrical current increased 4-fold (5 nA/m2 to 20 nA/m2) in response to inoculation with a slurry prepared from a hydrothermal vent sample. Inspection of the pyrite anode with SEM revealed ubiquitous coverage by microbes. DNA was extracted from the anodes and the inoculum, and was subjected to pyrosequencing to examine prokaryotic diversity. These data suggest that key microbial phylotypes were enriched upon the pyrite, implicating them in EET. In addition, we deployed an in situ experiment based on microbial fuel cell architecture with a graphite anode inserted into a vent wall coupled to a carbon fiber cathode outside the vent. We observed current production over the course of one year, implying microbial EET in situ. Via pyrosequencing, we observed that the microbial community on the anode was

  1. Pyrite Recrystallization Experiments With Circulating Hydrothermal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, H.; Abe, A.; Tanaka, K.

    2007-12-01

    Pyrite is one of the most common sulfide minerals found in hydrothermal deposits and sea-floor sediments from hydrothermal fumaroles. Hydrothermal fluid flow plays an important role in crystallization of sulfide minerals. In this study, we tried to reproduce pyrite crystallization with one-way flowing hydrothermal fluid. We designed a circuit circulating hydrothermal fluid by thermal convection. A rectangular circuit (42.6 cm by 17.3 cm) of SUS316 pressure tubes with 5 mm in inner diameter was used as a reaction vessel. In the circuit, pyrite dissolves to acidic fluid in upstream region. Then, pyrite will crystallize again in downstream region as temperature decreases. The rectangular plane was held to be 20 degrees inclination to generate thermal convection. One of the long sides of the rectangular was heated by an electric furnace. Starting materials were put in a tube to be heated. Upper half, approximately 20 cm, of the tube was filled with quartz sand. Next quarter was filled with equivalent mass mixture of quartz sand and powdered pyrite crystals. The lowest quarter was filled with mixture of quartz sand, pyrite, anhydrite and sulfur, those mass are equivalent. The solution was a mixture of 0.5mol/l HCl and 3.0mol/l NaCl. Maximum temperature was controlled to approximately 350°C at the center of the heated tube. Experimental durations were up to 9 days. Fluid pressure increased to approximately 6 MPa as heating. After the experiments, the run products were fixed with resin in a sample tube, and vertical sections were observed by SEM. In the run products, pyrite dissolved at the lower part of the starting material. In the upper half of the sample tube, pyrite crystals precipitated on quartz surface. Crystallization density depends on temperature gradient of the fluid. Predominant morphology of the pyrite crystals consists (100) plains. Tiny framboidal aggregates and crystals with (210) plains also occur. In the run products of longer than 3 days run durations

  2. Elevated sputum BPIFB1 levels in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Ohlmeier, S; Nieminen, P; Toljamo, T; Tiitinen, S; Kanerva, T; Bingle, L; Araujo, B; Rönty, M; Höyhtyä, M; Bingle, C D; Mazur, W; Pulkkinen, V

    2015-07-01

    A previous study involving a proteomic screen of induced sputum from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrated elevated levels of bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold-containing protein B1 (BPIFB1). The aim of the present study was to further evaluate the association of sputum BPIFB1 levels with smoking and longitudinal changes in lung function in smokers with COPD. Sputum BPIFB1 was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The expression of BPIFB1 in COPD was investigated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using sputum and lung tissue samples. BPIFB1 levels were also assessed in induced sputum from nonsmokers (n = 31), smokers (n = 169), and patients with COPD (n = 52) via an ELISA-based method. The longitudinal changes in lung function during the 4-year follow-up period were compared with the baseline sputum BPIFB1 levels. In lung tissue samples, BPIFB1 was localized to regions of goblet cell metaplasia. Secreted and glycosylated BPIFB1 was significantly elevated in the sputum of patients with COPD compared with that of smokers and nonsmokers. Sputum BPIFB1 levels correlated with pack-years and lung function as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) at baseline and after the 4-year follow-up in all participants. The changes in lung function over 4 years were significantly associated with BPIFB1 levels in current smokers with COPD. In conclusion, higher sputum concentrations of BPIFB1 were associated with changes of lung function over time, especially in current smokers with COPD. BPIFB1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of smoking-related lung diseases. PMID:25979078

  3. The impact of tetrahydrobiopterin administration on endothelial function before and after smoking cessation in chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beth A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Dornelas, Ellen A; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality is reduced following smoking cessation but the reversibility of specific atherogenic risk factors such as endothelial dysfunction is less established. We assessed brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 57 chronic smokers and 15 healthy controls, alone and after oral tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) administration, to assess the extent to which reduced bioactivity of BH4, a cofactor for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme (eNOS), contributes to smoking-associated reductions in FMD. Thirty-four smokers then ceased cigarette and nicotine use for 1 week, after which FMD (±BH4 administration) was repeated. Brachial artery FMD was calculated as the peak dilatory response observed relative to baseline (%FMD). Endothelium-independent dilation was assessed by measuring the dilatory response to sublingual nitroglycerin (%NTG). Chronic smokers exhibited reduced %FMD relative to controls: (5.6±3.0% vs. 8.1±3.7%; PFMD in both groups (P=0.03) independent of smoking status (P=0.78) such that FMD was still lower in smokers relative to controls (6.6±3.3% vs. 9.8±3.2%; PFMD increased significantly (from 5.0±2.9 to 7.8±3.2%;PFMD (P=0.33). These findings suggest that the blunted FMD observed in chronic smokers, likely due at least in part to reduced BH4 bioactivity and eNOS uncoupling, can be restored with smoking cessation. Post-cessation BH4 administration does not further improve endothelial function in chronic smokers, unlike the effect observed in nonsmokers, indicating a longer-term impact of chronic smoking on vascular function that is not acutely reversible. PMID:26606877

  4. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  5. A Screening Study to Determine the Prevalence of Airway Disease in Heroin Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Burke, Nadia; Vlies, Ben; Wooding, Olivia; Davies, Lisa; Walker, Paul P

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 20 years smoking has become the most common method of heroin use and increasing numbers of heroin smokers are presenting to local medical services, before the age of 40 years, with severe airway disease. To determine COPD prevalence we recruited 129 subjects from two local community drug services, of whom 107 were heroin smokers. We collected demographic, medical and treatment data, smoking history (including cannabis and opiates) and details of symptoms including MRC dyspnoea. Subjects completed the COPD Assessment Tool and spirometry. Thirty heroin smokers were identified as having COPD resulting in a COPD prevalence of 28%. Mean age was 43 (4) years and FEV1 was 2.71 (0.98) L; 70 (23) %predicted. Breathlessness and wheeze were more common in subjects with COPD (p < 0.04 and p < 0.05) but symptoms were common in all heroin smokers. MRC score was higher (3 vs. 2.4; p < 0.04) in those with COPD and health status appeared poorer (CAT 20.4 vs. 15.8; p < 0.07). Only 4 (11%) had previously been diagnosed with COPD and only 16 (53%) received any inhaled medication. Asthma prevalence was also high at 33% and asthmatic subjects had similar symptoms and health status compared with the COPD subjects, and were also significantly undertreated. COPD and asthma are common in current and former heroin smokers. They are often present at a young age and are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Awareness of this issue should be highlighted within drug services and in particular to heroin smokers. Screening this high-risk population with spirometry should be considered. PMID:26701201

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiansong; Fregni, Felipe; Brody, Arthur L; Rahman, Ardeshir S

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (∼1.5 h) smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to the right supra-orbital area for 20 min with a current of 2.0 mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS) Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation. PMID:24065930

  7. Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoenzyme in Lung Tissue of Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that only 10%-20% cigarette smokers finally suffer chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The underlying mechanism of development remains uncertain so far. Nitric oxide (NO has been found to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of COPD, the alteration of NO synthase (NOS expression need to be revealed. The study aimed to investigate the alterations of NOS isoforms expressions between smokers with and without COPD, which might be helpful for identifying the susceptibility of smokers developing into COPD. Methods: Peripheral lung tissues were obtained from 10 nonsmoker control subjects, 15 non-COPD smokers, and 15 smokers with COPD. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, inducible NOS (iNOS, and endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA and protein levels were measured in each sample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results: INOS mRNA was significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively. iNOS protein was also higher in COPD patients than nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, expressions of nNOS and eNOS did not differ among nonsmokers, smokers with and without COPD. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between iNOS protein level and lung function parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 (% predicted (r = −0.549, P = 0.001 and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (%, r = −0.535, P = 0.001. Conclusions: The expression of iNOS significantly increased in smokers with COPD compared with that in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. The results suggest that iNOS might be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD, and may be a potential marker to identify the smokers who have more liability to suffer COPD.

  8. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on structural and photocatalytic properties of ordered large pore size TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} mesostructured composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazinani, Babak, E-mail: b.mazinani@gmail.com [Center of Excellence on Processing of Advanced Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Industrial Nanotechnology Research Center, C/O AMREC, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Beitollahi, Ali [Center of Excellence on Processing of Advanced Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radiman, Shahidan [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Masrom, Abdul Kadir; Ibrahim, Suhaina Mohd [Industrial Nanotechnology Research Center, C/O AMREC, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Javadpour, Jafar [Center of Excellence on Processing of Advanced Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Farina M.D. [Industrial Nanotechnology Research Center, C/O AMREC, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2012-04-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} with large pores (up to 15 nm) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic activity of the samples showed higher efficiency than P25. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher hydrothermal temperature (130 Degree-Sign C) improved photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Ordered TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} mesoporous materials with BJH pore diameters in the range from 12 to 15 nm were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis method. In this route, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a low pH solution were used as SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} precursor, respectively with P123 as a template and hexane as a micelle expander in the presence of NH{sub 4}F. In this work, we show the effect of different hydrothermal temperatures (70 Degree-Sign C and 130 Degree-Sign C) on pore structure and photocatalytic efficiency of the materials prepared. The synthesized materials were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiments, X ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The method could produce ordered mesoporous structure with uniform pore size of 12-15 nm and high specific surface areas S{sub BET} up to 431 m{sup 2}/g. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by degradation of MB under UV light irradiation and results showed these mesostructure materials have much higher photocatalytic efficiency in comparison with commercial P25 titania. The results also show that for materials synthesized using higher hydrothermal temperature (130 Degree-Sign C) resulting in increased in photocatalytic activity due to higher formation of anatase phase and more open channels by comparison with lower hydrothermal treatment (70 Degree-Sign C).

  9. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on lipids and coagulation factors in postmenopausal women smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatović-Babić Danijela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopause and smoking impair lipid profile, induce hypercoagulability and reduce fibrinolytic capacity [1, 2]. Postmenopause induced lipid changes can be reversed by oestrogen replacement [3]. Oestrogens also reduce fibrino-gen level [4] and have beneficial effects on endothelium [5]. Although several studies showed that hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of thromboembolic diseases, procoagulant oestrogen activity has not clearly been demonstrated. It is well known that smoking accelerates oestrogen metabolism [6, 7], which may attenuate its beneficial effects. The present study was undertaken to determine if there is difference in beneficial effects of oestrogens between smokers and non-smokers in terms of coagulation process and lipids. The examination was a longitudinal one-year, before/after therapeutic study, which included healthy postmenopausal women (FSH levels at least 40 U/l, 30 smokers and 32 non-smokers who were under 55 years of age and postmenopausal period shorter than 5 years. Women with surgically induced menopause received unopposed oral oestrogens, while those with spontaneous menopause were treated with combined oral oestrogen/progestogen therapy. Before entering the study and in three-months intervals total LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglycérides and VLDL were determined, as well School of Medicine, Belgrade as plasma fibrinogen prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. Neither beneficial nor adverse effects of oestrogens on lipids and coagulation were observed during one-year follow-up in smokers, although subjects with longer smoking history had higher triglycérides levels after 12 months of therapy. On the contrary, oestrogen replacement reduced total and LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol in non-smokers, with no change in triglycérides and VLDL level. A decrease in fibrinogen levels and coagulation activity, expressed by protrombin time and partial thromboplastin time, were

  10. Post-puff respiration measures on smokers of different tar yield cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    St. Charles, Frank K.; Krautter, George R.; Mariner, Derek C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different tar yield cigarette brands on the post-puff inhalation/exhalation depth and duration for established smokers of the brands. The study was conducted with 74 established smokers of 1–17 mg Federal Trade Commission (FTC) tar products. The subjects were participating in a five-day inpatient clinical biomarker study during which time they were allowed to smoke their own brand of cigarette whenever they wished. On two separate days,...

  11. Increased leptin/leptin receptor pathway affects systemic and airway inflammation in COPD former smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreina Bruno1, Marinella Alessi2, Simona Soresi2, Anna Bonanno1, Loredana Riccobono1, Angela Marina Montalbano1, Giusy Daniela Albano1, Mark Gjomarkaj1, Mirella Profita11Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Italian National Research Council, Palermo, Italy; 2Dipartimento Biomedico di Biomedicina Interna e Specialistica, University Palermo, ItalyBackground: Leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipose tissue, regulates food intake and energy expenditure. It is involved in inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and its deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to the infection. The leptin receptor is expressed in the lung and in the neutrophils.Methods: We measured the levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 in sputum and plasma from 27 smoker and former smoker patients with stable COPD using ELISA methods. Further we analyzed leptin and its receptor expression in sputum cells from 16 COPD patients using immunocytochemistry.Results: In plasma of COPD patients, leptin was inversely correlated with TNF-a and positively correlated with the patient weight, whereas the levels of sICAM-1 were positively correlated with TNF-a. In sputum of COPD patients leptin levels were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vitality capacity. Additionally, increased levels of sputum leptin and TNF-a were observed in COPD former smokers rather than smokers. Further the expression of leptin receptor in sputum neutrophils was significantly higher in COPD former smokers than in smokers, and the expression of leptin and its receptor was positively correlated in neutrophils of COPD former smokers.Conclusion: Our findings suggest a role of leptin in the local and systemic inflammation of COPD and, taking into account the involvement of neutrophils in this inflammatory disease, describe a novel aspect of the leptin

  12. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Samet, Jonathan M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Michael J Thun; Rudin, Charles M

    2009-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accom...

  13. Evidence for reduced arterial plasma input, prolonged lung retention and reduced lung monoamine oxidase in smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jean [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: logan@bnl.gov; Fowler, Joanna S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    We have previously found that smokers have reduced brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B using positron emission tomography (PET) and the irreversible mechanism-based radiotracers [{sup 11}C]-labeled clorgyline (CLG) and deprenyl (DEP) and their deuterated analogs (D CLG, D DEP). More recently, we have estimated MAO A and B activity in other organs using the deuterium isotope effect to determine binding specificity for MAO and a three-compartment model to estimate k {sub 3}, the model term proportional to MAO A activity. Here, we have investigated the robustness of the model term k {sub 3} for estimating lung MAO A and B in light of our unexpected finding that lung MAO activity (k {sub 3}) was reduced for smokers relative to nonsmokers, although radiotracer uptake in the lungs was similar at peak and plateau for the two groups. Methods: Time-activity data from lung and arterial plasma were used from seven nonsmokers and seven smokers scanned previously with CLG and D CLG, and five nonsmokers and nine smokers scanned previously with DEP and D DEP. The measured time-activity curves for lung and plasma and the integrals for the arterial plasma time-activity curves were compared at an early time point (2.5 min) and at the end of the study (55 min). A three-compartment irreversible model was used to estimate the differences between smokers and nonsmokers, and the stability of the parameter (k {sub 3}) while varying model assumptions for the relative fractions of lung tissue, blood and air in the PET voxel. Results: The peak in the arterial plasma input function and the integral of the arterial plasma time-activity curve over the first 2.5 min after radiotracer injection were significantly lower for smokers relative to nonsmokers for all four tracers. However, although the peak and plateau of the lung time-activity curves were similar for smokers and nonsmokers, the decline in radioactivity from peak to plateau was slower for smokers for all tracers. Using a three

  14. CDC: Tips from Former Smokers – Tiffany PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-28

    When Tiffany was 16, her mother—a cigarette smoker—died of lung cancer. Tiffany quit smoking at 34 because she wanted to be around for her own daughter, who had just turned 16. In this 60 second PSA from CDC's Tips From Former Smokers campaign, Tiffany offers tips on how to quit.  Created: 3/28/2013 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  15. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among never-smokers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seok Jeong Lee,1 Seo Woo Kim,1 Kyoung Ae Kong,2 Yon Ju Ryu,1 Jin Hwa Lee,1 Jung Hyun Chang1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Trial Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients include those who have never smoked. However, risk factors other than smoking in never-smokers have not been elucidated sufficiently. This study investigated the risk factors for COPD among never-smokers in Korea using population-based data. Methods: The data were retrieved from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV conducted from 2007 to 2009. Among subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent appropriate pulmonary function tests, never-smokers not diagnosed with asthma and not showing a restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests were enrolled. Risk factors of COPD in never-smokers were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Among 24,871 participants in the representative Korean cohort, 3,473 never-smokers were enrolled. COPD patients accounted for 7.6% of the never-smokers. In the logistic regression analysis, low education status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–3.2, occupational exposure (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3–5.3, a history of tuberculosis (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.3–8.7, bronchiectasis (OR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4–25.4, male sex (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.6–6.7, advanced age (60–69 years vs 40–49 years; OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0–7.0, and being underweight (body mass index <18.5 vs 18.0–24.9 kg/m2; OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.0–9.4 were associated with the development of COPD. Conclusion: Low education status, manual labor, a history of tuberculosis and bronchiectasis, as well as male sex, advanced age and being underweight were risk factors for COPD in Korean never-smokers. Keywords: socioeconomic status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, never-smoker

  16. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of ‘light’ cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, M; M Bansal-Travers; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as ‘light’, ‘ultra-light’ and ‘low tar’ with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of ‘light’, ‘mild’ and ‘low’ on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Cen...

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium titanate nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From suspension of nanoparticles TiO2 in concentrated water solution of NaOH were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis sodium titanates particles with different shapes. Influence of synthesis duration under temperature 180 grad C on the change of particles shapes was observed. The result of experiment showed that one day synthesis resulted to obtained product with high content of nanotubes, but the extension of this period led to the transformation of product's shape into stripes. From the results of experiment follows that as a precursor for TiO2 nanotubes preparation may be used only products of hydrothermal synthesis, which duration of pressure synthesis was not longer than 24 hours. (authors)

  18. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  19. PZT Powders Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Kong-Jun, ZHU Ren-Qiang, DONG Na-Na, GU Hong-Hui, QIU Jin-Hao, JI Hong-Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders with single―phase, cubic morphology and average size of 1 μm were synthesized using hydrothermal methods. Effects of KOH concentration, hydrothermal treatment time and Pb excess were investigated. The results show that KOH concentration has an important influence on the solid solubility of Pb ion in A―site of PZT perovskite structure. The concentration of Pb2+ vacancies increased with the increase of OH― concentration. However, this kind of deficiency could be compensated by adding more Pb ions in the raw materials, and more Pb ions were needed to add with higher alkaline concentration in the starting solution. But excessive compensation of Pb ions would result in the appearance of the second phase.

  20. U and Th Concentration and Isotopic Composition of Hydrothermal Fluids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. A.; Shen, C.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Kelley, D. S.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium and Th concentration and isotopic composition of hydrothermal fluids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) were determined using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP- MS). The LCHF is an off-axis, serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal system located at 30°N near the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. Carbonate chimneys reaching 60 m in height vent alkaline (pH~10), calcium-rich fluids at 40- 91°C and the towers are home to dense microbial communities. Vent fluid and seawater U and Th concentration and isotopic composition data provide critical information for constraining U-Th chimney ages. The increased sensitivity (1-2%) of MC-ICP-MS combined with an Aridus nebulization system allows the precise measurement of small quantities of sample (~150 ml) with low concentrations (Thorium concentrations of fluids are close to deep seawater values. U and Th isotopic compositions are reported at the permil level. These data may provide new insights into the role of serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems in the budgets of U and Th in the ocean. Techniques presented in this study may be applied to other hydrothermal and seep environments.

  1. Individual differences in self-concept among smokers attempting to quit: Validation and predictive utility of measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, W G; Mermelstein, R

    1996-09-01

    We tested a theoretical model of individual differences in smoking cessation using a social-cognitive conception of the self-concept. We developed and validated measures of the smoker self-concept and the abstainer self-concept. Each scale was shown to have good internal reliability and construct validity and was distinct from other important predictive measures used in smoking research (e.g. Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, smoking rate, motivation, self-efficacy). Importantly, we demonstrated the predictive validity of the self-concept scales. The interaction of baseline measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept predicted smoking status three months after treatment; subjects were most likely to be abstinent if they began treatment with a strong abstainer selfconcept and a weak smoker self-concept. This interaction held over and above baseline smoking rate, Fagerstrom Tolerance scores, and measures of motivation and self-efficacy to quit. The utility of social-cognitive individual difference models and potential patient-treatment matching interventions are discussed. PMID:24203766

  2. Stable light isotope biogeochemistry of hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of the elements O, H, S and C in minerals and other chemical species can indicate the existence, extent, conditions and the processes (including biological activity) of hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermal alteration of the 18O/16O and D/H values of minerals can be used to detect fossil systems and delineate their areal extent. Water-rock interactions create isotopic signatures which indicate fluid composition, temperature, water-rock ratios, etc. The 18O/16O values of silica and carbonate deposits tend to increase with declining temperature and thus help to map thermal gradients. Measurements of D/H values can help to decipher the origin(s) of hydrothermal fluids. The 34S/32S and 13C/12C values of fluids and minerals reflect the origin of the S and C as well as oxygen fugacities and key redox processes. For example, a wide range of 34S/32S values which are consistent with equilibration below 100 degrees C between sulfide and sulfate can be attributed to sulfur metabolizing bacteria. Depending on its magnitude, the difference in the 13C/12C value of CO2 and carbonates versus organic carbon might be attributed either to equilibrium at hydrothermal temperatures or, if the difference exceeds 1% (10/1000), to organic biosynthesis. Along the thermal gradients of thermal spring outflows, the 13C/12C value of carbonates and 13C-depleted microbial organic carbon increases, principally due to the outgassing of relatively 13C-depleted CO2.

  3. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Heather L. Trajano; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pre...

  4. Hydrothermal optimal power flow using continuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems is solved using powerful continuation method. While in conventional approach, fixed generation voltages are used to avoid convergence problems, in the algorithm, they are treated as variables so that better solutions can be obtained. The algorithm is tested for a typical 5-bus and 17-bus New Zealand networks. Its capabilities and promising results are assessed

  5. Genomic reconstruction of an uncultured hydrothermal vent gammaproteobacterial methanotroph (family Methylothermaceae indicates multiple adaptations to oxygen limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Tobias Skennerton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vents are an important contributor to marine biogeochemistry, producing large volumes of reduced fluids, gasses, and metals and housing unique, productive microbial and animal communities fueled by chemosynthesis. Methane is a common constituent of hydrothermal vent fluid and is frequently consumed at vent sites by methanotrophic bacteria that serve to control escape of this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Despite their ecological and geochemical importance, little is known about the ecophysiology of uncultured hydrothermal vent-associated methanotrophic bacteria. Using metagenomic binning techniques, we recovered and analyzed a near-complete genome from a novel gammaproteobacterial methanotroph (B42 associated with a white smoker chimney in the Southern Lau basin. B42 was the dominant methanotroph in the community, at ~80x coverage, with only four others detected in the metagenome, all on low coverage contigs (7x - 12x. Phylogenetic placement of B42 showed it is a member of the Methylothermaceae, a family currently represented by only one sequenced genome. Metabolic inferences based on the presence of known pathways in the genome showed that B42 possesses a branched respiratory chain with A- and B-family heme copper oxidases, cytochrome bd oxidase and a partial denitrification pathway. These genes could allow B42 to respire over a wide range of oxygen concentrations within the highly dynamic vent environment. Phylogenies of the denitrification genes revealed they are the result of separate horizontal gene transfer from other proteobacteria and suggest that denitrification is a selective advantage in conditions where extremely low oxygen concentrations require all oxygen to be used for methane activation.

  6. Genomic Reconstruction of an Uncultured Hydrothermal Vent Gammaproteobacterial Methanotroph (Family Methylothermaceae) Indicates Multiple Adaptations to Oxygen Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skennerton, Connor T; Ward, Lewis M; Michel, Alice; Metcalfe, Kyle; Valiente, Chanel; Mullin, Sean; Chan, Ken Y; Gradinaru, Viviana; Orphan, Victoria J

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents are an important contributor to marine biogeochemistry, producing large volumes of reduced fluids, gasses, and metals and housing unique, productive microbial and animal communities fueled by chemosynthesis. Methane is a common constituent of hydrothermal vent fluid and is frequently consumed at vent sites by methanotrophic bacteria that serve to control escape of this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Despite their ecological and geochemical importance, little is known about the ecophysiology of uncultured hydrothermal vent-associated methanotrophic bacteria. Using metagenomic binning techniques, we recovered and analyzed a near-complete genome from a novel gammaproteobacterial methanotroph (B42) associated with a white smoker chimney in the Southern Lau basin. B42 was the dominant methanotroph in the community, at ∼80x coverage, with only four others detected in the metagenome, all on low coverage contigs (7x-12x). Phylogenetic placement of B42 showed it is a member of the Methylothermaceae, a family currently represented by only one sequenced genome. Metabolic inferences based on the presence of known pathways in the genome showed that B42 possesses a branched respiratory chain with A- and B-family heme copper oxidases, cytochrome bd oxidase and a partial denitrification pathway. These genes could allow B42 to respire over a wide range of oxygen concentrations within the highly dynamic vent environment. Phylogenies of the denitrification genes revealed they are the result of separate horizontal gene transfer from other Proteobacteria and suggest that denitrification is a selective advantage in conditions where extremely low oxygen concentrations require all oxygen to be used for methane activation. PMID:26779119

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO3·2H2O and anatase TiO2 in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 °C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 and Bi12TiO20, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi1.43Ti2O6(OH)0.29(H2O)0.66 is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO3 and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products.

  8. Surface roughened zirconia: towards hydrothermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camposilvan, Erik; Flamant, Quentin; Anglada, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Surface roughness is needed in several yttria-stabilized zirconia components used in restorative dentistry for osseointegration or adhesion purposes. This can be achieved by different treatments, which may also modify the microstructure of the surface. Among them, sandblasting and chemical etching are widely used, but their effect on hydrothermal aging of zirconia is not fully understood. In the present work, the zirconia long-term stability of rough surfaces prepared by these techniques is analyzed and a method is proposed for preventing hydrothermal aging while maintaining the original surface appearance and mechanical properties. The method involves pressure infiltration of a Cerium salt solution on the roughened surfaces followed by a thermal treatment. The solution, trapped by surface defects and small pores, is decomposed during thermal treatment into Cerium oxide, which is diffused at high temperature, obtaining Ce co-doping in the near-surface region. In addition, the microstructural changes induced in the near-surface by sandblasting or chemical etching are removed by the thermal treatment together with surface defects. No color modification was observed and the final roughness parameters were in the range of existing implants of proved good osseointegration. The aging resistance of Ce co-doped materials was strongly enhanced, showing the absence of aging after artificial degradation, increasing in this way the surface mechanical integrity. The proposed treatment is easily applicable to the current manufacturing procedures of zirconia dental posts, abutments, crowns and dentures, representing a solution to hydrothermal aging in these and other biomedical applications. PMID:25867636

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacchini, I. [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Miguel Luesma 4, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Anson-Casaos, A., E-mail: alanson@icb.csic.es [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Miguel Luesma 4, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yu, Youhai [Centre d' Investigacio en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CIN2, CSIC-ICN), Campus UAB, Edifici ETSE 2nd Floor, E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Martinez, M.T. [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Miguel Luesma 4, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Lira-Cantu, M. [Centre d' Investigacio en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CIN2, CSIC-ICN), Campus UAB, Edifici ETSE 2nd Floor, E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesis allows the preparation of different 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures easily. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanotubular morphology demonstrates the highest photovoltaic efficiencies in dye sensitized cells (DSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology at the nanoscale level is as decisive for DSC efficiency as it is TiO{sub 2} crystal structure and surface area. - Abstract: Mono-dimensional titanium oxide nanostructures (multi-walled nanotubes and nanorods) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and applied to the construction of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). First, nanotubes (TiNTs) and nanotubes loaded with titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiNT/NPs) were synthesized with specific surface areas of 253 m{sup 2}/g and 304 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. After that, thermal treatment of the nanotubes at 500 Degree-Sign C resulted in their transformation into the corresponding anatase nanorods (TiNT-{Delta} and TiNT/NPs-{Delta} samples). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy data indicated that titanium oxide in the pristine TiNT and TiNT/NP samples was converted into anatase phase TiO{sub 2} during the heating. Additionally, specific surface areas and water adsorption capacities decreased after the heat treatment due to the sample agglomeration and the collapse of the inner nanotube channels. DSCs were fabricated with the nanotube TiNT and TiNT/NP samples and with the anatase nanorod TiNT-{Delta} and TiNT/NPs-{Delta} samples as well. The highest power conversion efficiency of {eta} = 3.12% was obtained for the TiNT sample, despite its lower specific surface compared with the corresponding nanoparticle-loaded sample (TiNT/NP).

  10. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  11. Response Inhibition of Cigarette-related Cues in Male Smokers: Behavioral Evidence from a Two-choice Oddball Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao eXin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/No-Go and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers, who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC and reaction time (RT for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues.

  12. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  13. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  14. Characteristics of Smokers from a National Sample Who Engaged in Any Physical Activity: Implications for Cardiovascular Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Lenhart, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and current treatments lack long-term efficacy. Promoting physical activity may be a viable population-level approach to improving cardiovascular health among smokers. Purpose: To characterize smokers engaging in any physical activity based on demographics, quitting behaviors, health…

  15. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  16. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hye Mi [Chonbuk National University, Department of Statistics and Institute of Applied Statistics, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David [National Jewish Health, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  17. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design: Longitu

  18. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Straaten, B. van; Wits, E.; Snelleman, M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual

  19. Proactive tobacco treatment offering free nicotine replacement therapy and telephone counselling for socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers: a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Steven S.; van Ryn, Michelle; Nelson, David; Burgess, Diana J.; Thomas, Janet L.; Saul, Jessie; Clothier, Barbara; Nyman, John A.; Hammett, Patrick; Joseph, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidenced-based tobacco cessation treatments are underused, especially by socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. This contributes to widening socioeconomic disparities in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. Methods The Offering Proactive Treatment Intervention trial tested the effects of a proactive outreach tobacco treatment intervention on population-level smoking abstinence and tobacco treatment use among a population-based sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smoker...

  20. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.A.P. [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S., E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br [INCTMN-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Morilla-Santos, C.; Filho, P.N. Lisboa [MAv-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 473, 17033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Beltran, A.; Andres, J.; Gracia, L. [Department de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castello (Spain); Longo, E. [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil); INCTMN-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    This communication reports that FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method at 443 K for 1 h. The structure and shape of these nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results and first principles calculations were combined to explain the electronic structure and magnetic properties. Experimental data were obtained by magnetization measurements for different applied magnetic fields. Theoretical calculations revealed that magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals can be assigned to two magnetic orderings with parallel or antiparallel spins in adjacent chains. These factors are crucial to understanding of competition between ferro- and antiferromagnetic behavior. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monophasic FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement and clusters model for monoclinic structure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals at different temperatures.

  1. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  2. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of highly water-soluble secondary structural Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiwen [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Jiang Wei, E-mail: yangxw0610@yahoo.cn [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu Li; Chen Binghua; Wu Shixi; Sun Danping; Li Fengsheng [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared using the ferric acetylacetonate as the sole iron source in a facile hydrothermal route, while poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was chosen as the stabilizer via one-step functionalized MNPs for better hydrophilic properties. The orthogonal was used in the paper for the experimental parameters optimization, including the solvent, the reaction time, the amount of stabilizer and the presynthesis. The obtained highly water dispersible MNPs with uniform size from about 50 to about 100 nm was individually composed of many monodisperse magnetite crystallites approximately 6 nm in size. And the MNPs show high magnetic properties, whose magnetite content was up to 76.76% and the saturation magnetization was 39.0 emu/g. Later the formation mechanism of MNPs was also discussed. Thus the MNPs proved to be very promising for biomedical applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MNPs are prepared in a low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of MNPs is hybridized with their in situ surface functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each of the secondary structural MNPs is composed of monodisperse primary particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting MNPs show good magnetic properties combining that of primary one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of MNPs is controllable and the mechanism is elaborated.

  3. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  4. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  5. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  6. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  7. Coupled Process Models as a Tool for Analysing Hydrothermal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, K; Michael Kühn; V. Rath; C. Kosack; C. Clauser;  

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal systems are characterised by complex interactions between heat transfer, fluid flow, deformation, species transport and chemical reactions. Numerical models can provide quantitatively constrained information in regions where acquisition of new data is difficult or expensive thus providing a means for reducing risks, costs, and effort during targeting, production, and management of resources linked to hydrothermal systems. Here we show how numerical simulations of hydrothermal pro...

  8. Hydrothermal Conditions and the Origin of Cellular Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, David W; Georgiou, Christos D

    2015-12-01

    The conditions and properties of hydrothermal vents and hydrothermal fields are compared in terms of their ability to support processes related to the origin of life. The two sites can be considered as alternative hypotheses, and from this comparison we propose a series of experimental tests to distinguish between them, focusing on those that involve concentration of solutes, self-assembly of membranous compartments, and synthesis of polymers. Key Word: Hydrothermal systems. PMID:26684507

  9. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND ASSOCIATION AMONG TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS; COHORT COMPARISON BETWEEN SMOKERS VERSUS NEVER-SMOKE IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasif Gillani. S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics with risk determination of TB patients who were smokers vs. non-smokers. The retrospective, observational & cross-sectional cohort survey was done to compare disease characteristic and clinical presentation during treatment of TB. Cluster random sampling employed in Chest Clinic of Penang General Hospital from January/2006 to June/2008. Statistical test were used with p-value ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant at 95% level of confidence interval. A total of 524 TB patients were recruited in study. Of this, 250 (47.7% were never smokers and rest 274 (52.3% were under ever-smoker. Majority of patients who had EPTB (79% were never smoke and majority of patients (62.8% who had pulmonary with EPTB were ever smokers. Ever smokers TB patients were commonly associated with older age and male gender, they also had higher proportion of risk factors compared to never smokers; high alcohol consumption (61% versus 3%, IVDU (48% versus 2%. There were significant relationships between smoking status of TB patient with race and initial Mantoux test. Ever smokers were significantly more likely to have moderate or far advanced lung’s lesion but less likely to present with minimal lesion on chest X-ray. Ever smokers TB patients were six times more likely to have opacity on chest X-ray compared to never smokers respectively. Smoking association had a significant effect on the severity of clinical, microbiological and radiological presentations resulting in more aggressive course of the disease compared with never smoking patients.

  10. Theoretical constraints of physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal fluids on variations in chemolithotrophic microbial communities in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Takai, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, chemosynthetic ecosystems at deep-sea hydrothermal vents have received attention as plausible analogues to the early ecosystems of Earth, as well as to extraterrestrial ecosystems. These ecosystems are sustained by chemical energy obtained from inorganic redox substances (e.g., H2S, CO2, H2, CH4, and O2) in hydrothermal fluids and ambient seawater. The chemical and isotope compositions of the hydrothermal fluid are, in turn, controlled by subseafloor physical and chemical processes, including fluid-rock interactions, phase separation and partitioning of fluids, and precipitation of minerals. We hypothesized that specific physicochemical principles describe the linkages among the living ecosystems, hydrothermal fluids, and geological background in deep-sea hydrothermal systems. We estimated the metabolic energy potentially available for productivity by chemolithotrophic microorganisms at various hydrothermal vent fields. We used a geochemical model based on hydrothermal fluid chemistry data compiled from 89 globally distributed hydrothermal vent sites. The model estimates were compared to the observed variability in extant microbial communities in seafloor hydrothermal environments. Our calculations clearly show that representative chemolithotrophic metabolisms (e.g., thiotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and methanotrophic) respond differently to geological and geochemical variations in the hydrothermal systems. Nearly all of the deep-sea hydrothermal systems provide abundant energy for organisms with aerobic thiotrophic metabolisms; observed variations in the H2S concentrations among the hydrothermal fluids had little effect on the energetics of thiotrophic metabolism. Thus, these organisms form the base of the chemosynthetic microbial community in global deep-sea hydrothermal environments. In contrast, variations in H2 concentrations in hydrothermal fluids significantly impact organisms with aerobic and anaerobic hydrogenotrophic metabolisms

  11. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  12. Are Pharmacotherapies Ineffective in Opioid-Dependent Smokers? Reflections on the Scientific Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mollie E; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2015-08-01

    While rates of smoking in the general population have decreased in recent years, dramatic disparities remain among disadvantaged subgroups of smokers, particularly those with concurrent substance abuse. Prevalence rates of smoking among opioid-dependent patients, for example, are fourfold those of the general population. While pharmacotherapies are recommended as a first-line treatment for nicotine dependence, the few studies that have investigated their effectiveness in this population have shown dramatically poorer outcomes compared to the general population. Indeed, these findings have led some researchers to suggest that pharmacotherapies may simply be ineffective in opioid-maintained smokers. In this commentary, we briefly summarize the extant literature on pharmacotherapies in opioid-maintained smokers and contribute new data investigating the contribution of bupropion on smoking outcomes in 81 methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained participants from two randomized trials of financial incentives for smoking cessation. We also discuss several important parameters (ie, timing of the quit attempt, medication adherence, nicotine withdrawal) that may be leveraged to strengthen smoking pharmacotherapy outcomes in opioid-dependent patients. Taken together, an improved understanding of these issues will aid efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in this group of challenging smokers. PMID:26180219

  13. Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Matthew S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate. Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations.

  14. Marlboro and Other Usual Brand Choices by Youth Smokers in Middle Eastern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed data from 118,743 adolescents completing 30 different Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 15 different Middle Eastern countries between 1999 and 2007 to determine the proportion of young smokers who usually smoked Marlboro, other cigarette brands, or no usual brand smoked in these countries. Marlboro was the most…

  15. Quantification of Nicotine in Commercial Brand Cigarettes: How Much Is Inhaled by the Smoker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Carlos A.; de Paiva, Sabina A. A.; Funai, Milena N. S.; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Giglio, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this experiment is to determine the amount of nicotine in commercial brand cigarettes by means of a nonaqueous acid-base titration. A simple glass device simulating a smoker is proposed, which allows the determination of the volatilized, filter retained, and inhaled portions. Students will readily see that the amount of…

  16. Lung cancer in never smokers in the UK Million Women Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, Kirstin; Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2016-07-15

    To assess directly the effects of various risk factors on lung cancer incidence among never smokers, large prospective studies are needed. In a cohort of 1.2 million UK women without prior cancer, half (634,039) reported that they had never smoked. Mean age at recruitment was 55 (SD5) years, and during 14 (SD3) years of follow-up, 0.2% (1,469) of these never smokers developed lung cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer for 34 potential risk factors, of which 31 were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). The remaining three risk factors were associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer in never smokers: non-white vs. white ethnicity (RR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.55-3.52, p dietary intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and fiber. The findings were not materially affected by restricting the analyses to adenocarcinomas, the most common histological type among never smokers. PMID:26954623

  17. Lung cancer in never smokers: change of a mindset in the molecular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Joo; Kim, Joo-Hang; Kim, Se Kyu; Ha, Sang-Jun; Mok, Tony S; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Cho, Byoung Chul

    2011-04-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality across the world. Although the majority of lung cancer is attributed to tobacco smoke, approximately 25% of lung cancers worldwide occur in lifelong never smokers. Over the past decades, the bulk of research on this disease suggested that several genetic, environmental, hormonal, and viral factors might increase the risk of lung cancer among never smokers. However, there has been no dominant risk factor whose significance has been validated across racial and ethnic groups. However, this subset of lung cancers has received renewed attention due to the introduction of the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors showing the dramatic therapeutic response on selected patients with activating EGFR mutations which occur more commonly in never smokers. The treatment strategy blocking EGFR pathway in EGFR-mutant lung cancer represents a remarkable example of molecular targeted therapies which completely repress tumor by inhibition of driving oncogenes. More recently, a surprising positive effect of an ALK inhibitor on EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer has been suggested that lung cancer in never smokers is likely to be an assemblage of molecularly defined subsets which would be a good candidate for personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:21272954

  18. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  19. Characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking at a teaching hospital in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking, among Family Practice Patients, at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Main outcome measures: Age at starting smoking, duration and number of cigarettes smoked, started smoking under influence of friends, colleagues, family members or self motivation, number of friends and colleagues who smoked, whether smoking is unhealthy, and actual chance of harm to an individual due to smoking is very rare or not. Results: One hundred patients who visited Family Practice Center were interviewed. Sixty one percent were young married men, well educated and either student, in private service, self employed or unemployed. Eighty-four (84%) smokers started smoking between 16-25 years of age, and smoked 6-20 cigarettes daily for two to twenty five years. Sixty-nine (69%) of them started smoking under the influence of friends and had 3-5 friends and colleagues who smoked. 91% of smokers believed that smoking is unhealthy and were aware that it causes lung cancer and heart disease. Majority of them (69%) believed that the actual harm of smoking to an individual is not very rare. Conclusion: We have documented the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking among Family Practice patients. Majority of the respondents started smoking at a young age under the influence of friends though they were aware of its harmful effects. Though the sample size is small but it does give an indication about the responsible factors to plan interventional preventive strategies. (author)

  20. Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES. PMID:18842995

  1. Predictors of smoking reduction and cessation in a cohort of danish moderate and heavy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Prescott, E; Osler, M;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the extent and gender distribution of unassisted tobacco reduction and cessation in a cohort of moderate and heavy smokers and to identify possible predictor variables associated with these changes in smoking behavior. METHODS: This was a prospective...

  2. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in male problem gamblers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim

    2009-03-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is associated with maladaptive perseverative behavior, but the underlying mechanism and neural circuitry is not completely clear. Here, the hypothesis was tested that PG is characterized by response perseveration and abnormalities in reward and/or punishment sensitivity in the ventral frontostriatal circuit. Executive functioning was assessed to verify if these effects are independent of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit. A group of smokers was also included to examine whether impairments in PG generalize to substance use disorders. Response perseveration and reward/punishment sensitivity were measured with a probabilistic reversal-learning task, in which subjects could win and lose money. Executive functioning was measured with a planning task, the Tower of London. Performance and fMRI data were acquired in 19 problem gamblers, 19 smokers, and 19 healthy controls. Problem gamblers showed severe response perseveration, associated with reduced activation of right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to both monetary gain and loss. Results did not fully generalize to smokers. Planning performance and related activation of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit were intact in both problem gamblers and smokers. PG is related to response perseveration and diminished reward and punishment sensitivity as indicated by hypoactivation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex when money is gained and lost. Moreover, intact planning abilities and normal dorsal frontostriatal responsiveness indicate that this deficit is not due to impaired executive functioning. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal hyporesponsiveness to monetary loss may be markers for maladaptive behavior seen in chemical and nonchemical addictions. PMID:18830241

  3. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollay, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen.
METHODS—Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada.
RESULTS—Careful and extensive research has been employed in all stages of the process of conceiving, developing, refining, and deploying cigarette advertising. Two segments commanding much management attention are "starters" and "concerned smokers". To recruit starters, brand images communicate independence, freedom and (sometimes) peer acceptance. These advertising images portray smokers as attractive and autonomous, accepted and admired, athletic and at home in nature. For "lighter" brands reassuring health concerned smokers, lest they quit, advertisements provide imagery conveying a sense of well being, harmony with nature, and a consumer's self image as intelligent.
CONCLUSIONS—The industry's steadfast assertions that its advertising influences only brand loyalty and switching in both its intent and effect is directly contradicted by their internal documents and proven false. So too is the justification of cigarette advertising as a medium creating better informed consumers, since visual imagery, not information, is the means of advertising influence.


Keywords: advertising; brand imagery; market research; youth targeting; "concerned" smokers; corporate documents PMID:10841849

  4. Assigned versus Perceived Placebo Effects in Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Reduction in Swiss Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Reuven; Stronguin, Florencia; Etter, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    In this report, the authors explore the relationships of perceived treatment to outcome in a large, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine replacement treatment for smoking reduction. In the original study (J. F. Etter, E. Laszlo, J. P. Zellweger, C. Perrot, & T. V. Perneger, 2002), which was conducted in French-speaking Switzerland, smokers were…

  5. Effects of daily quercetin-rich supplementation on cardiometabolic risks in male smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Hea; Park, Eunju; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Cha, Yong-Jun; Kim, Jung-Mi; Lee, Hyeran; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Limited information from human studies indicates that dietary quercetin supplementation influences blood lipid profiles, glycemic response, and inflammatory status, collectively termed cardiometabolic risks. We tested the hypothesis that quercetin-rich supplementation, derived from onion peel extract, improves cardiometabolic risk components in healthy male smokers in a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled parallel design. Randomly assigned subjects were instructed to take either th...

  6. [Efficacy of individual smoking cessation instructions for general smokers among clients of a health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, K; Anada, K; Arino, M; Ono, A; Tomonaga, M; Nakabayashi, M; Nishida, M; Yamakawa, N; Yoshitsugu, M; Shimo, T

    1992-04-01

    Smoking cessation instruction for individuals using a standardized smoking cessation manual and a handout developed by the authors was studied in a controlled trial among employees who visited a health center for Industrial Safety and Health Law mandated annual health examinations. Smokers in the study group were given 5-10 minutes smoking cessation instruction mainly by public health nurses and nutritionists following the above-mentioned manual and using the handouts. Subjects in both groups were interviewed by telephone to assess changes in smoking habits one month after the first contact. Smoking clients who came on Friday (132) and on Monday (93) were assigned to study and control groups, respectively. One hundred and nineteen members (90.2%) of the study group and 88 (94.6%) of the control group were successfully followed until one month after the initial contact. Seven subjects in the study group were not smoking one month after the instruction, while no one gave up smoking in the control group (p less than 0.05). It was confirmed by telephone survey that 6 of the 7 subjects who were not smoking at one month were still maintaining abstinence from smoking one year after the instruction. Smokers who did not stop smoking reported a reduction in their smoking dose in the study group. Lighter smokers reacted more readily to instruction than did heavier smokers and the knowledge level of subjects was positively associated with the success rate. PMID:1611121

  7. A Culturally Enhanced Smoking Cessation Study among Chinese and Korean Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn; Shive, Steven E.; Su, Xuefen; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Miller, Suzanne; Tan, Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of and presents preliminary findings on a culturally enhanced, theory-driven smoking cessation intervention for adult Chinese and Korean smokers. A one-group pre-post test design was used. The intervention consisted of behavioral and nicotine replacement strategies. Participants (N=43) were recruited through…

  8. Social Inequality in Cigarette Consumption, Cigarette Dependence, and Intention to Quit among Norwegian Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Lund

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aim was to examine the influence of education and income on multiple measures of risk of smoking continuation. Methods. Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007–2012 of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30–66 years in Norway. Results. The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26–6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14–2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model. Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit. The difference in predicted probability for having high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit were in the range of 10–20 percentage points between smokers with low versus those with high educational level. A significant difference between low- and high-income levels was observed for intention to quit. The effect of education on high consumption and dependence was mainly found in smokers with high income. Conclusion. Increased effort to combat social differences in smoking behaviour is needed. Implementation of smoking cessation programmes with high reach among low socioeconomic groups is recommended.

  9. Hyper-resting brain entropy within chronic smokers and its moderation by Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Fang, Zhuo; Hager, Nathan; Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, and remains a premier cause of morbidity and mortality. Functional neuroimaging has been used to assess differences in the mean strength of brain activity in smokers’ brains, however less is known about the temporal dynamics within smokers’ brains. Temporal dynamics is a key feature of a dynamic system such as the brain, and may carry information critical to understanding the brain mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking. We measured the temporal dynamics of brain activity using brain entropy (BEN) mapping and compared BEN between chronic non-deprived smokers and non-smoking controls. Because of the known sex differences in neural and behavioral smoking characteristics, comparisons were also made between males and females. Associations between BEN and smoking related clinical measures were assessed in smokers. Our data showed globally higher BEN in chronic smokers compared to controls. The escalated BEN was associated with more years of smoking in the right limbic area and frontal region. Female nonsmokers showed higher BEN than male nonsmokers in prefrontal cortex, insula, and precuneus, but the BEN sex difference in smokers was less pronounced. These findings suggest that BEN mapping may provide a useful tool for probing brain mechanisms related to smoking. PMID:27377552

  10. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  11. Cuprous oxide thin films grown by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconducting cuprous oxide films were grown by a hydrothermal electro-deposition technique on metal (Cu) and glass (ITO) substrates between 60 °C and 100 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of cubic cuprous oxide films in different preferred orientations depending upon the deposition technique used. Film growth, uniformity, grain size, optical band gap and photoelectrochemical response were found to improve in the hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique. - Highlights: • Cu2O thin films were grown on Cu and glass substrates. • Conventional and hydrothermal electrochemical deposition techniques were used. • Hydrothermal electrochemical growth showed improved morphology, thickness and optical band gap

  12. Population-based survey of cessation aids used by Swedish smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutqvist Lars E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most smokers who quit typically do so unassisted although pharmaceutical products are increasingly used by those who want a quitting aid. Previous Scandinavian surveys indicated that many smokers stopped smoking by switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco in the form of snus. However, usage of various cessation aids may have changed in Sweden during recent years due to factors such as the wider availability of pharmaceutical nicotine, the public debate about the health effects of different tobacco products, excise tax increases on snus relative to cigarettes, and the widespread public misconception that nicotine is the main cause of the adverse health effects associated with tobacco use. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey was done during November 2008 and September 2009 including 2,599 males and 3,409 females aged between 18 and 89 years. The sampling technique was random digit dialing. Data on tobacco habits and quit attempts were collected through structured telephone interviews. Results The proportion of ever smokers was similar among males (47% compared to females (44%. About two thirds of them reported having stopped smoking at the time of the survey. Among the former smokers, the proportion who reported unassisted quitting was slightly lower among males (68% compared to females (78%. Among ever smokers who reported having made assisted quit attempts, snus was the most frequently reported cessation aid among males (22%, whereas females more frequently reported counseling (8%, or pharmaceutical nicotine (gum 8%, patch 4%. Of those who reported using snus at their latest quit attempt, 81% of males and 72% of females were successful quitters compared to about 50-60% for pharmaceutical nicotine and counseling. Conclusions This survey confirms and extends previous reports in showing that, although most smokers who have quit did so unassisted, snus continues to be the most frequently reported cessation

  13. Design Considerations for Smoking Cessation Apps: Feedback From Nicotine Dependence Treatment Providers and Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Background Hundreds of smoking cessation apps are commercially available, but most are not theory-based or designed to take advantage of mobile technology in ways that could make them more engaging and possibly more effective. Considering input from both clinical experts (who understand best practice nicotine dependence treatment requirements) to inform appropriate content and from smokers (the end users) to express their preferences is important in designing these programs in the future. Objective To assess and compare the opinions of nicotine dependence treatment providers and smokers regarding the design of future smoking cessation apps. Methods We surveyed providers (n=264) and smokers who own smartphones (n=40) to assess their opinions on the importance of 21 app design features. Features represented 5 domains: cost, reputation, privacy and security, content and user experience, and communication. Domains were chosen to reflect best practice treatment, leverage mobile technology to support smoking cessation, and elicit important user preferences. Data were collected between June and July 2015. Results Most providers agreed that mHealth apps hold promise for helping people quit smoking (203/264, 76.9%) and would recommend them to their clients/patients (201/264, 76.1%), especially if the app were empirically validated (236/264, 89.4%). Few providers believe effective cessation apps currently exist (112/264, 42.4%). Few smokers (5/40, 13%) had ever downloaded a smoking cessation app; of the ones who had not, most said they would consider doing so (29/35, 83%). Both respondent groups indicated the following features were very to extremely important to include in cessation apps: free or low cost, keeps information private, matches individual needs and interests, adapts as one’s needs and interests change, helps to manage nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side effects, and allows users to track their progress. Providers and smokers also indicated gaming

  14. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    The last three years have again seen new exciting developments in the area of higher dimensional black objects. For black objects with noncompact higher dimensions, the solution space was exlored further within the blackfold approach and with numerical schemes, yielding a large variety of new families of solutions, while limiting procedures created so-called super-entropic black holes. Concerning compact extra dimensions, the sequences of static nonuniform black strings in five and six dimensions were extended to impressively large values of the nonuniformity parameter with extreme numerical precision, showing that an oscillating pattern arises for the mass, the area or the temperature, while approaching the conjectured double-cone merger solution. Besides the presentation of interesting new types of higherdimensional solutions, also their physical properties were addressed in this session. While the main focus was on Einstein gravity, a significant number of talks also covered Lovelock theories.

  15. Acute immune-inflammatory responses to a single bout of aerobic exercise in smokers; the effect of smoking history and status.

    OpenAIRE

    Tegan Emma Kastelein; Rob eDuffield; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n=27) or non-smokers (NS; n=27); were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarisation and baseline...

  16. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  17. A profile of teen smokers who volunteered to participate in school-based smoking intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianjun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Although a number of population-based studies have examined the characteristics of teens who attempt to quit smoking, few have identified the characteristics of youth who participate in structured cessation interventions, particularly those with demonstrated effectiveness. The purpose of the present study is to describe the sociodemographic and smoking-related characteristics of teen smokers who participated in the American Lung Association's Not On Tobacco (N-O-T program, spanning eight years. N-O-T is the most widely used teen smoking cessation program in the nation. Methods Drawn from multiple statewide N-O-T studies, this investigation examined data from 5,892 teen smokers ages 14–19 who enrolled in N-O-T between 1998–2006. We demonstrate similarities and differences between N-O-T findings and existing data from representative samples of US teen smokers where available and relevant. Results N-O-T teens started smoking earlier, were more likely to be poly-tobacco users, were more dependent on nicotine, had made more previous attempts to quit, and were more deeply embedded in smoking contexts than comparative samples of teen smokers. Additionally, N-O-T teens were moderately ready to quit smoking, believed important people in their lives would support their quit efforts, yet had deficits in their confidence with quitting. Conclusion This profile of N-O-T teens can guide efforts for targeted recruitment strategies to enhance intervention reach for teen smoking cessation. Findings provide guidance for marketing and recruitment efforts of intensive, school-based cessation interventions among established teen smokers, particularly those who want to quit. Study results may shed light upon who is and is not enrolling in N-O-T.

  18. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed. PMID:25045624

  19. Facebook recruitment of young adult smokers for a cessation trial: Methods, metrics, and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Ramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms, previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette, appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo. Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13–7/29/13, targeted by age (18–25, location (U.S., and language (English, and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2024 ($0.34/click. Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5895 unique clicks, 586 (10% were study eligible and 230 (39% consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n = 79 was largely Caucasian (77% and male (69%, averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD = 8.3 and 2.7 years smoking (SD = 0.7. Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  20. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01–0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  1. Fe stable isotope fractionation in modern and ancient hydrothermal Fe-Si deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, K.; Schoenberg, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Øvreås, L.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Modern iron-silica deposits of small yellow to rust coloured mounds and chimney-like structures were found in a low-temperature venting area distal to a white smoker type hydrothermal vent site at the south-western part of the Mohns Ridge, North Atlantic. Individual stratified mm to cm thick laminated layers within these structures are largely composed of branching, twisted filaments resembling encrusted stalks of Fe-oxidising bacteria. DNA analyses have confirmed the presence of both Fe-oxidising (Mariprofundus ferrooxidans and other ζ-Proteobacteria) and Fe-reducing bacteria (Shewanellaceae). Similar morphologic features, such as several mm thick red hematite-rich laminae and micron-scale filamentous structures concentrated in discrete laminae, have also been found in Early Ordovician volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) hosted jasper deposits in the Løkken-Høydal area, Norway [1]. These filamentous structures are believed to be formed by Fe-oxidising bacteria similar to Mariprofundus ferrooxidans [2]. Here, we compare the Fe isotope composition of these two different types of Fe-Si deposits with the aim to gain further information about deposition mechanisms and the role of microorganisms in Fe redox cycling of deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Fe isotope compositions of the modern biogenic Fe-Si deposit vary between -2.09 and -0.66 ‰ in δ56Fe values, a range that is comparable to late Archaean to early Proterozoic banded iron formations. The ~490 Ma old Løkken jaspers show a similar variation, but with significantly higher δ56Fe values ranging from -0.39 to +0.89 ‰. The Fe isotopic composition of the Løkken jaspers clearly correlates with morphological features with the lowest δ56Fe values in layered and the highest ones in brecciform jaspers. Our data demonstrate that variations in Fe isotope compositions of the modern Fe-Si deposit cannot be explained by a single process, but rather reflect the full complexity of Fe redox cycling within deep

  2. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [15O]H2O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [15O]H2O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8±1.1 yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0±2.5 yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6±2.5 pack years. Myocardial [15O]H2O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 deg. C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [15O]H2O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43±0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37±0.41 ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25±0.33 vs. 1.59±0.29 ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90±24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122±28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81±1.99 vs. 5.03±1.27 ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [15O]H2O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  3. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers

  4. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  5. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  6. Immobilization of nanoparticle titanium dioxide membrane on polyamide fabric by low temperature hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hui, E-mail: hzhangw532@xpu.edu.cn; Yang Lu

    2012-07-01

    A thin layer of nanoparticle titanium dioxide was immobilized on polyamide 6 (PA6) fiber using titanium sulfate and urea at low temperature hydrothermal condition. The titanium dioxide loaded fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetry techniques. The optical and mechanical properties, water absorption and degradation of methylene blue dye under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the PA6 fabric before and after treatments were also examined. It was found that when PA6 fabric was treated in titanium sulfate and urea aqueous solution, anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was synthesized and simultaneously adhered onto the fiber surface. The average crystal size of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was about 13.2 nm. The thermal behavior of PA6 fiber distinctly changed and the onset decomposition temperature decreased. As compared with the untreated fabric, the protection against UV radiation was improved. The water absorbency increased slightly. As the fabric dimensions were reduced in warp and weft directions, the breaking load and tensile strain increased to some extent. The titanium dioxide coated fabric could degradate methylene blue dye under UV irradiation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We employed a method to immobilize TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle on polyamide fiber. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We fabricated the TiO{sub 2}-coated polyamide fabric with the photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modification method may be suitable for the potential applications.

  7. N-Lauroyl sarcosine sodium salt mediated formation of hydroxyapatite microspheres via a hydrothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiufeng; Zheng Xuan [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Liu Rongfang, E-mail: rfliu@vip.sina.com [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China); Lu Yihua; Wu Shanshan [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007 (China)

    2012-07-16

    Dandelion-like hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres were successfully prepared using Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O as raw materials and N-Lauroyl sarcosine sodium salt (Sar-Na) as template via a hydrothermal route. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and thermal properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. The results demonstrate that, Sar-Na has great impact on the morphology of HA. With increasing the amount of Sar-Na, the morphology of HA varies from nanograins to nanorods, finally grows into dandelion-like microstructure. The obtained dandelion-like HA microspheres about 6 {mu}m in diameter are composed of radially oriented nanorods. Furthermore, the possible formation mechanism of morphology change is also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Lauroyl sarcosine sodium salt is firstly used to control the morphology of hydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of Sar-Na on the morphology of hydroxyapatite are discussed in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dandelion-like microsphere hydroxyapatite are obtained at suitable conditions.

  8. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  9. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium silicate--and aluminosilicate--compositions based on mixtures of fine grained quartz with various cements or calcium silicate compounds have been investigated under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range 110-2500C and pressure range 1,000-10,000 psi, pressures which are always in excess of that required to maintain liquid H2O, and approximate the confining pressures which might be anticipated in deep boreholes. All silicate cement combinations investigated produce materials having adequate strength after reaction times of 1 day or longer. The calcium aluminate cement was also adequate with respect to strength but would need to be investigated more extensively for overall properties because of its highly reactive chemistry. The mini-rock cylinder-cement plug hydrothermal experiments in both limestone and sandstone resulted in reasonable magnitudes of bonding strength. The typical shear strength of a hydrothermally treated cement-sandstone plug is 1030 psi, and the compressive strength of the extruded cement plug is 9550 psi. Reactions having a potential for producing calcium carbonate plugs in holes drilled in carbonate rocks were studied. It should be noted that most cements are calcium silicate systems and are chemically compatible with the CaCO3 and CaMg(CO3)2 in the rock walls of the hole. A side benefit from this research is some insight into the suitability of massive carbonate rocks as disposal sites. Carbonate rocks by themselves are highly impermeable, have low exchange capacity, and a low water content--all properties that are desirable in the storage medium. A major drawback is the presence of secondary permeability in the form of solutionally modified joints, fractures, and bedding planes

  10. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  11. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis. PMID:24485064

  12. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  13. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Platinum Group Metal Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2011-01-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of platinum group metal nanoparticles has been reported. The synthesis is based on the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to the aqueous PtCl4, IrCl3 or Rh(NO3)3 solution followed by the hydrothermal treatment of these precipitation systems at 160 ºC. The mean size of nanoparticles was 9.2 nm for platinum, 21 nm for iridium, and 28 nm for rhodium. The average crystallite size was estimated at 7.4 nm for platinum, 3.1 nm for iridium and...

  15. Geomicrobiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannasch, H W; Mottl, M J

    1985-08-23

    During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the mid-ocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing hydrothermal fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits. PMID:17841485

  16. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  17. Eficacia de la higiene oral en adultos jóvenes fumadores y no fumadores Oral higiene effectiveness in smoker and non smoker young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Feser

    2003-06-01

    del área de la salud y como avance para posteriores estudios de casos y controles que realizaremos en poblaciones semejantes, con el objeto de controlar la variable "higiene oral" como factor de confusión en el diseño etiológico causal que le corresponde al hábito de fumar.This study was carried out on a population of young adult dentistry students. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of smokers in this group and to establish the effectiveness of oral hygiene practices of this group of students. In a first stage, a group of students were asked about their smoking habits, initiating age and amount of cigarettes per day, in order to determine the prevalence of smokers. In a second stage, students were randomized selecting a total of 61 individuals, 32 of them didn't have smoking habits and 29 has it; in order to determine oral hygiene's effectiveness. The age average of non smokers was 23 ±2,109 years old, and of smokers 23,655 ± 1,913 year-old, not existing significant difference between them. Green & Vermillion simplified oral hygiene index was carried out to each student. AlI measures were registered by a gauged examiner to avoid the interexaminer mistake. Information on smoking habits was asked at the end of examination in order to avoid the subjectivity of the clinic examiner. The oral hygiene index assigned for each group was 1,103 (lC 95% 0,344-1,861 for smokers and 1,218 (lC 95% 0,245-2, 191 for non smokers. By confronting data and fixing p value <5%, we conclude that there are no significant differences between the accumulation of supragingival plaque in both groups, and the effectiveness of oral hygiene among young adult smokers and non smokers is similar and acceptable. This study determines smokers prevalence in health-area students, and Iike an advance for future "casecontrol" studies that we'lI carry out in similar populations, in order to control "oral hygiene" variable as a confusin factor in the etiologic causal design that

  18. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY OF VALSARTAN IN SMOKERS VERSUS NON-SMOKERS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: THE FIRST RESULTS OF RUSSIAN MULTICENTER OPEN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Podzolkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study antihypertensive efficacy and safety of valsartan (Diovan, Novartis Pharma as well as patient’s compliance to the mono- or combined valsartan based therapy in smoking vs non-smoking hypertensive patients.Material and methods. It was a prospective multicenter observation study. 114 doctors from 81 medical institutions of Russia participated in the study. 650 hypertensive patients (41,2% of smokers and 58,8% of non-smokers; age 53,9±0,4 y.o. in average were included in the study. The evaluation of therapy efficacy was based on analysis of systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure (BP changes and of patient number who answered to the treatment and reached BP target level. Safety and compliance of the treatment also was analyzed. The initial valsartan dose was 80 mg OD and may be increased (up to 320 mg OD by doctor for achievement of BP target level. A combination of the valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide was also allowed. Amlodipine (5-10 mg/d or any other antihypertensive also may be added if necessary.Results. Significant decrease of SBP and DBP was observed in each group between the 1st and 5th visits. SBP decreased by 37,5 mm Hg (р<0,01 in smoking patients and by 37,6 mm Hg (р<0,01 in non-smoking ones. DBP decreased by 18,5 mm Hg (р<0,01 in smoking patients and by 15,9 mm Hg (р<0,01 in non-smoking ones. Differences in SBP and DBP changes were not significant between groups. Target BP level (<140/90 mm Hg was reached in 96,2% of smokers and in 96% of non-smokers. 99% of smoking patients and 96,1% of non-smoking ones responded to valsartan based therapy according to defined criteria.Conclusion. Similar antihypertensive efficacy and safety of valsartan mono- and combined therapy was found out in smoking and non-smoking hypertensive patients.

  19. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND INFLUENCE ON SEXUAL FUNCTION OF VALSARTAN AND VALSARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE COMBINATION IN SMOKERS VERSUS NON-SMOKERS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Podzolkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study antihypertensive efficacy and safety of valsartan-based therapy as well as influence of treatment on several aspects of sexual function.Material and methods. Hypertensive patients (n=650 in 53 medical institutions of Russia were enrolled to the prospective multicenter observation study, 37.5% of smokers and 62.5% non-smokers. The evaluation of therapy efficacy was based on analysis of systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure (BP changes. Safety and compliance of treatment was also analyzed. The evaluation of sexual function was performed with 5 universal questions selected form the International Index of Erectile Function. These ques- tions could be asked in both men and women. The valsartan dose was 80–320 mg OD. A combination of the valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide (12.5–25 mg/d, amlodipine (5–10 mg/d or any other antihypertensive was allowed.Results. Significant similar decrease of SBP and DBP was observed in smoking and non-smoking patients (37.4/17.8 and 36.7/16.5 mm Hg respectively, р<0.01 vs baseline. Differences in SBP and DBP changes were not significant between groups. Target BP level (<140/90 mmHg was reached in 81.9% smokers and 76.0% non-smokers.After 20 weeks of treatment the number of patients without sexual activity and with 1–2 successful sexual attempts in the last 4 weeks significantly decreased from 44.7 to 32.8% and from 29.1% to 23.2%, respectively (р<0.05. Significant increase in the number of patients with 5–6 and 7–10 successful sexual attempts was observed (from 6.1 to 13.6% and from 3.2 to 5.9% respectively, р<0.05. The treatment resulted in significant increase in the number of patients, who evaluated their sexual life satisfaction as ″very satisfied″ (from 8.2 to 14.8%, <0.01.Conclusion. Comparable antihypertensive efficacy and safety were demonstrated for valsartan based therapy in smoking and non-smoking patients. During the course of treatment there was a significant

  20. Comparison of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction between smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shemirani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is relatively common and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Cigarette smoking is known as deleterious in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, but the effect of smoking on no-reflow phenomenon is less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare no-reflow phenomenon after percutneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, between smokers and non smokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 141 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran between March and September, 2012 with a diagnosis of STEMI, enrolled into our Cohort study. Patients were divided into current smoker and nonsmoker groups (based on patient′s information. All patients underwent primary PCI or rescue PCI within the first 12-h of chest pain. No-reflow phenomenon, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI flow, and 24-h complications were assessed in both groups. Results: A total of 47 current smoker cases (32.9% and 94 (65.7% nonsmoker cases were evaluated. Smokers in comparison to nonsmokers were younger (53.47 ± 10.59 vs. 61.46 ± 10.55, P < 0.001 and they were less likely to be hypertensive (15.2% vs. 44.7%, P < 0.001, diabetic (17% vs. 36.2%, P < 0.05, and female gender (4.3% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.01. Angiographic and procedural characteristics of both groups were similar. 9 patients died during the first 24-h after PCI (4.3% of smokers and 6.4% of nonsmokers, P: 0.72. No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 29.8% of current smokers and 31.5% of nonsmokers (P = 0.77. Conclusion: No-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications were not significantly different between current smokers and non smokers.

  1. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles among middle aged male smokers: a study from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendiran Chinnasamy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The objectives were to investigate into the relationship between lipid profile including Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1 and Apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B and smokers and to relate them with smoking pack years. Materials and Methods A total of 274 active male smokers without any other illnesses and age matched male healthy control subjects (78 with similar socio-cultural background were assessed for clinical details, dietary habits, physical activities, smoking and alcohol consumption. Standard methods were adopted to check the lipid levels. The data were analyzed statistically. Results Their ages ranged from 40 to 59 years, systolic BP from 110 to 130 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 76 to 88 mmHg. All of them had similar pattern of diet (vegetarianism with occasional meat. None was on any medication influences lipid level. Their physical activity was moderate. Number of pack years varied from 10 to 14 (mild, 15 to 19 (moderate and 20 and above (heavy among 69, 90 and 115 cases, whose mean ages were 43, 44 and 49 respectively. The mean (+SD values in mg/dl of total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TGL, Apo-B, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and Apo-A1 in mg/dl among mild/ moderate/ heavy smokers and control subjects were 198 (30.6/ 224 (27.2/ 240 (24.3 and 160 (20.4; 164(42.6/ 199 (39.5/ 223(41.7 and 124 (31.6; 119 (24.9/ 121 (27/ 127 (28.3 and 116 (21.4; 94 (19.7/ 104 (21.8/ 120 (20.5 and 82 (17.6; 42 (5.9/ 39 (3.1/ 35(4.4 and 48 (5.3; and 120 (17/ 119 (21/ 115 (25 and 126 (19, respectively. In smokers, there was a rise in TC, TGL, LDL, Apo-B and fall in HDL and Apo-A; these changes were significant (P Conclusion Number of pack years was directly proportional to abnormal lipid profile. It is also concluded that changes in Apo-A1 and Apo-B were more significant when compared to HDL and LDL cholesterol among smokers. In the view of double risk for smokers (smoking and altered lipid profile

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content. PMID:24709539

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered sodium manganese oxide nanowires and their electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Ming; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Oh, Sei-Woon; Ma, Peng-Cheng; Ma, Jun; Li, Bao-Hua; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2010-11-01

    A new method for preparing black birnessite nanowires is introduced. Layer-structured manganese oxide nanowires were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, and using both NaMnO4 and CH3CH2OH as the precursors in a concentrated NaOH solution. The structure, composition, appearance and electrochemical performance of the product were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy diffraction (ED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and constant current charge/discharge. The XRD patterns showed a single phase corresponding to a crystalline birnessite-based manganese oxide. TEM studies suggested their wire-like structures. The TGA measurement demonstrated that they possessed an excellent thermal stability up to 400 degrees C. In the potential window of 2.0-4.3 V, the product exhibited excellent cyclic stability and rapid charge-discharge performance. PMID:21137939

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of amorphous MoS2nanofiber bundles via acidification of ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharamani CN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMoS2nanofiber bundles have been prepared by hydrothermal method using ammonium molybdate with sulfur source in acidic medium and maintained at 180 °C for several hours. The obtained black crystalline products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The PXRD pattern of the sample can be readily indexed as hexagonal 2H-MoS2. FTIR spectrum of the MoS2shows the band at 480 cm−1corresponds to the γas(Mo-S. SEM/TEM images of the samples exhibit that the MoS2nanofiber exist in bundles of 120–300 nm in diameter and 20–25 μm in length. The effects of temperature, duration and other experimental parameters on the morphology of the products are investigated.

  5. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  6. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch; Frischknecht, Lone; Andersen, Helle Raun; Kruse, Torben A; Sherson, David Lee; Skadhauge, Lars Rauff; Thomsen, Gert; Baelum, Jesper; Omland, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity are associated with asthma and reduced lung function. Using the ECRHS protocol, we enlisted 1,091 Danish subjects in this cross-sectional study. Asthma phenotypes were defined as asthma symptoms in......), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers...

  8. Exhaled breath condensate pH as a biomarker of COPD severity in ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alchanatis Manos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endogenous airway acidification, as assessed by exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, is present in patients with stable COPD. The aim of this study was to measure EBC pH levels in a large cohort of COPD patients and to evaluate associations with functional parameters according to their smoking status. EBC was collected from 161 patients with stable COPD and 112 controls (current and ex-smokers. EBC pH was measured after Argon deaeration and all subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. EBC pH was lower in COPD patients compared to controls [7.21 (7.02, 7.44 vs. 7.50 (7.40, 7.66; p Endogenous airway acidification is related to disease severity and to parameters expressing hyperinflation and air trapping in ex-smokers with COPD. The possible role of EBC pH in COPD needs to be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  9. Diffuse interstitial lung infiltrates in a smoker with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanath P Vasudevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare interstitial lung disease characteristically affecting middle-aged smokers. It has unpredictable clinical course and may be associated with malignant neoplasms. Opportunistic lung infections are frequently considered when patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present with respiratory symptoms and an abnormal chest X-ray. Though fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is diagnostic for infectious etiologies, surgical lung biopsies are preferred to diagnose noninfectious lung diseases and to help guide appropriate therapy. In the present study, we report a case of progressive bilateral lung infiltrates in a smoker with HIV infection which presented a diagnostic dilemma in view of coexistent HIV infection. Analysis of clinical symptomatology aided by surgical lung biopsy helped in diagnosis.

  10. PULMONARY LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS PRESENTING AS SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX IN A NON-SMOKER PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaziri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH is a rare idiopathic disorder that primarily affects young adult cigarette smokers. Affected patients often present with cough and dyspnea and about 20% of patients present with or later develop pneumothorax. It is striking that more than 90% of patients are smokers. We report a very unusual case of PLCH in a 20-year- old male patient with no smoking history in whom a life- threatening complication such as simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax was the presenting feature. The final diagnosis was made by open surgical biopsy and recurrent pneumothoraces necessitated surgical management with pleurodesis. We emphasize the early use of pleurodesis in managing patients with PLCH and spontaneous pneumothorax.

  11. Heavy-Drinking Smokers' Treatment Needs and Preferences: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M; Hanrahan, Tess H

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the smoking and psychological characteristics of heavy-drinking smokers, their perceptions of smoking and drinking, and their smoking and alcohol treatment preferences to inform an integrated smoking and alcohol intervention. Heavy-drinking smokers (N=26) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a strong association between their smoking and drinking. Participants were more motivated to quit smoking than to reduce their drinking but perceived greater barriers to smoking cessation. Stress/negative affect was closely linked with both behaviors. They expressed overall enthusiasm for a smoking and alcohol intervention but had specific format and content preferences. Half preferred an integrated treatment format whereas others preferred a sequential treatment model. The most preferred content included personalized health feedback and a way to monitor health gains after behavior changes. PMID:26297324

  12. Recruiting African American smokers into intervention research: Relationships between recruitment strategies and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Monica S; Seigers, Danielle; Wood, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) to describe an 8-month recruitment campaign to enroll African American smokers (N = 249) into a randomized controlled trial and (b) examine characteristics of participants recruited through proactive (face-to-face), reactive (television, radio, or newspaper ads inviting participants), and combination (both reactive and proactive) approaches. Reactive recruitment was most successful (43%), followed by proactive (31%), and combination (26%) recruitment. Compared to proactive recruitment, reactive recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence, and greater readiness to quit, processes of change engagement, and acculturation. Combination recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence and greater readiness to quit. The differences according to recruitment strategy could be used to tailor recruitment strategies for African American smokers. PMID:18767129

  13. DNA damage and repair activity after broccoli intake in young healthy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Martini, Daniela; Møller, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    compounds, including smokers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of broccoli intake on biomarkers of DNA damage and repair. Twenty-seven young healthy smokers consumed a portion of steamed broccoli (250 g/day) or a control diet for 10 days each within a crossover design with a washout period...... mRNA expression levels of repair and defence enzymes: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). After broccoli consumption, the level of oxidised DNA lesions decreased by 41% (95% confidence interval: 10%, 72%) and...... the resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks increased by 23% (95% CI: 13%, 34%). Following broccoli intake, a higher protection was observed in subjects with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-null genotype. The expression level and activity of repair enzymes was unaltered. In conclusion...

  14. Reactive transport modeling of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust: effect of anhydrite precipitation on the dynamics of submarine hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrothermal fluid circulation represents an extremely efficient mechanism for the exchange of heat and matter between seawater and oceanic crust. Precipitation and dissolution of minerals associated with hydrothermal flow at ridge axes can alter the crustal porosity and permeability and hence influence the dynamics of hydrothermal systems. In this study, a fully coupled fluid flow, heat transfer and reactive mass transport model was developed using TOUGHREACT to evaluate the role of mineral precipitation and dissolution on the evolution of hydrothermal flow systems, with a particular attention focused on anhydrite precipitation upon heating of seawater in recharge zones and the resultant change in the crustal porosity and permeability. A series of numerical case studies were carried out to assess the effect of temperature and aqueous phase inflow concentrations on the reactive geochemical system. The impact of chemically induced porosity and permeability changes on the dynamics of hydrothermal systems was also addressed.

  15. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  16. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  17. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  18. Kerr black string flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D=5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  19. Serum, saliva, and GCF concentration of RANKL and osteoprotegerin in smokers versus nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Saied-Moallemi, Zahra; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Naseri, Roohollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of host response in periodontitis pathogenesis is confirmed, and it is well established that immune response plays a major role in the alveolar bone destruction. In the investigation of these responses, the role of receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)-osteoprotegerin (OPG) system is the most promising. Smoking can affect the RANKL-OPG system in a manner that will further enhance bone loss in periodontitis. The aim of this study is to assess the serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) concentration of RANKL and OPG in smoker versus nonsmoker untreated chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine subjects were included in the present cross-sectional study: 29 systemically healthy CP male patients (15 smokers, 14 nonsmokers) and 10 systemically and periodontally healthy nonsmoker male subjects. Serum, GCF, and whole saliva samples were obtained from the subjects. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used for assaying the concentrations of RANKL and OPG in the samples. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test were utilized to compare differences between the groups. Results: RANKL and OPG concentrations in saliva, serum, and GCF did not show any significant difference among all groups (P > 0.05). Salivary RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the nonsmoker CP group than in the healthy control group (P > 0.05) but they were not statistically significant among smoker periodontitis patients. Conclusions: The salivary RANKL/OPG ratio was higher in nonsmokers with periodontitis in comparison with smoker periodontitis patients. PMID:27195253

  20. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ping Wang

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong.Daily smokers (N = 1,307 were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial ('Quit to Win' in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting.Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9% had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5% ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1% and non-users (91.2% did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45. E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05.Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes.