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Sample records for black sigatoka attack

  1. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  2. Plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com culturas anuais Irrigated banana resistant to black Sigatoka, with annual intercrops

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    Ildeu de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com cultura anuais, na região norte de Minas Gerais, um experimento foi instalado na Fazenda Experimental do Departamento de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Câmpus de Janaúba-MG. O experimento foi conduzido no período de abril de 2006 a julho de 2007, delineado em blocos casualizados, segundo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas 3 x 5, tendo na parcela as três variedades de bananeiras: Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo, e na subparcela quatro culturas intercalares: Feijão-Pérola, Quiabo-Dardo, Melancia-Crimson-Sweet e Feijão-Caupi, e a testemunha (sem cultura intercalar, com três repetições. Ao todo, foram 756 bananeiras, em 45 parcelas, com 6 plantas úteis cada, constituindo a cultura principal. As culturas intercalares ocuparam as entrelinhas da bananeira, tanto aquelas com as linhas de irrigação como sem linha de irrigação. O plantio da bananeira e das culturas intercalares foi feito no mesmo período, utilizando-se do espaçamento de 3,0 m entre as linhas e 2,0 m entre as covas de bananeira, com microaspersores espaçados de 6 m. Avaliaram-se as características vegetativas e reprodutivas das variedades de bananeiras, no primeiro ciclo. Não foi observado efeito significativo dos cultivos intercalares sobre as variedades de bananeiras, com exceção do número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e do número de dias do plantio à colheita das variedades de bananeiras. O uso do feijão-caupi promoveu atraso no ciclo de produção das três variedades de bananeiras Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo.To assess the irrigated cultivation of banana resistant to black Sigatoka, intercropped with annual crops in the northern region of Minas Gerais, a trial was conducted on an experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, in Janaúba-MG. The experiment was carried out from April 2006 to

  3. Rapid and mass screening of banana and plantain for resistance to Black sigatoka disease using detached leaf and in vitro plantlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of in vitro plantlets in tubes and detached leaves in screening Musa genotypes against Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of Black sigatoka disease. The utility of these two assays was evaluated using eight genotypes with different levels of disease resistance. Differences in disease response were observed when in vitro plantlets in tubes and detached leaves of selected Musa genotypes with different levels of disease resistance were inoculated with M. fijiensis. The response of genotypes depended on their level of disease resistance, with resistant genotypes having longer incubation times and smaller infected leaf areas compared to the susceptible cultivar 'Agbagba' and to relatively less resistant genotypes. A similar pattern in cultivar response was observed for symptom evolution time. Although symptom stages appeared earlier on in in vitro plants compared to detached leaves, genotypes were consistently ranked based on their level of disease resistance. Disease severity data from the two assays were strongly correlated, with higher severity being observed on the susceptible cultivar 'Agbagba' and lowest severity on resistant land race 'Calcutta-4'. The remaining genotypes had disease severity levels corresponding to their levels of resistance to Black sigatoka disease. Based on these results, we conclude that these two rapid assays are reliable for screening banana and plantain for resistance to Black sigatoka disease. (author)

  4. The phytotoxins of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease, and their potential use in screening for disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black Sigatoka is the most threatening and devastating disease of bananas and plantains in the world. Currently, a worldwide search is underway either to find or to produce cultivars that are disease resistant or tolerant. Phytotoxins isolated from the causing disease agent might facilitate the discovery of such cultivars. To this end, we have succeeded in isolating several aromatic compounds from liquid cultures of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of Black Sigatoka disease of bananas and plantains. The most abundant and phytotoxic of these compounds is 2,4,8-trihydroxytetralone, which induces necrotic lesions at 5 g/5 l in less than 12 h on sensitive cultivars of bananas. This compound exhibits host-selectivity that mimics that of the pathogen. Other phytotoxins isolated from this fungus, in lesser amounts, were juglone, the novel compound, 2-carboxy-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, isoochracinic acid and 4-hydroxyscytalone. Some of these phytotoxins appear to be melanin shunt pathway metabolites. In preliminary studies, in tissue cultures, tetralone has been demonstrated as an effective tool in selecting banana/plantain for resistance. (author). 30 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Progresso da sigatoka-negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso-Brasil Progress of black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis in banana plants after the bunch emergence in the district of Cáceres, Mato-Grosso-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Benedita Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A sigatoka-negra, causada pelo fungo Mycosphaerella fijiensis, pode causar 100% de perdas na produção das cultivares suscetíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o progresso da sigatoka-negra em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso. O experimento foi conduzido no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004 em plantios das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco, sendo esta última uma cultivar de plátano, do grupo Terra. As avaliações foram efetuadas a intervalos de 15 dias, quantificando-se, através de uma escala diagramática, a severidade da sigatoka-negra em todas as folhas de 5 plantas de cada cultivar, marcadas logo após a emissão das inflorescências. A partir dos dados coletados no campo, computaram-se: a severidade da doença na folha n.º 10 e o número de folhas viáveis. Considerou-se como folha viável as folhas sadias e aquelas com até 15% de área foliar lesionada. Os dados de temperatura e da umidade relativa foram registrados por um aparelho eletrônico instalado na área. A precipitação pluvial foi registrada na Estação meteorológica de Cáceres, distante 12 km do experimento. As condições climáticas foram favoráveis à sigatoka negra durante o ano todo e as plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco após a emissão do cacho, perderam totalmente as folhas antes dos frutos atingirem o pleno desenvolvimento, cujos prejuízos no primeiro semestre atingiram 100% de perdas na produção comercializável.The black sigatoka, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis may cause 100% of yield losses in susceptible cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the progress of the black sigatoka in banana plants after the bunch emergence, in the district of Cáceres, Mato Grosso State - Brazil. The experiment was carried out from February to December 2004, in banana cultivars "Grande Naine" and "Maçã", as well as plantain cultivar Farta Velhaco (Terra

  6. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F; V de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C; Lindquist, Erika A; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A J; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V; Goodwin, Stephen B; Kema, Gert H J

    2016-08-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  7. Mutation induction by gamma-rays and carbon ion beam irradiation in banana (Musa spp.): a study with an emphasis on the response to Black sigatoka disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-rays and carbon ion beam irradiation methods were applied to study critical doses, genetic variability and the response to Black sigatoka disease. 'Cavendish Enano', 'Williams', 'Orito' and 'FHIA-01' cultivars of banana were studied. Both gamma-rays and carbon ion beam irradiation methods had different biological effects when banana explants were exposed to them. In both methods, increased dose caused increased mortality. 'FHIA-01' tolerated high doses of gamma-rays but was susceptible to high doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. The results suggest that the response in 'FHIA-01' can be explored using other dose intervals between 150 and 300 Gy. Weight and height were also reduced drastically when high doses of gamma-rays and carbon ion beams were applied. The LD50 of cultivars 'FHIA-01' and 'Orito' revealed high sensitivity to both gamma-rays and carbon ion beams. DNA deletion in 'FHIA-01' occurred by using gamma-rays at doses of 200 and 300 Gy, suggesting that 'FHIA-01' is definitely a promising cultivar with a high sensitivity response to gamma-ray exposure, and that there is a high chance of improving its fruit quality by mutation induction. Sigmoid drooping leaf, a putative mutation of 'FHIA-01', was generated. This mutation is heritable as mother plant and sucker showed the same characteristics. Future research could be conducted on the relationship of leaf shape to fruit quality and production. Hexaploid cells were detected by flow cytometry (five plants in 'Cavendish Enano' and one in 'Williams'), signifying that chromosome duplication can be induced by carbon ion beams. Variation in the leaves such as being abnormal, double, long, rudimentary, spindled and yellow spotted leaf was visible, suggesting that long-term chronic irradiation (gamma-rays) directly affects active cell division at the meristem level, resulting in severe damage or even death of the meristems. During the juglone toxin experiment on gamma-ray-irradiated plants, 20 plants were

  8. To mitigate Black-hole attack with CBDS in MANET

    OpenAIRE

    Navjot; Er.Pooja Ran

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network is self configured network that consist of mobile nodes which communicate with each other. Distributed self-organized nature of this network makes it venerable to various attacks likes DOS attack, Black hole attack, wormhole attack and jamming attack etc. Blackhole attack is one of the serious attack in network in which information loss occur which degrades the performance of network. In this work black hole attack is detected with the help of CBDS (cooperati...

  9. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

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    Miguel J Beltrán-García

    Full Text Available In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg. Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg, a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg. A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  10. INTEGRACIÓN DE INDUCCIÓN DE RESISTENCIA CON BACTERIAS QUITINOLÍTICAS EN EL CONTROL DE LA SIGATOKA NEGRA (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet EN BANANO INTEGRATION OF INDUCED RESISTANCE WITH CHITINOLYTIC BACTERIA IN BLACK SIGATOKA CONTROL (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet IN BANANA

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    Catalina María Zuluaga Amaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó en condiciones de campo en la zona bananera de Urabá-Colombia, el efecto de inductores de resistencia y bacterias quitinolíticas sobre el desarrollo de la Sigatoka Negra en plantas de banano del cultivar Gran Enano. Como inductores de resistencia se utilizaron acibenzolar-s-metil (ASM (20 cm³ · ha-1 i.a. y ácido salicílico (AS (20 cm³ · ha-1 i.a cada uno en rotación y en mezcla con fungicidas utilizados en el control convencional de la enfermedad; se evaluó también la mezcla de estos inductores con bacterias quitinolíticas aisladas de la filosfera de banano; así como el efecto del fungicida biológico Biofun® ( 1,5 L · ha-1 de p.c. en rotación con fungicidas y en mezcla con ASM. La aplicación de ASM en rotación y en mezcla con fungicidas convencionales presentó un control de la enfermedad hasta un 50% mayor al obtenido con el control convencional, evidenciado esto en los valores más bajos del área bajo la curva del índice de severidad de la enfermedad (IS y más altos de hojas sanas (HS al momento de la floración. Los tratamientos, que incluyeron AS en rotación y mezcla con fungicidas convencionales, al igual que el producto Biofun® en rotación y en mezcla con ASM, mostraron un control de la enfermedad estadísticamente igual al obtenido con el control convencional, lo cual reveló una reducción de 46 - 100% de la cantidad de fungicidas convencionales usados en el control de la Sigatoka Negra.The effect of resistance elicitors and chitinolytic bacteria was evaluated on Black Sigatoka control in banana plants, in field conditions in Urabá-Colombia. Acibenzolar-s-metil (ASM (20 cm³ · ha- 1 a.i. and salicilyc acid (SA (20 cm³ a.i.ha-1 were used in rotation and mixture with conventional fungicides, and in mixture with chitinolytic bacteria isolated from banana phyllosphere. Biological fungicide Biofun® ( 1,5 L · ha-1 de p.c. was also tested in rotation and mixture with ASM. When fungicides were in rotation

  11. To mitigate Black-hole attack with CBDS in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network is self configured network that consist of mobile nodes which communicate with each other. Distributed self-organized nature of this network makes it venerable to various attacks likes DOS attack, Black hole attack, wormhole attack and jamming attack etc. Blackhole attack is one of the serious attack in network in which information loss occur which degrades the performance of network. In this work black hole attack is detected with the help of CBDS (cooperative Bait Detection Algorithm and MD5 is used for the security purpose. This work is implemented in Network simulator and performance is checked on the bases of network parameters.

  12. Performance Analysis of Manet Before and After Black Hole Attack

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    Ms.Heena Bhalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile ad-hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless mobile computers (or nodes moving arbitrary in the places that have no network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, wireless ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of the prominent attacks is the Black Hole Attack which absorbs all data packets in the network. Since the data packets do not reach the destination node on account of this attack, data loss will occur. In this paper we simulated MANETs with and without Black Hole to study the effects of Black hole attack on network performance. Because of Black Hole Attack the average packet drop increased form 0.25% to 90.69% . The throughput of the network decreased 93.56% due to Black Hole effect.

  13. WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK UNDER BLACK-HOLE ATTACK

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    Shree Om

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad-hoc Network is a temporary and decentralized type of wireless network. Due to security vulnerabilities in the routing protocol currently, this type of network is unprotected to network layer attacks. Black-hole attack is such a type of attack and is a Denial-of-Service (DoS attack. Due to its nature, the attack makes the source node send all the data packets to a Black-hole node that ends up dropping all the packets. The aim of this paper is to reflect light on the severe effects of a Black-hole attack in a Wireless Ad-hoc network and the drawbacks of the security mechanisms being used for the mitigation of this attack.

  14. Performance analysis of black hole attacks in geographical routing MANET

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    H.J Shanthi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network is vulnerable to several types of attacks. The most commonly classified attack is black hole attack, which is carried by single or multiple attackers, advertising itself of having a short fresh route to transmit data. The aim is to ensure security against the black hole attack and analyze the performance in geographical routing. The simple method is to send data as small blocks instead of entire data. The traffic is monitored independently in its neighborhood. The mechanism uses geographic information to detect variance in neighbor relations and node movements. We analyze the black hole attack in two popular location based protocol LAR and DREAM. It provides the stimulation study of black hole attack with the minimum attacker and also provides analysis on the parameters such as throughput, packet delivery and delay done with OMNET++ simulator. The simulation results show that packet loss increases and throughput decreases in the network with a black hole node in geographical routing. The proposed mechanism can be combined with existent routing protocols to defend against black hole attacks.

  15. Progresso da sigatoka-negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso-Brasil Progress of black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) in banana plants after the bunch emergence in the district of Cáceres, Mato-Grosso-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Benedita Martins; João Pedro Valente; Leimi Kobayasti; Luadir Gasparotto

    2007-01-01

    A sigatoka-negra, causada pelo fungo Mycosphaerella fijiensis, pode causar 100% de perdas na produção das cultivares suscetíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o progresso da sigatoka-negra em bananeiras após a emissão do cacho no Município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso. O experimento foi conduzido no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004 em plantios das cultivares Grande Naine, Maçã e Farta Velhaco, sendo esta última uma cultivar de plátano, do grupo Terra. As avaliações foram efetuadas ...

  16. Preventing AODV Routing Protocol from Black Hole Attack

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    Lalit Himral,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks, due to their improvised nature, are frequently established insecure environments, which makes them susceptible to attacks. These attacks are launched by participating malicious nodes against different network services. Routing protocols, which act as the binding force in these networks, are a common target of these nodes. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODVis a widely adopted network routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET. Black hole attack is one of the severe security threats in ad-hoc networks which can be easily employed by exploitingvulnerability of on-demand routing protocols such as AODV. In this paper we proposed a solution for identifying the malicious node in AODV protocol suffering from black hole attack.

  17. A Study of Black Hole Attack on MANET Performance

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    C. K. Nagpal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organized wireless network, consisting of nodes (mobile devices responsible for its creation, operation and maintenance. The communication in the MANET is of multihop in nature due to absence of any fixed infrastructure. An attacker may intrude easily into MANET by posing as legitimate intermediate node and present various types of security attacks on data exchanges taking place between source and destination. In this paper we study the impact of presence of black hole node on MANET performance on the basis of reachability, hop count, neighbor node density and path optimality. We observe that as the percentage of black hole nodes increases, the MANET performance degrades significantly.

  18. Performance Analysis of AODV under Black Hole Attack through Use of OPNET Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Esmaili, H A; gharaee, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are dynamic wireless networks without any infrastructure. These networks are weak against many types of attacks. One of these attacks is the black hole. In this attack, a malicious node advertises itself as having freshest or shortest path to specific node to absorb packets to itself. The effect of black hole attack on ad hoc network using AODV as a routing protocol will be examined in this research. Furthermore, we investigate solution for increasing security in these networks. Simulation results using OPNET simulator depict that packet delivery ratio in the presence of malicious nodes, reduces notably.

  19. Effect of Black Hole Active Attack on Reactive Routing Protocol AODV in MANET using Network Simulator

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    Arunima Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes that are dynamically and arbitrarily located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on continual basis. MANET has potential applications in very unpredictable and dynamic environments. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, wireless ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of these attacks is the Black Hole Attack. In this paper, we focus on analyzing the effect of active Black Hole Attack on one of famous reactive routing protocol AODV. Our aim is to simulate the effect of Black Hole Attack on AODV protocol using various performance metric parameters.

  20. Prevention of Co-operative Black Hole attack in Manet on DSR protocol using Cryptographic Algorithm

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    G.Vennila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile node in which each node can communicate with other node without use of predefined infrastructure. Currently, a lot of efficient protocols have been proposed for MANET. All of these efficient Routing protocols are depends only conviction and supportive environment. Conversely, the networks are more vulnerable to various kinds of routing attacks with the presence of malicious nodes. Black hole attack is one of network layer attack. In this attack, A malicious node make use of routing protocol to advertise itself that has a shortest path to reach destination, drops at the cost of original routing packets. In our work, the proposed algorithm is used to secure the DSR protocol. This will help to improve the performance of Mobile Ad hoc network due to the attack. There are several prevention mechanisms to eliminate the Black Hole attack in MANET. The aim of the paper is to provide better prevention of Co-operative Black hole attack in MANET and how it affects the performance metrics in terms of throughput and delay of the network by comparing the network performance with and without black hole nodes.

  1. Guard against cooperative black hole attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

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    Harsh Pratap Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous network that consists of nodes which communicate with each other with wireless channel. Due to its dynamic nature and mobility of nodes, mobile ad hoc networks are more vulnerable to security attack than conventional wired and wireless networks. One of the principal routing protocols AODV used in MANETs. The security of AODV protocol is influence by the particular type of attack called Black Hole attack. In a black hole attack, a malicious node injects a faked route reply claiming to havethe shortest and freshest route to the destination. However, when the data packets arrive, the malicious node discards them. To preventing black hole attack, this paper presents RBS (Reference Broadcast Synchronization & Relative velocity distance method for clock synchronization process in Mobile ad-hoc Network for removal of cooperative black hole node. This paper evaluates the performance in NS2 network simulator and our analysis indicates that this method is very suitable to remove black hole attack.

  2. A Countermeasure for Black Hole Attack in Mobile WiMAX Networks

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    M. Deva Priya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile WiMAX has drawn much attention due to its benefits. Nevertheless, security is a challenge and has to be ensured. The attacker may make use of parts of unencrypted management messages and acquire information about the type of traffic, nodes involved, timing and so on. This work discusses about the attacks prevalent in mobile WiMAX and a prediction mechanism to foreknow the prevalence of Black hole attack, an attack in the network layer. This mechanism eliminates the vindictive nodes and provides better results in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR, Throughput, Control and Total overheads.

  3. Detection and Removal of Gray, Black and Cooperative Black Hole Attacks in AODV Technique

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    Hosny M. Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous self-configuring infrastructure-less wireless network. MANET is vulnerable to a lot of routing security threats due to unreliability of its nodes that are highly involved in the routing process. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to enhance the security of one of the most popular MANET routing protocols that is called Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV with minimum routing overhead and high packet delivery ratio. The proposed technique intends to detect and remove black, gray, and cooperative black hole AODV attacks depending on a mobile backbone network constructed from randomly moving regular MANET nodes based on their trust value, location, and power. The backbone network monitors regular nodes as well as each other to periodically estimate monitoring trust values which represent the reliability of each node in the network. The drop in the monitoring trust value of any node is used as a clue to its malicious behavior. The backbone network also tries to bait the malicious nodes to reply to a request for a route to fake destination address. The proposed technique uses the control packets of the AODV to exchange its control information which highly reduces the overhead. The simulation results show that the performance of the proposed technique is more secure than AODV and the other recently introduced techniques.

  4. Detection and Prevention of Gray Hole and Black Hole Attack in MANET

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    Deepali Raut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Ad hoc network is the network with no fixed infrastructure. There is no central administrator so any node can come and move in and outside of the network in a dynamic manner. This makes it more dynamic and complex which makes it more prone to attacks. They can attack either active or passive. Some effects of malicious nodes are Denial of service, Routing table overflow, Impersonation, Energy consumption, Information disclosure etc. A black hole attack node attracts all packets by falsely claiming a fresh route to the destination node and absorbs them without forwarding them to destination. In this work the effect of Black hole and Gray Hole attack on DSR protocol has been considered. Simulation has been performed on the basis of performance parameters and effect has been analyzed using NS2 simulator. 

  5. BFO Based Optimized Positioning For Black Hole Attack Mitigation in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi Arya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks are always susceptible to attacks by malicious behavior of external adversary which could negatively affect the secured routing and QoS and hence, vital wireless applications. In recent times, a lot of severe attacks have been proposed which make such networks highly vulnerable. One such attack is black hole attack that can be easily employed against routing in sensor networks. In this attack, a set of nodes in the network are being captured and reprogrammed by the external adversary so that these nodes do not transmit the data packets to the destination, which they generate or receive from other sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose an efficient technique that uses multiple base stations to be deployed randomly in the network to counter the impact of black holes on data transmission. Our simulation results show that our technique can achieve more than 99% packet delivery success using one or two base stations and also, the success rate increases with three or more base stations even if there is increase in the radius of the black hole region. The proposed scheme can be used to identify 100% black hole nodes with almost negligible false positives.

  6. A Simulated Novel Approach for Identifying Black Hole Attack in AODV based MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc networks to provide protected communication between mobile nodes. Due to unique characteristics of MANETS, it creates a number of consequential challenges to its security design. To overcome the challenges, there is a need to build a powerful, multifeatured security solution that achieves both broad protection and desirable network performance. MANETs are vulnerable to various attacks, blackhole, is one of the possible attacks. Black hole is a type of routing attack where a malicious node advertise itself as having the shortest path to all nodes in the environment by sending fake route reply. By doing this, the malicious node can deprive the traffic from the source node and can be implemented as a denial-of-service attack where the packets can be dropped later on. In this paper, a solution is proposed to identify the malicious node and implanting security against the threats of blackhole by notifying other nodes in the network of the incident. The simulation of the proposed algorithm demonstrates that the solution prevents the nodes in the network from blackhole attack and also improves the overall performance of AODV in the presence of black hole attack.

  7. MITIGATING BLACK HOLE ATTACK IN MANET BY EXTENDING NETWORK KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Zougagh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol is developed for Mobile Ad Hoc Network. It operates as a table driven, proactive protocol. The core of the OLSR protocol is the selection of Multipoint Relays (MPRs, used as a flooding mechanism for distributing control traffic messages in the network, and reducing the redundancy in the flooding process. A node in an OLSR network selects its MPR set so that all two hop neighbor are reachable by the minimum number of MPR. However, if an MPR misbehaves during the execution of the protocol, the connectivity of the network is compromised. This paper introduces a new algorithm for the selection of Multipoint Relays (MPR with additional coverage whose aims is to provide each node to selects alternative paths to reach any destination two hops away. This technique helps avoid the effect of malicious attacks and its easily to implement the corresponding algorithm.

  8. Analysis of Black Hole and Wormhole Attack using AODV Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefi Mehta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc is used to describe solutions that are developedon-the-fly for a specific purpose or Ad hoc is used to indicatesomething that is done at the time without planning ahead oftime. In this paper, we have analyzed the performance of MobileAd-hoc Networks (MANET under Black hole and wormholeattack. As for any network the delay, throughput are mainparameter so here we are analyzing the throughput of thenetwork. The NS2 network simulator has been used and graphshave been produced using xgraph.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Mesh based Multicast Reactive Routing Protocol under Black Hole Attack

    CERN Document Server

    Anita, E A Mary

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links in which nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other thereby enabling communication beyond direct wireless transmission range. The wireless and dynamic nature of ad-hoc networks makes them vulnerable to attacks especially in routing protocols. Providing security in mobile ad-hoc networks has been a major issue over the recent years. One of the prominent mesh base reactive multicast routing protocols used in ad-hoc networks is On Demand Multicast Routing protocol (ODMRP). The security of ODMRP is compromised by a primary routing attack called black hole attack. In this attack a malicious node advertises itself as having the shortest path to the node whose packets it wants to intercept. This paper discusses the impact of black hole attack on ODMRP under various scenarios. The performance is evaluated using metrics such as packet delivery ratio and end to end delay for various numbers of senders and receivers via...

  10. A Cluster based Technique for Securing Routing Protocol AODV against Black-hole Attack in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Yadav

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hocnetworks areprone tovarioussecurity vulnerabilitiesbecause of its characteristicsmainlyhigh mobility of nodes,and no well defined architecture.Security measuresare difficult to implement asthere is nocentral administration. Several attackson Mobile ad-hoc networkhavebeen identified so farand Black hole attack is oneof them. In this paper we discussblack hole attackon Ad-hoc network andpropose a solution to the hijacked node behaving as black hole node. A scenario has been consideredwhere anode inside network has been intruded andcompromised tocause blackholeattack. The proposedsecuritysolutionmodifies original AODV using a hierarchical basedintrusion detectionmethod toidentifyhijacked nodeand exclude the particular node from network

  11. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, M Rajesh; Dian, S Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things. PMID:26495430

  12. A Mechanism for Detection of Cooperative Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Ukil, Arijit

    2011-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connections in a decentralized manner. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms,absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are thus vulnerable to various types of attacks. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) is a very popular routing algorithm. However, it is vulnerable to the well-known black hole attack, where a malicious node falsely advertises good paths to a destination node during the route discovery process. This attack becomes more sever when a group of malicious nodes cooperate each other. In this paper, a defense mechanism is presented against a coordinated attack by multiple black hole nodes in a MANET. The simulation carried out on the propose...

  13. Morning ambush attacks by black-footed ferrets on emerging prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Jachowski, D.S.; Livieri, T.M.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Forsberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) often hunt at night, attacking normally diurnal prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in underground burrow systems. While monitoring black-footed ferrets in South Dakota during morning daylight hours, we observed an adult female ferret ambush a black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) emerging from a burrow. On a neighboring colony, we observed a second adult female ferret engaging in similar ambush behaviors on 12 occasions, although prey was not visible. We retrospectively assessed radio-telemetry data on white-tailed prairie dogs (C. leucurus) and a male and a female ferret to evaluate ferret activity in relation to timing of prairie dog emergence. Activity of radio-collared ferrets was high during the hourly period when prairie dogs first emerged and the following 2 hr, relative to later daylight hours. Such behavior is consistent with behaviors observed in South Dakota. Nighttime movements by ferrets might involve hunting but also reconnaissance of prey preparatory to morning ambush attacks.

  14. AODV Improvement by Modification at Source Node and Securing It from Black Hole Attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Roy Choudhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available MANETS suffer from constraints in power, storage and computational resources ,as a result, they are more vulnerable to various communications security related attacks. therefore we attempt to focus on analyzing and improving the security of routing protocol for MANETS viz. the Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODVrouting protocol. We propose modifications to the AODV we propose an algorithm to counter the Black hole attack on the routing protocols in MANETs. All the routes has unique sequence number and the malicious node has the highest Destination Sequence number and it is the first RREP to arrive. So the comparison is made only to the first entry in the table without checking other entries in the table

  15. Defence against Black Hole and Selective Forwarding Attacks for Medical WSNs in the IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Mathur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are being used to facilitate monitoring of patients in hospital and home environments. These systems consist of a variety of different components/sensors and many processes like clustering, routing, security, and self-organization. Routing is necessary for medical-based WSNs because it allows remote data delivery and it facilitates network scalability in large hospitals. However, routing entails several problems, mainly due to the open nature of wireless networks, and these need to be addressed. This paper looks at two of the problems that arise due to wireless routing between the nodes and access points of a medical WSN (for IoT use: black hole and selective forwarding (SF attacks. A solution to the former can readily be provided through the use of cryptographic hashes, while the latter makes use of a neighbourhood watch and threshold-based analysis to detect and correct SF attacks. The scheme proposed here is capable of detecting a selective forwarding attack with over 96% accuracy and successfully identifying the malicious node with 83% accuracy.

  16. Defence against Black Hole and Selective Forwarding Attacks for Medical WSNs in the IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Avijit; Newe, Thomas; Rao, Muzaffar

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being used to facilitate monitoring of patients in hospital and home environments. These systems consist of a variety of different components/sensors and many processes like clustering, routing, security, and self-organization. Routing is necessary for medical-based WSNs because it allows remote data delivery and it facilitates network scalability in large hospitals. However, routing entails several problems, mainly due to the open nature of wireless networks, and these need to be addressed. This paper looks at two of the problems that arise due to wireless routing between the nodes and access points of a medical WSN (for IoT use): black hole and selective forwarding (SF) attacks. A solution to the former can readily be provided through the use of cryptographic hashes, while the latter makes use of a neighbourhood watch and threshold-based analysis to detect and correct SF attacks. The scheme proposed here is capable of detecting a selective forwarding attack with over 96% accuracy and successfully identifying the malicious node with 83% accuracy. PMID:26797620

  17. Preventive Aspect of Black Hole Attack in Mobile AD HOC Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Roshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is infrastructure less type of network. In this paper we present the prevention mechanism for black hole in mobile ad hoc network. The routing algorithms are analyzed and discrete properties of routing protocols are defined. The discrete properties support in distributed routing efficiently. The protocol is distributed and not dependent upon the centralized controlling node. Important features of Ad hoc on demand vector routing (AODV are inherited and new mechanism is combined with it to get the multipath routing protocol for Mobile ad hoc network (MANET to prevent the black hole attack. When the routing path is discovered and entered into the routing table, the next step is taken by combined protocol to search the new path with certain time interval. The old entered path is refreshed into the routing table. The simulation is taken on 50 moving nodes in the area of 1000 x 1000 square meter and the maximum speed of nodes are 5m/sec. The result is calculated for throughput verses number of black hole nodes with pause time of 0 sec. to 40 sec., 120 sec. and 160 sec. when the threshold value is 1.0.

  18. Performance Comparison of Cluster based and Threshold based Algorithms for Detection and Prevention of Cooperative Black Hole Attack in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Hiremath

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET, the movement of the nodes may quickly change the networks topology resulting in the increase of the overhead message in topology maintenance. The nodes communicate with each other by exchanging the hello packet and constructing the neighbor list at each node. MANET is vulnerable to attacks such as black hole attack, gray hole attack, worm hole attack and sybil attack. A black hole attack makes a serious impact on routing, packet delivery ratio, throughput, and end to end delay of packets. In this paper, the performance comparison of clustering based and threshold based algorithms for detection and prevention of cooperative in MANETs is examined. In this study every node is monitored by its own cluster head (CH, while server (SV monitors the entire network by channel overhearing method. Server computes the trust value based on sent and receive count of packets of the receiver node. It is implemented using AODV routing protocol in the NS2 simulations. The results are obtained by comparing the performance of clustering based and threshold based methods by varying the concentration of black hole nodes and are analyzed in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio. The results demonstrate that the threshold based method outperforms the clustering based method in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio and end to end delay.

  19. Diagnostico por PCR del complejo Sigatoka en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Magally

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Sigatokas negra y amarilla son enfermedades causadas por Mycosphaerella fijiensis y Mycosphaerella musicola respectivamente. Estas dos especies de hongos estrechamente relacionadas y morfológicamente similares, causan necrosis severa en las hojas de banano y plátano disminuyendo el área de tejido fotosintético y acelerando la maduración del fruto. Las enfermedades producidas por estos hongos afectan la mayoría de las áreas cultivadas de banano y plátano a nivel mundial, generando un gran problema económico y ambiental. Los síntomas que produce cada uno de estos patógenos en el cultivo son similares, por lo que su correcta identificación en campo se hace difícil. Con el fin de hacer una identificación precisa de cada uno de ellos decidimos estandarizar una prueba diagnóstica basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR utilizando dos oligonucleótidos de 21 bases (MF 137 y MM 137 específicos para cada una de las especies M. fijiensis y M. musicola respectivamente. MF 137 y MM 137 codifican regiones variables identificadas en las secuencias interespaciadoras (ITS del DNA ribosomal.

  20. IMPROVED MCBDS FOR DEFENDING AGAINST GRAY HOLE AND BLACK HOLE ATTACKS IN MANETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Haghighi; Kiarash Mizanian; Ghasem Mirjalily

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are widely used nowadays. Because of their characteristics as open media, dynamic topology, being infrastructure-less and lack of centralized monitoring, MANET is vulnerable to a wide range of attacks like blackhole and grayhole. Blackhole and grayhole attacks refer to the attacks that breach the security by performing packet forwarding and routing misbehavior and cause denial of service in MANETs. In this paper we improved our previous work on MCBDS, we reduce...

  1. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Salvucci, Anthony; Crous, Pedro W; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-08-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  2. A Combined Approach for Worm-Hole and Black-Hole Attack Detection in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Jain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is a kind of wireless network, in this network all nodes are connected through the wireless links and perform cooperative communication.Due to limited radio range of these devices any time can leave or join the network. Therefore the routing techniques are responsible for the network organization and communication flow. Due to this the performance of MANET is low as compared with the traditional wired communication networks. In addition of that network is suffers from the probability of attacks. Thus in this paper MANET routing strategy and their attacks are investigated and learned. In addition of that in order to secure the communication recent approaches of security in MANET also investigated. Finally a new algorithm for prevention of malicious attack in MANET is suggested. Additionally the based on the concluded facts, future extension of the proposed work is also suggested.

  3. Defence against Black Hole and Selective Forwarding Attacks for Medical WSNs in the IoT †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Avijit; Newe, Thomas; Rao, Muzaffar

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being used to facilitate monitoring of patients in hospital and home environments. These systems consist of a variety of different components/sensors and many processes like clustering, routing, security, and self-organization. Routing is necessary for medical-based WSNs because it allows remote data delivery and it facilitates network scalability in large hospitals. However, routing entails several problems, mainly due to the open nature of wireless networks, and these need to be addressed. This paper looks at two of the problems that arise due to wireless routing between the nodes and access points of a medical WSN (for IoT use): black hole and selective forwarding (SF) attacks. A solution to the former can readily be provided through the use of cryptographic hashes, while the latter makes use of a neighbourhood watch and threshold-based analysis to detect and correct SF attacks. The scheme proposed here is capable of detecting a selective forwarding attack with over 96% accuracy and successfully identifying the malicious node with 83% accuracy. PMID:26797620

  4. Forewarning system for controlling Yellow Sigatoka in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara de Almeida Rios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the Biological Forewarning System (BFS for controlling Yellow Sigatoka in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was carried out in the town of Nova Porteirinha. One tested 7 treatments, using 6 gross sum (GS values (1,000; 1,300; 1,600; 1,900; 2,200, and 2,500 and the systematic disease control every 15 days. The treatments were distributed into 7 plots (120 plants/plot with ‘Prata-Anã’ and 10 plants from each plot were weekly evaluated with regard to leaf emission rate and disease incidence on the leaves 2, 3 and 4. The more advanced lesion stages and their intensity were used to calculate the gross sum, which aided in decision-making for chemical control. One collected data on production and firmness, pH, and acidity analysis of fruits. For the GS 2,500 treatment, taking into account 2-year evaluation, there was a reduction from 12 to 3 applications, i.e. 75% less fungicide was applied, without loss in productivity. Therefore, one suggests, taking into account the conditions of Nova Porteirinha, the application of BFS for chemical control of Yellow Sigatoka, using the GS value of 2,500 as an indicator of the correct time to perform pulverization.

  5. Investigations into Outbreaks of Black Fly Attacks and Subsequent Avian Haemosporidians in Backyard-Type Poultry and Other Exposed Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Johnson, Nora; Yang, Sharon; Stokes, John; Smith, Whitney; Wills, Robert; Goddard, Jerome; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In late spring of 2009 and 2010, there were reports of severe black fly (Simulium spp., shown in Fig. 1) outbreaks in various counties in Mississippi, especially those in and around the Mississippi River Delta. Complaints were of black flies attacking multiple species of backyard poultry and causing high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. At several affected locations, black flies were readily observed swarming around and feeding on birds. A large number of these parasites were easily trapped on fly strips (Fig. 2). Multifocal to coalescing cutaneous hemorrhagic lesions, consistent with fly bites, were seen on the birds. Upon necropsy examination, a large number of black flies were also observed in the digestive tract (Fig. 3). Although black flies may cause disease directly, such as cardiopulmonary collapse and anaphylactoid reactions, detection of Leucocytozoon in blood smears (Fig. 4) of affected birds prompted further investigations of this protozoan as a cause of disease. Leucocytozoon spp. are known to be transmitted by black flies and may be associated with morbidity and mortality in birds such as poultry. From June 2009 through July 2012, the investigation included a total collection of 1068 individual blood samples, representing 371 individual premises in 89 counties/parishes across Mississippi (59), Alabama (10), Louisiana (4), and Tennessee (16). Of the 371 premises where blood samples were collected, 96 (26%) were either positive or highly suspected to be positive for Leucocytozoon spp. by blood smear analysis, and 5 (1.2%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. by blood smear analysis. Attempts to diagnose Leucocytozoon spp. by PCR analysis and sequencing were complicated by coinfections with two closely related haemosporidians (Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp.). A novel technique involving flow cytometry was also explored. This study discusses the black fly field outbreak, the involvement of haemosporidians, molecular methods for detection

  6. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  7. Fatal attack on black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) by a Boa constrictor: a simultaneous assault on two juvenile monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Danilo Simonini; dos Santos, Edmilson; Leal, Silvana Gomes; de Jesus, Andrea Karla; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão; Dutra, Irapuan; Barros, Marilia

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) simultaneously. The snake captured both individuals at a height of ~ 4 m while a group of eight marmosets traveled through the subcanopy. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction. Two adult marmosets immediately descended to where the snake held its victims on the ground and attacked it. The snake showed no apparent reaction, and after ~ 1-2 min, the adults rejoined the remaining group members that were mobbing and vocalizing from 5 to 6 m above. The group left the scene ~ 7 min after the onset of the attack and was not seen again. The snake loosened its coils 10 min after its initial strike, left the two carcasses on the ground and stayed behind a nearby tree. Thus, we are not sure if the victims were in fact ingested. This report confirms that marmosets are vulnerable to boid snakes and capable of highly organized and cooperative antipredation behavior. It also suggests that snakes pose a greater threat to callitrichids than previously thought. PMID:26467338

  8. Generation of Five New Musa Hybrids With Resistance To Black Sigatoka and High Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify genetic variation is indispensable to effective management and use of genetic resources. This work is the first approach concerning to generation and genetic differentiation of new Musa hybrid lines obtained in INIVIT (Cuba, crossing Musa acuminata male diploid (AA x female triploid (ABB, genotypes selected by their resistant character to pests and diseases. From the obtained hybrids, only five were chosen because of their agronomic behavior and were genetically discriminated among them and also respect to the commercial clone FHIA-18 by AFLP polymorphism. Thanks to this prior genetic characterization Musa breeding programs could be consistently dinamised.

  9. LITERATURE SURVEY ON WORMHOLE ATTACK

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash S. Bundela

    2015-01-01

    Security plays an important role in Mobile Ad Hoc Network when data transmission is performed within un - trusted wireless scenario. Various attacks like Black hole, Wormhole, Gray hole and many more have been identified & corresponding solutions have been proposed. These attacks are caused by the malicious node hence ad hoc wireless network is unprotected from the attacks of the malicious node. Between all these attacks the wormhole att ...

  10. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic Attack or Heart Attack? Diagnosing heart disease in women A Healthy Hearts Guide ® Heart disease in women is often mistaken for panic attack with shortness of breath, anxiety, palpitations and indigestion. ...

  11. BLACK HOLE ATTACK IN AODV & FRIEND FEATURES UNIQUE EXTRACTION TO DESIGN DETECTION ENGINE FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUSAIN SHAHNAWAZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is a collection of nodes that are capable to form dynamically a temporary network without the support of any centralized fixed infrastructure. Since there is no central controller to determine the reliable & secure communication paths in Mobile Adhoc Network, each node in the ad hoc network has to rely on each other in order to forward packets, thus highly cooperative nodes are required to ensure that the initiated data transmission process does not fail. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET where security is a crucial issue and they are forced to rely on the neighbor node, trust plays an important role that could improve the number of successful data transmission. Larger the number of trusted nodes, higher successful data communication process rates could be expected. In this paper, Black Hole attack is applied in the network, statistics are collected to design intrusion detection engine for MANET Intrusion Detection System (IDS. Feature extraction and rule inductions are applied to find out the accuracy of detection engine by using support vector machine. In this paper True Positive generated by the detection engine is very high and this is a novel approach in the area of Mobile Adhoc Intrusion detection system.

  12. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion of at...... attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants. © 2010 IEEE....

  13. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  14. Relação entre a temperatura e o molhamento foliar no monocíclo da Sigatoka-negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleilson do Nascimento Uchôa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência da temperatura (21, 24, 27 e 30 °C e da duração do tempo de molhamento foliar (0, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas na penetração do agente causal da Sigatoka-negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis foi quantificada em ambiente controlado. A área abaixo da curva do progresso da doença (AACPD e a incidência foram influenciadas pela temperatura e pela duração do tempo de molhamento foliar. Foram constatadas diferenças significativas (P=0,05 nos valores da AACPD para as diferentes temperaturas, bem como verificada a interação significativa (P=0,05 entre temperaturas e o molhamento foliar. Em todas as temperaturas foi possível a observação de sintomas, entretanto, a maior AACPD foi observada em folhas inoculadas que permaneceram na temperatura de 24 e 27°C, a partir de 48 horas de molhamento foliar. Nas temperaturas de 21ºC e 30°C a incidência de Sigatoka-negra foi menor. O período de molhamento foliar mínimo para o progresso da doença foi de 24 horas. Não foram observados sintomas de Sigatoka-negra em folhas inoculados com o molhamento foliar de 0 hora e 12 horas em todas as temperaturas. As folhas assintomáticas, após 5 dias em câmara úmida apresentavam sintomas característicos de Sigatoka-negra, demonstrando que os conídios inoculados nas folhas permaneceram viáveis por um período na ausência de água livre na folha.

  15. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... having another heart attack. These medicines include: aspirin, beta blockers, statins, ACE inhibitors and fish oil. Your doctor ... have had a stent placed in your heart. Beta blockers are a group of drugs that lower the ...

  16. Panic Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Scantamburlo, Gabrielle; Ansseau, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Panic attacks can occur unexpectedly and in almost any situation. The present article discusses the main features of anxiety states, the approach, the management and the practice guidelines for the treatment of panic disorder. Peer reviewed

  17. Heliconia psittacorum: hospedeira de Mycosphaerella fijiensis, agente causal da sigatoka-negra da bananeira First reporter of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on Heliconia psittacorum leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Luadir Gasparotto; J. Clério R. Pereira; Urben, Arailde F.; Rogério E Hanada; Mirza C. N. Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Em setembro de 2003, em Manaus, Amazonas, foram observadas manchas foliares, muito semelhantes àquelas de sigatoka-negra causada por Mycosphaerella fijiensis em folhas de Heliconia psittacorum. Efetuou-se o isolamento do patógeno e, para o teste de patogenicidade, foi utilizada a técnica de inoculação cruzada com os isolados de H. psittacorum e de bananeira (Musa spp.) da cv. Prata Anã. Em ambas as espécies o teste foi positivo. Com o auxílio do microscópio óptico, da literatura disponível e ...

  18. Manejo de Sigatoka negra (Mycosphaerella Fijiensis var. Difformis Morelet en plátano cv. “Curraré” en San Carlos, Zona Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñoz Ruiz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los diferentes productos químicos, utilizados en el control de Sigatoka negra en banano, en el cultivo de plátano, en la zona de Santa Clara de San Carlos. Uno de los principales objetivos fue generar un programa de manejo químico de la enfermedad para la zona de San Carlos, posible de ser transferido a otras zonas plataneras del país; el otro objetivo fue establecer las bases para automatizar las actividades culturales de manejo de plantaciones de musáceas, mediante la creación de un Software para computadora y asequible por internet.

  19. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  20. Attack warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The North American Aerospace Defense Command, located at Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, is responsible for warning the United States and Canadian leaders that North America is under air, missile, or space attack. The Air Force has been developing a replacement for NORAD's communications computer system, and it expects to spend about $281 million on this program-about $72 million for block I and $209 million for block II. Block I of the replacement system has experienced significant schedule and performance problems, such as the inability to meet the requirement for the unit to restore full mission capability within 267 minutes after a total loss of power, and the incompatibility of the unit with other computer equipment due to the wiring standard. These problems have pushed the planned installation data from 1986 to 1999. The Air Force intends to have the contractor correct the deficiencies during block II development. This report discusses how the replacement program should be reassessed.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE RESISTENCIA DE GENOTIPOS DE PLÁTANO Y BANANO A LA SIGATOKA NEGRA (MYCOSPHAERELLA FIJIENSIS MORELET. EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE OF PLANTAIN AND BANANA GENOTYPES TO BLACK SIGATOKA (MYSCOSPHAERELLA FIJIENSIS MORELET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cuéllar Quintero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar bajo condiciones de invernadero genotipos de plátano y banano frente a poblaciones de Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet de diferente virulencia y origen, se estableció una colección de 125 aislamientos monospóricos obtenidos en 10 departamentos de Colombia. Se seleccionaron 50 aislamientos por área geográfica y genotipo hospedante, para la caracterización morfológica y patogénica del hongo en Dominico Hartón. En las pruebas de patogenicidad y resistencia se realizaron inoculaciones de una suspensión acuosa de 5.000 conidias mL-1, la respuesta de las plántulas a la enfermedad se determinó mediante las variables periodo de incubación (PI, tiempo de evolución de los síntomas (TES, área bajo la curva del desarrollo de la enfermedad (ABCDE y tasa de desarrollo de la enfermedad (r. La inoculación de los 50 aislamientos en plántulas de Dominico Hartón, permitió establecer cinco niveles de virulencia (muy alta, alta, media, baja y muy baja. La virulencia de los aislamientos no se relacionó con su origen geográfico ni con el genotipo del cual se obtuvieron; encontrándose en una misma zona y en un mismo genotipo, aislamientos de diferente virulencia. Los genotipos de plátano y banano mostraron un comportamiento diferencial frente a cinco aislamientos de diferente virulencia y origen, resultados que permitieron establecer tres niveles de reacción de los genotipos frente a los aislamientos (resistente, intermedio y susceptible, destacándose los genotipos Topocho, Maqueño, FHIA 20, FHIA 21 de plátano y los genotipos Sedita y FHIA 23 de banano por presentar un mayor nivel de resistencia, expresada como un progreso lento y menos severo de la enfermedad.A study was conducted to evaluate plantain and banana genotypes with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet isolates of different virulence and geographic origin. The pathogenicity test and morphological characterization of the M. fijiensis populations were performed with a group of fifty monosporic isolates representative of the geographic growing areas in Colombia. For the pathogenicity and resistance assays an aqueous spore suspension of 5.000 conidias mL-1 was used to inoculate seedlings of plantain and banana genotypes, disease response of genotypes was rated by measuring the variables incubation period (IP, time of evolution of symptoms (TES, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC and rate of disease development (r.The inoculation of fifty isolates on Dominico Harton cultivar allowed to establish five levels of virulence (very high, high, medium, low and very low, which were not related to their geographic origin nor to genotype of the isolates. Isolates with different virulence level were present in the same zone and in the same genotype. The resistance assay showed that plantain and banana genotypes can present a differential behavior to the M. fijiensis isolates. The disease severity measured in the genotypes allowed to classify the in three disease reactions levels, resistance, intermediate and susceptible genotypes The plantain genotypes Topocho, Maqueno, FHIA 20 and FHIA 21, and the banana genotype Sedita and FHIA 23 were characterized for having a higher level of resistance, that was expressed as a lower disease severity and slower disease progress as compared with the other genotypes.

  2. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  3. Review Paper on Flooding Attack in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Meher,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is widely applicable in various areas like military services, civilian environments and emergency operations. The issues in MANET are broadcasting, clustering, mobility management, bandwidth management and power management. Broadcasting becomes an important issue in MANET for route information discovery. The different routing attacks in MANET are flooding, black hole, link spoofing and wormhole attack. In this paper we are representing works proposed by various author on flooding attack. Our contribution in this paper is that we have presented details comparison of various counter based schemes.

  4. SURVEY OF PACKET DROPPING ATTACK IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Janani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is an application of wireless network with self-configuring mobile nodes. MANET does not require any fixed infrastructure. Its development never has any threshold range. Nodes in MANET can communicate with each other if and only if all the nodes are in the same range. This wide distribution of nodes makes MANET vulnerable to various attacks, packet dropping attack or black hole attack is one of the possible attack. It is very hard to detect and prevent. To prevent from packet dropping attack, detection of misbehavior links and selfish nodes plays a vital role in MANETs. In this paper, a omprehensive investigation on detection of misbehavior links and malicious nodes is carried out.

  5. Active Linkability Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Schnoor, Henning; Woizekowski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We study linking attacks on communication protocols. We show that an active attacker is strictly more powerful in this setting than previously-considered passive attackers. We introduce a formal model to reason about active linkability attacks, formally define security against these attacks and give very general conditions for both security and insecurity of protocols. In addition, we introduce a composition-like technique that allows to obtain security proofs by only studying small component...

  6. Extensions of the Cube Attack Based on Low Degree Annihilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aileen; Lim, Chu-Wee; Khoo, Khoongming; Wei, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef

    At Crypto 2008, Shamir introduced a new algebraic attack called the cube attack, which allows us to solve black-box polynomials if we are able to tweak the inputs by varying an initialization vector. In a stream cipher setting where the filter function is known, we can extend it to the cube attack with annihilators: By applying the cube attack to Boolean functions for which we can find low-degree multiples (equivalently annihilators), the attack complexity can be improved. When the size of the filter function is smaller than the LFSR, we can improve the attack complexity further by considering a sliding window version of the cube attack with annihilators. Finally, we extend the cube attack to vectorial Boolean functions by finding implicit relations with low-degree polynomials.

  7. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  8. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  9. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack. Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  10. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK UNDER HELLO FLOOD ATTACK

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abdus Salam; Nayana Halemani

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is highly used in many fields. The network consists of tiny lightweight sensor nodes and is largely used to scan or detect or monitor environments. Since these sensor nodes are tiny and lightweight, they put some limitations on resources such as usage of power, processing given task, radio frequency range. These limitations allow network vulnerable to many different types of attacks such as hello flood attack, black hole, Sybil attack, sinkhole, and m...

  12. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Borkin, Michael [None; Kraus, Robert [Solutionary, Inc.

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  13. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the flow ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  14. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes a Heart Attack? Coronary Heart Disease A heart attack happens if ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  15. Life After a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  16. An Assessment of Worm Hole attack over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network as serious threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Now these day Mobile Ad hoc networks vulnerable from number of security threats like black hole attack, DOS attack, Byzantine attack and wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is one of most important attack and having great attention in recent year. Wormhole attack, demonstrate a illusion over the network that show two far away node to be an neighbor node and attracted all traffic by presenting an greediness of shortest path over the network. This paper presents a bird eye over different existing wormhole deduction mechanism and their problem.

  17. Attacks Prevention and Detection Techniques In MANET: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjali D. Nikam,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network is a set of distributed sensor nodes. Which are randomly deployed in geographical area to capture climatic changes like temperature, humidity and pressure. In Wireless Network MANET is a Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks which is a one self-configurable network. MANET is a collection of Wireless mobile node which is dynamically moves from one location to another location. Both attacks Active as well as Passive attacks is in MANET. It doesn’t have a static structure. Security for wireless network is much difficult as compare to wired networks. In last few years many security and attacks issue are face many researchers in MANET. Attacks like Packet dropping attack, Black-Hole attack, Denial of Service attack, wormhole attacks and Packet modification attacks found in MANET. At the time of data communication all the above mentioned attacks access data easily without permission. To solve the problem of attacks in MANET and secure data communication use Intrusion Detection System. In This paper propose the survey of different kinds of attacks on MANET and Wireless sensor networks. This paper helps to young researcher for implement new hybrid algorithm for secure intrusion detection in MANET.

  18. Analysis of Possible Attack on AODV Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Funde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs consist of wireless mobile nodes which coordinate with each other to form temporary network without its pre-existing infrastructure. AODV is popular Ad-hoc distance vector routing reactive protocol which is used to find correct & shortest route to destination. Due to openness, dynamic, infrastructure-less nature, MANET are vulnerable to various attacks. One of these possible attacks is a Black Hole Attack in which a mobile node falsely replies to the source node that it is having a shortest path to the destination without checking its routing table. Therefore source node send all of its data to the black hole node and it deprives all the traffic of the source node. In this paper, We are proposing a technique to detect and prevent the multiple black hole nodes from MANET so that source to destination communication can be made easily. We also analysed the performance of the network in terms of number of packets sent, received, throughput, energy of network before attack and after detection & prevention of Attack. From these analysis, we can conclude that performance decreased due to attack can be improved after detection & prevention black hole attack in MANET.

  19. Nocturnal panic attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Fabiana L; Nardi Antonio E; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M.; Zin Walter A.

    2002-01-01

    The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sle...

  20. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  1. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  2. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Prowell, Stacy; Borkin, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service War Dialing Penetration "Testing" Protocol Tunneling Spanning Tree At

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK UNDER HELLO FLOOD ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdus Salam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is highly used in many fields. The network consists of tiny lightweight sensor nodes and is largely used to scan or detect or monitor environments. Since these sensor nodes are tiny and lightweight, they put some limitations on resources such as usage of power, processing given task, radio frequency range. These limitations allow network vulnerable to many different types of attacks such as hello flood attack, black hole, Sybil attack, sinkhole, and many more. Among these attacks, hello flood is one of the most important attacks. In this paper,we have analyzed the performance of hello flood attack and compared the network performance as number of attackers increases. Network performance is evaluated by modifying the ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol by using NS2 simulator. It has been tested under different scenarios like no attacker, single attacker, and multiple attackers to know how the network performance changes. The simulation results show that as the number of attackers increases the performance in terms of throughput and delay changes.

  4. Singlet Molecular Oxygen Generation by Light-Activated DHN-Melanin of the Fungal Pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Black Sigatoka Disease of Bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel J Beltrán-García; Prado, Fernanda M.; Marilene S Oliveira; David Ortiz-Mendoza; Alexsandra C Scalfo; Adalberto Pessoa; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; White, James F.; Paolo Di Mascio

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absor...

  5. Impact of Poultry Manure on Growth Behaviour, Black Sigatoka Disease Response and Yield Attributes of Two Plantain (Musa spp. AAB Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba, SC.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La baisse de rendement en culture de plantain est un phénomène fréquent après quelques cycles de production; elle est due à de faibles niveaux de matière organique du sol et à une sensibilité accrue à des stress biotiques. L'utilisation de variétés améliorées est une option bon marché et respectueuse de l'environnement pour lutter contre les maladies des plantes, mais le maintien du rendement d'un nouveau cultivar en bananeraie nécessite une bonne gestion de la fertilité des sols qui pourrait être obtenue par une utilisation judicieuse de fumier de volaille. Les effets des trois doses [(0, 10 et 20 t.ha-1] de fumier de volaille décomposé sur la croissance, la réponse à la cercosporiose noire et le rendement de PITA 24' (un hybride de plantain et de son grand-parent maternel 'Mbi-Egome' (une banane plantain locale ont été évalués à Onne (Nigeria dans une station à fortes précipitations de l'IITA. L'expérience a été menée selon un dispositif split plot en blocs aléatoires complets. Les résultats ont montré que les deux clones étudiés avaient des variables de croissance similaires, sauf pour la surface foliaire et la teneur en chlorophylle. Malgré la sensibilité du génotype hybride à la cercosporiose foliaire d'origine atmosphérique, les données sur les composantes du rendement ont montré que 'PITA 24' produisait significativement plus de mains et de doigts par régime, un meilleur rendement du régime et un meilleur rendement végétatif global, toutefois, les deux génotypes ont présenté un schéma similaire pour la répartition de la biomasse. Les plants fumés ont eu un rendement significativement amélioré par rapport aux plants témoins, mais il y a eu un rendement moindre pour la dose de 20 t.ha-1. L'augmentation des doses d'engrais a réduit de plus de 30 jours le temps de récolte; de même, la taille des plants, le drageonnage, la teneur en chlorophylle des feuilles, l'indice des feuilles non contaminées, le cycle de production et la biomasse totale ont augmenté avec la dose de fumier appliquée. Notre étude a montré que l'application de 10 t.ha-1 de fumier de volaille par hectare et par an permettait d'obtenir les meilleures caractéristiques de rendement.

  6. Manejo de Sigatoka negra (Mycosphaerella Fijiensis var. Difformis Morelet en plátano cv. “Curraré” en San Carlos, Zona Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñoz Ruiz

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los diferentes productos químicos, utilizados en el control de Sigatoka negra en banano, en el cultivo de plátano, en la zona de Santa Clara de San Carlos. Uno de los principales objetivos fue generar un programa de manejo químico de la enfermedad para la zona de San Carlos, posible de ser transferido a otras zonas plataneras del país; el otro objetivo fue establecer las bases para automatizar las actividades culturales de manejo de plantaciones de musáceas, mediante la creación de un Software para computadora y asequible por internet. Para el primer objetivo, se logró establecer que genéticamente el plátano es más resistente a la enfermedad y, por ser un cultivo donde hasta el momento, no se ha sobrepasado el uso de funguicidas como sucede en el banano, se pueden utilizar sin problema los productos protectantes mas comunes, como el Vondozeb y el Ridodur, tanto en aceite como en agua, así como el aceite puro a 7 litros/ha, presentando un efecto aceptable en el control de la infección de Mycospharella. Los productos sistémicos utilizados mostraron su eficiencia aunque, por su costo, no se sugiere su uso en plátano, solo para casos de emergencia. La mezcla de protectantes con sistémicos y aceite (cocteles, se consideran muy efectivos pero innecesarios para ser utilizados en plátano en forma comercial. Para esta evaluación se hicieron 35 aplicaciones o semanas de evaluación, en dos periodos climatológicos (verano e invierno de enero a septiembre del 2001, combinadas con las prácticas culturales tradicionales de deshoja, deshija, fertilización, y el monitoreo, utilizando la escala de signos visuales de 6 puntos de Stover y el método francés. Se evaluaron las variables: Hojas por planta (H/P, Hoja mas joven enferma (HMJE y Porcentaje ponderado de infecci��n (PPI, para cada tipo de grupo químico evaluado. La variable H/P, en la mayoría de los grupos se inició con un mínimo de 3 hojas hasta un máximo de 14

  7. Comportamiento de la severidad de ataque de Sigatoka negra (myscosphaerella fijiensis morelet en áreas productoras de plátano...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Sáez Sáez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Condiciones de precipitación, temperatura y humedad del aire, determinan la severidad y daño que hace la Sigatoka Negra (Myscosphaerella fijiensis Morelet en plátanos (Musa AAB. En 1991, se identificó por primera vez esta enfermedad en Venezuela, y penetró por la región Sur del Lago de Maracaibo, la cual a su vez es una de las principales áreas productoras del renglón. Durante 1997 las precipitaciones disminuyeron en comparación con la serie histórica. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de la severidad de la enfermedad en el año 1997 bajo condiciones irregulares de la distribución de las lluvias. Para cumplir el mismo, se registró la precipitación en una estación meteorológica que se emplazó en una área productora de plátanos. Se evalúo la enfermedad a través promedio ponderado de infección (PPI de la Metodología de Stover (1989. Se estimaron los acumulados de precipitación, número de días con precipitación, número de eventos sin precipitación, y número de días sin precipitación para cuatro intervalos de tiempo previos a las fechas de evaluación de la enfermedad, se realizaron los análisis comparativos entre los registros de la estación y los índices de enfermedad. Los resultados evidencian que los repuntes de severidad, parecen ser favorecidos de la continuidad de los eventos de precipitación.

  8. Mathematical Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad K. Salah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the most common attacks against Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA cryptosystem are presented. We describe the integer factoring attacks, attacks on the underlying mathematical function, as well as attacks that exploit details in implementations of the algorithm. Algorithms for each type of attacks are developed and analyzed by their complexity, memory requirements and area of usage.

  9. Nocturnal panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Fabiana L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.

  10. Signs of a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  12. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  13. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for...

  14. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  15. Detection techniques of selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor networks: a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Preeti; Saluja, Krishan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The wireless sensor network has become a hot research area due its wide range of application in military and civilian domain, but as it uses wireless media for communication these are easily prone to security attacks. There are number of attacks on wireless sensor networks like black hole attack, sink hole attack, Sybil attack, selective forwarding attacks etc. in this paper we will concentrate on selective forwarding attacks In selective forwarding attacks, malicious nodes behave like normal nodes and selectively drop packets. The selection of dropping nodes may be random. Identifying such attacks is very difficult and sometimes impossible. In this paper we have listed up some detection techniques, which have been proposed by different researcher in recent years, there we also have tabular representation of qualitative analysis of detection techniques

  16. DETECTION TECHNIQUES OF SELECTIVE FORWARDING ATTACKS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS : A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network has become a hot research area due its wide range of application in military and civilian domain, but as it uses wireless media for communication these are easily prone to security attacks. There are number of attacks on wireless sensor networks like black hole attack, sink hole attack ,Sybil attack ,selective forwarding attacks etc. in this paper we will concentrate on selective forwarding attacks In selective forwarding attacks, malicious nodes behave like normal nodes and selectively drop packets. The selection of dropping nodes may be random. Identifying such attacks is very difficult and sometimes impossible. In this paper we have listed up some detection techniques, which have been proposed by different researcher in recent years, there we also have tabular representation of qualitative analysis of detection techniques

  17. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsun Wang; Ching-Hao Mao; Hahn-Ming Lee

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of...

  18. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  19. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  20. Fatal crocodile attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out. PMID:24237838

  1. Performance Comparison of Routing Attacks in Manet and WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Ramachandran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Routing is a basic step for data exchange. In wirel ess ad-hoc networks each node acts as a router and executes a routing protocol. Wireless ad-hoc networ ks are highly resource constrained in terms of network topology, memory and computation power. The reliable data transfer is a difficult task in wireless ad-hoc networks because of resource constr aints. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuri ng network of mobile routers connected by wireless links. A wireless sensor network (WSN is a highly constrained wireless ad-hoc network. In these network, multicast is the efficient routing service for data broadcasting. Denial of service (DOS att ack, sinkhole, wormhole, sybil, black hole and rushing a ttacks are some routing attacks. So, it is necessar y to study the impact of routing attacks on existing mul ticast routing protocols to suggest a suitable secu re multicast routing protocol. The objective of this p aper is to study the effects of black hole and rush ing attack on MANET and WSN. The NS-2 based simulation is used in analyzing the black hole and rushing attacks. From performance metrics such as packet de livery ratio (PDR, packet drop ratio (PDrR, network throughput (NTh and energy consumption it is observed that the routing attacks have severe impact on MANET than WSN.

  2. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  3. Cell Counting Attack and Browser Attack against TOR Network

    OpenAIRE

    Swati

    2014-01-01

    The onion router (TOR) allows to hide your identity various software under this categories are available that allows online anonymity network, supporting TCP applications over the Internet. It doesn't allow network surveillance or traffic analysis to get tracked but most of these software used equal size of cells (512B). In this paper we are comparing cell-counting attacks and browser attacks against TOR. Different from cell-counting attacks, these attacks can confirm anonymou...

  4. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it could take years to find it. Depending on the password's length and complexity, there could be trillions of possible combinations. To speed things up a bit, a brute-force attack could start with dictionary words or slightly modified dictionary words because most people will use those rather than a completely random password. These attacks are called dictionary attacks or hybrid brute-force attacks. Brute-force attacks put user accounts at risk and flood your site with unnecessary traffic. Hackers launch brute-force attacks using widely available tools that utilize wordlists and smart rule set to intelligently and automatically guess user passwords. Although such attacks are easy to detect, they are not so easy to prevent

  5. ATTACK PATTERNS FOR DETECTING AND PREVENTING DDOS AND REPLAY ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MADHURI,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the methods for detecting and preventing the DDoS Attacks and Replay Attacks, which have been posing the problems for the Internet. We explained a scheme AMFDR (AttackPatterns for Marking Filtering DoS and Replay attacks that identifies the attack packets from the packets that are sent by legitimate users and filters the attack packets. A Denial of service attack is generally launched to make a service unavailable even to an unauthorized user. If this attack uses many computers across the world, it is called Distributed Denial of service attack. Replay attack is retransmission of a data transmission which used to gain authentication in a fraudulent manner. These replayed packets or attack packets are identified. This scheme is less expensive and the implementation of this scheme needs minimal interaction with routers. The scheme is like firewall system, so that the occurrence of an attack is recognized quickly and a punitive action is taken without any loss genuine packets.

  6. Simultaneous Attacks by Terrorist Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Deloughery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While terror attacks that are a part of a coordinated effort receive attention in the popular media, they have not received much attention in the academic literature. The decision to carry out simultaneous attacks should be examined as one of the choices a terrorist organisation makes about the method of attack. Determining the impact of simultaneous attacks vis-à-vis a single attack can explain why groups would use this method. Up to one quarter of all attacks coded in two major databases, GTD and ITERATE, may be part of a simultaneous campaign. Empirical analysis shows simultaneous attacks are more likely to be successful and cause more fatalities, though not in a one-to-one fashion. These results underline the importance of considering simultaneous attacks in empirical analysis.

  7. When women attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart. PMID:26399945

  8. E-Canada and the Emerging Cyber Attack Exigency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig MacEachern

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    black; font-family: "Arial","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family: Calibri;">This paper examines the growing concern surrounding cyber-attacks, and warns about the possible impacts of a cyber-attack upon Canadian e-government, economy, and infrastructure. This paper covers historical examples of cyber-attacks on a global scale, then focuses on Canadian e-government vulnerabilities, and suggests some ways in which Canadian government must adapt its domestic security and internet policies to confront the future inevitability of cyber-attacks.  

  9. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  10. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  11. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  12. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-Hsun; Lee, Hahn-Ming; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.2

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM) as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model...

  13. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks that are...... caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  14. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  15. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment for a heart attack can ... or years after the procedure. Other Treatments for Heart Attack Other treatments for heart attack include: Medicines Medical ...

  16. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  17. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  18. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  19. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi, S; K. Duraiswamy

    2013-01-01

    Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the ...

  20. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  1. Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Shema, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting web applications? Then you need Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to web applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. .. .. Attacks detailed in this book include: ..: ..; Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) ..; Cross-Site Request Fo

  2. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  3. A Survey On New Approach For Detecting Blackhole Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush D. Patil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc networks to provide protected communication between mobile nodes. A MANET is aself-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no .fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base stations or access points. Due to unique characteristics of MANETS, it creates a number of consequential challenges to its security design. To overcome the challenges, there is a need to build a security solution that achieves both broad protection and desirable network performance. MANETs are vulnerable to various attacks, such as blackhole attack, jellyfish attack, rushing attack, wormhole attack. Black hole is a type of routing attack where a malicious node advertise itself as having the shortest path to all nodes in the environment by sending fake route reply.By doing this, the malicious node can deprive the traffic from the source node. Although in this paper we only focus on the routing protocols and security issues in MANET. In this paper, we proposed an AODV and DPRAODV (Detection, Prevention and Reactive AODV to prevent security threats of blackhole by notifying other nodes in the network of the incident.

  4. Black America: Looking Inward or Outward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Vernon E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents some observations on what the recent attacks on affirmative action, the O. J. Simpson trial, and the Million Man March say about racism in America. In particular, the author assesses the Million Man March in terms of black leadership and its influence in helping black men to become more involved in constructive community service. (GR)

  5. Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007488.htm Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report ... myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology ...

  6. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2011-01-01

    information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security of...... string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...... several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  7. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  8. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying the...... security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  9. Suicide Attacks on the Rise

    OpenAIRE

    CCS Research Staff

    2008-01-01

    This article was published in Culture and Conflict Review (March 2008), v.2 no.2 "The last six weeks has brought some of the worst violence in Afghanistan since 2001. In 2007, there were more than 230 Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks and 145 suicide attacks. Casualty rates were at least 25 percent higher in 2007 than the previous year. In the past 18 months, IED attacks have targeted numerous police and army busses, a group of legislators outside a factory at Baghlan, a five-star ...

  10. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  11. Social Engineering:A Partial Technical attack

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.Maan; Manish Sharma

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests the crystal clear concept behind the social engineering attack. Basically social engineering is a non technical attack. But social engineering attack is an attack on human psychology to get the information, but using what? Basically it is an attack on human psychology by using some technical skills or technology. Social engineering attack has many types like fake mail, telephonic cheat etc. which are impossible without any technical skills, so in this paper we suggest that...

  12. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  13. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size

  14. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Garcia Samir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violent death in the world and the first of disability. Many risk factors favor the presentation of these events and some of them are susceptible of modification and therfore are objetives of primary prevention just as the control of diabetes, hypertension and the practice of healthy habits of life. The advances in the knowledge of the physiopatology, had taken to sustantial change in the nomenclature and management of ischemic ACS. Within these changes it was substituted the term cerebrovascular accident fo acute stroke, making emphasis in the key rol of a timely management with goals of time similiar to the acute coronary syndrome. It was redefined the time of acute ischemic attack to a one hour. Once stablished the cerebrovascular attack the semiology of symtoms with frecuency will led us make a topographic diagnosis of the in injury that joined to the cerebral TAC will allow us to exclude an hemorragic event and to start the treatment. In the management of these patients its essential the coordination of the differents teams of work, from the early recognition of symtoms on the part of patients andthe family, the rapid activation and response of emergency systems and the gearing of health care institutions. Are pillars of treatment: the abcde of reanimatiion, to avoid the hiperpirexis, the seizures, the hipoglicemy, the hiperglicemy, to achieve the thrombolysis in the first three hours of the begining of symtoms, to use antiplatelets, antithrombotic profilaxis

  15. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Rejean; Beaudry, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of panic attacks and panic disorders have progressed markedly during the last decade. Unlike phobic disorders, the key feature of panic disorders is the many panic attacks that are mostly spontaneous or not caused by a particular situation. Recent studies linking its pathogenesis with lactate infusion tests are reviewed. For treatment, psychotherapy combined with in vivo exposure and pharmacotherapy is more efficacious than either treatment alone. In most cases, ps...

  16. Impersonation Attack on EKE Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Shirisha Tallapally

    2010-01-01

    The key exchange protocol is one of the most elegant ways of establishing secure communication between pair of users by using a session key. The passwords are of low entropy, hence the protocol should resist all types of password guessing attacks. Recently ECC-3PEKE protocol has been proposed by Chang and Chang. They claimed the protocol is secure, efficient and practical. Unless their claims Yoon and Yoo presented an Undetectable online password guessing attack on the above protocol. A key r...

  17. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Bigal Marcelo; Brawn Jennifer; Pendse Gautam; Nutile Lauren; Becerra Lino; Maleki Nasim; Burstein Rami; Borsook David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unr...

  18. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  19. Social Engineering:A Partial Technical attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Maan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests the crystal clear concept behind the social engineering attack. Basically social engineering is a non technical attack. But social engineering attack is an attack on human psychology to get the information, but using what? Basically it is an attack on human psychology by using some technical skills or technology. Social engineering attack has many types like fake mail, telephonic cheat etc. which are impossible without any technical skills, so in this paper we suggest that , it is a partial technical attack and can be divided in human based and typical computer based social engineering attack.

  20. La medición y vigilancias de la enfermedad de la mancha foliar producida por la sigatoka negra (Mycospharella fijiensis var diformis Morelet) en la producción de musáceas: un enfoque para lograr la sostenibilidad del desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo Vargas Jarquín

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se discute la necesidad de utilizar tecnología, como el procesamiento digital de imágenes para mejorar los procesos de medición y vigilancia de la enfermedad de la mancha de la hoja causada por SIGATOKA NEGRA (Mycospharella fijiensis var diformis Morelet), pero partiendo de un análisis epistemológico que fundamenta al desarrollo sostenible, que es el marco dentro del cual se encuentra sentido a la aplicación de esta tecnología. Así se define que es la gobernabilidad ben...

  1. A Possible Effect of Concentrated Oolong Tea Causing Transient Ischemic Attack-Like Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Layher, John W.; Poling, Jon S.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Alvarez-Manilla, Gerardo; Puett, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tea (green, oolong, and black) is the second most widely consumed beverage worldwide, second only to water. Aside from a few reported adverse effects, tea, particularly green tea, appears to be beneficial for human health. In the case described herein, a male experienced several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately following the consumption of a cup of high quality oolong tea. A thorough medical evaluation uncovered no evidence of such an attack and leads to the suggestion...

  2. A Possible Effect of Concentrated Oolong Tea Causing Transient Ischemic Attack-Like Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Layher Jr., John W.; Poling, Jon S.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Alvarez-Manilla, Gerardo; Puett, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Tea (green, oolong, and black) is the second most widely consumed beverage worldwide, second only to water. Aside from a few reported adverse effects, tea, particularly green tea, appears to be beneficial for human health. In the case described herein, a male experienced several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately following the consumption of a cup of high quality oolong tea. A thorough medical evaluation uncovered no evidence of such an attack and leads to the suggestio...

  3. VoIP Malware: Attack Tool & Attack Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Mohamed; State, Radu; Festor, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    With the appearance of new Internet services like Voice over IP and IP television, malwares are in the way to update and extend their targets. In this paper, we discuss the emergence of a new generation of malwares attacking VoIP infrastructures and services. Such malwares constitute a real threat to the currently deployed VoIP architectures without strong security measures in place. We present one implemented environment that can be used to evaluate such attacks. Our ``VoIP bots'' support a ...

  4. Network Coding Based Security for Routing Attacks in WRN: Frechet Interference and Rayleigh Outage Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Villalpando-Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a network coding security method capable of detecting several routing attacks in wireless reconfigurablenetworks. Routing security attacks include selective forwarding, black holes, and wormholes. The proposed methodperforms linear network coding over intermediate nodes composing a given route, not only to distribute content, butalso to provide data confidentiality by cooperation as a mechanism of detection. The method presents a robust,accurate and fast response under security attacks for varying network conditions, such as interference and outagedue to channel fading. It also provides a gain in network throughput by increasing the number of successfully receivedpackets without a significant increase of the bandwidth usage.

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ADHOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR PROTOCOL WITH BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The security is major challenging issue in wireless sensor network applications because they are operated in public and unrestrained areas which also makes difficult to protect against tampering or captured by an adversary force that can launch insider attacks to make a node compromised. One type of such attack is black hole attack. Existing AODV routing protocol does not have mechanism to defend against such attacks. In this study, we comprehensively investigates the performance of AODV protocol by simulating it on the various network parameters with various number of blackhole nodes. The metrics for evaluation has been considered as packet delivery ratio, end to end delay, normalized routing overhead and total number of packets drop. The simulation results show that blackhole attack severely degrades the performance of WSN.

  6. RESIST SRP AGAINST WORMHOLE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks refer to temporary or interim networks which form for special purposes. Actually they are wireless networks with mobile nodes. These networks use no network assisting element for path routing and in these networks available nodes are responsible for path routing. Therefore when malicious nodes want to find a way to interfere with the path routing then the existence of a secure route protocol (SRP can prevent the interference. SRP protocol is one of the secure algorithms of path routing protocol but it is notresistant against wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is considered as a subtle attack in which two malicious nodes make a short connection in network's topology through private or implicit connection and represent two non neighbor nodes as neighbors and prevent the correctoperation of path routing protocol by using this method. One of the methods of preventing wormhole attack is by using packet leashes. We try to decrease the wormhole attack occurrence in this routing protocol by a kind of packet leashes called temporal leashes. We alsowill minimize problems resulting from using temporal leashes by different methods and modifications in its structure.

  7. Black goop attack: special report on horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing the problems of declining performance as wells become plugged with deposits of materials such as asphaltenes and paraffins is the job of well maintenance, a segment of the oil field servicing industry that has seen relatively few advances in recent years. A new technique, ultrasonic irradiation, under development at Dalhousie University 's new petroleum engineering program, that promises to deal with this problem, is discussed, Coupled with in-situ foam treatment, the technique can be used to clean solid deposits from asphaltene-clogged sections of horizontal wellbores without expensive workovers. The process involves high frequency waves that break up the sandy tar into small particles which are then flushed out with surfactant. Currently being designed is a small ultrasonic device that can be inserted into producing wells via wireline. The device can be left in place and operated every four or five weeks as part of the regular well maintenance schedule. A prototype device is expected to be available later in the year 2000. Based on laboratory experiments, the device reduces plugging by reducing oil viscosity especially in the presence of asphaltic crudes, and through its ability to keep particles in suspension, probably through the generation of microbubbles. Another series of experiments by Droycon Bioconcepts Inc in Regina discovered various types of microbial debris within the paraffin and anthracene deposits, suggesting the potential for the formation of the deposits to involve microbial activity. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the paraffin/anthracene deposit could be removed by the application of heat and the surfactant CB4

  8. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  9. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica...

  10. Television Journalism During Terror Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on the major American networks in the fi rst ...

  11. Television journalism during terror attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on major American networks the first 24 hours...

  12. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  13. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of a...

  14. Performance of attack strategies on modular networks

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Bruno Requião

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities of complex networks have became a trend topic in complex systems recently due to its real world applications. Most real networks tend to be very fragile to high betweenness adaptive attacks. However, recent contributions have shown the importance of interconnected nodes in the integrity of networks and module-based attacks have appeared promising when compared to traditional malicious non-adaptive attacks. In the present work we deeply explore the trade-off associated with attack procedures, introducing a generalized robustness measure and presenting an attack performance index that takes into account both robustness of the network against the attack and the run-time needed to obtained the list of targeted nodes for the attack. Besides, we introduce the concept of deactivation point aimed to mark the point at which the network stops to function properly. We then show empirically that non-adaptive module-based attacks perform better than high degree and betweenness adaptive attacks in networks ...

  15. Network robustness under large-scale attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Ruifang

    2012-01-01

    Network Robustness under Large-Scale Attacks provides the analysis of network robustness under attacks, with a focus on large-scale correlated physical attacks. The book begins with a thorough overview of the latest research and techniques to analyze the network responses to different types of attacks over various network topologies and connection models. It then introduces a new large-scale physical attack model coined as area attack, under which a new network robustness measure is introduced and applied to study the network responses. With this book, readers will learn the necessary tools to

  16. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, David P.

    2006-01-01

    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  17. Impact of Sybil and Wormhole Attacks in Location Based Geographic Multicast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Wireless sensor networks have been used in many applications, such as home automation, military surveillances and entity tracking systems. The sensor nodes have low computational capabilities and are highly resource constrained. Routing protocols of wireless sensor networks are prone to various routing attacks, such as black hole, rushing, wormhole, Sybil and denial of service attacks. Approach: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of wormhole in conjunction with Sybil attack on a location based-Geographic Multicast Routing (GMR protocol. Results: The NS-2 based simulation was used in analyzing the wormhole in conjunction with Sybil attack on GMR. Conclusion: It is found that, the Sybil attack degrades the network performance by 24% and the wormhole attack by 20%.

  18. Hidden Attacks on Power Grid: Optimal Attack Strategies and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Baldick, Ross; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Real time operation of the power grid and synchronism of its different elements require accurate estimation of its state variables. Errors in state estimation will lead to sub-optimal Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solutions and subsequent increase in the price of electricity in the market or, potentially overload and create line outages. This paper studies hidden data attacks on power systems by an adversary trying to manipulate state estimators. The adversary gains control of a few meters, and is...

  19. Perfection of Recent Attacks using IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RENGARAJAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet threat monitoring (ITM systems have been deployed to detect widespread attacks on the Internet in recent years. However, the effectiveness of ITM systems critically depends on the confidentiality of the location of their monitors. If adversaries learn the monitor locations of an ITM system, they can bypass the monitors and focus on the uncovered IP address space without being detected. In this paper, we study a new class of attacks, the invisible LOCalization (iLOC attack. The iLOC attack can accurately and invisibly localize monitors of ITM systems. In the iLOC attack, the attacker launches low-rate port-scan traffic, encoded with a selected pseudo noise code (PN-code, to targeted networks. While the secret PN-code is invisible to others, the attacker can accurately determine the existence of monitors in the targeted networks based on whether the PN-code is embedded in the report data queried from the data center of the ITM system. We formally analyze the impact of various parameters on attack effectiveness. We implement the iLOC attack and conduct the performance evaluation on a real-world ITM system to demonstrate the possibility of such attacks. We also conduct extensive simulations on the iLOC attack using real-world traces. Our data show that the iLOC attack can accurately identify monitors while being invisible to ITM systems. Finally, we present a set of guidelines to counteract the iLOC attack.

  20. Intermittent hypoendorphinaemia in migraine attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, E; Salmon, S; Anselmi, B; Spillantini, M G; Cappelli, G; Brocchi, A; Sicuteri, F

    1982-06-01

    Beta-endorphin (RIA method, previous chromatographic extraction) was evaluated in plasma of migraine sufferers in free periods and during attacks. Decreased levels of the endogenous opioid peptide were found in plasma sampled during the attacks but not in free periods. Even chronic headache sufferers exhibited significantly lowered levels of beta-endorphin, when compared with control subjects with a negative personal and family history of head pains. The mechanism of the hypoendorphinaemia is unknown: lowered levels of the neuropeptide, which controls nociception, vegetative functions and hedonia, could be important in a syndrome such as migraine, characterized by pain, dysautonomia and anhedonia. The impairment of monoaminergic synapses ("empty neuron" condition) constantly present in sufferers from serious headaches, could be due to the fact that opioid neuropeptides, because of a receptoral or metabolic impairment, poorly modulate the respective monoaminergic neurons, resulting in imbalance of synaptic neurotransmission. PMID:6290072

  1. Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159557.html Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death Study points to need for better coordinated care, ... people with diabetes have a higher risk of death after a heart attack. "We knew that following ...

  2. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000080.htm Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke To use the sharing features on ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure ...

  3. Heart attack - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000231.htm Heart attack - what to ask your doctor To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of ...

  4. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  5. DULOXETINE-RELATED PANIC ATTACKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients’ trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who respon...

  6. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  7. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  8. Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Robert M.; Baker, Rex O.; Bennett, Joe R.; Coolahan, Craig C.

    2004-01-01

    Coyote attacks on humans and pets have increased within the past 5 years in California. We discuss documented occurrences of coyote aggression and attacks on people, using data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources. Forty-eight such attacks on children and adults were verified from 1998 through 2003, compared to 41 attacks during the period 1988 through 1997; most incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interfac...

  9. Sybil attack in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami.K; Santhi.B

    2013-01-01

    Wireless network is very susceptible to different types of attack. The main attack is Sybil attack, which allows forming other attacks on the network. Security is very important to the wireless network. In wireless sensor network, to verify node identities by cryptographic authentication but this is not easy because sensor node which contains limited resources. Therefore the current research is going on how to handling the situation of different traffic levels and transmission power for secur...

  10. Faked states attack and quantum cryptography protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Leveraging quantum mechanics, cryptographers have devised provably secure key sharing protocols. Despite proving the security in theory, real-world application falls short of the ideal. Last year, cryptanalysts completed an experiment demonstrating a successful eavesdropping attack on commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. This attack exploits a weakness in the typical real-world implementation of quantum cryptosystems. Cryptanalysts have successfully attacked several protocols. In this paper, we examine the Kak quantum cryptography protocol and how it may perform under such attacks.

  11. Panic attacks simulate presence of somatic illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Latas Milan; Soldatović Ivan; Stamenović Marko; Starčević Vladan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Panic attacks are characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous somatic symptoms, such as palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vertigo. The objective of this study was to analyze symptoms of panic attacks in patients with panic disorder, especially, to determine the specific relationship of somatic and neurological symptoms of panic attacks in boundaries of somatic systems. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 97 patients with primary diagnos...

  12. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  13. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack Updated:Aug 2,2016 Knowledge is power, so ... medication. This content was last reviewed June 2016. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) • ...

  14. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    foreseeable while the rounds are performed. ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) is used as a public key crypto system with the key purpose of creating a private shared between two participants in a communication network. Attacks on ECC include the Pohlig-Hellman attack and the Pollard's rho attack. Furthermore...

  15. A Novel Attack against Android Phones

    CERN Document Server

    Backes, Michael; von Styp-Rekowsky, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2011, Android has become the top-selling operating system for smartphones. In this paper, we present a novel, highly critical attack that allows unprompted installation of arbitrary applications from the Android Market. Our attack is based on a single malicious application, which, in contrast to previously known attacks, does not require the user to grant it any permissions.

  16. Vulnerability Assessment of IPv6 Websites to SQL Injection and Other Application Level Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chiang Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the proliferation of internet connected devices, IPv6 has been proposed to replace IPv4. Aside from providing a larger address space which can be assigned to internet enabled devices, it has been suggested that the IPv6 protocol offers increased security due to the fact that with the large number of addresses available, standard IP scanning attacks will no longer become feasible. However, given the interest in attacking organizations rather than individual devices, most initial points of entry onto an organization's network and their attendant devices are visible and reachable through web crawling techniques, and, therefore, attacks on the visible application layer may offer ways to compromise the overall network. In this evaluation, we provide a straightforward implementation of a web crawler in conjunction with a benign black box penetration testing system and analyze the ease at which SQL injection attacks can be carried out.

  17. Vulnerability assessment of IPv6 websites to SQL injection and other application level attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Given the proliferation of internet connected devices, IPv6 has been proposed to replace IPv4. Aside from providing a larger address space which can be assigned to internet enabled devices, it has been suggested that the IPv6 protocol offers increased security due to the fact that with the large number of addresses available, standard IP scanning attacks will no longer become feasible. However, given the interest in attacking organizations rather than individual devices, most initial points of entry onto an organization's network and their attendant devices are visible and reachable through web crawling techniques, and, therefore, attacks on the visible application layer may offer ways to compromise the overall network. In this evaluation, we provide a straightforward implementation of a web crawler in conjunction with a benign black box penetration testing system and analyze the ease at which SQL injection attacks can be carried out. PMID:24574863

  18. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  19. Methods of Identifying and Preventing SQL Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojken Shehu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by identifying the organizations which are vulnerable to the SQL attack referred to as an SQL injection attack. The term SQL injection attack is defined and a diagram is used to illustrate the way that attack occurs. In another section, the paper identifies the methods used to detect an attack to SQL, whereby the techniques are discussed extensively using relevant diagrams for illustration. The other sections cover the preventive methods, where the methods are also discussed with an illustration using diagrams.

  20. Whispering through DDoS attack

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Jiri Slachta; Miroslav Voznak

    2016-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes o...

  1. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  2. Attacking Embedded Systems through Power Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sastry JKR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Embedded Systems are being used for the development and implementation of Safety and Mission Critical Systems. Malfunctions of such type of embedded systems will lead to disasters at times. The embedded systems must be fully secured from outside intervention in order to have effective functioning as well as to provide protective environment to these mission critical systems. There are several attacking systems discussed in the literature each requiring a kind of counter attacking system. Power Analysis and variations of power analysis are the significant attacking mechanisms discussed in the literature. Crypto servers are the main areas of attacking as they deal with securing the data that flow in-between several components of the embedded systems. Most of the attacking systems suggested in the litterer suffer from lack of experimental models to emulate the attacking system. An attacking system could be amply proved when several samples of data are used for attacking and the samples of data provides for knowledge base. In this paper an experimental setup is proposed which is an embedded system itself for creation of a Knowledgebase which shall form the basis for attacking. The experimental setup required for undertaking the actual attacking with the usage of the knowledgebase is also presented. Further the proposed attacking system is applied for mission critical system and the experimental results obtained through the simulation are also presented.

  3. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  4. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  5. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack? Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden, ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  6. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  7. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Prakash Painuly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.

  8. Management of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema: role of ecallantide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Hannah; Firszt, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized as an episodic swelling disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. Clinical features include nonpitting edema of external or mucosal body surfaces, and patients often present with swelling of the extremities, abdominal pain, and swelling of the mouth and throat, which can lead to asphyxiation. Patients with HAE classically have no associated urticaria, which is often referred to as nonhistaminergic angioedema. Treatment for HAE involves long-term prophylaxis, short-term prophylaxis, and management of acute attacks. Up until the past few years, acute HAE episodes were predominately treated with supportive measures. Three classes of medications have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of acute HAE attacks. Ecallantide, a recombinant protein that acts as a reversible inhibitor of kallikrein, is currently indicated for acute attacks of HAE in those aged ≥12 years. In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials, EDEMA3 and EDEMA4, patients treated with 30 mg of ecallantide demonstrated statistically significant improvement in symptoms compared to those on placebo. In addition to its use as treatment for HAE, ecallantide has been used off label in the management of nonhistaminergic angioedema, not due to HAE. Ecallantide has shown promise in the treatment of these other forms; however, data are limited to mainly case reports at this time. Ecallantide is generally a safe and well-tolerated medication; however, based on reports of anaphylaxis, ecallantide does contain a black box warning. Due to the risk of anaphylaxis, ecallantide cannot be self-administered and must be given by a health care professional. Overall, ecallantide is a safe and effective medication for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE. PMID:25931832

  9. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  10. Percolation of localized attack on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.

  11. Classification of Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Messai, Mohamed-Lamine

    2014-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), security has a vital importance. Recently, there was a huge interest to propose security solutions in WSNs because of their applications in both civilian and military domains. Adversaries can launch different types of attacks, and cryptography is used to countering these attacks. This paper presents challenges of security and a classification of the different possible attacks in WSNs. The problems of security in each layer of the network's OSI model are dis...

  12. Detection Block Model for SQL Injection Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Diksha G. Kumar; Madhumita Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet, more and more organizations connect their databases to the Internet for resource sharing. However, due to developers' lack of knowledge of all possible attacks, web applications become vulnerable to multiple attacks. Thus the network databases could face multiple threats. Web applications generally consist of a three tier architecture where database is in the third pole, which is the most valuable asset in any organization. SQL injection is an attack te...

  13. Where can an Insider attack?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    the targeted organisation. While the problem is well recognised in the security community as well as in law-enforcement and intelligence communities, the main resort still is to audit log files \\$\\backslash\\$emph{after the fact}. There has been little research into developing models, automated tools......By definition, an insider has better access, is more trusted, and has better information about internal procedures, high-value targets, and potential weak spots in the security, than an outsider. Consequently, an insider attack has the potential to cause significant, even catastrophic, damage to...... properties of the modelled systems. Our analysis of processes identifies which actions may be performed by whom, at which locations, accessing which data. This allows to compute a superset of audit results---before an incident occurs....

  14. Detecting Denial of Service Attacks in Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Norman; Krizanc, Danny; Liberatore, Marc

    Tor is currently one of the more popular systems for anonymizing near real-time communications on the Internet. Recently, Borisov et al. proposed a denial of service based attack on Tor (and related systems) that significantly increases the probability of compromising the anonymity provided. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for detecting such attacks and examine the effectiveness of the obvious approach to evading such detection. We implement a simplified version of the detection algorithm and study whether the attack may be in progress on the current Tor network. Our preliminary measurements indicate that the attack was probably not implemented during the period we observed the network.

  15. Off-Path Attacking the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gilad, Yossi

    2012-01-01

    We show how an off-path (spoofing-only) attacker can perform cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF) and site spoofing/defacement attacks, without requiring vulnerabilities in either web-browser or server and circumventing known defenses. Attacker can also launch devastating denial of service (DoS) attacks, even when the connection between the client and the server is secured with SSL/TLS. The attacks are practical and require a puppet (malicious script in browser sandbox) running on a the victim client machine, and attacker capable of IP-spoofing on the Internet. Our attacks use a technique allowing an off-path attacker to learn the sequence numbers of both client and server in a TCP connection. The technique exploits the fact that many computers, in particular those running Windows, use a global IP-ID counter, which provides a side channel allowing efficient exposure of the connection sequence numbers. We present results of experiments evaluating the learning technique and the attacks ...

  16. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  17. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  18. Agent Based Preventive Measure for UDP Flood Attack in DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AARTI SINGH,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attack is an attack which makes victim resources and services unavailable to its intended users. In particular, User Datagram Protocol (UDP flood attack in DDoS attacks is a method causing host based denial of service. It occurs when attacker sends UDP packets to a random port on the victim system,causing responses to be sent to forged IP address. The basic thrust of this paper is agent based solution for UDP lood attack because software agent technology seems to be a strong candidate for defending DDoS attacks and very few researchers have thought of deploying agents towards providing solution for UDP attack earlier.

  19. Spatially localized attacks on interdependent networks: the existence of a finite critical attack size

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, Yehiel; Danziger, Michael M; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Many real world complex systems such as infrastructure, communication and transportation networks are embedded in space, where entities of one system may depend on entities of other systems. These systems are subject to geographically localized failures due to malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here we study the resilience of a system composed of two interdependent spatially embedded networks to localized geographical attacks. We find that if an attack is larger than a finite (zero fraction of the system) critical size, it will spread through the entire system and lead to its complete collapse. If the attack is below the critical size, it will remain localized. In contrast, under random attack a finite fraction of the system needs to be removed to initiate system collapse. We present both numerical simulations and a theoretical approach to analyze and predict the effect of local attacks and the critical attack size. Our results demonstrate the high risk of local attacks on interdependent spatially embedd...

  20. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Martens

    Full Text Available Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  1. A Efficient Approach for Password Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Naga Geethika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Online password guessing attacks has emerged as a major problem in password based systems. To avoid this we implemented many solutions day by day to restrict bruteforce attacks and password guessing attacks and dictionary attacks. The approach in this paper is that using of mobile alert messages and giving options to the mobile user for more security that will intimate admin that someone is trying to hack his email. The legal users/attackers are challenged to answer the code that is sent to the mobile to retrieve the login page when the number of failed login attempts from a single machine crosses certain threshold value. This protocol uses either the IP addresses of the machines or the browser cookies, or both to identify the machines from which successful logins are made previously. A machine is said to be known when a successful login is made from it and its IP address is added to whitelist. The main goal of this protocol is to limit the attackers with a few failed login attempts made from each unknown machine and forcing them to challenge the security options. Attackers can have a threshold value (For ex 5 which is Whenever a user/attacker types an invalid username.

  2. Panic attacks simulate presence of somatic illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latas Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Panic attacks are characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous somatic symptoms, such as palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vertigo. The objective of this study was to analyze symptoms of panic attacks in patients with panic disorder, especially, to determine the specific relationship of somatic and neurological symptoms of panic attacks in boundaries of somatic systems. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 97 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder, without any acute, severe and unstable somatic illness. The presence and frequency of symptoms of panic attacks were estimated by the Panic Disorder Questionnaire. Results. The study results indicate that the most frequent symptoms of panic attacks were cardiological signs (heart pounding or racing and trembling, followed by unsteady and fainting feeling symptoms, sweating, respiratory symptoms and gastroenterological symptoms. The results of correlation analyses indicate that symptoms of panic attacks classified into cardio-vascular, gastro-enterological, respiratory and neuro-otological systems show statistically significant correlations. Conclusion. The results of analyses of symptoms of panic attacks point to their intercorrelation. This specific association of the symptoms, if they are examined on their own in the patients, could lead to false clinical manifestation of some somatic illness. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze adequately and make the proper differential diagnosis of patients with panic disorder.

  3. Fast Collision Attack on MD5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved attack algorithm to find two-block collisions of the hash function MD5. The attack uses the same differential path of MD5 and the set of sufficient conditions that was presented by Wang et al. We present a new technique which allows us to deterministically fulfi

  4. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolic, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approach...

  5. The cost of attack in competing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, B; Horvatic, D; Lipic, T; Perc, M; Buldú, J M; Stanley, H E

    2015-11-01

    Real-world attacks can be interpreted as the result of competitive interactions between networks, ranging from predator-prey networks to networks of countries under economic sanctions. Although the purpose of an attack is to damage a target network, it also curtails the ability of the attacker, which must choose the duration and magnitude of an attack to avoid negative impacts on its own functioning. Nevertheless, despite the large number of studies on interconnected networks, the consequences of initiating an attack have never been studied. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where a resilient network is willing to partially weaken its own resilience in order to more severely damage a less resilient competitor. The attacking network can take over the competitor's nodes after their long inactivity. However, owing to a feedback mechanism the takeovers weaken the resilience of the attacking network. We define a conservation law that relates the feedback mechanism to the resilience dynamics for two competing networks. Within this formalism, we determine the cost and optimal duration of an attack, allowing a network to evaluate the risk of initiating hostilities. PMID:26490628

  6. Automated Detection System for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr K.V.N.Sunitha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many software systems have evolved to include a Web-based component that makes them available to the public via the Internet and can expose them to a variety of Web-based attacks. One of these attacks is SQL Injection vulnerability (SQLIV, which can give attackers unrestricted access to the databases that underlie Web applications and has become increasingly frequent and serious. The intent is that Web applications will limit the kinds of queries that can be generated to a safe subset of all possible queries, regardless of what input users provide. SQL Injection attacks are possible due to the design drawbacks of the web sites, which interact with back-end databases. Successful attacks may damage more. We introduce a system that deals with new automated technique for preventing SQLIA based on the novel concept of regular expressions is to detect SQL Injection attacks. The proposed system can detect the attacks that are from Internet and Insider Attacks, by analyzing the packets of the network servers.

  7. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  8. Automatic Classification of Attacks on IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Safarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for automatic analysis of attack data in IP telephony network with a neural network. Data for the analysis is gathered from variable monitoring application running in the network. These monitoring systems are a typical part of nowadays network. Information from them is usually used after attack. It is possible to use an automatic classification of IP telephony attacks for nearly real-time classification and counter attack or mitigation of potential attacks. The classification use proposed neural network, and the article covers design of a neural network and its practical implementation. It contains also methods for neural network learning and data gathering functions from honeypot application.

  9. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  10. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolic, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approach...... Threefish cipher. The new techniques include an analytical search for optimal input values in the rotational cryptanalysis, which allows to extend the outbound phase of the attack with a precomputation phase, an approach never used in any rebound-style attack before. Further we show how to combine multiple...... inside-out computations and neutral bits in the inbound phase of the rebound attack, and give well-defined rotational distinguishers as certificates of weaknesses for the compression functions and block ciphers....

  11. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Zaki, M Mohd; Marliza, R

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. For the purpose of this paper, only Blaster variants were used during the experiment. This paper proposes a multi-step worm attack model which can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  12. Use of Attack Graphs in Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandilya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attack graphs have been used to model the vulnerabilities of the systems and their potential exploits. The successful exploits leading to the partial/total failure of the systems are subject of keen security interest. Considerable effort has been expended in exhaustive modeling, analyses, detection, and mitigation of attacks. One prominent methodology involves constructing attack graphs of the pertinent system for analysis and response strategies. This not only gives the simplified representation of the system, but also allows prioritizing the security properties whose violations are of greater concern, for both detection and repair. We present a survey and critical study of state-of-the-art technologies in attack graph generation and use in security system. Based on our research, we identify the potential, challenges, and direction of the current research in using attack graphs.

  13. Detection Block Model for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha G. Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet, more and more organizations connect their databases to the Internet for resource sharing. However, due to developers' lack of knowledge of all possible attacks, web applications become vulnerable to multiple attacks. Thus the network databases could face multiple threats. Web applications generally consist of a three tier architecture where database is in the third pole, which is the most valuable asset in any organization. SQL injection is an attack technique in which specially crafted input string is entered in user input field. It is submitted to server and result is returned to the user. In SQL injection vulnerability, the database server is forced to execute malicious operations which may cause the data loss or corruption, denial of access, and unauthentic access to sensitive data by crafting specific inputs. An attacker can directly compromise the database, and that is why this is a most threatening web attack. SQL injection attack occupies first position in top ten vulnerabilities as specified by Open Web Application Security Project. It is probably the most common Website vulnerability today. Current scenarios which provide solutions to SQL injection attack either have limited scope i.e. can’t be implemented across all platforms, or do not cover all types of SQL injection attacks. In this work we implement Message Authentication Code (MAC based solution against SQL injection attacks. The model works both on client and server side. Client side implements a filter function and server side is based on information theory. MAC of static and dynamic queries is compared to detect SQL injection attack.

  14. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  15. Detection and Suppression of Blackhole Attack in Leach based Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are broadly cast-off in numerous applications like battlefield monitoring, environment monitoring. Nodes in sensor network works cooperatively for a single goal with whose objective is to forward the data packets to the base station. However, it requires different resources of a sensor node such as battery power, storage, and processing power. In order to conserve its own resources a node may not forward the data to the others. Such sort of attack has serious consequences if the attacker node is the cluster head. In the presence of BlackHole attack the base station will not be able to get the data from the persecuted cluster head while resources of the cluster are being consumed. In this paper we recommend a scheme to detect this kind of misconduct in WSN. Our recognition mechanism is energy efficient since most computations parts are assigned to the base station.

  16. RESPONSE OF SEVERAL APPLE VARIETIES TO POWDERY MILDEW (PODOSPHAERA LEUCOTRICHA ATTACK IN CENTRAL TRANSYLVANIA CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R SESTRAS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of apple cultivars to powdery mildew attack – Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Everh. Salm. – on leaves and shoots, for seven years (1990-1996, emphasised a large variability for this character existing within 75 apple varieties tested in an experimental field at the Fruit Research Station in Cluj-Napoca, Central Transylvania, Romania. The experimental results confirmed that the cultivars of the Jonathan group are highly susceptible to powdery mildew (e.g. Jonathan, Jonne Spur, Jonathan Smith, Black John, Jonathan Watson, Nüred Jonathan, Delia, Aromat de vară, Roşu de Cluj. Cultivars Gloster, Starkrimson and Prima were registered with a low attack degree. None of the tested cultivars were included in the category “No attack”. Out of all varieties, 21 of them representing 28.0% were registered with a very high attack, both on leaves and shoots.

  17. Research on First Attack Probability Model of an Attacker Level Bombing Anti-air Radars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Peng-cheng; MU Fu-ling; ZHOU Jing-lun

    2007-01-01

    The paper mainly studies the first attack probability (FAP) of an attacker level bombing anti-air radars through analyzing the radiant point orientation and attack (RPOA) process of attackers. Firstly, the searching target process is analyzed, and a corresponding target finding model is brought forward. Secondly, the target approaching process is concretely analyzed when the attacker levelly bombs the anti-air radar, and a corresponding target approaching model is presented. Finally, a demonstration is given to analyze the major factors in the model and prove its validity.

  18. Prevention of Blackhole Attack in Wireless Sensor Network using IPSec Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Network is consist of spatially distributed autonomous sensor devices to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure and pollutants etc. at various locations. WSN is highly prone to severe attacks and conventional techniques against these attacks are not desirable due to the resource constrained nature of the sensor devices i.e. low battery power, limited computation capability, bounded memory and energy resources, susceptibility to physical threat and the use of insecure wireless communication channels. Sensor nodes communicate via wireless links over limited frequency and bandwidth. However, there are still a lot of unresolved issues in wireless sensor networks of which security is one of the hottest research issues. The black-hole attack is one of the severe deniel-of-servie attack on wireless sensor network can be accomplished by dropping the data packets. The attack can be accomplished either selectively i.e. by dropping data packets for a particular destination or a randomly selected portion of the data packets or by dropping all the data packets in that network. In this paper, the IPSec (Internet protocol security protocol based on symmetric key cryptography is used against black-hole attack in WSN. IPSec provides data security at the IP packet level. IPSec helps to create authenticated and confidential packets for IP layer. IPSec uses two efficient protocols i.e. AH (Authentication Header, ESP (Encapsulating Security Protocol. Each has their own specifications and functions. These protocols are operating in two basic modes that are: Transport Mode and Tunnel Mode. In the present work, ESP protocol is used in transport mode. It operates on DES-CBC algorithms for encryption/decryption and HMAC-MD5 algorithms are used for authentication. The performance of IPSec protocol is evaluated on the basis of metrics like throughput, total packet received, end

  19. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  20. Utilizing Probabilistic Linear Equations in Cube Attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yao; Bin Zhang; Wen-Ling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Cube attacks, proposed by Dinur and Shamir at EUROCRYPT 2009, have shown huge power against stream ciphers. In the original cube attacks, a linear system of secret key bits is exploited for key recovery attacks. However, we find a number of equations claimed linear in previous literature actually nonlinear and not fit into the theoretical framework of cube attacks. Moreover, cube attacks are hard to apply if linear equations are rare. Therefore, it is of significance to make use of probabilistic linear equations, namely nonlinear superpolys that can be approximated by linear expressions effectively. In this paper, we suggest a way to test out and utilize these probabilistic linear equations, thus extending cube attacks to a wider scope. Concretely, we employ the standard parameter estimation approach and the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for linearity test in the preprocessing phase, and use maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) for solving the probabilistic linear equations in the online phase. As an application, we exhibit our new attack against 672 rounds of Trivium and reduce the number of key bits to search by 7.

  1. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  2. Forensics Investigation of Web Application Security Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Lazzez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the security attacks targeting a web application every day, and hence improve its security. The aim of this paper is to carry out a detailed overview about the web application forensics. First, we define the web applications forensics, and we present a taxonomic structure of the digital forensics. Then, we present the methodology of a web application forensics investigation. After that, we illustrate the forensics supportive tools for a web application forensics investigation. After that, we present a detailed presentation of a set of the main considered web application forensics tools. Finally, we provide a comparison of the main considered web application forensics tools.

  3. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  4. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  5. Modified AODV Protocol against Blackhole Attacks in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Rama,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET consists of a collection of wireless mobile hosts without the required intervention of any existing infrastructure or centralized access point such as base station. The dynamic topology of MANET allows nodes to join and leave the network at any point of time. Wireless MANET is particularly vulnerabledue to its fundamental characteristics such as open medium, dynamic topology, distributed cooperation and constrained capability. So security in MANET is a complex issue. There are many routing protocols that establish the routes between the nodes in the network. The control towards the management of the nodes in the MANET is distributed. This features does not give assurance towards the security aspects of the network. There are many routing attacks caused due to lack of security. In this paper, therefore, we attempt to focus on analyzing and improving the security of one of the popularrouting protocol for MANET viz. the Adhoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol. Our focus specifically, is on ensuring the security against the Blackhole Attack. The proposed solution is that capable of detecting and removing black hole nodes in the MANET at the initial stage itself without any delay.

  6. FAST CORRELATION ATTACKS ON BLUETOOTH COMBINER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Weiju; Feng Dengguo

    2006-01-01

    A simple fast correlation attack is used to analysis the security of Bluetooth combiner in this paper.This attack solves the tradeoff between the length of the keystream and the computing complexity needed to recover the secret key. We give the computing complexities of the attack algorithm according to different lengths of the known keystream. The result is less time-consuming than before. It is also shown that the security of the modified Bluetooth combiner by Hermelin and Nyberg is not significantly enhanced.

  7. RAPTOR: Routing Attacks on Privacy in Tor

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yixin; Edmundson, Anne; Vanbever, Laurent; Li, Oscar; Rexford, Jennifer; Chiang, Mung; Mittal, Prateek

    2015-01-01

    The Tor network is a widely used system for anonymous communication. However, Tor is known to be vulnerable to attackers who can observe traffic at both ends of the communication path. In this paper, we show that prior attacks are just the tip of the iceberg. We present a suite of new attacks, called Raptor, that can be launched by Autonomous Systems (ASes) to compromise user anonymity. First, AS-level adversaries can exploit the asymmetric nature of Internet routing to increase the chance of...

  8. Security Attacks On MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiragkumar V. Patel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives idea about various routing protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network against security issues. MANET is vulnerable to various security attacks due to its dynamically changing topology, self configurable nature and lack of centralized control. Malicious node can significantly degrade the performance and reliability of Ad-hoc Network routing protocols. From the survey it has been made quite clear that basic MANET protocols are vulnerable to various routing attacks. While Secure AODV (SAODV routing protocol performs quite well to improve performance in presence of security attack in MANET.

  9. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack? Certain risk factors make it more likely that ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  10. Proposed Methodology for Securing Wireless LANs from Wormhole Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, A K; Jaypalsinh. A. Gohil; D.T. Meva

    2010-01-01

    Wormhole attacks enable an attacker with limited Resources and no cryptographic material to wreak havoc on wireless networks. Initial research focused that this attack is possible only on Adhoc networks, but in present condition wormhole attack is possible on infrastructure based wireless LANs also. We propose architecture and analyze the possibility of wormhole attack along with a countermeasure to avoid such an attack. The proposed mechanism involves the shared information between commun...

  11. A Robust Approach to Detect and Prevent Network Layer Attacks in MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Mamatha & S.C. Sharma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic wireless network that is formed without any pre-existing infrastructure,in which every node can act as a router is called a mobile ad hoc network(MANET. Since MANETS has not got clear cut security provisions, it isaccessible to any of the authorized network users and malicious attackers. Thegreatest challenge for the MANETS is to come with a robust security solutioneven in the presence of malicious nodes, so that MANET can be protected fromvarious routing attacks. Several countermeasures have been proposed for theserouting attacks in MANETS using various cryptographic techniques. But most ofthese mechanisms are not considerably suitable for the resource constraints, i.e.,bandwidth limitation and battery power, since they results in heavy traffic load forexchanging and verification of keys. In this paper, a new semantic securitysolution is provided, which suits for the different MANET constraints and also isrobust in nature, since it is able to identify and prevent four routing attacksparallelly. The experimental analysis shows the identification and prevention ofthe four attacks parallelly I.e., packet dropping, message tampering, black holeattack and gray hole attack.

  12. The role of sleep in migraine attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Inamorato

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine attacks may be precipitated by sleep deprivation or excessive sleep and sleep is also associated with relief of migraine attacks. In view of this variable relationship we studied the records of 159 consecutive outpatients of our Headache Unit. In 121 records there was reference to sleep involvement, in 55% by a single form and in 45% by more than one form. When only one form was related, relief was most common (70%. 30% of that group of patients had the migraine attack precipitated by sleep, 24% by deprivation and 6% by sleep excess. When the effects of sleep were multiple, these effects were as expected logically in 65%: «in accordance» group (e.g attack precipitated by sleep deprivation and relieved by sleep onset. In a second group, («conflicting» where the involvement was not logical, there were three different combinations of sleep involvement, possibly due to more than one pathophysiological mechanism.

  13. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  14. SECURING MANET FROM BLACKHOLE AND WORMHOLE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.Vidhyapathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc networks are self-configuring and self-organizing multi-hop wireless networks. They do not have any fixed infrastructure or centralized management. Due to this, the ad hoc networks are vulnerable to attacks. The routing protocol for MANET considered in this paper is AODV(Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. Blackhole and Wormhole nodes are malicious nodeswhich degrade the performance of the network. They actively participate in the network and conform to forward packets to the destination. The Watchdog Mechanism is used to correct the network from both blackhole and wormhole attacks. The networks originally, with the attacks and after being prevented from attacks are compared on the basis of packets received, throughput, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio. ns2 software is used for the simulation.

  15. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  16. Karachi Commander Escapes Attack, 10 Dead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2004-01-01

    KARACHI: The army commander in the Pakistani city of Karachi narrowly① escaped assassination② yesterday when gunmen attacked his convoy③ with gunfire and a bomb, killing at least 10 and wounding his driver, officials said.

  17. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  18. AN APPROACH OF DEFENDING AGAINST DDOS ATTACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhijun; Duan Haixin; Li Xing

    2006-01-01

    An approach of defending against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack based on flow model and flow detection is presented. The proposed approach can protect targets from DDoS attacking, and allow targets to provide good service to legitimate traffic under DDoS attacking, with fast reaction. This approach adopts the technique of dynamic comb filter, yields a low level of false positives of less than 1.5%,drops similar percentage of good traffic, about 1%, and passes neglectable percentage of attack bandwidth to the victim, less than 1.5%. The prototype of commercial product, D-fighter, is developed by implementing this proposed approach on Intel network processor platform IXP 1200.

  19. A NEW METHOD FOR RESYNCHRONIZATION ATTACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for resynchronization attack, which is the combination of the differential cryptanalysis and algebraic attack. By using the new method one gets a system of linear equations or low-degree equations about initial keys, and the solution of the system of equations results in the recovery of the initial keys. This method has a lower computational complexity and better performance of attack in contrast to the known methods. Accordingly, the design of the resynchronization stream generators should be reconsidered to make them strong enough to avoid our attacks. When implemented to the Toyocrypt, our method gains the computational complexity of O(217), and that of O(267) for LILI-128.

  20. Desynchronization Attacks on RFID Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaolei Deng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of radio frequency identification (RFID systems introduce growing security and privacy concerns. RFID systems need security protocols to provide confidentiality, user privacy, mutual authentication and etc. Many security protocols for the RFID system have been presented. This paper analyze several of the newest RFID security protocols which proposed by Niu et al., Fu et al. and Habibi et al. respectively form the security viewpoint of data desynchronization attack. These lightweight protocols were expected to proposed security protections for the RFID system and safeguard against almost all major attacks. However, we found that these RFID security protocols were vulnerable to the attack of data desynchronization. Based on strand spaces model, data desynchronization attacks on these protocols were analyzed and described. Furthermore, improvements to overcome the security vulnerabilities of two protocols presented by Niu et al. and Fu et al. were given.

  1. Dengue Virus May Bolster Zika's Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159534.html Dengue Virus May Bolster Zika's Attack Prior exposure to ... 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prior exposure to the dengue fever virus may increase the severity of Zika ...

  2. Fault attacks on two software countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Nicolas; Heydemann, Karine; Dehbaoui, Amine; Robisson, Bruno; Encrenaz, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Short version of the article "Experimental evaluation of two software countermeasures against fault attacks" presented at the 2014 IEEE Symposium on Hardware-Oriented Security and Trust (HOST) in May 2014.

  3. CASE STUDY OF SQL INJECTION ATTACKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sonakshi*, Rakesh Kumar, Girdhar Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Today, most of the web applications are associated with database at back-end so there are possibilities of SQL injection attacks (SQLIA) on it. A number of preventive measures have also been discovered by various researchers to overcome this attack, but which measure is more convenient and provides fast access to application without compromising the security is also a major concern nowadays. This paper provides a clear distinction among different types of SQLIAs and how these can be performed...

  4. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rusinowitch; Ghazi Maatoug; Hatem Ghabri

    2013-01-01

    Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically g...

  5. Panic Attack during Elective Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampos Mitsonis; Nikolaos Dimopoulos; Marianna Zavrou; Vassiliki Psarra; Christos Giofkos; Christos Fiorakis; Athanasios Dimitriadis; Dimitrios Valavanis; Eleni Vousoura; Iannis Zervas; Efstathios Papavassiliou

    2011-01-01

    Background. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy (CS) can evoke anxiety, embarrassment, and discomfort. These concerns can culminate in panic attacks, which may traumatize patients and significantly decrease their compliance to the procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preendoscopic anxiety and the possibility of a panic attack during an elective gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGE). Methods. The study population comprised of 79 Greek outpatie...

  6. Attacks in WEB Based Embedded Applications

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yaashuwanth; Ramesh, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the issues related to embedded applications when they are implemented in internet. There are various attacks in embedded systems when implemented in the internet. These attacks have a negligible effect in the operating system which results in the decrease in the system performance. But in embedded system case, it has life and death consequence attached to it. Many of these embedded systems work in hazardous environment where a system failure results to catastrophic effec...

  7. Wireless Sensor Networks Attacks and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Alajmi, Naser

    2014-01-01

    A few years ago, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used by only military. Now, we have seen many of organizations use WSNs for some purposes such as weather, pollution, traffic control, and healthcare. Security is becoming on these days a major concern for wireless sensor network. In this paper I focus on the security types of attacks and their detection. This paper anatomizes the security requirements and security attacks in wireless sensor networks. Also, indicate to the benchmarks for the se...

  8. Cluster headache attacks and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Salvatore; Ferrero, Margherita; Vaula, Giovanna; Rainero, Innocenzo; Pinessi, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed typical cluster headache attacks and was diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) at the same time. The headache attacks resolved after i.v. treatment with methylprednisolone. MR imaging showed a pontine demyelinating lesion involving the trigeminal nerve root inlet area, on the same side as the pain. The association between cluster headache and MS has been rarely described before. This case suggests that in patients with cluster headache neuro...

  9. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  10. Two Improved Multiple-Differential Collision Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    An Wang; Liji Wu; Zongyue Wang; Xuexin Zheng; Man Chen; Jing Ma

    2014-01-01

    In CHES 2008, Bogdanov proposed multiple-differential collision attacks which could be applied to the power analysis attacks on practical cryptographic systems. However, due to the effect of countermeasures on FPGA, there are some difficulties during the collision detection, such as local high noise and the lack of sampling points. In this paper, keypoints voting test is proposed for solving these problems, which can increase the success ratio from 35% to 95% on the example of one implementat...

  11. Various Database Attacks and its Prevention Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K.A.VarunKumar; M.Prabakaran; Ajay Kaurav; S.Sibi Chakkaravarthy; Thiyagarajan, S; Pokala Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Increasing in the popularity of internet, the application of database also widely spread. There are some serious threats because of hackers done various attempts to steal the data in the database. Various attacks like Sql injection, Cross site scripting may change the information in the databases which decreases the truthfulness of the database. Intrusion detection system is used to detect whether the attack is carried on the database. In this paper we surveyed different types of database att...

  12. Private Circuits II versus Fault Injection Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotomalala, Henitsoa; Ngo, Xuan Thuy; Najm, Zakaria; Danger, Jean-Luc; Guilley, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    —Cryptographic implementations are subject to physical attacks. Private circuits II is a proven protection against a strong attacker, able to read and write on a finite number of chosen internal nodes. In practice, side-channel analyses and fault injections are less accurate: typically, classical injection techniques (clock and power glitches, electromagnetic pulses, etc.) can be reproducible, but they do not allow to choose the targeted nodes (the situation is different for software dual-rai...

  13. Logical Modes of Attack in Argumentation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Dov M.; Garcez, A. S. D. Avila

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies methodologically robust options for giving logical contents to nodes in abstract argumentation networks. It defines a variety of notions of attack in terms of the logical contents of the nodes in a network. General properties of logics are refined both in the object level and in the meta level to suit the needs of the application. The network-based system improves upon some of the attempts in the literature to define attacks in terms of defeasible proofs, the...

  14. Session Initiation Protocol Attacks and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavarz, Hassan; Sattari, Mohammad Reza Jabbarpour; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the areas of security and attacks in SIP are discussed. We consider attacks from diverse related perspectives. The authentication schemes are comp...

  15. Noncombatants and liability to be attacked in wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    attack," I mean that S has forfeited his or her right not to be attacked by armed forces. Here, "liable" is used in a normative-cum-legal sense, not descriptively as it is when one says "some colors are liable to darken in perpetual shade," and "attack" is used passively, as an equivalent of be attacked...... mean to focus on intended, as opposed to incidental, attacks. Finally, although "attack" often implies initiation of a conflict ("I didn't attack him! He started it!"), it does not do so here. An unjust aggressor who initiates a conflict can be, and indeed very often is, liable to attack. All...

  16. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  17. Management of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema: role of ecallantide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffey H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Duffey,1 Rafael Firszt1,2 1Department of Pediatrics, 2Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Hereditary angioedema (HAE is characterized as an episodic swelling disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. Clinical features include nonpitting edema of external or mucosal body surfaces, and patients often present with swelling of the extremities, abdominal pain, and swelling of the mouth and throat, which can lead to asphyxiation. Patients with HAE classically have no associated urticaria, which is often referred to as nonhistaminergic angioedema. Treatment for HAE involves long-term prophylaxis, short-term prophylaxis, and management of acute attacks. Up until the past few years, acute HAE episodes were predominately treated with supportive measures. Three classes of medications have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the management of acute HAE attacks. Ecallantide, a recombinant protein that acts as a reversible inhibitor of kallikrein, is currently indicated for acute attacks of HAE in those aged 12 years. In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials, EDEMA3 and EDEMA4, patients treated with 30 mg of ecallantide demonstrated statistically significant improvement in symptoms compared to those on placebo. In addition to its use as treatment for HAE, ecallantide has been used off label in the management of nonhistaminergic angioedema, not due to HAE. Ecallantide has shown promise in the treatment of these other forms; however, data are limited to mainly case reports at this time. Ecallantide is generally a safe and well-tolerated medication; however, based on reports of anaphylaxis, ecallantide does contain a black box warning. Due to the risk of anaphylaxis, ecallantide cannot be self-administered and must be given by a health care professional. Overall, ecallantide is a safe and effective medication for the

  18. Analysis of Black Hole Effect and Prevention through IDS in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous network. It is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other over wireless links. From last few years, the interest in the area of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET is growing due to its practical applications and requirement of communication in mobile devices. In the comparison to wired or infrastructure-based wireless network, MANET is vulnerable to security attacks due to its fundamental characteristics, e.g., the open medium, dynamic network topology, lack of clear lines of defense, autonomous terminal, lack of centralized monitoring and management. There are various types of attacks in MANET which drops the network performance. Black hole attack is one of them. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODV is a popular routing algorithm MANET. In this paper we investigated the effects of Black Hole attacks on the network performance. In our work we simulated black hole attacks in Network Simulator 2 (ns-2 and measured the throughput, PDF and routing load in the network withand without a black hole. We also proposed a solution against black hole attacks using intrusion detection system (IDS.

  19. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  20. Panic Attack during Elective Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Mitsonis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy (CS can evoke anxiety, embarrassment, and discomfort. These concerns can culminate in panic attacks, which may traumatize patients and significantly decrease their compliance to the procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preendoscopic anxiety and the possibility of a panic attack during an elective gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGE. Methods. The study population comprised of 79 Greek outpatients. The examination was carried out without the use of conscious sedation. Patients' anxiety levels were assessed before the procedure using the Greek version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y. Results. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled: 45 EGD and 34 CS. Females had higher state and trait anxiety levels than males (48.14 ± 7.94 versus 44.17 ± 7.43, <0.05; and 43.68 ± 6.95 versus 39.86 ± 7.46, <0.05. Patients who experienced panic attack had significantly higher levels of both trait and state anxiety, compared to those who were panic-free. There was no significant relationship between panic attacks and sex or type of procedure. Conclusions. Patients who experience panic attacks during endoscopic procedures appear to have significantly higher anxiety levels before the procedure. Administering the STAI questionnaire prior to the endoscopy seems to be a useful screening method for vulnerable patients.

  1. Detecting and Localizing Wireless Network Attacks Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Aldasouqi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase employee productivity within a feasible budget, we have to track newtechnologies, investigate and choose the best plan and implementation of these technologies.WLAN is vulnerable to malicious attacks due to their shared medium in unlicensed frequencyspectrum, thus requiring security features for a variety of applications.This paper will discuss some techniques and approaches which can help to detect, localize andidentify wireless network attacks, which present a unique set of challenges to IT and securityprofessionals. All efforts were focusing on the ability to identity based attacks in which amalicious device uses forged MAC addresses to masquerade as a specific client or to createmultiple illegitimate identities. Also, to be sure that the network is able to robustly identify eachtransmitter independently of packet contents, allowing detection of a large class of identity-basedattacks with high probability.The attacker can listen to all wireless traffic, compromise encryption and Use attenuators,amplifiers, directional antennas, software radios, but he cannot be at the location of user or at thelocation of access points. However, we have to choose the best design, implementation, andevaluation techniques in order to secure our network from attackers, where our choice willdepend on a technical implementation to mitigate the risk on the enterprise network infrastructure.

  2. Power analysis attacks revealing the secrets of smart cards

    CERN Document Server

    Mangard, Stefan; Popp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of power analysis attacks and countermeasures. Based on the principle that the only way to defend against power analysis attacks is to understand them, this book explains how power analysis attacks work. It discusses simple and differential power analysis as well as advanced techniques like template attacks.

  3. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack Updated:May 24,2016 Sometimes a heart attack ... Disease Go Red For Women Types of aneurysms Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) • ...

  4. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  5. Transforming Graphical System Models to Graphical Attack Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2016-01-01

    approach to transforming graphical system models to graphical attack models in the form of attack trees. Based on an asset in the model, our transformations result in an attack tree that represents attacks by all possible actors in the model, after which the actor in question has obtained the asset....

  6. Proposed Methodology for Securing Wireless LANs from Wormhole Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Patel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attacks enable an attacker with limited Resources and no cryptographic material to wreak havoc on wireless networks. Initial research focused that this attack is possible only on Adhoc networks, but in present condition wormhole attack is possible on infrastructure based wireless LANs also. We propose architecture and analyze the possibility of wormhole attack along with a countermeasure to avoid such an attack. The proposed mechanism involves the shared information between communicating Access Points to prevent Rouge Access Points from masquerading as false neighbours. Our defense greatly diminishes the threat of wormhole attacks and requires no location information or clock synchronization.

  7. Attack Prevention for Collaborative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Lingjie; Huang, Jianwei; Shin, Kang G

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative spectrum sensing can significantly improve the detection performance of secondary unlicensed users (SUs). However, the performance of collaborative sensing is vulnerable to sensing data falsification attacks, where malicious SUs (attackers) submit manipulated sensing reports to mislead the fusion center's decision on spectrum occupancy. Moreover, attackers may not follow the fusion center's decision regarding their spectrum access. This paper considers a challenging attack scenario where multiple rational attackers overhear all honest SUs' sensing reports and cooperatively maximize attackers' aggregate spectrum utilization. We show that, without attack-prevention mechanisms, honest SUs are unable to transmit over the licensed spectrum, and they may further be penalized by the primary user for collisions due to attackers' aggressive transmissions. To prevent such attacks, we propose two novel attack-prevention mechanisms with direct and indirect punishments. The key idea is to identify collisions...

  8. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  9. Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Saha, Sudip

    2015-04-15

    Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.

  10. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  11. Early Detection of SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahriar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SQL Injection (SQLI is a common vulnerability found in web applications.The starting point of SQLIattack is the client-side (browser. If attack inputs can be detected early at the browse side, then it could bethwarted early by not forwarding the malicious inputs to the server-side for further processing.This paperpresents a client-side approach to detect SQLI attacks1. The client-side accepts shadow SQL queries fromthe server-side and checks any deviation betweenshadow queries with dynamic queries generated withuser supplied inputs. We measure the deviation of shadow query and dynamic query based on conditionalentropy metrics and propose four metrics in this direction. We evaluate the approach with three PHPapplications containing SQLI vulnerabilities. The evaluation results indicate that our approach can detectwell-known SQLI attacks early at the client-side and impose negligible overhead.

  12. Quantifying Public Response towards Islam on Twitter after Paris Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy, Walid; Darwish, Kareem; Abokhodair, Norah

    2015-01-01

    The Paris terrorist attacks occurred on November 13, 2015 prompted a massive response on social media including Twitter, with millions of posted tweets in the first few hours after the attacks. Most of the tweets were condemning the attacks and showing support to Parisians. One of the trending debates related to the attacks concerned possible association between terrorism and Islam and Muslims in general. This created a global discussion between those attacking and those defending Islam and M...

  13. Effect of migraine attacks on paracetamol absorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Tokola, R A; Neuvonen, P J

    1984-01-01

    The absorption of effervescent paracetamol (1000 mg) was investigated in nine female patients during a migraine attack and in the same patients when headache free. Migraine attack decreased (P less than 0.05) the areas under the serum paracetamol concentration-time curves (AUC) of 0-2 h, 0-4 h and 0-6 h and the peak serum concentration. The severity of nausea correlated significantly with the decrease in the AUC values. Our results support findings of delayed gastric emptying in migraine atta...

  14. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  15. Session Initiation Protocol Attacks and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavarz, Hassan; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the areas of security and attacks in SIP are discussed. We consider attacks from diverse related perspectives. The authentication schemes are compared, the representative existing solutions are highlighted, and several remaining research challenges are identified. Finally, the taxonomy of SIP threat will be presented.

  16. Fast Collision Attack on MD5

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Marc

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved attack algorithm to find two-block collisions of the hash function MD5. The attack uses the same differential path of MD5 and the set of sufficient conditions that was presented by Wang et al. We present a new technique which allows us to deterministically fulfill restrictions to properly rotate the differentials in the first round. We will present a new algorithm to find the first block and we will use an algorithm of Klima to find the second block. To o...

  17. Textual Manipulation for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein AlNabulsi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SQL injection attacks try to use string or text manipulations to access illegally websites and their databases. This is since using some symbols or characters in SQL statements may trick the authentication system to incorrectly allow such SQL statements to be processed or executed. In this paper, we highlighted several examples of such text manipulations that can be successfully used in SQL injection attacks. We evaluated the usage of those strings on several websites and web pages using SNORT open source. We also conducted an extensive comparison study of some relevant papers.

  18. Defending Against Wormhole Attack in OLSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Liang; HONG Fan; FU Cai

    2006-01-01

    OLSR (optimal link state routing) is one of the four basic routing protocols used in mobile ad hoc Networks by the MANET working group of IETF(Internet engineering task force). OLSR, a proactive routing protocol, is based on a multipoint relaying flooding technique to reduce the number of topology broadcast. OLSR uses periodic HELLO packets to neighbor detection. As introduced in Reference [1], the wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless Networks, especially against many ad hoc Network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. Here, a trust model to handle this attack in OLSR is provided and simulated in NS2.

  19. A novel proposed network security management approach for cyber attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Network security is a discipline that focuses on securing networks from unauthorized access. Given the Escalating threats of malicious cyber attacks, modern enterprises employ multiple lines of defense. A comprehensive defense strategy against such attacks should include (I) an attack detection component that deter- mines the fact that a program is compromised, (2) an attack identification and prevention component that identifies attack packets so that one can block such packets in the future and prevents the attack from further propagation. Over the last decade, a significant amount of research has been vested in the systems that can detect cyber attacks either statically at compile time or dynamically at run time, However, not much effort is spent on automated attack packet identification or attack prevention. In this paper we present a unified solution to the problems mentioned above. We implemented this solution after the forward engineering of Open Source Security Information Management (OSSIM) system called Preventive Information Security management (PrISM) system that correlates input from different sensors so that the resulting product can automatically detect any cyber attack against it and prevents by identifying the actual attack packet(s). The PrISM was always able to detect the attacks, identify the attack packets and most often prevent by blocking the attacker's IP address to continue normal execution. There is no additional run-time performance overhead for attack prevention. (author)

  20. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (200...

  1. Intelligent Intrusion Detection of Grey Hole and Rushing Attacks in Self-Driving Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab M. Ali Alheeti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs play a vital role in the success of self-driving and semi self-driving vehicles, where they improve safety and comfort. Such vehicles depend heavily on external communication with the surrounding environment via data control and Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs exchanges. VANETs are potentially exposed to a number of attacks, such as grey hole, black hole, wormhole and rushing attacks. This work presents an intelligent Intrusion Detection System (IDS that relies on anomaly detection to protect the external communication system from grey hole and rushing attacks. These attacks aim to disrupt the transmission between vehicles and roadside units. The IDS uses features obtained from a trace file generated in a network simulator and consists of a feed-forward neural network and a support vector machine. Additionally, the paper studies the use of a novel systematic response, employed to protect the vehicle when it encounters malicious behaviour. Our simulations of the proposed detection system show that the proposed schemes possess outstanding detection rates with a reduction in false alarms. This safe mode response system has been evaluated using four performance metrics, namely, received packets, packet delivery ratio, dropped packets and the average end to end delay, under both normal and abnormal conditions.

  2. Dpraodv: A Dyanamic Learning System Against Blackhole Attack in Aodv Based Manet

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Payal N

    2009-01-01

    Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc networks to provide protected communication between mobile nodes. Due to unique characteristics of MANETS, it creates a number of consequential challenges to its security design. To overcome the challenges, there is a need to build a multifence security solution that achieves both broad protection and desirable network performance. MANETs are vulnerable to various attacks, blackhole, is one of the possible attacks. Black hole is a type of routing attack where a malicious node advertise itself as having the shortest path to all nodes in the environment by sending fake route reply. By doing this, the malicious node can deprive the traffic from the source node. It can be used as a denial-of-service attack where it can drop the packets later. In this paper, we proposed a DPRAODV (Detection, Prevention and Reactive AODV) to prevent security threats of blackhole by notifying other nodes in the network of the incident. The simulation results in ns2 (ver- 2.33) de...

  3. Cryptographic Attacks and Countermeasures - A Mathematical View

    OpenAIRE

    Canright, David; Stanica, Pantelimon

    2009-01-01

    2009 CyberSecurity Summit, Naval Postgraduate School 1st NPS Cyber Summit was held at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California on October 29, 2009. Sessions were held on the following topics: security requirements, Kerchkoffs' principle, mathematics of cybersecurity, the data encryption standard, nonlinear equations, Cyber attacks on Bluetooth EQ, Crypto properties of S-boxes.

  4. Modified localized attack on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gaogao; Du, Ruijin; Hao, Huifang; Tian, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Since a shell structure contains a wealth of information, it is not only very important for understanding the transport properties of the network, but also essential to identify influential spreaders in complex networks. Nodes within each shell can be classified into two categories: protected nodes and unprotected nodes. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the localized attack, modified localized attack, which means that when a randomly chosen node (root node) is under attack, protected nodes will not be removed, but unprotected nodes in the nearest shells will fail. We numerically and analytically study the system robustness under this attack by taking an Erdös-Rényi (ER) network, a regular random (RR) network and a scale-free (SF) network as examples. Moreover, a fraction of nodes belonging to giant component S and a critical threshold q c , where S approaches to zero, are given. The result implies that increasing connection density has been found to be useful to significantly improve network robustness.

  5. Chemical Attack of Malaysian Pozzolans Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hilton Ahmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia produces more than 10 million tonne of by-product from industrial sector per year. As the environmental impact concerns, more than half of the by-product can be recycled to be used as construction materials. One of them is pozzolan, a cement replacing material that can be used to enhance the properties of the concrete. This paper studies the chemical attack to local prozzolans concrete. The parameters studied include weight loss, length change, and residual strength of local pozzolans concrete after been exposed to severe environment. The specimen were tested under normal room temperature, exposed to magnesium sulfate, MgSO4. 2H2O where both sulfate attack and acid attack take place. Two series of pozzolans< which is Pulverized fly ash (PFA and Palm oil fuel ash (POFA were identified. Another series of admixture, Quarry Dust (QD from quarry waste that contain high amount of silica content also been carried out. Each series will study the effect of cement replacement percentage of 5%, 10% and 15%. The parameters were compared to conventional ordinary Portland cement (OPC concrete as control mix. Accelerated testing was conducted at 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The result shows that the local pozzolans concrete were found to be in good resistance against sulfate attack compared to conventional concrete. Compared to all series conducted, series of PFA replacement gave the best resistance followed by POFA and QD replacement series.

  6. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection. PMID:25910268

  7. Why Does Asthma Attack Severely at Night?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The rhythmic changes of human physiological activities by day and at night may cause regular change of the patient's condition within one day. The following is the explanation with the theory of Chinese medicine for the reason why asthma attacks severely at night.

  8. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  9. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the variables, with…

  10. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159007.html After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure 1 in 4 survivors develops this serious ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Risk of heart failure appears high within a few years of ...

  11. Nonepileptic attack disorder among married women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanaraj M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To study the clinical features, precipitating stressful life events and prognosis of nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD among married women. Design: Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Setting: A tertiary care teaching hospital. Subjects: Of the 1020 patients with epilepsy referred to the epilepsy clinic during 2002-2003, 30 were married women with NEAD. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic criteria for NEAD included normal EEG during ictal and post-ictal phase of the generalized ′attack.′ The data collected included clinical characteristics, semiology of the attacks, precipitating stressful events, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The control group included 30 age-matched married women with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The long-term outcome and factors influencing the outcomes were analyzed. Results: The mean duration of illness was 18 months, and the pattern of the attack was ′fall and lying still′ in 53% and ′fall with generalized motor movements′ in 47%. The frequency was one or more per week in 57% and occasionally in 43%. The important stressful events were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman (c2 = 9.02, P = 0.003 and constant quarrel with other family members (c2 = 5.19, P = 0.02. The prevalence of sexual abuse was low (7%. Co-morbid psychiatric disorder was observed in 70%. At the end of 1 year, 39% were free from the attack. Resolution of the stressful life events (c2 = 4.52, P = 0.03 and lower frequency of attack at the time of reporting (c2 = 3.88, P = 0.05 correlated with good outcomes. Conclusion : Among patients with NEAD in India, the major precipitating factors were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman and constant quarrel with other family members and not sexual abuse. Women with low frequency of attack at the time of reporting and the remission of the stressful events had better outcomes.

  12. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  13. A graph based system for multi-stage attacks recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safaa O. Al-Mamory; Zhai Jianhong; Zhang Hongli

    2008-01-01

    Building attack scenario is one of the most important aspects in network security. This paper proposed a system which collects intrusion alerts, clusters them as sub-attacks using alerts abstraction, aggregates the similar sub-attacks, and then correlates and generates correlation graphs. The scenarios were represented by alert classes instead of alerts themselves so as to reduce the required rules and have the ability of detecting new variations of attacks. The proposed system is capable of passing some of the missed attacks. To evaluate system effectiveness, it was tested with different datasets which contain multi-step attacks. Compressed and easily understandable correlation graphs which reflect attack scenarios were generated. The proposed system can correlate related alerts, uncover the attack strategies, and detect new variations of attacks.

  14. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim. PMID:16936505

  15. Analysis of the SYN Flood DoS Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Bogdanoski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes systems vulnerability targeted by TCP (Transmission Control Protocol segments when SYN flag is ON, which gives space for a DoS (Denial of Service attack called SYN flooding attack or more often referred as a SYN flood attack. The effects of this type of attack are analyzed and presented in OPNET simulation environment. Furthermore, the paper presents two anomaly detection algorithms as an effective mechanism against this type of attack. Finally, practical approaches against SYN flood attack for Linux and Windows environment which are followed by are shown.

  16. A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADIP M. JAWANDHIYA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs. Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. In this paper, we are describing the all prominent attacks described in literature in a consistent manner to provide a concise comparison on attack types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies all the existing attacks on MANETs.

  17. Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

  18. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  19. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  20. GNSS-based positioning: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitratos, P

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of mobile computing devices, user-portable, or embedded in vehicles, cargo containers, or the physical space, need to be aware of their location in order to provide a wide range of commercial services. Most often, mobile devices obtain their own location with the help of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), integrating, for example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Nonetheless, an adversary can compromise location-aware applications by attacking the GNSS-based positioning: It can forge navigation messages and mislead the receiver into calculating a fake location. In this paper, we analyze this vulnerability and propose and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures. First, we consider replay attacks, which can be effective even in the presence of future cryptographic GNSS protection mechanisms. Then, we propose and analyze methods that allow GNSS receivers to detect the reception of signals generated by an adversary, and then reject fake locations calculated because of ...

  1. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date. PMID:26115644

  2. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  3. Mitigation of Malicious Attacks on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian M; Andrade, Jose S; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J; 10.1073/pnas.1009440108

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against a malicious attack? We introduce a unique measure for robustness and use it to devise a method to mitigate economically and efficiently this risk. We demonstrate its efficiency on the European electricity system and on the Internet as well as on complex networks models. We show that with small changes in the network structure (low cost) the robustness of diverse networks can be improved dramatically while their functionality remains unchanged. Our results are useful not only for improving significantly with low cost the robustness of existing infrastructures but also for designing economically robust network systems.

  4. Modelling Social-Technical Attacks with Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Nicolas; David, Alexandre; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2015-01-01

    Attacks on a system often exploit vulnerabilities that arise from human behaviour or other human activity. Attacks of this type, so-called socio-technical attacks, cover everything from social engineering to insider attacks, and they can have a devastating impact on an unprepared organisation. In...... this paper we develop an approach towards modelling socio-technical systems in general and socio-technical attacks in particular, using timed automata and illustrate its application by a complex case study. Thanks to automated model checking and automata theory, we can automatically generate possible...... attacks in our model and perform analysis and simulation of both model and attack, revealing details about the specific interaction between attacker and victim. Using timed automata also allows for intuitive modelling of systems, in which quantities like time and cost can be easily added and analysed....

  5. Heart Attack Before 50 Ups Early Death Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160692.html Heart Attack Before 50 Ups Early Death Risk But healthy living can improve those odds, ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of early death after a heart attack has lessened over the ...

  6. Nonlinear optical cryptosystem resistant to standard and hybrid attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aloka

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nonlinear optical cryptosystem that is resistant to amplitude-phase retrieval attacks, known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack. A squaring operation is introduced in the encryption path, which thwarts the iterative attacks. This nonlinear operation tends to amplify the error in the estimation during an iterative attack. The decryption process requires the use of a square-root operation. Thus, in the reverse path also, the attacks encounter the nonlinear square-root operation. These two nonlinearities make the iterative attacks unstable, thereby leading to non-convergence of the mean square error (MSE). Our technique is also resistant to hybrid attacks. The technique is general and is shown to work on a variety of images of the type grayscale and binary. Numerical simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed cryptosystem.

  7. Concrete Deterioration under Alternate Action of Carbonation and Sulfate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By micro- and macro-observations, the study reveals the deterioration mechanisms of concrete under alternate action of carbonation and sodium sulfate solution attack (C-SA comparied with the single sodium sulfate solution attack (SA. The studies indicate that in both cases, the main attack product is ettringite, some gypsum is checked only in the first layer of case SA, the thaumasite form of sulfate attack is not initiated in case C-SA. Compared with the single sodium sulfate solution attack, although the carbonation layer mitigates the extent of sulfate attack in limited exposure period, the alternate action of carbonation and sulfate attack still leads to strength degradation to some extent. The effect of carbonation on sulfate attack for longer exposure period deserves further research.

  8. Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160722.html Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack Lack of interest a ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- After a heart attack, many younger adults experience sexual difficulties -- and women more so ...

  9. Heart Attack Help? There's an App for That

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159504.html Heart Attack Help? There's an App for That Emergency medicine ... American Heart Association. When someone is suffering a heart attack, stroke or cardiac arrest, quick action can be ...

  10. Heart Attack: Tips for Recovering and Staying Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version Heart Attack | Tips for Recovering and Staying Well If you have had a heart attack, you ... healthy diet. The food you eat affects how well your blood flows through your heart and arteries. ...

  11. Robustness of Complex Networks against Attacks Guided by Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yanghua; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Extensive researches have been dedicated to investigating the performance of real networks and synthetic networks against random failures or intentional attack guided by degree (degree attack). Degree is one of straightforward measures to characterize the vitality of a vertex in maintaining the integrity of the network but not the only one. Damage, the decrease of the largest component size that was caused by the removal of a vertex, intuitively is a more destructive guide for intentional attack on networks since the network functionality is usually measured by the largest component size. However, it is surprising to find that little is known about behaviors of real networks or synthetic networks against intentional attack guided by damage (damage attack), in which adversaries always choose the vertex with the largest damage to attack. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to understanding damage attack and behaviors of real networks as well as synthetic networks against this attack. To this end, existing ...

  12. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Galbally Herrero, Javier; Gómez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun A.; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Javier Galbally ; Marta Gomez-Barrero ; Arun Ross ; Julian Fierrez ; Javier Ortega-Garcia; "Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks", Biometric and Surveillance Technology for Human and Activity Identification X, Proc. SPIE 8712 (May 31, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2015690. Copyright 2013 Society of Photo‑Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in...

  13. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  14. Transient ischemic attack after Mesobuthus gibbosus envenomation

    OpenAIRE

    Golcuk, Yalcin; Ozsarac, Murat; Bilge, Adnan; Golcuk, Burcu; Cinar, Bilge Piri; Hayran, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis Mesobuthus gibbosus is a medically important venomous scorpion in western of Turkey which causes significant morbidity. Envenoming of this species scorpion results with varying degrees of local symptoms and clinically important systemic effects. This case describes an authenticated first case of transient ischemic attack in a 68 year-old-woman following envenoming by M. gibbosus in Turkey.Keywords: Scorpion, Envenomation, Emergency department

  15. Visualizing Endpoint Security Technologies using Attack Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson , Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities in programs and malware deployments have been increasing almost every year since we started measuring them. Information about how to program securely, how malware shall be avoided and technological countermeasures for this are more available than ever. Still, the trend seems to favor the attacker. This thesis tries to visualize the effects of a selection of technological countermeasures that have been proposed by researchers. These countermeasures: non-executable memo...

  16. Towards a translational model of panic attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Schenberg

    2010-01-01

    About 20 years ago, Deakin and Graeff proposed that whereas generalized anxiety disorder is produced by the overactivity of 5-HT excitatory projections from dorsal raphe nucleus to the areas of prefrontal cortex and amygdala which process distal threat, panic attacks are a dysfunction of 5-HT inhibitory projections from dorsal raphe nucleus to the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter, thereby releasing the responses to proximal threat, innate fear or anoxia. Besides, they suggested that the decr...

  17. Sharkonomics How to attack market leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Engeseth, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Sharks are nature's most revered and feared killing machines. But if you study the behaviour of sharks, you will learn they are also highly strategic and efficient in the way they survive and thrive in nature's competitive environment. Inspired by the shark's evolved (over 420 million years) instincts and strategic moves, this book provides businesses with 10 ways on how to attack the market leaders, and take market share, in your sector.

  18. An Analysis of Various Attacks in MANET

    OpenAIRE

    M.Udhayamoorthi; C. Senthilkumar; Dr S. Karthik; Dr. T.Kalaikumaran

    2014-01-01

    An Ad-hoc network is a self-organized network, without a central coordinator, and which frequently changes its topology. According to the perspective of our paper, we try to connect the current status of computers era to adhoc networking. As adhoc networks has been unleashing several updated technologies, it is the most growing area in the field of networks in information and communication Engineering has ever seen .we start with area introduction, deeply reviewed about the various attacks es...

  19. Attacks and Counterattacks on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Fatema

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available WSN is formed by autonomous nodes with partial memo ry, communication range, power, and bandwidth. Their occupation depends on inspecting corporal and environmental conditions and communing through a system and performing data processing. The applicat ion field is vast, comprising military, ecology, healthcare, home or commercial and require a highly secured communication. The paper analyses different types of attacks and counterattacks and provides so lutions for the WSN threats.

  20. Quantum Key Distribution against Trojan Horse Attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Qing-Yu; LV Hua

    2007-01-01

    Realistic experimental apparatus of quantum cryptography are imperfect, which may be utilized by a potential eavesdropper to eavesdrop on the communication. We show that quantum communication may be improved with quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping, which is robustly secure against the most general Trojan horse attacks. Our scheme is not an improvement of the communication apparatus, but the improvement of quantum communication protocol itself. We show that our modified schemes may be implemented with current technology.

  1. Nonepileptic attack disorder among married women

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanaraj M; Rangaraj R; Arulmozhi T; Vengatesan A

    2005-01-01

    Aim : To study the clinical features, precipitating stressful life events and prognosis of nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD) among married women. Design: Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Setting: A tertiary care teaching hospital. Subjects: Of the 1020 patients with epilepsy referred to the epilepsy clinic during 2002-2003, 30 were married women with NEAD. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic criteria for NEAD included normal EEG during ictal and post-ictal phase of the...

  2. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  3. NETWORK SECURITY: ATTACKS, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Mhatre Suvidnya Shashikant; Potadar Devangi; Salvi Bhageshree

    2015-01-01

    Network security is main issue of this generation of computing because many types of attacks are increasing day by day. Establishing a network is not a big issue for network admini st rators but protecting the entire network is a big issue. There are various methods and tools are available today for destroying the existing network. In this paper we mainly emphasize on the network security also we present some major issues that can affect our network.

  4. Attack Detection By Clustering And Classification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka J. Pathak, Prof. Snehlata Dongre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is a software application that monitors network and/or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Security is becoming big issue for all networks. Hackers and intruders have made many successful attempts to bring down high profile company networks and web services. Intrusion Detection System (IDS is an important detection that is used as a countermeasure to preserve data integrity and system availability from attacks. The work is implemented in two phases, in first phase clustering by K-means is done and in next step of classification is done with k-nearest neighbours and decision trees. The objects are clustered or grouped based on the principle of maximizing the intra-class similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. This paper proposes an approach which make the clusters of similar attacks and in next step of classification with K nearest neighbours and Decision trees it detect the attack types. This method is advantageous over single classifier as it detect better class than single classifier system.

  5. A Secure Localization Approach against Wormhole Attacks Using Distance Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Honglong Chen; Wei Lou; Xice Sun; Zhi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Wormhole attacks can negatively affect the localization in wireless sensor networks. A typical wormhole attack can be launched by two colluding attackers, one of which sniffs packets at one point in the network and tunnels them through a wired or wireless link to another point, and the other relays them within its vicinity. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the wormhole attack on the localization and propose a novel distance-consistency-based secure localization scheme against worm...

  6. A Structured Multi-signature Scheme Against Forgery Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Luo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some classic structured multi-signature programs, such as Burmester’s, Harn’s and Lin’s schemes that can not resist inside attack and outside attack. In this paper, we briefly review Burmester’s program and relate safety analysis, Burmester’s scheme vulnerable to forgery attack. Then we propose a structured multi-signature scheme against forgery attack. In the new scheme, we increase the signature parameter verification to improve security.

  7. Migraineurs with exercise-triggered attacks have a distinct migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Koppen, Hille; van Veldhoven, Peter LJ

    2013-01-01

    Background Sport as a migraine trigger has been reported, but extensive information on these triggered attacks and the patients experiencing these attacks is lacking. Goal of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of exercise triggered migraine attacks in migraine patients and if patients with exercise triggered attacks experience specific prodromal or ictal migraine symptoms. Methods 103 consecutive migraine patients seen during their first visit at a Dutch headache clinic wer...

  8. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Vural, Fatos T. Yarman; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed appro...

  9. Detecting man-in-the-middle attacks by precise timing

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Benjamin; Hamilton, G.

    2009-01-01

    Man-in-the-middle attacks are one of the most popular and fundamental attacks on distributed systems that have evolved with advances in distributed computing technologies and have assumed several shapes ranging from simple IP spoofing to complicated attacks on wireless communications, which have safety-critical applications such as remote wireless passport verification. This paper proposes a static analysis algorithm for the detection of man-in-the-middle attacks in mobile processes using a s...

  10. A Formal Classification of Internet Banking Attacks and Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Peotta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A formal classification of attacks and vulnerabilities that affect current internet banking systems is presented along with two attacks which demonstrate the insecurity of such systems. Based ona thoroughanalysis of current security models, we propose a guidelines for designing secure internet banking systems which are not affected by the presented attacks and vulnerabilities.

  11. A Review of Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gangan, Subodh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of man-in-the-middle (MIM) attacks in communication networks and methods of protection against them. In real time communication, the attack can in many situations be discovered by the use of timing information. The most common attacks occur due to Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache poisoning, DNS spoofing, session hijacking, and SSL hijacking.

  12. Vulnerability Assessment by Learning Attack Specifications in Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Franqueira, Virginia N L; Lopes, Raul H. C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach for learning attack specifications that describe attack scenarios. The objective is to find vulnerabilities in computer networks which minimise the cost of an attack with maximum impact. Although we focus on Insider Threat, the proposed approach applies to networks in general, including social networks and computer grid.

  13. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  14. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  15. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  16. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  17. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  18. Avaliação de genótipos de banana à sigatoca-amarela na amazônia ocidental Evaluation of the bananas genotypes to yellow sigatoka in ocidental amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Siviero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de genótipos de banana em relação à Mycosphaerella musicola foi avaliada em condições naturais de infecção. Foram avaliadas 24 plantas de cada genótipo. As cultivares 'Pacovan' e 'Prata-anã' atuaram como fonte de inóculo do patógeno. A avaliação da doença foi realizada com uso de uma escala de notas variando de 1 (plantas sem sintomas até 8 (folhas velhas e novas com sintomas, obtendo-se o índice de doença pela média ponderada das notas. As cultivares 'Mysore' e 'Nam' e o híbrido 'PA 12-03' foram classificados como suscetíveis ao patógeno. Os demais genótipos 'Yangambi km5', 'Thap Maeo', 'Pelipita', 'Pioneira', 'JV 03-15' e 'PV 03-44' foram classificados como resistentes ao patógeno.The reactions of hybrids and cultivars of banana were evaluated in response to Mycosphaerella musicola in field conditions. A total of twenty-four plants of each genotype were evaluated using 'Pacovan' and 'Prata-anã' cultivars as the source pathogen. The disease response was ranged from 1 to 8, where 1 represented a weak attack with few or no symptoms and 8 when lesions were observed both in young and old leaves. Disease index (DI was calculated for each genotype by multiplying the number of plant with the same scoring by the score and dividing the total by 24 (total mumber of one genotypes. The highest DIs were verified for susceptible genotypes, 'Nam', 'Mysore' and hybrid 'PA 12-03'. 'Yangambi km5', 'Thap Maeo', 'Pelipita', 'Pioneira', 'JV 03-15' and 'PV 03-44' were classified as resistant in our test.

  19. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework. PMID:25807571

  20. Attack Graph-Based Risk Assessment and Optimisation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alhomidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack graphs are models that offer significant capabilities to analyse security in network systems. An attack graph allows the representation of vulnerabilities, exploits and conditions for each attack in a single unifying model. This paper proposes a methodology to explore the graph using a genetic algorithm (GA. Each attack path is considered as an independent attack scenario from the source of attack to the target. Many such paths form the individuals in the evolutionary GA solution. The population-based strategy of a GA provides a natural way of exploring a large number of possible attack paths to find the paths that are most important. Thus unlike many other optimization solutions a range of solutions can be presented to a user of the methodology.

  1. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism...

  2. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2012-01-01

    Applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are growing tremendously in the domains of habitat, tele-health, industry monitoring, vehicular networks, home automation and agriculture. This trend is a strong motivation for malicious users to increase their focus on WSNs and to develop...... and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered....... The second aim of the paper is to simulate these attacks on hybrid MAC mechanisms, which shows the performance degradation of aWSN under the considered attacks. The modelling and implementation of the security attacks give an actual view of the network which can be useful in further investigating secure...

  3. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. PMID:20804980

  4. Explosive attack: Lessons learned in Seyed Al Shohada mosque attack, April 2008, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Paydar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The threat of explosive attacks has become a worldwide problem. Bombing is the preferred method of attacks. These attacks result in specific physical and psychiatric trauma. In this paper, we present an epidemiologic description of the physical injuries of patients who survived the explosive attack in Seyed Al Shohada mosque April 2008 Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: All medical records of the patients admitted at Shiraz Hospitals on April 2008 due to Seyed Al Shohada mosque bombing attacks, Shiraz, Iran, were reviewed. Results: A total of 202 patients were referred to the hospitals over 24 h following the terrorist attack. One hundred sixty-four patients were admitted for short periods of observation (<24 h. Thirty-eight patients needed more than 1 day of hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 (range 2 to 51 years. One hundred thirty-five (66.8% patients were males. Twenty-six (12.8% were children. Burn was the most prevalent cause of admission. Five (13.5% patients needed chest tube insertion and eight (21% needed skin grafts due to burn. Overall, 12 patients expired (5%. Three (25% of them were children (2 and 6, and 11 years old. Mortality rate was significantly higher among the children than adults (P value <0.05. The most important cause of death was head trauma which was seen in five (41.6% of the expired patients followed by burn (including air way burn in four (33%, and internal bleeding in three (25%. Patients with head trauma had significantly a higher rate of mortality than other patients (P value <0.05. Discussion: Following a bombing attack, numerous victims were brought to the emergency unit suffering from a combination of multi-organ injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries caused by shrapnel and other debris, and burns. It is important for a physician to be familiar with the clinical features and treatments of explosive attacks victims. Early management of patients at the scene and

  5. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  6. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cryptanalyze three authenticated ciphers: AVALANCHE, Calico, and RBS. While the former two are contestants in the ongoing international CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption schemes, the latter has recently been proposed for lightweight applications such as RFID systems...... can recover the secret key of AVALANCHE in 2n/2, where n 2∈ {28; 192; 256} is the key length. This technique also applies to the authentication part of Calico whose 128-bit key can be recovered in 264 time. For RBS, we can recover its full 132-bit key in 265 time with a guess-and-determine attack. All...

  7. Competitive Reactions to Advertising and Promotion Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Benedict E. M. Steenkamp; Vincent R. Nijs; Dominique M. Hanssens; Dekimpe, Marnik G.

    2005-01-01

    How do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising attacks? What are the reasons for the observed reaction behavior? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study on the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400 consumer product categories over a four-year time span. Our results clearly show that the most predominant form of competitive response is passive in nature. When a reaction does occur, it is usually ...

  8. Competitive reactions to advertising and promotion attacks.

    OpenAIRE

    Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Vincent R. Nijs; Hanssens, Dominique M; Dekimpe, Marnik G.

    2005-01-01

    How do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising attacks? What are the reasons for the observed reaction behavior? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study on the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400 consumer product categories over a four-year time span. Our results clearly show that the most predominant form of competitive response is passive in nature. When a reaction does occur, it is usually ...

  9. Quantum attacks on public-key cryptosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Song Y

    2013-01-01

    The cryptosystems based on the Integer Factorization Problem (IFP), the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) and the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP) are essentially the only three types of practical public-key cryptosystems in use. The security of these cryptosystems relies heavily on these three infeasible problems, as no polynomial-time algorithms exist for them so far. However, polynomial-time quantum algorithms for IFP, DLP and ECDLP do exist, provided that a practical quantum computer exists.Quantum Attacks on Public-Key Cryptosystems presemts almost all?known quantum comput

  10. Toxicological issues after depleted uranium weapons attacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the uranium enrichment for producing nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon. DU is used in the military as an armor-piercing projectile due to its hardness, strength, and density. A lot of DU weapons were fired in the Gulf War, and bring about critical environmental and internal contamination. Therefore, DU becomes suddenly a hot issue. Some toxicological problems after DU weapons attacked have been reviewed, which include features of internal DU contamination. Hazard of wound contamination and inhalation with insoluble uranium, and other urgent toxicological issues. The healthy effects of implanted with depleted uranium pellets were illustrated in particular

  11. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  12. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolić, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we combine two powerful methods of symmetric cryptanalysis: rotational cryptanalysis and the rebound attack. Rotational cryptanalysis was designed for the analysis of bit-oriented designs like ARX (Addition-Rotation-XOR) schemes. It has been applied to several hash functions and block...... number of rounds. We also use neutral bits and message modification methods from the practice of collision search in MD5 and SHA-1 hash functions. These methods push the rotational property through more rounds than previous analysis suggested, and eventually establish a distinguishing property for the...

  13. Robustness of correlated networks against propagating attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Takehisa; Nemoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    We investigate robustness of correlated networks against propagating attacks modeled by a susceptible-infected-removed model. By Monte-Carlo simulations, we numerically determine the first critical infection rate, above which a global outbreak of disease occurs, and the second critical infection rate, above which disease disintegrates the network. Our result shows that correlated networks are robust compared to the uncorrelated ones, regardless of whether they are assortative or disassortative. This behavior is related to the layered network structure inevitably generated by a rewiring procedure we adopt to realize correlated networks.

  14. SQL Injection Attacks: Techniques and Protection Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Soni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When an internet user interacts in web environment by surfing the Net, sending electronic mail messages and participating in online forums lot of data is generated which may have user’s private information. If this information is captured by third party tools and techniques; it may cause a breach in end user privacy. In the Web environment, end user privacy is one of the most controversial legal issues. In this paper issues related to information leakage through SQL injection attacks are presented and protection mechanisms are also discussed.

  15. Twisted Polynomials and Forgery Attacks on GCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed A. M. A.; Beelen, Peter; Bogdanov, Andrey;

    2015-01-01

    twisted polynomials from Ore rings as forgery polynomials. We show how to construct sparse forgery polynomials with full control over the sets of roots. We also achieve complete and explicit disjoint coverage of the key space by these polynomials. We furthermore leverage this new construction in an...... improved key recovery algorithm. As cryptanalytic applications of our twisted polynomials, we develop the first universal forgery attacks on GCM in the weak-key model that do not require nonce reuse. Moreover, we present universal weak-key forgeries for the nonce-misuse resistant AE scheme POET, which is a...

  16. Penetration and impact resistance of PDC cutters inclined at different attack angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a rotary-percussive bit with diamond-enhanced cutters assisted by high pressure water jets,it is necessary to study the damage mechanism and the penetration properties of PDC cutters subject to different impactload level and rock types. Therefore the impact experiments of the single PDC cutters with different attack angles in fourrocks: black basalt, Missouri red granite, Halston limestone, and a very soft (Roubidoux) sandstone were carried out,and the effects of rake angles of PDC cutters on both the penetration and impact resistance of PDC cutters have been discussed in detail. Test results show that a PDC insert can withstand a very strong impact in compression but is easily damaged by impact shearing, the PDC cutters are more easily damaged by shearing if the attack angles are relatively small, the45 PDC cutters have the least penetration resistance among the cutters tested. Thus it is suggested that the attack anglesof PDC cutters should be larger than 30 for bits which must withstand impact from a hammer

  17. Enhancing network robustness for malicious attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, An

    2012-01-01

    In a recent work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. With a greedy algorithm, they found the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement ($R_{n}$), we propose a link-robustness index ($R_{l}$). We show that solely enhancing $R_{n}$ cannot guarantee the improvement of $R_{l}$. Moreover, the structure of $R_{l}$-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of onion network. In order to design robust networks resistant to more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm which takes both the $R_{n}$ and $R_{l}$ into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks a...

  18. Drop attack during chest radiography: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiography is the first line of thoracic imaging performed in patients with thoracic diseases. It is probably the most frequently performed type of X-ray examination. It is recommended to be performed in the full upright position except where the patient's condition will not permit. This is because the erect technique allows full expansion of the lungs, prevents engorgement of pulmonary vessels and also helps in fluid level evaluation. However, little is reported on the negative effects associated with erect radiography. Herein, we present a case of drop attack during erect chest radiography. - Highlights: • Radiographers should be aware of the possibilities of drop attach during erect chest radiography. • A patient's determination to stand for chest radiograph may not always relate with the ability. • The causes of some drop attacks may be unknown. • Watching patients during radiographic exposure is essential. • Being alert and working very fast during erect chest examinations is important

  19. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  20. Public knowledge of heart attack symptoms in Beijing residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-tan; HU Da-yi; YANG Jin-gang; ZHANG Shou-yan; ZHANG Xin-quan; LIU Shu-shan

    2007-01-01

    Background Definitive treatment for heart attack is early reperfusion with either angioplasty or thrombolytic therapy,and the benefit is strictly time-dependent. Patient outcomes are improved with either therapy when initiated as soon as possible. Recognition of heart attack symptoms is logically tied to taking action to receive prompt emergency care.Inadequate knowledge of heart attack symptoms may prolong delay. The purpose of this study was to document knowledge about heart attack symptoms in Beijing residents and to identify the characteristics associated with increased knowledge of heart attack.Methods A structured survey was conducted in 18 communities in Beijing from March 1 through June 10 in 2006.Addresses and participants were selected randomly following a stratification. The survey was designed to collect knowledge of heart attack symptoms from sampled adults in each community.Results A total of 4627 respondents completed the questionnaires correctly, and 50.29% of them were female. Totally 64.15% of the respondents reported chest pain or discomfort (common symptoms) as a symptom of heart attack; 75.38% reported at least one of the following eight symptoms as a symptom of heart attack: back pain, shortness of breath, arm pain or numbness, nausea or vomiting, neck, jaw or shoulder pain, epigastric pain, sweating, weakness (less common symptoms); 20.36% correctly reported four or more heart attack symptoms, only 7.4% knew all the correct heart attack symptoms, and 28.94% knew about reperfusion therapy for heart attack; 31.7% reported to call 120 or 999 while having a heart attack themselves; however 89.6% reported to call 120 or 999 when someone else is suffering from a heart attack. Very old persons and those with health insurance coverage, high education level, high household income, longer living in Beijing and previous experience with heart disease had greater knowledge of heart attack symptoms.Conclusions Public knowledge of common heart attack

  1. Swarm Flooding Attack against Directed Diffusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the vulnerabilities of sensor networks, design, and implement new approaches for routing attack. As one of the cornerstones of network infrastructure, routing systems are facing more threats than ever; they are vulnerable by nature and challenging to protect. We present a new attack, Swarm Flooding Attack, against Directed Diffusion based WSNs, which targets the consumption of sensors computational resources, such as bandwidth, disk space, or processor time. Two variants of swarm attack have been introduced: Bee and Ant. Both approaches are inspired from the natural swarming difference between bees and ants. In all cases, the strategy used to mount an attack is the same. An attack consists of a set of malicious user queries represented by interests that are inserted into the network. However, the two forms of attack vary in the synchronization aspects among attackers. These types of attacks are hard to defend against as illustrated. For each of the proposed attack models, we present analysis, simulation, and experimental measurements. We show that the system achieves maximal damage on system performance represented by many metrics.

  2. Stealth-MITM DoS Attacks on Secure Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2009-01-01

    We define stealth Man-in-the-Middle adversaries, and analyse their ability to launch denial and degradation of service (DoS) attacks on secure channels. We show realistic attacks, disrupting TCP communication over secure VPNs using IPsec. We present: First amplifying DoS attack on IPsec, when deployed without anti-replay window. First amplifying attack on IPsec, when deployed with a `small' anti-replay window, and analysis of `sufficient' window size. First amplifying attack on IPsec, when deployed with `sufficient' window size. This attack (as the previous) is realistic: attacker needs only to duplicate and speed-up few packets. We also suggest a solution designed to prevent the presented attacks, and to provide secure channel immune to degradation and other DoS attacks. Our solution involves changes (only) to the two gateway machines running IPsec. In addition to their practical importance, our results also raise the challenge of formally defining secure channels immune to DoS and degradation attacks, and p...

  3. An Indistinguishability Model for Evaluating Diverse Classes of Phishing Attacks and Quantifying Attack Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Shashidhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is a growing threat to Internet users and causes billions of dollars in damage every year. While there are a number of research articles that study the tactics, techniques and procedures employed by phishers in the literature, in this paper, we present a theoretical yet practical model to study this menacing threat in a formal manner. While it is common folklore knowledge that a successful phishing attack entails creating messages that are indistinguishable from the natural, expected messages by the intended victim, this concept has not been formalized. Our model attempts to capture a phishing attack in terms of this indistinguishability between the natural and phishing message probability distributions. We view the actions performed by a phisher as an attempt to create messages that are indistinguishable to the victim from that of “normal” messages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that places phishing on a concrete theoretical framework and offers a new perspective to analyze this threat. We propose metrics to analyze the success probability of a phishing attack taking into account the input used by a phisher and the work involved in creating deceptive email messages. Finally, we study and apply our model to a new class of phishing attacks called collaborative spear phishing that is gaining momentum. Recent examples include Operation Woolen-Goldfish in 2015, Rocket Kitten in 2014 and Epsilon email breach in 2011. We point out fundamental flaws in the current email-based marketing business model which enables such targeted spear phishing collaborative attacks. In this sense, our study is very timely and presents new and emerging trends in phishing.

  4. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  5. Factors affecting egg predation in Black-tailed Gulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kazama, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    In colonial seabirds, nesting density, egg-laying date and nest microhabitat affect the probability of eggs being taken by avian predators. Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) are dominant predators of eggs of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris). Factors affecting the probability of gulls allowing the crows to attack their nests or depredate their eggs and the probability of eggs being taken were studied by direct observation and egg census, respectively. The effect of vegetation heights...

  6. The Impact of Imperfect Information on Network Attack

    CERN Document Server

    Melchionna, Andrew; Squires, Shane; Antonsen, Thomas M; Ott, Edward; Girvan, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of network attack when the attacker has imperfect information about the network. For Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi networks, we observe that dynamical importance and betweenness centrality-based attacks are surprisingly robust to the presence of a moderate amount of imperfect information and are more effective compared with simpler degree-based attacks even at moderate levels of network information error. In contrast, for scale-free networks the effectiveness of attack is much less degraded by a moderate level of information error. Furthermore, in the Erd\\H{o}os-R\\'enyi case the effectiveness of network attack is much more degraded by missing links as compared with the same number of false links.

  7. Efficient Detection of Sybil attack Based on Cryptography in Vanet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Rahbari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communications play a substantial role in providing safety transportation by means of safetymessage exchange. Researchers have proposed several solutions for securing safety messages. Protocols based on a fixed key infrastructure are more efficient in implementation and maintain stronger security in comparison with dynamic structures. The purpose of this paper present a method based on a fixed keyinfrastructure for detection impersonation attack, in other words, Sybil attack, in the vehicular adhoc network. This attack, puts a great impact on performance of the network. The proposed method, using an cryptography mechanism to detection Sybil attack. Finally, using Mat lab simulator the results of this approach are reviewed, This method it has low delay for detection Sybil attack, because most operations are done in Certification Authority, so this proposed schema is a efficient method for detection Sybil attack.

  8. Simulating Cyber-Attacks for Fun and Profit

    CERN Document Server

    Futoransky, Ariel; Orlicki, Jose; Sarraute, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new simulation platform called Insight, created to design and simulate cyber-attacks against large arbitrary target scenarios. Insight has surprisingly low hardware and configuration requirements, while making the simulation a realistic experience from the attacker's standpoint. The scenarios include a crowd of simulated actors: network devices, hardware devices, software applications, protocols, users, etc. A novel characteristic of this tool is to simulate vulnerabilities (including 0-days) and exploits, allowing an attacker to compromise machines and use them as pivoting stones to continue the attack. A user can test and modify complex scenarios, with several interconnected networks, where the attacker has no initial connectivity with the objective of the attack. We give a concise description of this new technology, and its possible uses in the security research field, such as pentesting training, study of the impact of 0-days vulnerabilities, evaluation of security countermeasures, and risk...

  9. A Secure Localization Approach against Wormhole Attacks Using Distance Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglong Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attacks can negatively affect the localization in wireless sensor networks. A typical wormhole attack can be launched by two colluding attackers, one of which sniffs packets at one point in the network and tunnels them through a wired or wireless link to another point, and the other relays them within its vicinity. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the wormhole attack on the localization and propose a novel distance-consistency-based secure localization scheme against wormhole attacks, which includes three phases of wormhole attack detection, valid locators identification and self-localization. The theoretical model is further formulated to analyze the proposed secure localization scheme. The simulation results validate the theoretical results and also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  10. Why cryptography should not rely on physical attack complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    This book presents two practical physical attacks. It shows how attackers can reveal the secret key of symmetric as well as asymmetric cryptographic algorithms based on these attacks, and presents countermeasures on the software and the hardware level that can help to prevent them in the future. Though their theory has been known for several years now, since neither attack has yet been successfully implemented in practice, they have generally not been considered a serious threat. In short, their physical attack complexity has been overestimated and the implied security threat has been underestimated. First, the book introduces the photonic side channel, which offers not only temporal resolution, but also the highest possible spatial resolution. Due to the high cost of its initial implementation, it has not been taken seriously. The work shows both simple and differential photonic side channel analyses. Then, it presents a fault attack against pairing-based cryptography. Due to the need for at least two indepe...

  11. Preventing Recommendation Attack in Trust-Based Recommender Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Guo Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Despite its success,similarity-based collaborative filtering suffers from some limitations,such as scalability,sparsity and recommendation attack.Prior work has shown incorporating trust mechanism into traditional collaborative filtering recommender systems can improve these limitations.We argue that trust-based recommender systems are facing novel recommendation attack which is different from the profile injection attacks in traditional recommender system.To the best of our knowledge,there has not any prior study on recommendation attack in a trust-based recommender system.We analyze the attack problem,and find that "victim" nodes play a significant role in the attack.Furthermore,we propose a data provenance method to trace malicious users and identify the "victim" nodes as distrust users of recommender system.Feasibility study of the defend method is done with the dataset crawled from Epinions website.

  12. Attacker Control and Impact for Confidentiality and Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Askarov, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    Language-based information flow methods offer a principled way to enforce strong security properties, but enforcing noninterference is too inflexible for realistic applications. Security-typed languages have therefore introduced declassification mechanisms for relaxing confidentiality policies, and endorsement mechanisms for relaxing integrity policies. However, a continuing challenge has been to define what security is guaranteed when such mechanisms are used. This paper presents a new semantic framework for expressing security policies for declassification and endorsement in a language-based setting. The key insight is that security can be characterized in terms of the influence that declassification and endorsement allow to the attacker. The new framework introduces two notions of security to describe the influence of the attacker. Attacker control defines what the attacker is able to learn from observable effects of this code; attacker impact captures the attacker's influence on trusted locations. This ap...

  13. Efficient Detection of Sybil Attack Based on Cryptography in Vanet

    CERN Document Server

    Rahbari, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular communications play a substantial role in providing safety transportation by means of safety message exchange. Researchers have proposed several solutions for securing safety messages. Protocols based on a fixed key infrastructure are more efficient in implementation and maintain stronger security in comparison with dynamic structures. The purpose of this paper present a method based on a fixed key infrastructure for detection impersonation attack, in other words, Sybil attack, in the vehicular ad hoc network. This attack, puts a great impact on performance of the network. The proposed method, using an cryptography mechanism to detection Sybil attack. Finally, using Mat lab simulator the results of this approach are reviewed, This method it has low delay for detection Sybil attack, because most operations are done in Certification Authority, so this proposed schema is a efficient method for detection Sybil attack.

  14. Attacks on Web Based Software and Modelling Defence Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Ingle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The software life cycle was in use to develop the good software. Now a day’s the software development life cycle should incorporate the security features. Input Validation Attacks are one of the most wide spread forms of vulnerability on the Web application. Our main intention is to focuses on detection and prevention of Input Validation attacks like SQL Injection, Cross Site Scripting and Buffer Overflow by incorporating security in software development life cycle. We have introduced a novel approach of preclusion and uncovering of Input Validation Attacks. SQL Injection , Cross Site Scripting, A buffer overflow attacks, experimentations are made to do these attacks on various sides and the defense mechanism model is proposed to avoid these attacks on the code.

  15. Profiling cyber attackers using case-based reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kapetanakis, Stelios; Filippoupolitis, Avgoustinos; Loukas, George; Al Murayziq, Tariq Saad

    2014-01-01

    Computer security would arguably benefit from more information on the characteristics of the particular human attacker behind a security incident. Nevertheless, technical security mechanisms have always focused on the at- tack's characteristics rather than the attacker's. The latter is a challenging prob- lem, as relevant data cannot easily be found. We argue that the cyber traces left by a human attacker during an intrusion attempt can help towards building a profile of the particular person...

  16. Effectiveness and detection of denial of service attacks in Tor

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Norman; DeFabbia-Kane, Sam; Krizanc, Danny; Liberatore, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Tor is currently one of the more popular systems for anonymizing near real-time communications on the Internet. Recently, Borisov et al. proposed a denial of service based attack on Tor (and related systems) that significantly increases the probability of compromising the anonymity provided. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the attack using both an analytic model and simulation. We also describe two algorithms for detecting such attacks, one deterministic and proved correct, the...

  17. Effectiveness and detection of denial of service attacks in Tor

    CERN Document Server

    Danner, Norman; Krizanc, Danny; Liberatore, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Tor is currently one of the more popular systems for anonymizing near real-time communications on the Internet. Recently, Borisov et al. proposed a denial of service based attack on Tor (and related systems) that significantly increases the probability of compromising the anonymity provided. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the attack using both an analytic model and simulation. We also describe two algorithms for detecting such attacks, one deterministic and proved correct, the other probabilistic and verified in simulation.

  18. ADTool: Security Analysis with Attack-Defense Trees (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Kordy, Barbara; Kordy, Piotr; Mauw, Sjouke; Schweitzer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The ADTool is free, open source software assisting graphical modeling and quantitative analysis of security, using attack-defense trees. The main features of the ADTool are easy creation, efficient editing, and automated bottom-up evaluation of security-relevant measures. The tool also supports the usage of attack trees, protection trees and defense trees, which are all particular instances of attack-defense trees.

  19. Preparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Holgersson, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public transportation constitutes a vulnerable sector in modern day society with a high probability of generating mass casualties if attacked. By preparing for mass-casualty attacks (MCAs), response can become more effective and public transportation can become a less rewarding target. However, preparedness for attacks, much like response, implies resource constraints, and this dissertation pinpoints some major dilemmas that inhibit achieving preparedness for MCAs on public transp...

  20. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  1. The nocturnal panic attacks: polysomnographic features and comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan-Lin; CHEN Guo-yan; LEI Ge-sheng; Yang, Ting; Chang-jun SU

    2013-01-01

    Background Panic disorder refers to the repeated or unexpected anxiety or panic attacks. It makes patients feel extreme pain. Although the episodes of most patients with panic disorder happen at daytime, the nocturnal panic attacks (NPA) are quite common. Paients pay more attention to NPA. Insomnia is more serious in patients with NPA than those patients with panic disorder attack at daytime. Many patients may occur anxiety and avoidance behavior after NPA. Patients are often afraid of sleep...

  2. An Asymptotically Optimal RFID Authentication Protocol Against Relay Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Avoine, Gildas

    2008-01-01

    Relay attacks are a major concern for RFID systems: during an authentication process an adversary transparently relays messages between a verifier and a remote legitimate prover. We present an authentication protocol suited for RFID systems. Our solution is the first that prevents relay attacks without degrading the authentication security level: it minimizes the probability that the verifier accepts a fake proof of identity, whether or not a relay attack occurs.

  3. Vulnerabilities and Attacks Targeting Social Networks and Industrial Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Dharmendra; Sinha, Rakhi; Songara, Pawan; Rathi, Dr. Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability is a weakness, shortcoming or flaw in the system or network infrastructure which can be used by an attacker to harm the system, disrupt its normal operation and use it for his financial, competitive or other motives or just for cyber escapades. In this paper, we re-examined the various types of attacks on industrial control systems as well as on social networking users. We have listed which all vulnerabilities were exploited for executing these attacks and their effects on these...

  4. PROBABILISTIC CLONE-RESEND ATTACK STRATEGY IN QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Shengmei; Li Fei; Zheng Baoyu

    2005-01-01

    A kind of attack strategy based on a probabilistic cloning machine is proposed in this letter. The security of BB84 and the six-state quantum key distribution protocols under this attack is studied by theoretic analyses and corroborated by simulations. It is concluded that the quantum key distribution protocols still have an asymptotic perfect security even if the eavesdropper adopts the proposed attack strategy.

  5. Trojan Horse attacks on Quantum Key Distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gisin, Nicolas; Fasel, Sylvain; Kraus, Barbara; Zbinden, Hugo; Ribordy, Grégoire

    2005-01-01

    General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob’s system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today’s technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to th...

  6. Backside polishing detector: a new protection against backside attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Manich Bou, Salvador; Arumi Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez Montañés, Rosa; Mujal Colell, Jordi; Hernández García, David

    2015-01-01

    Secure chips are in permanent risk of attacks. Physical attacks usually start removing part of the package and accessing the dice by different means: laser shots, electrical or electromagnetic probes, etc. Doing this from the backside of the chip gives some advantages since no metal layers interfere between the hacker and the signals of interest. The bulk silicon is thinned from hundreds to some tens of micrometers in order to improve the performance of the attack. In thi...

  7. Hybrid Approach to Detect SQLi Attacks and Evasion Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Makiou, Abdelhamid; Begriche, Youcef; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    —Injections flaws which include SQL injection are the most prevalent security threats affecting Web applications[1]. To mitigate these attacks, Web Application Firewalls (WAFs) apply security rules in order to both inspect HTTP data streams and detect malicious HTTP transactions. Nevertheless, attackers can bypass WAF's rules by using sophisticated SQL injection techniques. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to dissect the HTTP traffic and inspect complex SQL injection attacks. Our ...

  8. Improving Web Application Firewalls to detect advanced SQL injection attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Makiou, Abdelhamid; Begriche, Youcef; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Injections flaws which include SQL injection are the most prevalent security threats affecting Web applications[1]. To mitigate these attacks, Web Application Firewalls (WAFs) apply security rules in order to both inspect HTTP data streams and detect malicious HTTP transactions. Nevertheless, attackers can bypass WAF's rules by using sophisticated SQL injection techniques. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to dissect the HTTP traffic and inspect complex SQL injection attacks. Our m...

  9. Jamming aided Generalized Data Attacks: Exposing Vulnerabilities in Secure Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Baldick, Ross; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Jamming refers to the deletion, corruption or damage of meter measurements that prevents their further usage. This is distinct from adversarial data injection that changes meter readings while preserving their utility in state estimation. This paper presents a generalized attack regime that uses jamming of secure and insecure measurements to greatly expand the scope of common 'hidden' and 'detectable' data injection attacks in literature. For 'hidden' attacks, it is shown that with jamming, t...

  10. CPM: Masking code pointers to prevent code injection attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Philippaerts, Pieter; Younan, Yves; Muylle, Stijn; Piessens, Frank; Lachmund, Sven; Walter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Code Pointer Masking (CPM) is a novel countermeasure against code injection attacks on native code. By enforcing the correct semantics of code pointers, CPM thwarts attacks that modify code pointers to divert the application’s control flow. It does not rely on secret values such as stack canaries and protects against attacks that are not addressed by state-of-the-art countermeasures of similar performance. This paper reports on two prototype implementations on very distinct processor architec...

  11. Code Pointer Masking: Hardening applications against code injection attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Philippaerts, Pieter; Younan, Yves; Muylle, Stijn; Piessens, Frank; Lachmund, Sven; Walter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an efficient countermeasure against code injection attacks. Our countermeasure does not rely on secret values such as stack canaries and protects against attacks that are not addressed by state-of-the-art countermeasures of similar performance. By enforcing the correct semantics of code pointers, we thwart attacks that modify code pointers to divert the application's control flow. We have implemented a prototype of our solution in a C-compiler for Linux. The evaluatio...

  12. Sheep production and stray dogs attacks in Beira Interior - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, J.P.V.; Andrade, L.P.; Carvalho, J.; Ferreira, A.; Monteiro, J.S.T.; Alberto, D.

    2008-01-01

    Livestock production in extensive systems (mainly with sheep) if faced with a high level of attacks/predation done by stray dogs, wolves and other carnivores. In the region, sheep predation by stray dogs is recognised; foxes and Egyptians mongooses also attack lambs. The incidente of attacks on livestock animals was evaluated in Beira Interior, Portugal, based on inquiries (n=156) with the last actualisation in 2007.

  13. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  14. Network Coding Security: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Luísa; Oliveira, Paulo F; Barros, João

    2008-01-01

    By allowing intermediate nodes to perform non-trivial operations on packets, such as mixing data from multiple streams, network coding breaks with the ruling store and forward networking paradigm and opens a myriad of challenging security questions. Following a brief overview of emerging network coding protocols, we provide a taxonomy of their security vulnerabilities, which highlights the differences between attack scenarios in which network coding is particularly vulnerable and other relevant cases in which the intrinsic properties of network coding allow for stronger and more efficient security solutions than classical routing. Furthermore, we give practical examples where network coding can be combined with classical cryptography both for secure communication and secret key distribution. Throughout the paper we identify a number of research challenges deemed relevant towards the applicability of secure network coding in practical networks.

  15. On the offensive against brain attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatcraft, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Healthcare Technologies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has undertaken a stroke initiative whose purpose is to provide the medical community with the tools that will allow doctors to diagnose and treat stroke as aggressively as they do heart attack. A multidisciplinary team of stroke-initiative researchers is collaborating with academic medical centers and private companies to move these tools from the research and development stage through clinical trials, regulatory approval, and manufacture so that they can benefit many thousands of people who have strokes each year. Tools the team has developed fall into four categories: microsensors for brain and clot characterization, a catheter-based system using laser energy to break up clots in the blood vessels of the brain, laser-tissue interaction models in support of laser {open_quotes}clot busting,{close_quotes} and microtools for treating the aneurysms that cause hemorrhagic stroke.

  16. Securing Oracle Database from Search Engines Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. A. Ayad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Database security has recently become A victim of misused search engines. This can be accomplished simply by searching for a URL containing the name of the vulnerable web page or application. Oracle ships several sample web applications along with its databases. The security holes in these applications allow a web user to exploit SQL Injection to submit arbitrary SQL statements to the database. These applications are enabled by default, listening on port 7777, and known to be vulnerable to SQL Injection. This paper focuses on exploiting search engines to attack oracle database using SQL injection technique from web applications, when a website is vulnerable by SQL injection and this side is connected by oracle database vulnerable by SQL injection.

  17. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  18. Network attacks and defenses a hands-on approach

    CERN Document Server

    Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al Braiki, Arwa; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The attacks on computers and business networks are growing daily, and the need for security professionals who understand how malfeasants perform attacks and compromise networks is a growing requirement to counter the threat. Network security education generally lacks appropriate textbooks with detailed, hands-on exercises that include both offensive and defensive techniques. Using step-by-step processes to build and generate attacks using offensive techniques, Network Attacks and Defenses: A Hands-on Approach enables students to implement appropriate network security solutions within a laborat

  19. Cyber Attacks and the Use of Force in International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Valo, Janne

    2014-01-01

    The thesis reviews the issue of cyber attacks and international law in terms of jus ad bellum, the law concerning the recourse to force by states. The thesis takes the view that the existing rules on the use of force, namely Articles 2(4) and 51 of the United Nations Charter and the corresponding rules of customary international law apply to attacks regardless of the way they are carried out and thus, they apply to cyber attacks as well. Two central examples of different kinds of cyber attack...

  20. A Survey on Detecting Wormhole Attack in Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin N. Patel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a self organizing, infrastructure less, multi-hop network. The wireless and distributed nature of MANETs poses a great challenge to system security designers. Ad hoc networks are by nature very open to anyone. Anyone with the proper hardware and knowledge of the network topology and protocols can connect to the network. This allows potential attackers to infiltrate the network and carry out attacks on its participants with the purpose of stealing or altering information. A specific type of attack, the Wormhole attack does not require exploiting any nodes in the network and can interfere with the route establishment process. It does not require any cryptographic primitives. This attack targets specifically routing control packets, the nodes that are close to the attackers are shielded from any alternative routes with more than one or two hops to the remote location. All routes are thus directed to the wormhole established by the attackers. The entire routing system in MANET can even be brought down using the wormhole attack. We have presented several existing techniques to detect wormhole attack in mobile ad hoc networks.

  1. Defending Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha S.Raote

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ad-hoc networks are the temporarily established wireless networks which does not require fixedinfrastructure it is also called as infrastructure less network. Because of some flaws of adhoc networksuch as shared wireless medium and lack of any central coordination makes them more prone to attacksin comparison with the wired network. Among all the attacks wormhole attack is the most severe attack.In this attack an attacker capture the packets at one location in the network and send it two anotherattacker at a distant location through tunnels which is established through different ways like packetencapsulation, using high power transmission or by using direct antennas. This tunnel between twocolluding attackers is virtual and it is called as a wormhole. The wormhole attack is possible even if theattacker has not comprised any hosts, and all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality.By using the various approaches for finding the solution over wormhole attack, the dynamic informationof the packets could still be modified. So in order to give more robust protection in some special scenariolike battlefields, which requires highly secured information, there is need of developing some securedmechanism for wormhole detection and prevention. Taking into consideration this problem the proposedscheme is developed. This paper discusses proposed works on wormhole attack along with its availablecounter measures in ad-hoc wireless network.

  2. Prevention Of WormholeAttacks In Geographic Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Poornima,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement..Position aided routing protocols can offer a significant performance increase over traditional ad hoc routing protocols. Boundary State Routing (BSR is a geographic routing protocol which routes the data using the location of the nodes. Geographic routing protocols are known to be particularly susceptible to attacks.. In this paper we present the possible attacks on BSR protocol. One of the most popular and serious attacks in ad hoc networks is wormhole attack in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. A wormhole attack is very powerful, and preventing the attack has proven to be very difficult. In this paper, we devise efficient methods to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the BSR protocol. The first method namely Reverse Routing Scheme (RRS attempts to detect the intrusion action .The second technique namely Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS uses cryptographic concepts to detect and prevent wormhole attacks. It not only detects the fake route but also adopts preventive measures against action wormhole nodes from reappearing during routing. The proposed system is designed in Boundary state routing (BSRprotocol and analysis and simulations are performed in network simulator (NS-2.

  3. Flooding Distributed Denial of Service Attacks-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah W.M. Ghazali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Flaws either in users’ implementation of a network or in the standard specification of protocols has resulted in gaps that allow various kinds of network attack to be launched. Of the kinds of network attacks, denial-of-service flood attacks have caused the most severe impact. Approach: This study reviews recent researches on flood attacks and their mitigation, classifying such attacks as either high-rate flood or low-rate flood. Finally, the attacks are compared against criteria related to their characteristics, methods and impacts. Results: Denial-of-service flood attacks vary in their rates, traffic, targets, goals and impacts. However, they have general similarities that are the methods used are flooding and the main purpose is to achieve denial of service to the target. Conclusion/Recommendations: Mitigation of the denial-of-service flood attacks must correspond to the attack rates, traffic, targets, goals and impacts in order to achieve effective solution.

  4. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  5. Fake BTS Attacks of GSM System on Software Radio Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Yubo Song; Kan Zhou; Xi Chen

    2012-01-01

    The 2G GSM communication system only provides one-way authentication mechanism which just authenticate the identities of mobile users. As we know, this is not resistant to fake BTS attack. But for the huge cost for building a fake BTS before, this kind of attack were not really implemented before. This paper presents an implement of fake BTS based on software radio technologies. Furthermore, this paper discusses two types of fake BTS attacks on our software radio platform. The first attack is...

  6. Fake BTS Attacks of GSM System on Software Radio Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Song

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2G GSM communication system only provides one-way authentication mechanism which just authenticate the identities of mobile users. As we know, this is not resistant to fake BTS attack. But for the huge cost for building a fake BTS before, this kind of attack were not really implemented before. This paper presents an implement of fake BTS based on software radio technologies. Furthermore, this paper discusses two types of fake BTS attacks on our software radio platform. The first attack is IMSI/IMEI catch attack, which can get the mobile phone’s IMSI and IMEI. With this information, attacker can got the track of the man with this phone. The second attack is selective jamming attack. After get the IMSI and IMEI of the mobile phone, the attackers can decide whether the mobile phone is blocked or not. We will analyze the GSM protocol which is relevant to the interception system and later present the performance of such a system by real tests and demonstrate its feasibility.

  7. Neural network classifier of attacks in IP telephony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Mikulec, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Various types of monitoring mechanism allow us to detect and monitor behavior of attackers in VoIP networks. Analysis of detected malicious traffic is crucial for further investigation and hardening the network. This analysis is typically based on statistical methods and the article brings a solution based on neural network. The proposed algorithm is used as a classifier of attacks in a distributed monitoring network of independent honeypot probes. Information about attacks on these honeypots is collected on a centralized server and then classified. This classification is based on different mechanisms. One of them is based on the multilayer perceptron neural network. The article describes inner structure of used neural network and also information about implementation of this network. The learning set for this neural network is based on real attack data collected from IP telephony honeypot called Dionaea. We prepare the learning set from real attack data after collecting, cleaning and aggregation of this information. After proper learning is the neural network capable to classify 6 types of most commonly used VoIP attacks. Using neural network classifier brings more accurate attack classification in a distributed system of honeypots. With this approach is possible to detect malicious behavior in a different part of networks, which are logically or geographically divided and use the information from one network to harden security in other networks. Centralized server for distributed set of nodes serves not only as a collector and classifier of attack data, but also as a mechanism for generating a precaution steps against attacks.

  8. User Authentication with Provable Security against Online Dictionary Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong He

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dictionary attacks are the best known threats on the password-based authentication schemes. Based on Reverse Turing Test (RTT, some usable and scalable authentication schemes are proposed to defeat online dictionary attacks mounted by automated programs. However it is found that these authentication schemes are vulnerable to various online dictionary attacks. In this paper, a practical decision function is presented, based on which RTT authentication schemes are constructed and shown to be secure against all the known online dictionary attacks. After formally modeling of the adversary, the static and dynamic security of the authentication schemes are proved formally.

  9. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  10. The Need for Situational Awareness in a CBRNE Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Nelms

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six years before the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and eight years before the United States went to war with Saddam Hussein for his alleged concealment of chemical and biological weapons caches, Japan's Tokyo subway was struck by one of the most vicious terror attacks in modern history.  The 1995 Sarin terrorist attack represents an important case study for post-9/11 emergency managers because it highlights the key issues first responders and public health officials face when confronted with a CBRNE ('C'hemical, 'B'iological, 'R'adiological, 'N'uclear, 'E'xplosive mass-casualty attack.

  11. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  12. Intrusions into Privacy in Video Chat Environments: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xinyu; Han, Richard; Liu, Xue; Mishra, Shivakant

    2010-01-01

    Video chat systems such as Chatroulette have become increasingly popular as a way to meet and converse one-on-one via video and audio with other users online in an open and interactive manner. At the same time, security and privacy concerns inherent in such communication have been little explored. This paper presents one of the first investigations of the privacy threats found in such video chat systems, identifying three such threats, namely de-anonymization attacks, phishing attacks, and man-in-the-middle attacks. The paper further describes countermeasures against each of these attacks.

  13. Software test attacks to break mobile and embedded devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hagar, Jon Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Address Errors before Users Find Them Using a mix-and-match approach, Software Test Attacks to Break Mobile and Embedded Devices presents an attack basis for testing mobile and embedded systems. Designed for testers working in the ever-expanding world of ""smart"" devices driven by software, the book focuses on attack-based testing that can be used by individuals and teams. The numerous test attacks show you when a software product does not work (i.e., has bugs) and provide you with information about the software product under test. The book guides you step by step starting with the basics. It

  14. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  15. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  16. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  17. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  18. Known-plaintext attack-free double random phase-amplitude optical encryption: vulnerability to impulse function attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A security enhanced double random phase-amplitude encryption (DRPAE) scheme is immune against the powerful known-plaintext attack, due to the insertion of an undercover amplitude random mask at the Fourier plane in the conventional double random phase encryption (DRPE) scheme. However, DRPAE, which nullifies the high level known-plaintext attack, is found to be susceptible to a simple impulse function attack. Information about the exact distribution of the amplitude mask as well as that of the Fourier plane random phase mask is divulged from an impulse function attack. A variant form of the impulse function attack is also able to show that the DRPAE scheme is as linear as the conventional DRPE scheme. Numerical simulation results validate the effectiveness of the simple impulse attack on the DRPAE scheme. (paper)

  19. Attack of Against Simplified Data Encryption Standard Cipher System Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Alallayah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem in cryptanalysis can be described as an unknown and the neural networks are ideal tools for black-box system identification. In this study, a mathematical black-box model is developed and system identification techniques are combined with adaptive system techniques, to construct the Neuro-Identifier. Approach: The Neuro-Identifier was discussed as a black-box model to attack the target cipher systems. Results: In this study this model is a new addition in cryptography that presented the methods of block (SDES crypto systems discussed. The constructing of Neuro-Identifier mode achieved two objectives: The first one was to construct emulator of Neuro-model for the target cipher system, while the second was to (cryptanalysis determine the key from given plaintext-ciphertext pair. Conclusion: Present the idea of the equivalent cipher system, which is identical 100% to the unknown system and that means that an unknown hardware, or software cipher system could be reconstructed without known the internal circuitry or algorithm of it.

  20. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  1. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    The last three years have again seen new exciting developments in the area of higher dimensional black objects. For black objects with noncompact higher dimensions, the solution space was exlored further within the blackfold approach and with numerical schemes, yielding a large variety of new families of solutions, while limiting procedures created so-called super-entropic black holes. Concerning compact extra dimensions, the sequences of static nonuniform black strings in five and six dimensions were extended to impressively large values of the nonuniformity parameter with extreme numerical precision, showing that an oscillating pattern arises for the mass, the area or the temperature, while approaching the conjectured double-cone merger solution. Besides the presentation of interesting new types of higherdimensional solutions, also their physical properties were addressed in this session. While the main focus was on Einstein gravity, a significant number of talks also covered Lovelock theories.

  2. An Indistinguishability Model for Evaluating Diverse Classes of Phishing Attacks and Quantifying Attack Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimha Shashidhar; Lei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Phishing is a growing threat to Internet users and causes billions of dollars in damage every year. While there are a number of research articles that study the tactics, techniques and procedures employed by phishers in the literature, in this paper, we present a theoretical yet practical model to study this menacing threat in a formal manner. While it is common folklore knowledge that a successful phishing attack entails creating messages that are indistinguishable from the natural, expected...

  3. SURVEY ON SURVIVAL APPROACHES IN WIRELESS NETWORK AGAINST JAMMING ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARAZ AHSAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks are more depicted to intentional or unintentional threats than their wired based equivalent networks. Major reason being the wireless medium which can be approached by others, who can listen and interfere in an on-going valid communication. In the absence of a collision detection mechanism and relying mainly on cooperation of each other for packet routing, the standard defined for wireless network is unable to identify any malicious activity, by default. Among attacks the ones which create isolation of the nodes on the network are considered more severe. If they last long enough, can result in denial-of-service and hence network collapses completely. The simplest form of such attacks is jamming attack which can block any current legitimate communication. It is easy to launch as no especial hardware is required and the area in range for a particular time can be jammed for any legal communication. Jamming is a specialized Denial of Service attack in which purpose is not to overflow buffers, instead to choke the physical communication channel, hence avoiding jammer is much harder than other forms of denial of service attacks. Unlike other attacks, especially routing attacks, no network parameter and topology etc need to be known in advance before launching jamming attack. However, if the network parameters are known and the attack is intelligently placed, a jammer can last longer resulting in more survival time on the network and damage. This paper surveys on different types of jamming attack and the mitigation techniques generally used. Besides this, we investigate about the approaches proposed that are considered efficient to survive in a jammed region, actively. Finally, we conclude by highlighting the potential areas which can be targeted to optimize in minimizing the effects of a jamming attack, as future directions.

  4. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  5. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  6. Mobile Beacon Based Wormhole Attackers Detection and Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Wormhole attack is a severe attack that can be easily launched by a pair of external attackers in hostile wireless sensor networks. In the wormhole attack, an attacker sniffs packets at one point in the network, and tunnels them through the wormhole link to the other attacker at another point of the network, which broadcasts them to its neighbors. Such kind of procedure can easily deteriorate the normal functionality of the networks. In this paper, we propose a novel wormhole attackers detect...

  7. Pareto Efficient Solutions of Attack-Defence Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    probability or cost of attacks and defences. In case of multiple parameters most analytical methods optimise one parameter at a time, e.g., minimise cost or maximise probability of an attack. Such methods may lead to sub-optimal solutions when optimising conflicting parameters, e.g., minimising cost while...

  8. A Lanchester model of submarine attack on a carrier battlegroup

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, James N.

    1987-01-01

    A Lanchester model is developed for a battlegroup ASW engagement. Two variations are included. In the first, long-range missile firing submarines, short-range missile or torpedo firing submarines, and submarines firing only torpedoes distribute their attack uniformly over battlegroup escort ships and carriers. In the second variation, the attack is concentrated on the carriers.

  9. Performance evaluation of DSR Protocol under DoS attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Trupti Patel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET consists of mobile hosts equipped with wireless communication devices. A Mobile Ad hoc Network is a self-organizing, infrastructure less, multi-hop network. The transmission of a mobile host is received by all hosts within its transmission range due to the broadcast nature of wireless communication and unidirectional antenna. If two wireless hosts are out of their transmission ranges in the ad hoc networks, other mobile hosts located between them can forward their message, which effectively builds connected networks among the mobile hosts in the deployed area. One main challenge in design of these networks is their vulnerable nature to security attack. These attacks can be deployed by insider or outsider attacker. Sometime, the node from network can be attacker. This is happen because of mobility of nodes and changing network topology. There are different kind of attacks available in literature and can be implemented on MANET. One of these attacks is Grey Hole attack that has dangerous effect on Mobile Ad-Hoc Network. In this paper, we study the effect of Grey Hole attack on Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network.

  10. Practical Attacks on AES-like Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan; Rechberger, Christian

    drastically reduce the complexity of attacks to very practical values for reduced-round versions. Furthermore, we describe new and practical attacks on Whirlpool and the recently proposed GOST R hash function with one or more of the following properties: more rounds, less time/memory complexity, and more...

  11. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes that "Dateline NBC'"s…

  12. An active attack on a multiparty key exchange protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Schnyder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiparty key exchange introduced in Steiner et al. and presented in more general form by the authors is known to be secure against passive attacks. In this paper, an active attack is presented assuming malicious control of the communications of the last two users for the duration of only the key exchange.

  13. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica; Sasaki, Yu; Martin Schlaeffer, Martin

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct a...

  14. Survey of Attacks on Mobile AdhocWireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Solomon Abel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Security has always been a key issue with wireless networks since there are no physical boundaries. Experience has shown numerous vulnerabilities to a variety of attacks even when security measures are in place. In the combined Internet-MANET environment also security is an important issue keeping in view the Internet connectivity and attack on the MANET protocols.

  15. Strategies and scenarios of CSRF attacks against the CAPTCHA forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we’ve tried to examine the hypothesis of the robustness of a form by using CAPTCHA against CSRF and login CSRF attacks. Our investigations showed that unlike public opinion, common attacks to bypass CAPTCHAs such as Optical Character Recognition (OCR and 3rd party human attacks are not applicable in the CSRF case and instead, Clickjacking is the most important scenario of CSRF and login CSRF attacks against a secure session-dependent CAPTCHA form. Remember that the Clickjacking is also applicable to bypass the well-known CSRF protections, such as the secret token and the Referer header. Therefore, although the frequent application of CAPTCHA on every page of a website negatively impacts the user experience, but the robustness of a robust session-dependent CAPTCHA against the CSRF and login CSRF attacks is almost the same as the session-dependent security token. Moreover, when a website is using a session-independent or week pattern of CAPTCHA, attackers can bypass the CAPTCHAs and launch the CSRF or login CSRF attacks by using XSS, session hijacking, replay attacks or submitting a random response.

  16. Is There Anybody There? A Psychodynamic View of Panic Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizq, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    Presents a process analysis of a psychodynamic intervention for a client with panic attacks. Discusses how a psychodynamic understanding of the complex etiology of the client's panic attacks that ultimately produced improved coping skills and a subjective sense of improvement for her. Process analysis is used to illustrate the theoretical base,…

  17. Biochemistry of how plants resist insect attack determined

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Many plants, including crops, release volatiles in response to insect attack. The chemical compounds can be a defense or can be an aromatic call for help to attract enemies of the attacking insect. Researchers from Virginia Tech, Michigan State University, and Georg-August-University Göttingen have discovered how plants produce the defensive compounds.

  18. Preventing ADDOS Attack by Using Secure TRNG Based Port Hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Siva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now a day`s each and every where we are using client-server communication for different information service systems. Normally client server communication can be differentiating by using IP Address and Protocol Port number from one machine to another machine. In network environment we are already having DOS/DDOS Attacks Another Subset of this attack scenario is DOS/DDOS attack is Application Denial of Service(ADOSattack ,In this the adversary attacks open Ports/Ideal ports present at server side for this the adversary Know need huge machines ,zombie systems and no need sending packets of data with high bandwidth. To control this type of A-DOS attacks the existing enterprise security devices are not suitable like firewalls, anti-viruses and IDS/IPS Systems why because the adversary not using high bandwidth, spam messages, zombie`s or botnet`s for their attack scenarios.To safeguard this type of DOS/DDOS or Application denial of service attacks we are having some port hopping mechanisms i.e Port hopping by using Pseudo Random Number Generation (PRNGbased port hopping ,Acknowledgement based port hopping and proactive Reinitialization based on this existing once and their disadvantages like in PRNG attackers can predict the random number generation by using pre-calculated list or based on mathemathical functions .we introduce new port hopping technique i.e True Random Number Generation based port hopping

  19. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil. PMID:17607468

  20. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed. PMID:25527240

  1. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  2. Survey of Attacks on Mobile AdhocWireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Solomon Abel

    2011-01-01

    Security has always been a key issue with wireless networks since there are no physical boundaries. Experience has shown numerous vulnerabilities to a variety of attacks even when security measures are in place. In the combined Internet-MANET environment also security is an important issue keeping in view the Internet connectivity and attack on the MANET protocols.

  3. The LOCAL attack: Cryptanalysis of the authenticated encryption scheme ALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Rechberger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    state bytes to the adversary. Our approach allows for a time-data complexity tradeoff, with an extreme case of a forgery produced after 2119 attempts and based on a single authenticated message. Our attack is further turned into a state recovery and a universal forgery attack with a time complexity...

  4. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  5. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  6. Randomized, controlled trial of telcagepant over four migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Andrew P; Dahlöf, Carl Gh; Silberstein, Stephen D; Saper, Joel R; Ashina, Messoud; Kost, James T; Froman, Samar; Leibensperger, Heather; Lines, Christopher R; Ho, Tony W

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist telcagepant (tablet formulation) for treatment of a migraine attack and across four attacks. Adults with migraine were randomized, double-blind, to telcagepant 140 mg, telcagepant 280 mg, or control treatment sequ...

  7. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  8. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  9. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  10. Optimal attack strategy of complex networks based on tabu search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Wu, Jun; Tan, Yue-jin

    2016-01-01

    The problem of network disintegration has broad applications and recently has received growing attention, such as network confrontation and disintegration of harmful networks. This paper presents an optimized attack strategy model for complex networks and introduces the tabu search into the network disintegration problem to identify the optimal attack strategy, which is a heuristic optimization algorithm and rarely applied to the study of network robustness. The efficiency of the proposed solution was verified by comparing it with other attack strategies used in various model networks and real-world network. Numerical experiments suggest that our solution can improve the effect of network disintegration and that the "best" choice for node failure attacks can be identified through global searches. Our understanding of the optimal attack strategy may also shed light on a new property of the nodes within network disintegration and deserves additional study.

  11. An Active Defense Mechanism for TCP SYN flooding attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become a serious problem. To assure that network services will not be interrupted and more effective defense mechanisms to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Another problem is single-point defenses (e.g. firewalls) lack the scalability needed to handle an increase in the attack traffic. We have designed a new defense mechanism to detect the SYN flood attacks. First, we introduce a mechanism for detecting SYN flood traffic more accurately by taking into consideration the time variation of arrival traffic. We investigate the statistics regarding the arrival rates of both normal TCP SYN packets and SYN flood attack packets. We then describe a new detection mechanism based on these statistics. Through the trace driven approach defense nodes which recei...

  12. Variability of clinical features in attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in the clinical presentation of migraine, both among patients, and between attacks in an individual patient. We examined clinical features of migraine with aura in a large group of patients enrolled in a clinical trial, and compared retrospective...... detailed retrospective description of the clinical features of their attacks of migraine. During the trial, clinical symptoms in migraine attacks starting with aura were recorded prospectively in 861 attacks. RESULTS: Retrospectively reported visual aura symptoms were variable and often overlapping; the...... recalling or speaking words. A significant percentage of patients also reported a change in olfaction. There were several inconsistencies between the features of prospectively recorded and retrospectively reported attacks. Headache, nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia were all less common in prospectively...

  13. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  14. Detecting peripheral-based attacks on the host memory

    CERN Document Server

    Stewin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses stealthy peripheral-based attacks on host computers and presents a new approach to detecting them. Peripherals can be regarded as separate systems that have a dedicated processor and dedicated runtime memory to handle their tasks. The book addresses the problem that peripherals generally communicate with the host via the host’s main memory, storing cryptographic keys, passwords, opened files and other sensitive data in the process – an aspect attackers are quick to exploit.  Here, stealthy malicious software based on isolated micro-controllers is implemented to conduct an attack analysis, the results of which provide the basis for developing a novel runtime detector. The detector reveals stealthy peripheral-based attacks on the host’s main memory by exploiting certain hardware properties, while a permanent and resource-efficient measurement strategy ensures that the detector is also capable of detecting transient attacks, which can otherwise succeed when the applied strategy only me...

  15. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozick, Linda Karen (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  16. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  17. Anti-discrimination Analysis Using Privacy Attack Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Ruggieri, Salvatore

    2014-09-15

    Social discrimination discovery from data is an important task to identify illegal and unethical discriminatory patterns towards protected-by-law groups, e.g., ethnic minorities. We deploy privacy attack strategies as tools for discrimination discovery under hard assumptions which have rarely tackled in the literature: indirect discrimination discovery, privacy-aware discrimination discovery, and discrimination data recovery. The intuition comes from the intriguing parallel between the role of the anti-discrimination authority in the three scenarios above and the role of an attacker in private data publishing. We design strategies and algorithms inspired/based on Frèchet bounds attacks, attribute inference attacks, and minimality attacks to the purpose of unveiling hidden discriminatory practices. Experimental results show that they can be effective tools in the hands of anti-discrimination authorities.

  18. Attacks on Bluetooth Security Architecture and Its Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mian Muhammad Waseem; Kausar, Firdous; Wahla, Muhammad Arif

    WPANs compliment the traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless networks by facilitating the clients with flexibility in network topologies, higher mobility and relaxed configuration/hardware requirements. Bluetooth, a WPAN technology, is an open standard for short-range radio frequency (RF) communication. However, it is also susceptible to typical security threats found in wireless LANs. This paper discuses some of the attack scenarios against the bluetooth network such as hostile intrusion, active Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack using unit key and various forms of denial of service (DoS) attacks. These threats and attacks compromise the confidentiality and availability of bluetooth data and services. This paper proposes an improved security architecture for bluetooth device which provides protection against the above mentioned attacks.

  19. Physical and chemical study of the influence of oxidation on the structure of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of an oxidising attack on carbon black particles by using chemical, physical and electrochemical methods to highlight the oxidation process. The carbon black particle is a spherical set essentially made of amorphous and crystalline carbon. It appears that the oxidising attack mainly occurs against the amorphous parts which surround the crystallites. If the attack is strong enough, crystallites are freed and the particle collapses. This process has been observed by using electronic microscopy, X rays, the BET nitrogen absorption method, and infra-reds. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and quinone functional groups on the oxidised particle surface. These groups have been dosed by different methods (methylation, calcium acetate dosing, polarography and potassium borohydride reduction)

  20. Prodromes and predictors of migraine attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo; Ambrosini, Anna; Buzzi, M Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Premonitory symptoms of migraine include a wide and heterogeneous collection of cognitive, psychic and physical changes preceding and forewarning of an attack by a few hours to 2-3 days. To date, premonitory symptoms have received little attention in the literature, being treated more as a curiosity than as a primary feature of migraine. This paper provides an extensive critical review of this neglected area of migraine research in the light of the recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of migraine. Epidemiological and clinical studies that have investigated the premonitory symptoms of migraine lack scientific rigour, producing conflicting results, whilst genetic and pathophysiological investigations are still in their very early stages. There is evidence supporting the idea that premonitory symptoms could be used as a phenotypical marker to identify subgroups of migraineurs which could show correlations with specific clinical expressions of the disease, genotypes, or responses to treatments. Future studies are needed to clarify the clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic significance of premonitory symptoms. PMID:16483459

  1. Multilayer Approach to Defend Phishing Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhinakaran, Cynthia; Lee, Jae Kwang

    2011-01-01

    Spam messes up users inbox, consumes resources and spread attacks like DDoS, MiM, phishing etc. Phishing is a byproduct of email and causes financial loss to users and loss of reputation to financial institutions. In this paper we examine the characteristics of phishing and technology used by Phishers. In order to counter anti-phishing technology, phishers change their mode of operation; therefore a continuous evaluation of phishing only helps us combat phisher effectiveness. In our study, we collected seven hundred thousand spam from a corporate server for a period of 13 months from February 2008 to February 2009. From the collected data, we identified different kinds of phishing scams and mode of operation. Our observation shows that phishers are dynamic and depend more on social engineering techniques rather than software vulnerabilities. We believe that this study will develop more efficient anti-phishing methodologies. Based on our analysis, we developed an anti-phishing methodology and implemented in ou...

  2. Intergranular attack evaluation from hideout return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intergranular Attack (IGA) is the secondary side corrosion mechanism on PWR steam generator tubing, which can occur most frequently even with a good waterchemistry. It has moderately developed in a few French units. Consequently, several remedies have been implemented, such as sodium content decrease in makeup water and application of more stringent chemistry specifications. In order to evaluate the local chemistry in restricted areas where IGA may occur, a large hideout return programme has been carried out on many units. It shows that free alkalinity returning during shutdown is usually ranging from 0.5 to 5 g of sodium per steam generator, and that the required time to let it return is about 40 hours. However, high temperature pH calculations indicate that such an amount of alkalinity can correspond to a potentially corrosive solution in restricted areas, where a concentration factor of 105 to 107 can be reached, inducing a pH of 10 at 300oC. Studies are still in progress in order to define when a shutdown should be required to allow hideout return and help to prevent IGA. (author)

  3. Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2005-06-01

    Nocturnal panic (NP), waking from sleep in a state of panic, is a common occurrence among patients with panic disorder, with 44-71% reporting at least one such attack. NP is a non-REM event that is distinct from sleep terrors, sleep apnea, nightmares or dream-induced arousals. This review outlines recent advances in the characterization of NP, as well as current approaches to the assessment and treatment of NP. In contrast to earlier work, more recent studies suggest that patients with NP do not differ from patients without NP on sleep architecture, sleep physiology, self-reported sleep quality and severity of panic disorder. However, more precise measurement of physiological precipitants and features is warranted. Assessment of NP focuses on ruling out other explanations for NP, with differential diagnosis based on interviews, sleep polysomnography and ambulatory recording of sleep. Psychological treatment (cognitive-behavioral therapy) targets misappraisals of anxiety sensations, hyperventilatory response, and conditioned reactions to internal, physical cues. Recent evidence supports the efficacy of this approach, however, controlled studies on pharmacological agents in the treatment of NP are lacking. Research is needed to examine the effects of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications, compared to medication alone in the treatment of NP. PMID:15893248

  4. Alcohol Cuts Heart Attack Risk in Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gene; Emery; 方笑丰

    2003-01-01

    选注者言:本文的主题句开门见山地告诉读者:frequent tippling(少喝常饮,常饮少量烈酒)of beer,wine or even spirits lowers a man’s risk of heart attack(心脏病发作)。但是,让我们感到不解的是文中的另一句话:alcohol affects womendifferently than men and that it would be"premature and unwise"to extrapolate(推断)the results beyond men。现代科技尚不能揭开这个谜:男性每日少量饮酒能降低心脏病的风险,而女性经常喝酒,却会增加得乳腺癌的机会。此句中的premature and unwise可以学用,而extrapolate一词则用得太文绉绉了。

  5. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  6. Key Escrow Attack Risk and Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptographic technology is always a highly sensitive dual-use technology. All nations have to face a dilemma in terms of password usage: on the one hand, to fully guarantee the safety and confidentiality of personal communication, as well as personal privacy and communication freedom required by law; on the other hand, to make sure law-enforcing departments and security organs crack down and prevent crime. It might be a great help for crime and terrorist organizations that the wide application of cryptography is made public. Many people believe that plain text communicated through the public network is accessible to an appropriate government agency if law permits. Therefore, it has become a continuous hot issue of cryptographic technology that how to design a cryptographic system through which legal persons are able to protect the safety of their information, yet being monitored by government in the range permitted by law. In this study, an in-depth study is carried out on the controversial key escrow technology, analyzing its composition and algorithm and pointing out possible attacks and preventive measures.

  7. Current therapy for chronic cerebrovascular attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmonin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cerebrovascular attack (CCVA is a brain lesion caused by vascular factors. CCVA appears as cognitive impairments (CIs, affective (emotional disorders and focal syndromes. Treatment for CCVA requires a comprehensive approach. Effective combination therapy for CCVA involves secondary prevention of stroke and CIs; treatment of CIs; treatment of depression and other affective disorders; and neuroprotective therapy. Basic therapy for CCVA includes modification of risk factors, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, and antithrombotic therapies. Central acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (galantamine, rivastigmine, donepezil and a reversible NMDA receptor blocker (memantine are symptomatically used at a stage of vascular and mixed dementia. There are no unique guidelines for the therapy of mild and moderate vascular nondementia-related CIs. Drug use, based on the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the development of vascular CIs, is substantiated. When choosing psychotropic agents, it is necessary to take into account the causes and clinical manifestations of neuromediator deficiency. Antidepressants are used as essential drugs. Neuroleptics and tranquilizers are additionally administered in complex-pattern syndromes, such as depression with marked anxiety. Prescription of neuroprotectors may be effective in treating both stroke and CCVA. These medicaments are most effective when a damaging factor acts, i.e. neuroprotectors should be given in a risk situation and to reduce damage. Citicoline is one of the most test drugs in a group of neuroprotectors. 

  8. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  9. Cross-correlation Based Synchronization Mechanism of LDDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun WU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A success Low-rate Distributed Denial of Service (LDDoS attack is composed of many single sources of Low-rate Denial of Service (LDoS attacks, which are well-organized in time synchronization to aggregate the attack flow at the end of target router. This paper addresses time synchronization and flow aggregation in LDDoS attacks for the purpose of exploring the attack performance. A cross-correlation algorithm is proposed to guarantee all network-wide distributed attack pulses aggregate at the victim end with a strict time limitation to form a powerful attack pulse. Experiments on the attack performance of LDoS and LDDoS attack are performed in NS-2 simulation platform. Experiment results show that the LDDoS attack effects can be improved significantly by using cross-correlation algorithm to coordinate attack pulses, which obtain better attack performance than many single dependent attack pulses. 

  10. Preventing sexual attacks in healthcare facilities: risk management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banja, John D

    2014-01-01

    Reports or allegations of sexual attacks in healthcare facilities are extremely upsetting and sometimes not given the attention they deserve. In June 2011, the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a remarkable report on sexual attacks occurring in Veterans Affairs (VA) health facilities that not only raised awareness of the magnitude of the problem but that detailed numerous system weaknesses in VA facilities that might have enabled such attacks. This article discusses some of the GAO's findings as well as other instances of sexual attacks, such as occurred in the criminal prosecution of Paul Serdula, a former health professional who might have sexually assaulted hundreds of women. Some of Serdula's victims have subsequently sued in civil court, charging Serdula's employers with lack of supervision and raising the possibility of serial sexual attacks such as his evolving into large-scale patient safety disasters. This article will review certain ethical and legal considerations bearing on the liability of healthcare facilities in which sexual attacks are alleged to have occurred. Following a discussion of how two courts have used the legal construct of "foreseeability" in determining a healthcare facility's liability when an employee is charged with sexual assault, the article will conclude with a host of patient safety recommendations aimed at discouraging or deterring the occurrence of sexual attacks. PMID:24549696

  11. Presentation attack detection for face recognition using light field camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, R; Raja, Kiran B; Busch, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The vulnerability of face recognition systems isa growing concern that has drawn the interest from both academic and research communities. Despite the availability of a broad range of face presentation attack detection (PAD)(or countermeasure or antispoofing) schemes, there exists no superior PAD technique due to evolution of sophisticated presentation attacks (or spoof attacks). In this paper, we present a new perspective for face presentation attack detection by introducing light field camera (LFC). Since the use of a LFC can record the direction of each incoming ray in addition to the intensity, it exhibits an unique characteristic of rendering multiple depth(or focus) images in a single capture. Thus, we present a novel approach that involves exploring the variation of the focus between multiple depth (or focus) images rendered by the LFC that in turn can be used to reveal the presentation attacks. To this extent, we first collect a new face artefact database using LFC that comprises of 80 subjects. Face artefacts are generated by simulating two widely used attacks, such as photo print and electronic screen attack. Extensive experiments carried out on the light field face artefact database have revealed the outstanding performance of the proposed PAD scheme when benchmarked with various well established state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:25622320

  12. Resist DoS attacks in UMTS-WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huyu; Cheng, Qiang

    2005-06-01

    Wireless network is more vulnerable to denial of service (DoS) attacks than wired one. In this paper we propose two methods to resist DoS attacks in UMTS-WLAN network, one is active and the other is passive. These two are complementary to each other. In active DoS defense method, a mobile terminal generates an authorized anonymous ID (AAI) using its true ID such as IP address, MAC address, PIN code, or asymmetric key, and substitutes its true ID with the authorized anonymous ID. The mobile terminal may be authenticated by the UMTS-WLAN, however its true ID is anonymous to intending attackers. This method can be used to isolate de-authenticating/disassociating DoS attackers, spoofing power-save DoS attacker, etc. In passive DoS defense method, we propose a trace back scheme. We use covert channels in the header of mobile IP packets to trace back the malicious nodes by embedding some address information of intermediate nodes, and recovering the embedded information by the victim. After the victim successfully traces the attacking paths from malicious nodes, it can segregate the malicious nodes and protect itself. This method can be used to resist DoS attacks of mass-produced junk message congestions.

  13. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  14. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  15. TCPL: A Defense against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack in ad hoc networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits) at one location in the network, tunnels them to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many sensor network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. For example, most existing ad hoc network routing protocols, without some mechanism to defend against the wormhole attack, would be unable to find routes longer than one or two hops, severely disrupting communication. We present a new, general mechanism, called packet leashes, for detecting and thus defending against wormhole attacks, and we present a specific protocol, called TIK, that implements leashes.

  16. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  17. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  18. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  19. Kerr black string flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D=5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  20. Recovery from Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiao-jun; TIAN Chang; ZHANG Yu-sen

    2006-01-01

    Wormhole attack is a serious threat against MANET (mobile ad hoc network) and its routing protocols.A new approach-tunnel key node identification (TKNI) was proposed. Based on tunnel-key-node identification and priority-based route discovery, TKNI can rapidly rebuild the communications that have been blocked by wormhole attack. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed approach aims at both static and dynamic topology environment, involves addressing visible and invisible wormhole attack modes, requires no extra hardware, has a low overhead, and can be easily applied to MANET.

  1. The Need for Situational Awareness in a CBRNE Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Nelms

    2011-01-01

    Six years before the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and eight years before the United States went to war with Saddam Hussein for his alleged concealment of chemical and biological weapons caches, Japan's Tokyo subway was struck by one of the most vicious terror attacks in modern history.  The 1995 Sarin terrorist attack represents an important case study for post-9/11 emergency managers because it highlights the key issues first responders and public health offi...

  2. Is Reaction to Terrorist Attacks a Localised Phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Law

    2011-01-01

    Research found that the terrorist attack of 9/11 was associated with a temporary decline in US Arab and Muslim men’s weekly earnings and real wages of around 9 to 11 per cent. This has been interpreted as an increase in discrimination against those groups following the attack. However, other evidence shows that in Sweden the terrorist attack did not change Middle East immigrants’ job-searching behavior because of increased discrimination from employers. A possible explanation is that, since 9...

  3. Blind Recognition of Touched Keys: Attack and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Qinggang; Ling, Zhen; Liu, Benyuan; Fu, Xinwen; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel computer vision based attack that discloses inputs on a touch enabled device, while the attacker cannot see any text or popups from a video of the victim tapping on the touch screen. In the attack, we use the optical flow algorithm to identify touching frames where the finger touches the screen surface. We innovatively use intersections of detected edges of the touch screen to derive the homography matrix mapping the touch screen surface in video frames to ...

  4. Towards A Taxonomy Of Attacks Against Energy Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von

    Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.

  5. Hijacking Bitcoin: Large-scale Network Attacks on Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolaki, Maria; Zohar, Aviv; Vanbever, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Bitcoin is without a doubt the most successful cryptocurrency in circulation today, making it an extremely valuable target for attackers. Indeed, many studies have highlighted ways to compromise one or several Bitcoin nodes. In this paper, we take a different perspective and study the effect of large-scale network-level attacks such as the ones that may be launched by Autonomous Systems (ASes). We show that attacks that are commonly believed to be hard, such as isolating 50% of the mining pow...

  6. Analysis of the Fault Attack ECDLP over Prime Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Biehl et al. proposed a fault-based attack on elliptic curve cryptography. In this paper, we refined the fault attack method. An elliptic curve E is defined over prime field p with base point P∈E(p. Applying the fault attack on these curves, the discrete logarithm on the curve can be computed in subexponential time of Lp(1/2,1+o(1. The runtime bound relies on heuristics conjecture about smooth numbers similar to the ones used by Lenstra, 1987.

  7. Securing SQL server protecting your database from attackers

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Denny

    2015-01-01

    SQL server is the most widely-used database platform in the world, and a large percentage of these databases are not properly secured, exposing sensitive customer and business data to attack. In Securing SQL Server, Third Edition, you will learn about the potential attack vectors that can be used to break into SQL server databases as well as how to protect databases from these attacks. In this book, Denny Cherry - a Microsoft SQL MVP and one of the biggest names in SQL server - will teach you how to properly secure an SQL server database from internal and external threats using best practic

  8. Visual Simulation of Missile Attacking Battleplane Based on Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huibing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A visual simulation system of fragment warhead missile attacking F-16C ''Falcon'' battleplane based on simulation and virtual reality technology is put forward. Firstly, the overall design of visual simulation of missile attacking F16 battleplane is implemented, and all functions of each module are demonstrated in detailed. Then 3D models in virtual battle field are optimized by level of detail, texture mapping, billboard and instance technology. Finally, Vega scene driving program is developed, and the implementation of special effect, view transform, preview and collision detect are emphasized. The result of simulation provides reference for damage assessment of missile attacking F16 battleplane.

  9. Lattice Based Attack on Common Private Exponent RSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Ravva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lattice reduction is a powerful concept for solving diverse problems involving point lattices. Lattice reduction has been successfully utilizing in Number Theory, Linear algebra and Cryptology. Not only the existence of lattice based cryptosystems of hard in nature, but also has vulnerabilities by lattice reduction techniques. In this paper, we show that Wieners small private exponent attack, when viewed as a heuristic lattice based attack, is extended to attack many instances of RSA when they have the same small private exponent.

  10. Using traps to protect network infrastructure from intruders’ attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Z. Lavrivska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of using traps to protect network infrastructure from intruders’ attacks, which concern the risks of unauthorized intrusion to a network: attacks on a network, its unauthorized research, etc. It has been clarified that Honeypot trap is flexible information technology, which can be applied to prevent attacks, their detection and answer to them. As a means of protection Honeypot-traps have ability to work effectively in the infrastructure network, while collecting small amount of data, however they are of considerable importance for the owners of network.

  11. Enhancement of scale-free network attack tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ze-Hui; Wang Pu; Song Chao-Ming; Qin Zhi-Guang

    2010-01-01

    Despite the large size of most communication and transportation systems, there are short paths between nodes in these networks which guarantee the efficient information, data and passenger delivery; furthermore these networks have a surprising tolerance under random errors thanks to their inherent scale-free topology. However, their scale-free topology also makes them fragile under intentional attacks, leaving us a challenge on how to improve the network robustness against intentional attacks without losing their strong tolerance under random errors and high message and passenger delivering capacity. Here we propose two methods (SL method and SH method) to enhance scale-free network's tolerance under attack in different conditions.

  12. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    OpenAIRE

    Künzell Stefan; Schweikart Florian; Köhn Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% o...

  13. AMC Model for Denial of Sleep Attack Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattasali, Tapalina

    2012-01-01

    Due to deployment in hostile environment, wireless sensor network is vulnerable to various attacks. Exhausted sensor nodes in sensor network become a challenging issue because it disrupts the normal connectivity of the network. Affected nodes give rise to denial of service that resists to get the objective of sensor network in real life. A mathematical model based on Absorbing Markov Chain (AMC)is proposed for Denial of Sleep attack detection in sensor network. In this mechanism, whether sensor network is affected by denial of sleep attack or not can be decided by considering expected death time of sensor network under normal scenario.

  14. Trojan Horse attacks on Quantum Key Distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, B; Zbinden, H; Ribordy, G

    2005-01-01

    General Trojan horse attacks on quantum key distribution systems are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all system must implement active counter-measures. In particular all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter-measures can be efficient, provided enough additional privacy amplification is applied to the data. We present a practical way to reduce the maximal information gain that an adversary can gain using Trojan horse attacks.

  15. Exploring Windows Domain-Level Defenses Against Authentication Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Curtis, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the security resilience of the current Windows Active Directory (AD) environments to Pass-the-Hash and Pass- the-Ticket credential theft attacks. While doing this, we discovered a way to trigger the removal of all previously issued authentication credentials for a client, thus preventing their use by attackers. After triggered, the user is forced to contact the domain administrators and to authenticate to the AD to continue. This could become the basis for a response that arrests the spread of a detected attack. Operating in a virtualized XenServer environment, we were able to carefully determine and recreate the conditions necessary to cause this response.

  16. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  17. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  18. Black hole statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations

  19. Antigravity and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  20. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.