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Sample records for black seed nigella

  1. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases.

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    Kalus, Ulrich; Pruss, Axel; Bystron, Jaromir; Jurecka, Moric; Smekalova, Alice; Lichius, Johannes Josef; Kiesewetter, Holger

    2003-12-01

    Nigella sativa (black seed) is an important medicinal herb. In many Arabian, Asian and African countries, black seed oil is used as a natural remedy for a wide range of diseases, including various allergies. The plant's mechanism of action is still largely unknown. Due to the lack of study data on its efficacy in allergies, four studies on the clinical efficacy of Nigella sativa in allergic diseases are presented. In these studies, a total of 152 patients with allergic diseases (allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic eczema) were treated with Nigella sativa oil, given in capsules at a dose of 40 to 80 mg/kg/day. The patients scored the subjective severity of target symptoms using a predefined scale. The following laboratory parameters were investigated: IgE, eosinophil count, endogenous cortisol in plasma and urine, ACTH, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and lymphocyte subpopulations. The score of subjective feeling decreased over the course of treatment with black seed oil in all four studies. A slight decrease in plasma triglycerides and a discrete increase in HDL cholesterol occurred while the lymphocyte subpopulations, endogenous cortisol levels and ACTH release remained unchanged. Black seed oil therefore proved to be an effective adjuvant for the treatment of allergic diseases. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of increasing the solubility of phosphorus on seed quality of black seed (Nigella sativa L.

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    S. M. Seyyedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of nutritional role of maternal-plant phosphorus (P on seed production and quality of black seed (Nigella sativa L. in a calcareous soil, three experiments were conducted at research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2012 and 2013. The first and the second experiments were conducted as a complete randomized design based on factorial arrangement. Seven fertilizer treatments (‍control, vermicompost, sulfur, vermicompost + sulfur, vermicompost + Thiobacillus bacteria, sulfur + Thiobacillus and vermicompost + sulfur + Thiobacillus and three levels of P (0, 30 and 60 kg/ha were the first and the second experimental factors, respectively. The first experiment lasted 63 days, to biologically oxidize the sulfur, and at the end of this period, black seeds were sown. After determining the emergence percentage, the third experiment was conducted. In the third experiment, seed priming (distilled water, solution of 500 mM KH2PO4 and unprimed was applied in the treatments with seed emergence of less than 60%, and a control treatment (selected treatment with the highest emergence from the second experiment were considered. Based on the results of the first and the second experiments, application of vermi-compost+ Thiobacillus bacteria and vermicompost+ sulfur + Thiobacillus bacteria had significant effects on increasing seed weight per plant and qualitative traits such as emergence percentage and seed vigor. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between qualitative traits of seeds and soil available P and P content of maternal plant. In the third experiment, P-priming with 500 mM KH2PO4 solution had significant effects on increasing emergence percentage and decreasing mean emergence time.

  3. Volatile compounds of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) from microwave-heating and conventional roasting.

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    Kiralan, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    The volatile compounds in raw, conventionally roasted and microwave roasted black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds at 0.45 kW for 2, 4, and 8 min, were analyzed by headspace-SPME gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 38 volatile compounds identified, the major compounds were thymoquinone and p-cymene in all samples. The levels of these compounds decreased with roasting. However, concentrations of pyrazines and furans increased significantly as a result of roasting and these compounds may affect the flavor of roasted black cumin seeds. Methyl pyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were major pyrazines, formed at high concentration in seeds roasted for 8 min and in conventional roasting.

  4. Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia

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    M. Tauseef Sultan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining immense popularity among the masses. Plants and their bioactive molecules are of prime importance. Although various plants from different geographical areas have been tested in the past, many horizons still need to be addressed. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. is one such example that is quite popular in South Asia and the Middle East. Context and purpose: The present research study was designed to expedite the role of black cumin seed in reducing the risk of hypercholesterolemia. For the purpose, thirty Sprague dawley rats were procured from the National Institute of Health (NIH in Islamabad, Pakistan, and further split up into three groups, (10 rats each. Experimental diets were prepared using powdered black cumin (PBC at 1% and 2%, and compared with the placebo. Results: The results revealed that PBC was effective in reducing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL. Additionally, the experimental diets resulted in a non-significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Overall, powdered black cumin at 1% and 2% reduced cholesterol level by 6.73, and 4.48%, LDL by 24.79, and 24.32% respectively. However, the supplementation of PBC at 2% resulted in marked variations as increasing tendency, which was recorded for cholesterol and triglycerides contents after 28 days of study. Conclusion: Present research investigation brightened the prospects of using powdered black cumin seed in diet based therapies to improve the lipid profile. Further studies are still required to assess the phytochemistry of the plants and indeed the functional ingredients responsible for such health benefits. Such studies would bring meticulousness for utilization of black cumin seeds as a functional food.

  5. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

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    N Valizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to Calcium-D supplements (2 tablets per day all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o. or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. "nResults: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. "nConclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.

  6. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

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    Said Gharby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods were used, respectively. In terms of oil major components, composition of Nigella seed oil from Morocco is similar to that from other Mediterranean countries known for their Nigella seed-oil quality.

  7. Effects of Spring Late Frost on Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. under Controlled Conditions

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    T Khorsandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In many years plant growth strongly affected by late spring frost. In order to evaluate the effects of late frost on Black Seed plants, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and five Black Seed ecotypes (Birjsnd, Sabzewar, Ferdows, Gonabad and Neyshabour after two months growth and hardening in natural environment, were exposed to seven temperatures (0, -1.5, -3, -4.5, -6, -7.5 and -9°C in termogradient freezer. For determining cold stress damages, Lethal Temperature (LT for 50% of plants according to the Electrolyte Leakage percentage (LT50el, LT for 50% of plants according to the Survival percentage (LT50su, LT for 50% of plants according to the plant necrose in Test Tube (LT50tt and Reduced Dry Matter Temperature 50 (RDMT50 were measured. Ability of plants for recovery was recorded based on leaf number and leaf area, plant dry weight and cold damage percentage of leaves. According to the LT50tt, LT50su and RDMT50 Black Seed plants can tolerated cold stress in range between -5.7 to -9.0 °C and Sabzewar and Ferdows ecotypes had the most and the least cold tolerance, respectively. At the point of ability of plants for recovery, Ferdows ecotype had the least and Sabzewar and Neyshabour ecotypes had the best plant recovery. Moreover there were high correlations between LT50tt and LT50 based on electrolyte leakage, survival and RDMT50. Electrolyte leakage and visual scoring of cold damage in test tube are rapid methods, so for assessing cold tolerance in plants LT50el and LT50tt indeces may be useful.

  8. Scolicidal effects of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) essential oil on hydatid cysts.

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    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2014-12-01

    Surgery remains the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). Various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effect of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) essential oil and also its active principle, thymoquinone, against protoscolices of hydatid cysts. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (0.01-10 mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.125-1.0 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Furthermore, the components of the N. sativa essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Our study revealed that the essential oil of N. sativa at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and its main component, thymoquinone, at the concentration of 1 mg/ml had potent scolicidal activities against protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus after 10 min exposure. Moreover, thymoquinone (42.4%), p-cymene (14.1%), carvacrol (10.3%), and longifolene (6.1%) were found to be the major components of N. sativa essential oil by GC/MS analysis. The results of this study indicated the potential of N. sativa as a natural source for production of a new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in in vivo models.

  9. Potential antidepressant constituents of Nigella sativa seeds

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    Ehab S Elkhayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs. Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,. Results: The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg. However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents.

  10. Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions.

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    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Kroh, Lothar W; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-11-19

    Crude vegetable oils are usually oxidatively more stable than the corresponding refined oils. Tocopherols, phospholipids (PL), phytosterols, and phenols are the most important natural antioxidants in crude oils. Processing of vegetable oils, moreover, could induce the formation of antioxidants. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils were extracted with n-hexane and the oils were further fractionated into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and PL. Crude oils and their fractions were investigated for their radical scavenging activity (RSA) toward the stable galvinoxyl radical by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by spectrophotometric method. Coriander seed oil and its fractions exhibited the strongest RSA compared to black cumin and niger seed oils. The data correlated well with the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, unsaponifiables, and PL, as well as the initial peroxide values of crude oils. In overall ranking, RSA of oil fractions showed similar patterns wherein the PL exhibited greater activity to scavenge both free radicals followed by GL and NL, respectively. The positive relationship observed between the RSA of crude oils and their color intensity suggests the Maillard reaction products may have contributed to the RSA of seed oils and their polar fractions. The results demonstrate the importance of minor components in crude seed oils on their oxidative stability, which will reflect on their food value and shelf life. As part of the effort to assess the potential of these seed oils, the information is also of importance in processing and utilizing the crude oils and their byproducts.

  11. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.) Oil

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    Mohammed, Nameer Khairullah; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid; Muhialdin, Belal J.; Alhelli, Amaal M.

    2016-01-01

    The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and cold press (CP) to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) were Caryophyllene (17.47%) followed by thymoquinone (TQ) (11.80%), 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%), longifolene (3.5%), and carvacrol (1.82%). The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE. PMID:27642353

  12. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Oil

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    Nameer Khairullah Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and cold press (CP to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO were Caryophyllene (17.47% followed by thymoquinone (TQ (11.80%, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%, longifolene (3.5%, and carvacrol (1.82%. The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE. This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE.

  13. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

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    Lalitha Priyanka Dwarampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64 when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%. This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1% gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00% degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 μg/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 μg/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment.

  14. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

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    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets.

  15. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the pharmacologically active quinones and related compounds in the oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa L.).

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    Ghosheh, O A; Houdi, A A; Crooks, P A

    1999-04-01

    An HPLC method for quantifying the putative pharmacologically active constituents: thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymol (THY), in the oil of Nigella sativa seed is described. Extraction of the constituents from the oil was carried out using C18 PrepSep mini columns followed by quantification of the recovered constituents by HPLC on a reversed-phase muBondapak C18 analytical column, using an isocratic mobile phase of water:methanol:2-propanol (50:45:5% v/v) at a flow rate of 2 ml min(-1). UV detection was at 254 nm for TQ, DTQ, and THY, and at 294 nm for THQ. The above four compounds were separated with good resolution, reproducibility, and sensitivity under these conditions. This analytical method was used to quantify the above four constituents in a commercial sample of N. sativa seed oil, and provides a good quality control methodology for the pharmacologically active components in this widely used natural remedy.

  16. Nigella sativa (black seed) effects on plasma lipid concentrations in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

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    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Nobili, Valerio; Bo, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The effects of Nigella sativa (NS) on plasma lipid concentrations are controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to obtain a conclusive result in humans. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up to August 2015) to identify RCTs investigating the impact of NS on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides concentrations. A random-effects model and the generic inverse variance weighting method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Meta-regression, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessments were performed using standard methods. A total of 17 RCTs examining the effects of NS on plasma lipid concentrations were included. Meta-analysis suggested a significant association between NS supplementation and a reduction in total cholesterol (weighed-mean-difference [WMD]: -15.65mg/dL, 95% CI: -24.67, -6.63, p=0.001), LDL-C (WMD: -14.10mg/dL, 95% CI: -19.32, -8.88, p<0.001), and triglyceride levels (WMD: -20.64mg/dL, 95% CI: -30.29, -11.00, p<0.001). No significant effect on HDL-C concentrations (WMD: 0.28mg/dL, 95% CI: -1.96, 2.53, p=0.804) was found. A greater effect of NS seed oil versus seed powder was observed on serum total cholesterol and LDL-C levels, and an increase in HDL-C levels was found only after NS seed powder supplementation. NS has a significant impact on plasma lipid concentrations, leading to lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG levels while increased HDL-C is associated with NS powder only. Further RCTs are needed to explore the NS benefits on cardiovascular outcomes.

  17. Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.

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    Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

    2013-10-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity.

  18. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

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    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  19. Comparative Study in Seed Yield and Flowers Attractivity to Bee Visitors Between Nigella Sativa L. and Nigella Damascena L. (Ranunculaceae Grown Under Semiarid Conditions

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    Ahmad Alqudah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out during the growing season 2005 at the campus of Jordan University of Science and Technology (32°22” N, 35°49” E, Jordan. Two different Nigella species were used in this experiment; Nigella sativa L. and Nigella damascena L. This study was aimed to identify the bee visitors of Nigella species and the pollination requirements of Nigella flowers grown under semiarid conditions. The results showed that flowers of both Nigella species were visited by seven different bee visitors. However, flowers of N. damascena were more attractive to bees than N. sativa flowers. N. damascena produced on average significantly higher plant, more number of branches per plant, more seed yield, total seed weight and higher number of capsules per plant. On the other hand, N. sativa produced its flowers and matured nearly two weeks earlier than N. damascena. There is no interaction between Nigella species and pollination treatments for all yield parameter. N. damascena was higher in number of ovaries, seeds per capsules, seed set percentage, seeds per plant and total seed weight than N. sativa under treatments conditions. Also, flowers of both Nigella species under open treatment produced higher yield compared to other pollination treatments.

  20. Comparative Study in Seed Yield and Flowers Attractivity to Bee Visitors Between Nigella Sativa L. and Nigella Damascena L. (Ranunculaceae Grown Under Semiarid Conditions

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    Ahmad Alqudah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out during the growing season 2005 at the campus of Jordan University of Science and Technology (32°22” N, 35°49” E, Jordan. Two different Nigella species were used in this experiment; Nigella sativa L. and Nigella damascena L. This study was aimed to identify the bee visitors of Nigella species and the pollination requirements of Nigella flowers grown under semiarid conditions. The results showed that flowers of both Nigella species were visited by seven different bee visitors. However, flowers of N. damascena were more attractive to bees than N. sativa flowers. N. damascena produced on average significantly higher plant, more number of branches per plant, more seed yield, total seed weight and higher number of capsules per plant. On the other hand, N. sativa produced its flowers and matured nearly two weeks earlier than N. damascena. There is no interaction between Nigella species and pollination treatments for all yield parameter. N. damascena was higher in number of ovaries, seeds per capsules, seed set percentage, seeds per plant and total seed weight than N. sativa under treatments conditions. Also, flowers of both Nigella species under open treatment produced higher yield compared to other pollination treatments.

  1. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

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    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  2. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

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    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  3. Nigella sativa provides protection against metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... The seeds of Nigella sativa have been used in folk medicine all over the world. ... In Group II (Nigella seeds group), patients were advised the above standard medication plus Nigella seeds 250 mg twice ...

  4. Antibacterial effect of Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa L. oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecgel, Umit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of five different oils from Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa used in foods mainly for their flavour, preservation and natural therapies were screened for their antibacterial effects at 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % concentrations using the agar diffusion method against twenty four pathogenic, spoilage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. All tested oils showed antibacterial activity against all the bacteria used in the assay. The oils at 2.0 % concentration were more effective than of the other concentrations. The most sensitive bacterium against all of the oil concentrations was Aeromonas hydrophila, while the most resistant was Yersinia enterocolitica. Generally, lactic acid bacteria had more resistance than pathogenic and spoilage bacteria against black cumin oils. Consequently, black cumin oil may be used as an antimicrobial agent in food products to prevent spoilage.Se ensayaron un total de cinco aceites diferentes de comino negro turco ( Nigella sativa L., que se utilizan habitualmente en alimentos para darles sabor, ayudar a la conservación o por sus efectos terapéuticos, para estudiar sus propiedades antimicrobianas a concentraciones de 0.5 %, 1.0 %, y 2 %. Para ello se utilizó el método de difusión en agar, frente a veinticuatro microorganismos patógenos, causantes de alteraciones o bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB. Todos los aceites ensayados mostraron actividad antimicrobiana contra todos los microorganismos ensayados, siendo las concentraciones del 2 % las concentraciones más eficaces. Aeromonas hydrophyla fue el microorganismo mas sensible a todas las concentraciones mientras que Yersinia enterocolitica fue la más resistente. Generalmente las bacterias acido lácticas tuvieron más resistencia que los gérmenes patógenos y las bacterias que causan alteraciones. En consecuencia, el aceite de comino negro turco se puede utilizar como agente antimicrobiano en productos alimenticios para evitar su alteración.

  5. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruppur Venkatachallam, Suresh Kumar; Pattekhan, Hajimalang; Divakar, Soundar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2010-12-01

    Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). SFE have been carried out to characterize the compounds and the variation of quinones and phenolics. The extracts were analysed by GC and GC-MS and the presence of phenolic compounds was further confirmed by 2D HSQCT (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven volatile compounds were detected where sixteen compounds were reported for the first time in the oil of this seed. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ) and thymol (THY) were the major phenolic compounds. It can be concluded that the chemical composition of extracts obtained by SC CO2 extraction of the seeds showed better recovery of phenolic compounds than HD SFE and proved the occurrence of thermally labile or photosensitive bioactive volatiles of four major quinonic phenol compounds.

  6. Application effects of biofertilizers on the growth indices of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.

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    sorur khoram del

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of biofertilizers, especially plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhiza fungus is one of the most important strategies for plant nutrition compared to chemical fertilizers, especially in sustainable management of agroecosystems. In order to investigate the effect of Azotobacter and Azospirillum bacteria and Mycorrhiza fungus on the growth indices of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2007. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: (A Azotobacter paspali, (B Azospirillum brasilense, (C the fungus of Glomus intraradaices, C+A, C+B, A+B, A+B+C, and control without using bio-fertilizers. The Azotobacter and Azospirillum inoculations were applied as liquid and the Mycorrhiza inoculation was applied in solid form on the treated seeds with Arabic resin immediately before planting. The Arabic resin was applied to increase the adherence of Mycorrhiza to seeds. In all treatments except control, the amounts of 15 mg of each bio-fertilizer were applied for 110 g of seeds. The results indicated that the inoculation of black cumin with biological fertilizers significantly increased plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate compared with control. The maximum plant height was observed in Azospirillum+Mycorrhiza at 89 days after emerging. The highest and lowest leaf area index was observed in B+C (0.37 and control (0.22 treatments, respectively. The fast period of vegetative growth and dry matter accumulation were observed at 40-89 days after emerging with a small decline afterwards until physiological maturity. The maximum and minimum amounts of dry matter accumulation were recorded in the B+C treatment with 66.0 gm-2, and control with 38.3 gm-2, respectively. Crop growth rate reached to its peak in 82 days after emergence

  7. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F. E-mail: hfarragmassoud@hotmail.com; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10{sup 1} to 9.8x10{sup 3} c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, G{sub 2} and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B{sub 1} and G{sub 1}. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  8. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinab, E. M. EL-Bazza; Hala, A. Farrag; Mohie, E. D. Z. EL-Fouly; Seham, Y. M. EL-Tablawy

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7×10 1 to 9.8×10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp.

  9. Antibacterial effect of Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa L. ) oils

    OpenAIRE

    Gecgel, Umit; Sagdic, Osman; Arici, Muhammet

    2005-01-01

    A series of five different oils from Turkish black cumin ( Nigella sativa ) used in foods mainly for their flavour, preservation and natural therapies were screened for their antibacterial effects at 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % concentrations using the agar diffusion method against twenty four pathogenic, spoilage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). All tested oils showed antibacterial activity against all the bacteria used in the assay. The oils at 2.0 % concentration were more effective than of the ...

  10. Effect of different levels of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli colonization and jejunal morphology in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, J; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, R

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli count and morphology of jejunal epithelial cells in laying hens. A total of 100 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) of 49 weeks old were randomly distributed among five cage replicates of five birds each. Experimental diets consisted of different levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3% of diet) of dietary black cumin inclusion. The experimental period lasted for a total of 10 weeks, and egg quality indexes and laying hens' performance were measured as two 35-day trial periods. At the final day, two hens per replicate were slaughtered to investigate the influence of dietary treatments on intestinal E. coli colonization and morphology of jejunal cells. Although dietary black cumin in all supplementation levels decreased (p hens' performance were obtained by at least 2% black cumin seeds.

  11. An investigation on LD50 and subacute hepatic toxicity of Nigella sativa seed extracts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdati-Mashhadian, N; Rakhshandeh, H; Omidi, A

    2005-07-01

    Nigella sativa seeds (blackseed) have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diarrhea and asthma, and have been shown to have various useful pharmacological effects. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of the aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of the seeds have been investigated. To determine their LD50, the aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts were administered orally, in 4 different doses, 6, 9, 14 and 21 g/kg. Mortality rate and weight changes have also been measured in all groups for 3 and 7 days, respectively. No mortality has been observed in all groups and with all doses. Methanol extracts in all doses and chloroform extract in the dose of 21 g/kg significantly decreased animals weight. Hepatic toxicity of the extracts was also investigated in the dose of 6 g/kg/day orally for 14 consecutive days by measuring ALP, SGOT and SGPT activity in blood and hepatic histological study. Degenerative changes in hepatic cells have been observed only with aqueous extract of the seeds. In conclusion, Nigella sativa extracts are relatively nontoxic in the acute toxicity test, but the possibility of hepatic damage with its aqueous extract should be considered.

  12. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  13. Effect of planting dates and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed javadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of planting dates and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L. a field experiment was conducted in spring 2006 in the Azad University of Birjand. The experiment was done as split plot based on compeletely randomized block design with 3 replications. Four planting dates (21 March, 4, 21 April, 5 May were used as main plot and 3 levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg/ha were as sub plot. The results showed that the planting dates effect was significant on traits such as plant height, number of main branches, number of follicles per plant, biological yield and grain yield. As, maximum plant height, number of follicles per plant and biological yield were observed in first planting date and maximum number of main branches and grain yield were observed in first and second planting dates. Planting dates had no significant effects on number of follicles in main branches, number of seed per follicles, weight of 1000 seeds and harvest index. Nitrogen rates and interaction between planting dates and nitrogen rates had no significant effect on the traits. According to the results of this experiment 40 kg/ha nitrogen is enough for black cumin. Also, planting dates in 21 March and 4 April were recognised better because of high yield production.

  14. Immune Response and Pasteurella Resistance in Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Various Amounts of Black Cumin Seeds

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    Nabiela M. El Bagir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.

  15. Effect of different irrigation intervals and plant density on yield and yield components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa

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    ghadir noorooz poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals and plant density on yield and yield components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2002. A split-plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days were allocated to main plots and different plant densities (150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 plant/m2 allocated to sub plots. Plant height, number of branch per plant, number of grain per plant, number of seed per follicule, number of follicule per plant, grain weight per plant, biomass, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index were recorded. Results showed that irrigation intervals had significant effects on all of the characteristics with the exception of 1000 seed weight and harvest index (HI. Plant density did not have significant effects on 1000 seed weight, number of seed per follicule and plant height. There were significant differences between biological yield, HI, number of follicules per plant and grain yield of different plant densities. The one week irrigation interval produced more grain yield compared with the three weeks irrigation intervals (752 vs. 355 kg/ha. The greatest grain yield was obtained with one week irrigation interval and 250 plant/m2. It seems that due to the lack of water in the area, 150 – 250 plant/m2 with two weeks irrigation interval is the best combination for Black Cumin grain production in Mashhad.

  16. Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M S; Riffat, S

    1991-08-01

    Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e-Shereen) and anticestodal effect of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction similar to 10 mg/kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40 mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested.

  17. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  18. The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Xue

    Full Text Available The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18∶3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

  19. Gastroprotective effect of an aqueous suspension of black cumin Nigella sativa on necrotizing agents-induced gastric injury in experimental animals

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    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Previous studies on "Black seed" or "Black Cumin" Nigella sativa (NS have reported a large number of pharmacological activities including its anti-ulcer potential. These studies employed either fixed oil, volatile oil components or different solvent extracts. In folkloric practices, NS seeds are taken as such, in the form of coarse dry powder or the powdered seeds are mixed with water. This study examines the effect of NS aqueous suspension on experimentally induced gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretion in rats to rationalize its use by herbal and Unani medicine practitioners. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by various noxious chemicals (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin in Wistar albino rats. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken in a separate group of rats. Gastric wall mucus contents and non-protein sulfhydryl concentration were estimated, and gastric tissue was examined histopathologically. Results: An aqueous suspension of Black seed significantly prevented gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents. It also significantly ameliorated the ulcer severity and basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated Shay rats. Moreover, the suspension significantly replenished the ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus content levels and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: These findings validate the use of Black seed in gastropathies induced by necrotizing agents. The anti-ulcer effect of NS is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its antioxidant and anti-secretory activities.

  20. Amino acid composition and biological effects of supplementing broad bean and corn proteins with Nigella sativa (black cumin) cake protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Gaby, A M

    1998-10-01

    The biological effects of supplementing broad bean (Vicia faba) or corn (Zea maize) meal protein with black cumin (Nigella sativa) cake protein as well as their amino acid composition were investigated. The percentage of total protein content of Nigella cake was 22.7%. Lysine is existent in abundant amounts in faba meal protein, while leucine is the most abundant in corn meal protein (chemical score = 156) and valine is higher in Nagella cake protein. compared with rats fed sole corn or faba meal protein, substitution of 25% of corn or faba meal protein with Nigella cake protein in the diet remarkably raised the growth rate of rats and resulted in significant higher levels of rat total serum lipids and triglycerides. Also, the supplemented diet caused significant increases in serum total protein and its two fractions albumin and globulin and insignificantly increase the activity of serum phosphatases and transaminases within normal ranges. The supplementation did not have any adverse nutritional effects in the levels of lipid fractions in the serum.

  1. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

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    Promise Madu Emeka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ, and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 10 6 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF, NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001 (36.1%. Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20 th and 15 th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001 (93%. Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusion : sThis study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria.

  2. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 106 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20th and 15th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusions: This study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria. PMID:24991115

  3. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Yield, Component Yield and Essential Oil of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under Water Deficit Stress

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    E. Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the production of medicinal plants can be influenced by environmental factors such as water limitation. In other hand salicylic acid as a plant regulator can enhance drought resistance in plants. In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals on yield, yield components and essential oil of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was conducted a farm located in West Azerbaijan province- city Nagadeh, West- Azerbaijan, during growing season of 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation intervals (6, 12 and 18 days and three levels of salicylic acid concentration (0, 0.5 and 1 mM considered as in main plots and sub-plots, respectively. Results showed that irrigation had significant effects on all characteristics such as Plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield with the exception of 1000- seed weight. With increasing irrigation intervals from 6 to 18 days, plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were decreased up to 49, 52, 40, 35, 43, 20 and 55 %, respectively. In contrast, yield components and yield were enhanced up to treatments 0.5 mM of salicylic acid. Grain yield and essential oil yield with application of 0.5 mM salicylic acid increased up to 13 and 11 % compared to control, respectively. It seems that due to the limited sources of water in the region irrigation after 12 days and 0.5 mM salicylic acid concentration are suitable for black cumin grain production.

  4. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BLOOD AND IMMUNE ORGANS OF BROILER CHICKEN FED DIETARY BLACK CUMIN POWDER (Nigella sativa DURING DRY SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the physiological response of blood and immune organs ofbroiler chickens fed on various concentration of dietary black cumin powder (BCP during the dryseason. A total number of 100 unsexed one-day old Cobb broiler chicks were used and distributed to 5treatments (control, antibiotics and without BCP, 20 g/kg BCP, 40 g/kg BCP and 60 g/kg BCP and 4replications (5 birds for each. Physiological responses of blood and immune organs were measured at30 day of age. Addition of BCP to broiler ration did not significantly effects on physical properties ofblood (leukocytes count, erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, hematocrit, monocytes, and eosinophils andrelative weights of thymus and bursa of fabricius, but significantly (P<0.05 increased relative weightsof spleen when compared to control. It was concluded that the black cumin grinds (Nigella sativa as afeed additive could not change the physical properties of blood, relative weights of thymus and bursa offabricius, but it increased the relative weight of spleen at the level of 60 g/kg BCP, which could reduceadverse effects of infectious diseases in broiler chicken.

  6. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

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    J. AKHONDIAN MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The study was performed between Sep 2003 and Nov 2004. The subjects received either extract or placebo for a period of four weeks and between these two periods for two weeks they received only their pre-existing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs.Results:The mean frequency of seizures decreased significantly during treatment with extract, (p-value =0/007.Conclusion:It can be concluded that the water extract of Nigella sativa L. has antiepileptic effects in children with refractory seizures that do not respond to known AEDS.keywords:Nigella sativa, Intractable seizures, Children

  7. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Javan, H; Sajady, M; Rakhshandeh, H

    2007-10-01

    In previous studies, the relaxant, anticholinergic (functional antagonism) antihistaminic, effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on guinea-pig tracheal chains. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of boiled extract of N. sativa on asthmatic disease was examined. Twenty-nine asthmatic adults were randomly divided into control group (14 patients) and study group (15 patients), and they were studied for 3 months. In the study group 15 mL/kg of 0.1 g% boiled extract and in the control group a placebo solution was administrated daily throughout the study. Asthma symptom score, asthma severity, frequency of symptoms/week and wheezing were recorded in the beginning (first visit), 45 days after treatment (second visit), and at the end of the study (third visit). Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were also measured, and the drug regimen of the patients was evaluated at three different visits. All asthma symptoms, frequency of asthma symptoms/week, chest wheezing, and PFT values in the study group significantly improved in the second and third visits compared with the first visit (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In addition, further improvement of chest wheezing and severity of disease on the third visit were observed compared with the second visit in this group (P < 0.05 for both cases). In the third visit all symptoms in the study group were significantly different from those of the control group (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001). However, in the control group, there were only small improvements in some parameters in just the second visit. The usage of inhaler and oral beta-agonists, oral corticosteroid, oral theophylline and even inhaler corticosteroid in the study group decreased at the end of the study while there were no obvious changes in usage of the drugs in control subjects. The results of phase I study generally suggest a prophylactic effect of N. sativa on asthma disease and warrant further research regarding this effect.

  8. Songlines from Direct Collapse Seed Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John; Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution, and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. Observations of SMBHs with masses of 109 solar at high redshifts (z~7) poses challenges to the theory of seed black h

  9. Songlines from Direct Collapse Seed Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John; Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution, and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. Observations of SMBHs with masses of 109 solar at high redshifts (z~7) poses challenges to the theory of seed black

  10. Seeding Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass -- velocity dispersion relation, and the size -- velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is 10^3Msun, which is orders of magnitude smaller than has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  11. The impact of black seed oil on tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nesreen Moustafa; Mohammed, Mohammed Amin

    2017-06-01

    The natural herb, black seed (Nigella Sativa; NS) is one of the most important elements of folk medicine. The aim was to evaluate the impact of Nigella Sativa Oil (NSO) on the changes induced by tramadol in rat liver. Twenty four albino rats were used. given intraperitoneal and oral saline for 30days. TR-group: given intraperitoneal tramadol (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day) in the first, middle and last 10days of the experiment, respectively. TR+NS group: administered intraperitoneal tramadol in similar doses to TR-group plus oral NSO (4ml/kg/day) for 30days. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopic, biochemical and statistical studies were performed. TR-group displayed disarranged hepatic architecture, hepatic congestion, hemorrhage and necrosis. Apoptotic hepatocytes, mononuclear cellular infiltration and a significant increase in the number of anti-CD68 positive cells were observed. Ultrastructurally, hepatocytes showed shrunken nuclei, swollen mitochondria, many lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles. Activated Ito and Von Kupffer cells were also demonstrated. Elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin were noticed. NSO administration resulted in preservation of hepatic histoarchitecture and ultrastructure and significant reductions in the number of anti-CD68 positive cells and serum levels of liver seromarkers. In conclusion, NSO administration could mitigate the alterations induced by tramadol in rat liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. and black cumin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds on yield, oxidative stability and sensory properties of cold pressed oil .... to the recommended practice for panel sensory evaluation of edible vegetable oils by (AOCS-. Cg2-83). Oil samples (20 mL) were ...

  13. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review

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    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation. Materials and Method: The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone.    Results: N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove. Conclusion: N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages.

  14. Yield Responses of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. to Intercropping with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Bean (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koocheki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of intercropping on yield of black cumin in intercropping with chickpea and bean, an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Crops were planted as pure stands and intercrops in three arrangements: A alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant, B two rows of field crops and one row of medicinal plant, C alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants. Results showed that land equivalent ratio was more than 1 in all treatment indicating seed yield of the plants were higher in pure stands compared to intercrops but the advantages of the intercropping compared to sole cropping. Black cumin performed best in alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant and alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants treatments and the highest partial land equivalent ratio was also related to black seed in these treatments.

  15. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under different Plant Density and Limited Irrigation Condition

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    Sh Rezvan Beidokhti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on crop response to deficit irrigation is important to reduce agriculture water use in areas where water is limited resource. Using drought resistant landraces with irrigation scheduling based on phenological stages in semi-arid and arid regions may provide an opportunity to optimize irrigation efficiency and water savings in these regions. In order to evaluate of yield and yield components of black cumin under different plant density and limited irrigation condition an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Islamic Azad University of Damghan during growing season of 2007-2008. The experimental treatments were arranged in split plots based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. The limited irrigation (based on phenological stages treatments were included: cutting irrigation at blooming (folded flowers, cutting irrigation at flowering stage, cutting irrigation at seed formation and normal weekly irrigation (control were allocated to the main plots and different plant density: 100, 150, 200 and 250 plant per square meter (m2 were allocated to sub plots. The results showed that the effect of limited irrigation, plant density and their interaction on plant height, number of follicle, follicle weight, number of seed, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index Black Cumin. The highest yield and yield components was obtained in normal irrigation (control and 200 plant density and the lowest yield were obtained when irrigation cut at the blooming stage and 250 plant density. There was a significant correlation between seed yield and number (r=0.90, 1000 seed weight (r=0.95 and biological yield (r=0.97. Optimum plant density of black cumin was decreased under limited irrigation treatments. Under normal (control and limited irrigation, optimum plant density was 200 and 150 plant per (m2 respectively.

  16. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  17. The effect of salinity on germination, emergence, seed yield and biomass of black cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faravani Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity sensitivity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L. was studied to determine salinity effects on germination, emergence, biological yield, seed yield and plant height. A set of experiments were conducted under completely randomized design in the germinator, greenhouse and field. Seeds of black cumin were grown in a growth chamber irrigated with normal water, electric conductivity (EC of 0.3 dS m-1 as the control, and treatments amended with NaCl to obtain EC from 3 to 39 dS m-1. Different EC treatments (3-39 dS m-1, 3-15 dS m-1 and 3-9 dS m-1 were applied at different phenological stages of germination, emerging and seed setting, respectively. The effect of salinity on seed germination, germination rate, shoot length, root length, seedling weight, root to shoot ratio and seed vigor was significant at p<0.01. The highest germination rate (94.8% was observed at the salinity of 3 dS m-1 and no germination was observed at the salinity of 36 dS m-1. Increase of salinity from 0.3 (control up to 15 dS m-1 significantly (p<0.01 influenced the rate and percentage of emergence. The highest germination percentage (52.5% and emergence rate (9.2 seedlings per day were achieved in the control treatment. Seed yield, biomass and plant height were affected significantly (p<0.05 by different salinity treatments. The essential oil percentage was not significantly affected by salinity stress. With an increase in the salinity level from 0.3 to 9 dS m-1, the average seed yield and biological yield were decreased from 105.5 to 40.2 g m-2 and from 550.2 to 268.6 g m-2 respectively.

  18. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies.

  19. Supermassive Seeds for Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L; Li, Hui; Holz, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z > 7 allow to constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. The combination of the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from recent cosmological simulations, the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and the large radiative efficiencies of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift, all suggest that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as > 10^5 solar masses. This is consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10^4 --10^6 solar mass seed BH. This also corroborates the results of recent cosmological simulations which suggest that these massive BHs wer...

  20. Investigation on the effect of benzyladenine on the germination, radicle growth and meristematic cells of Nigella sativa L. and Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ghamery, A.A.; M.A. Mousa

    2017-01-01

    The effect of different benzyladenine (BA) treatments which is a phyto-regulator or plant hormone on the cytology and growth of Nigella sativa L. (Black seed) and Allium cepa L. (onion) were investigated. Six concentrations of benzyladenine ranging from 5 to 55 ppm were applied for 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h. The treatments elevate the germination percentages of Nigella sativa L. and Allium cepa L. and increase the root growth of both plants. In contrast concentrations higher than 60 ppm for ...

  1. Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad A.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The detection of quasars at z > 6 unveils the presence of supermassive black holes of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.

  2. Formation of supermassive black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    The detection of quasars at $z>6$ unveils the presence of supermassive black holes (BHs) of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on microbiological and oil properties of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecgel, Ümit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin samples obtained from the market have been irradiated under 2.5 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy, and 10 kGy doses, respectively. Along with the increase in the dose of irradiation, both the free fatty acid and peroxide values of the samples increased, whereas oil contents, iodine numbers, refraction index and Rancimat values decreased. In the composition of fatty acids, while the percentages of unsaturated fatty acids decreased; trans fatty acid levels increased. Microbial count of the samples decreased as the dose of irradiation increased. It has been observed that total bacterial count as well as total count of yeast and mould reduced to the undetectable limit.Muestras de comino negro adquiridas en el mercado fueron irradiadas a dosis de 2.5 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy y 10 kGy, respectivamente. Coincidiendo con el aumento en la dosis de irradiación, se incrementaron tanto la acidez libre, como el índice de peróxidos de las muestras, mientras que se redujeron en el aceite el índice de yodo, el índice de refracción y la resistencia a la oxidación medida por Rancimat. En la composición de ácidos grasos aumentaron los niveles de ácidos grasos trans, mientras que se redujeron los porcentajes de ácidos grasos insaturados. El recuento de microbios presentes en las muestras descendió, conforme aumentaba la dosis de irradiación aplicada. Se observó como los recuentos totales de bacterias, hongos y levaduras se redujeron hasta un límite indetectable.

  4. Isolation of volatiles from Nigella sativa seeds using microwave-assisted extraction: effect of whole extracts on canine and murine CYP1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Abd El-Aty, A M; Assayed, M E; Shimoda, Minoru; Shim, Jae-Han

    2013-07-01

    The volatile components of Nigella sativa seeds were isolated using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and identified using gas chromatography. Further investigations were carried out to demonstrate the effects of whole extracts on canine (dog) and murine (rat) cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). The optimal extraction conditions of MAE were as follows: 25 mL of water, medium level of microwave oven power and 10 min of extraction time. A total of 32 compounds were identified under the conditions using GC-FID and GC-MS. Thymoquinone (38.23%), p-cymene (28.61%), 4-isopropyl-9-methoxy-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene (5.74%), longifolene (5.33%), α-thujene (3.88) and carvacol (2.31%) were the main compounds emitted from N. sativa seeds. Various extracts including pure compounds, essential oil, nonpolar partition, relatively high-polar/nonpolar partition, and polar partition extracts effectively inhibited the reaction of ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylation, which is specified for CYP1A activity both in dog and rat. This in vitro data should be heeded as a signal of possible in vivo interactions. The use of human liver preparations would considerably strengthen the practical impact of the data generated from this study.

  5. The possible effect of diets containing Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris on blood parameters and some organs structure in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; El-Atrsh, Efaf

    2011-03-01

    Because of the increasing cost of animal feed ingredients as well as the high demand, especially for the protein supplements, several efforts were carried out to use untraditional feed protein ingredients to participate in facing feed shortage problem and at the same time to decrease feeding costs. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Thymus vulgaris are the most famous medical plants that have attracted the attention of many investigators for long time. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of a partial replacement of soybean meal in control diet by Nigella sativa and/or Thymus vulgaris on the possible harmful changes in histological structure of some organs and blood parameters in growing New Zealand White rabbits. Blood constituents showed that the percentages of hemoglobin, hematocrate, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and white blood cells (WBCs) count were significantly increased with the presence of black cumin seeds in the diets while WBCs count and the mean corpuscular volume in rabbit blood tends to decrease in Thymus vulgaris diets. Feeding diet supplemented with Nigella sativa increased the plasma total proteins, albumin, globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides. The use of Nigella sativa alone or either mixture with Thymus vulgaris are good supplements for growing rabbits without any adverse effect on histological structure of liver, kidney and testis in rabbits.

  6. Effect of Topical Application of Black Seed Oil on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Lesions in the Thin Skin of Adult Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Ebtsam F; Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2017-09-19

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 1%-3% of the world's population. Black seed oil, i.e., the oil extracted from black seeds (Nigella sativa seeds), possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of black seed oil on imiquimod (IMQ) induced psoriasis-like skin lesions. To this end, 30 male albino rats were divided into three groups: group I, control group; group II, psoriasis-induced group receiving daily topical applications of IMQ cream (5%) on the shaved back skin for 10 consecutive days; and group III, black seed oil group receiving a daily topical dose of black seed oil 5 mg/kg body weight for 10 days after induction of psoriasis. Animals of all groups were sacrificed and specimens obtained from the skin of the central part of the back were processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). IMQ application led to epidermal inflammation, hyperplasia and alterations in the normal appearance of keratinocytes with degenerative changes observed at both light and electron microscopic levels. Collagenous fibers were abundant in the dermis and PCNA-positive cells were detected in all layers of the epidermis. However, topical use of black seed oil strongly inhibited IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation and alleviated all epidermal and dermal changes observed after IMQ application, allowing us to conclude that black seed oil can be used as an adjuvant topical therapy for treating psoriasis. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nigella sativa and its potential role in facilitating learning and memory. The possible use of this seed’s extract or compounds isolated from it, such as thymoquinone, for treating damaged brain neural tissue is discussed. The evidence presented in this paper appears to be supporting the hypothesis that this plant and/or its bioactive constituents can enhance learning and memory in health and disease in animals and humans.

  8. Thymoquinone, an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, binds with bilirubin and protects mice from hyperbilirubinemia and cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Amaj A; Khan, Masood A; Rahmani, Arshad H; Fatima, Sana; Younus, Hina

    2016-08-01

    Some reports indicate that thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is hepatoprotective. The aim of this study was to determine whether TQ is able to bind directly to bilirubin, and whether TQ or liposomal formulation of TQ (Lip-TQ) can reduce cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced liver toxicity, serum bilirubin level in mice. The binding of TQ with bilirubin was studied by UV-VIS, fluorescence and Near-UV CD spectroscopy. Inhibition of binding of bilirubin to erythrocytes by TQ was also examined. To increase the in vivo efficacy, Lip-TQ was prepared and used against CYP-induced toxicity. The protective role of TQ or Lip-TQ against CYP-induced toxicity was assessed by determining the liver function parameters, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and histological studies. It was found that TQ binds to bilirubin and significantly inhibits the binding of bilirubin to erythrocytes. Lip-TQ (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) from 254 ± 48 to 66 ± 18 IU/L (P bilirubin from 2.8 ± 0.50 to 1.24 ± 0.30 mg/dl (P bilirubin in systemic circulation in disease conditions that lead to hyperbilirubinemia and liver toxicity and hence may be used as a supplement in the treatment of liver ailments.

  9. Authentication of Nigella sativa seed oil in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil and soybean oil using FTIR spectroscopy coupled with partial least square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Abdul; Ariani, Rizka

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of Nigella seed oil (NSO) in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil (CO) and soybean oil (SO). Based on PLS modeling performed, quantitative analysis of NSO in binary mixtures with CO carried out using the second derivative FTIR spectra at combined frequencies of 2977-3028, 1666-1739, and 740-1446 cm(-1) revealed the highest value of coefficient of determination (R (2), 0.9984) and the lowest value of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 1.34% v/v). NSO in binary mixtures with SO is successfully determined at the combined frequencies of 2985-3024 and 752-1755 cm(-1) using the first derivative FTIR spectra with R (2) and RMSEC values of 0.9970 and 0.47% v/v, respectively. Meanwhile, the second derivative FTIR spectra at the combined frequencies of 2977-3028 cm(-1), 1666-1739 cm(-1), and 740-1446 cm(-1) were selected for quantitative analysis of NSO in ternary mixture with CO and SO with R (2) and RMSEC values of 0.9993 and 0.86% v/v, respectively. The results showed that FTIR spectrophotometry is an accurate technique for the quantitative analysis of NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with CO and SO.

  10. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds dietary supplementation against lead acetate-induced oxidative damage in rabbit - Purification and characterization of glutathione peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Far, Ali H; Korshom, Mahdy A; Mandour, Abdelwahab A; El-Bessoumy, Ashraf A; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-03-03

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induces hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans. The ability of Nigella saliva seeds (NSS) in ameliorating lead acetate (PbAc)-induced hepatic oxidative damage was investigated using a rabbit model. Forty New Zealand rabbits were given feed and water ad libitum. They were allocated randomly into four groups: control; PbAc (5g/L drinking water); NSS (20g/kg diet) and NSS+PbAc groups. After two months, liver samples were collected and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) contents. Purification and characterization of GPx were also evaluated. PbAc exposure significantly (pcumene hydroperoxide were 4.76μM in control, PbAc and NSS+PbAc groups, and 4.09μM in NSS group. The GPx reaction had a temperature optimum 40°C, pH optimum 8 and molecular weight 21 kDa. The obtained data indicated the potent efficacy of NSS against PbAc-induced oxidative stress; that was mediated through induction and activation of antioxidants, particularly GPx and scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the purified hepatic GPx is characterized as a selenoprotein (Se-GPx).

  11. Authentication of Nigella sativa Seed Oil in Binary and Ternary Mixtures with Corn Oil and Soybean Oil Using FTIR Spectroscopy Coupled with Partial Least Square

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rohman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR combined with multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS was developed and optimized for the analysis of Nigella seed oil (NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil (CO and soybean oil (SO. Based on PLS modeling performed, quantitative analysis of NSO in binary mixtures with CO carried out using the second derivative FTIR spectra at combined frequencies of 2977–3028, 1666–1739, and 740–1446 cm−1 revealed the highest value of coefficient of determination (, 0.9984 and the lowest value of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 1.34% v/v. NSO in binary mixtures with SO is successfully determined at the combined frequencies of 2985–3024 and 752–1755 cm−1 using the first derivative FTIR spectra with and RMSEC values of 0.9970 and 0.47% v/v, respectively. Meanwhile, the second derivative FTIR spectra at the combined frequencies of 2977–3028 cm−1, 1666–1739 cm−1, and 740–1446 cm−1 were selected for quantitative analysis of NSO in ternary mixture with CO and SO with and RMSEC values of 0.9993 and 0.86% v/v, respectively. The results showed that FTIR spectrophotometry is an accurate technique for the quantitative analysis of NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with CO and SO.

  12. Blossoms From Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habouzit, Melanie

    2017-07-01

    Massive black holes (BHs) inhabit local galaxies, including the Milky Way and some dwarf galaxies. BH formation, occurring at early cosmic times, must account for the properties of BHs in today's galaxies, notably why some galaxies host a BH, and others do not. We investigate the formation, distribution and growth of BH seeds by using the adaptive mesh refinement code Ramses. We develop an implementation of BH formation in dense, low-metallicity environments, as advocated by models invoking the collapse of the first generation of stars, or of dense nuclear star clusters. The seed masses are computed one-by-one on-the-fly, based on the star formation rate and the stellar initial mass function. This self-consistent method to seed BHs allows us to study the distribution of BHs in a cosmological context and their evolution over cosmic time. We find that all high-mass galaxies tend to a host a BH, whereas low-mass counterparts have a lower probability of hosting a BH. After the end of the epoch of BH formation, this probability is modulated by the growth of the galaxy. The simulated BHs connect to low-redshift observational samples, and span a similar range in accretion properties as Lyman-Break Analogs. The growth of BHs in low-mass galaxies is stunted by strong supernova feedback. The properties of BHs in dwarf galaxies thus remain a testbed for BH formation. Simulations with strong supernova feedback, which is able to quench BH accretion in shallow potential wells, produce galaxies and BHs in better agreement with observational constraints.

  13. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of volatile oil extract of Nigella sativa seeds by chemically induced seizure model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmatanzeem Bepari

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The N. sativa seeds showed anticonvulsant activity in pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model of epilepsy. This study showed that volatile oil of N. sativa seeds potentiated the effect of sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1300-1307

  14. Effect of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge on yield and heavy metal accumulation in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste (MSw compost and sewage sludge (SS on yield and concentration of heavy metals in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L. an experiment with MSW compost at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (C0, C15 and C30 and sewage sludge at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (S0, S15 and S30 in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Results showed that MSW compost and SS had significant effects on plant dry matter. Increasing the amounts of SS increased dry matter of plant. But increasing MSW compost from 15 to 30 t.ha-1 was decreased in dry matter. The Effect of MSW compost and SS on concentration of heavy metals (Ni and Pb in plant except Cd was significant. Addition of MSW compost and sewage sludge increased availability of Pb, Ni and Cd in soil. But effect of MSW compost and sewage sludge on Cd availability was not significant. Results showed that the amounts of Ni exceed the standard limits in dry matter. Therefore in use of organic wastes for medicinal plants we should be careful..

  15. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) clonal seed orchards in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly Redei; Zoltán Osváth-Bujtás; Irina Veperdi

    2006-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important stand-forming tree species in Hungary and its importance is increasing in many countries. The main aim of the discussed new selection programme is to identify black locust clones with good performance and good form for setting up clonal seed orchards. As a result of selection programme 16 new black locust clones have been improved. In spring 2002 a black locust seed orchard was established with the newly selected clones. About 40% of the plants can be considered to belong to the height growth rate class 1 and 2. Hungary was the first country where micropropagated black locust planting material was used for seed orchard establishment.

  16. Can Superconducting Cosmic Strings Piercing Seed Black Holes Generate Supermassive Black Holes in the Early Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes at redshifts $z> 6$, when the Universe was only nine hundred million years old, has raised the fundamental question of how such massive compact objects could form in a (cosmologically) short time interval. Each of the proposed standard scenarios for black hole formation, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes, or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short time formation of supermassive objects. In the present Letter, we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of supermassive black holes in the early Universe in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings, piercing small seed black holes, is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. The increase in mass of a primordial seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings is estimated and it is shown that this increases linearly in time. Due to the high energy transfer rate from the cosmic strings, we find that supermassi...

  17. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  18. The effects of saline irrigation water and cobalt on growth and chemical composition in Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. KHALID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Khalid KA, Shedeed MR. 2014. The effects of saline irrigation water and cobalt on growth and chemical composition in Nigella sativa.Nusantara Bioscience 6: 146-151. Increasing plant salinity tolerance is a focus of research and industry since salinity and yield are of major concern to maximize medicinal and aromatic plant production in arid and semi-arid areas. Therefore, the present study aimed to decrease the harmful effect of salinity on Nigella sativa L plants by adapting them to saline soil stress through the use of Cobalt. The effects of saline irrigation water and cobalt on the vegetative growth characters [plant height (cm, leaf number (plant-1, branch number (plant-1, capsule number (plant1, herb dry weight (plant-1 and seed yield (plant-1] and content of fixed oil, soluble sugars, proline, N,P,K and protein of black seed (Nigella sativa L. plants were investigated. In these experiments, two factors were considered: saline irrigation water and Cobalt. The experimental design followed a complete random block design. The averages of data were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA-2 and the values of least significant difference (LSD at 5%. Saline irrigation water decreased certain growth characters, fixed oil, protein and mineral content (N, P and K as saline irrigation water level increased. Saline irrigation water promoted the accumulation of soluble sugars and proline contents. The plants treated with saline irrigation water containing cobalt resulted in higher plant growth characters and chemical constituent’s values than those treated with saline irrigation water alone.

  19. Growth of Accreting Supermassive Black Hole Seeds and Neutrino Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Ter-Kazarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of microscopic theory of black hole (MTBH, which explores the most important processes of rearrangement of vacuum state and spontaneous breaking of gravitation gauge symmetry at huge energies, we have undertaken a large series of numerical simulations with the goal to trace an evolution of the mass assembly history of 377 plausible accreting supermassive black hole seeds in active galactic nuclei (AGNs to the present time and examine the observable signatures today. Given the redshifts, masses, and luminosities of these black holes at present time collected from the literature, we compute the initial redshifts and masses of the corresponding seed black holes. For the present masses MBH/M⊙≃1.1×106 to 1.3×1010 of 377 black holes, the computed intermediate seed masses are ranging from MBHSeed/M⊙≃26.4 to 2.9×105. We also compute the fluxes of ultrahigh energy (UHE neutrinos produced via simple or modified URCA processes in superdense protomatter nuclei. The AGNs are favored as promising pure UHE neutrino sources, because the computed neutrino fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at high energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle (θ≪1.

  20. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ferrara, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼1010 M ⊙, nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds (M • ≳ 104 M ⊙) hosted in small isolated halos (M h ≲ 109 M ⊙) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies (ɛ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M •–σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high-z, but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 104–6 M ⊙, we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.

  1. In vitro antifungal effect of black cumin seed quinones against dairy spoilage yeasts at different acidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamova, Katerina; Kokoska, Ladislav; Flesar, Jaroslav; Sklenickova, Olga; Svobodova, Blanka; Marsik, Petr

    2010-12-01

    The antiyeast activity of the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) quinones dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymoquinone (TQ) were evaluated in vitro with a broth microdilution method against six dairy spoilage yeast species. Antifungal effects of the quinones were compared with those of preservatives commonly used in milk products (calcium propionate, natamycin, and potassium sorbate) at two pH levels (4.0 and 5.5). THQ and TQ possessed significant antiyeast activity and affected the growth of all strains tested at both pH levels, with MICs ranging from 8 to 128 μg/ml. With the exception of the antibiotic natamycin, the inhibitory effects of all food preservatives against the yeast strains tested in this study were strongly affected by differences in pH, with MICs of ≥16 and ≥512 μg/ml at pH 4.0 and 5.5, respectively. These findings suggest that HQ and TQ are effective antiyeast agents that could be used in the dairy industry as chemical preservatives of natural origin.

  2. Accretion onto Seed Black Holes in the First Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Milosavljevic, Milos; Couch, Sean M; Oh, S Peng

    2008-01-01

    The validity of the hypothesis that the massive black holes in high redshift quasars grew from stellar-sized "seeds" is contingent on a seed's ability to double its mass every few ten million years. This requires that the seed accrete at approximately the Eddington-limited rate. In the specific case of radiatively efficient quasiradial accretion in a metal-poor protogalactic medium, for which the Bondi accretion rate is often prescribed in cosmological simulations of massive black hole formation, we examine the effects of the radiation emitted near the black hole's event horizon on the structure of the surrounding gas flow. We find that the radiation pressure from photoionization significantly reduces the steady-state accretion rate and renders the quasiradial accretion flow unsteady and inefficient. The time-averaged accretion rates are a small fraction of the Eddington-limited accretion rate for Thomson scattering. The pressure of Ly-alpha photons trapped near the HII region surrounding the black hole may f...

  3. Probing seed black holes using future gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gair, Jonathan R; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the properties of the first generation of seeds of massive black holes is key to understanding the merger history and growth of galaxies. Mergers between ~100 solar mass seed black holes generate gravitational waves in the 0.1-10Hz band that lies between the sensitivity bands of existing ground-based detectors and the planned space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). However, there are proposals for more advanced detectors that will bridge this gap, including the third generation ground-based Einstein Telescope and the space-based detector DECIGO. In this paper we demonstrate that such future detectors should be able to detect gravitational waves produced by the coalescence of the first generation of light seed black-hole binaries and provide information on the evolution of structure in that era. These observations will be complementary to those that LISA will make of subsequent mergers between more massive black holes. We compute the sensitivity of va...

  4. Cosmological Black Holes as Seeds of Voids in Galaxy Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Stornaiolo, C; Capozziello, Salvatore; Funaro, Maria; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2004-01-01

    Deep surveys indicate a bubbly structure of cosmological large scale which should be the result of evolution of primordial density perturbations. Several models have been proposed to explain origin and dynamics of such features but, till now, no exhaustive and fully consistent theory has been found. We discuss a model where cosmological black holes, deriving from primordial perturbations, are the seeds for large-scale-structure voids. We give details of dynamics and accretion of the system voids-cosmological black holes from the epochs $(z\\simeq10^{3})$ till now finding that void of $40h^{-1}Mpc$ of diameter and under-density of -0.9 will fits the observations without conflicting with the homogeneity and isotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation.

  5. Effect of adding crushed Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris mixture to antibiotics-free rations of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers on growth performance, antibody titer and haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Z. Athamneh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of crushed Pimpinella anisum (PA, Nigella sativa (NS seeds and Thymus vulgaris (TV mixture as a feed additive on growth performance and mortality rate (MR, selected antibodies titer (Ab’s and blood hematological profile of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Lohman male broiler chicks fed free-antibiotics ration. A total of 400 one-day old chicks were distributed into 16 groups (4 treatment x 4 replicates x 25chicks. The experiment lasted from one to 42 days of age. The statistical findings of this experiment prove that the use of medicinal plants mixture improves live body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and MR of vaccinated male broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. antibodies titer against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease of non-vaccinated and vaccinated male broilers were significantly improved at 21 and 42 days as a result of the addition of medicinal plant mixture to the basal ration. Concerning Newcastle disease, the use of PA, NS and TV mixture did not reflect in any additional improvement of Ab's than vaccines did. The addition of medicinal plants mixture increases WBC's, RBC's, thrombocytes count and Hb concentration of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers at 21 days of age. Meanwhile, heterophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of vaccinated male broilers (VMB were significantly improved by adding medicinal plant mixture to their basal diet. Moreover, at 42 days of age the use of PA, NS seeds and TV mixture indicate significant increase in total WBC’s, lymphocytes and monocytes and monocytes count of VMB and non-vaccinated male broiler (NVMB. No significant differences were noticed in RBC’s and Hct as a result of feeding crushed medicinal plants mixture.

  6. Health-promoting value and food applications of black cumin essential oil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Mohamed F R; Assiri, Adel M A; Alzohairy, Ahmed M; Oraby, Hesham Farouk

    2015-10-01

    Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds and its essential oil have been widely used in functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical products. Analysis of Nigella sativa essential oil using GC and GC-MS resulted in the identification of many bioactive compounds representing ca. 85 % of the total content. The main compounds included p-cymene, thymoquinone, α-thujene, longifolene, β-pinene, α-pinene and carvacrol. Nigella sativa essential oil exhibited different biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant potentials. Nigella sativa essential oil showed complete inhibition zones against different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Penicillium citrinum Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant potential in comparison with synthetic antioxidants (i.e., BHA and BHT) in a rapeseed oil model system. The oil exhibited also stronger radical scavenging activity against DPPH·radical in comparison with synthetic antioxidants. The diversity of applications to which Nigella sativa essential oil can be put gives this oil industrial importance.

  7. Investigation on the effect of benzyladenine on the germination, radicle growth and meristematic cells of Nigella sativa L. and Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. El-Ghamery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different benzyladenine (BA treatments which is a phyto-regulator or plant hormone on the cytology and growth of Nigella sativa L. (Black seed and Allium cepa L. (onion were investigated. Six concentrations of benzyladenine ranging from 5 to 55 ppm were applied for 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h. The treatments elevate the germination percentages of Nigella sativa L. and Allium cepa L. and increase the root growth of both plants. In contrast concentrations higher than 60 ppm for 48 h were caused an inhibition effect for both plant. The root growth initiation was concentration and/or time dependent. The applied concentrations of BA showed a promotor effect on cell division in root tips of both plants and caused an increase in their mitotic index values (MI. The elevation in MI values in root tips of Nigella sativa L. was more evident than that of Allium cepa L. All treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases as compared with the control values. All the applied concentrations of BA significantly induced a number of chromosomal aberrations in root tip cells of Nigella sativa L. and Allium cepa L. The total percentages of abnormalities in Nigella sativa L. root tip cells were more than that in Allium cepa L. with all concentrations of BA. The most dominant types of observed abnormalities were stickiness, bridges, and C-mitosis. BA treatments produced a number of mitotic abnormalities in dividing cells in root tips of both plants resulting from its action on the spindle apparatus such as C-mitosis, lagging chromosomes and multipolar at ana-telophases. Also, BA induced vacuolated nuclei and irregular prophases. The induction of chromosomal stickiness and chromosomal aberrations such as bridges indicates its action on the chromosome. Also, the induced chromosomal bridges at ana-telophases indicates true clastogenic potential of this chemical. It may be concluded that BA causes toxic effect on root tip cells of Nigella sativa L

  8. Theoretical reevaluations of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation - I. Influences of the seed black hole mass

    CERN Document Server

    Shirakata, Hikari; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R

    2016-01-01

    We show influences of the mass of seed black holes on black hole mass -- bulge mass relation at z ~ 0 by using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model to reproduce observed properties of galaxies at z ~ 0. Similar to other semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When we set the seed black hole mass to 10^5 M_sun, we find that the model result becomes inconsistent with recent observational results of black hole mass -- bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. Namely, the model predicts that bulges with ~ 10^9 M_sun harbor black holes more massive than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes with 10^3 M_sun or randomly choose their masses in the range of 10^{3-5} M_sun, the black hole mass -- bulge mass relation obtained from these models are consistent with observational results including dispersions. We find that to obtain more stringent restrictions of the mass of seed ...

  9. Theoretical re-evaluations of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation - I. Effect of seed black hole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakata, Hikari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the effect of varying the mass of a seed black hole on the resulting black hole mass-bulge mass relation at z ˜ 0, using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model by requiring that the observed properties of galaxies at z ˜ 0 are reproduced. In keeping with previous semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When the mass of the seed is set at 105 M⊙, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. In particular, the model predicts that bulges with ˜109 M⊙ harbour larger black holes than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes of 103 M⊙ or select their mass randomly within a 103-5 M⊙ range, the resulting relation is consistent with observation estimates, including the observed dispersion. We find that, to obtain stronger constraints on the mass of seed black holes, observations of less massive bulges at z ˜ 0 are a more powerful comparison than the relations at higher redshifts.

  10. Phenolic Composition Analysis and Gene Expression in Developing Seeds of Yellow-and Black-seeded Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjin Jiang; Yanlin Shao; Aimin Li; Chunliang Lu; Yongtai Zhang; Youping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Breeders have focused on yellow-seeded Brassica napus (rapeseed) for its better quality compared with the black-seeded variety.Moreover,flavonoids have been associated with this kind of rapeseed.In this study,we applied lipid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn) to compare flavonoids in developing seeds of natural black-seeded B.napus and yellow-seeded introgression lines selected from progenies of B.napus-Sinapis alba somatic hybrids.Aside from the most abundant phenolic compounds (sinapine and sinapic acid) and 1,2-disinapoylglucose,16 different flavonoids were identified and quantified,including (-)-epicatechin,five monocharged oligomers of (-)-epicatechin ([DP 2]-,[DP 3]-,[DP 4] [DP 2]-B2 and [DP 2]-B5),quercetin,kaempferol,isorhamnetin-dihexoside,kaempferol-sinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetinsinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetin-hexoside-sulfate,and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside.Most of the flavonoids accumulated with seed development,whereas some rapidly decreased during maturation.The content of these flavonoids was lower in the yellow-seeded materials than in the black seeds.In addition,variations of insoluble procyanidin oligomers and soluble phenolic acids were observed among both rapeseed varieties.Transcriptome changes of genes participating in the flavonoid pathway were discovered by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis.Consistent with flavonoid changes identified by high performance liquid chromatography analysis,the expression of most genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was also downregulated.

  11. On the number density of "direct collapse" black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Habouzit, Melanie; Latif, Muhammad; Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) of millions solar masses and above reside in the center of most local galaxies, but they also power active galactic nuclei and quasars, detected up to z=7. This observational evidence puts strong constraints on the BH growth and the mass of the first BH seeds. The scenario of "direct collapse" is very appealing as it leads to the formation of large mass BH seeds in the range 10^4-10^6 Msun, which eases explaining how quasars at z=6-7 are powered by BHs with masses >10^9 Msun. Direct collapse, however, appears to be rare, as the conditions required by the scenario are that gas is metal-free, the presence of a strong photo-dissociating Lyman-Werner flux, and large inflows of gas at the center of the halo, sustained for 10-100 Myr. We performed several cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that cover a large range of box sizes and resolutions, thus allowing us to understand the impact of several physical processes on the distribution of direct collapse BHs. We identify halos wher...

  12. Modeling seed dispersal of black cherry, an invasive forest tree: how microsatellites may help?

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jonard, Mathieu; Jacquemart,Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    We used empirical models and three dispersal functions (Weibull, lognormal and 2Dt) to model seed distributions derived from the black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) understorey of a pine-dominated stand. Two different approaches were used to disentangle the overlapping seed shadows: the traditional inverse modeling approach and the genetic approach that uses microsatellite markers to assign a dispersed seed to its maternal parent. The distinction was made between the seeds passively disperse...

  13. The Direct Collapse of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-10-01

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that thegas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of ananisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiationsource is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is setto emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiationemitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracingtechniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H2 is able to form at the verycenter of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find thata radiation source, emitting radiation field case,in terms of H2 fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly effectthe dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, thefinal mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ~ 105 M⊙. This is consistentwith predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to asupermassive black hole.

  14. Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad H. Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways.

  15. Cosmic String Loops as the Seeds of Super-Massive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bramberger, Sebastian F; Jreidini, Paul; Quintin, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries of super-massive black holes at high redshifts indicate a possible tension with the standard Lambda CDM paradigm of early universe cosmology which has difficulties in explaining the origin of the required nonlinear compact seeds which trigger the formation of these super-massive black holes. Here we show that cosmic string loops which result from a scaling solution of strings formed during a phase transition in the very early universe lead to an additional source of compact seeds. The number density of string-induced seeds dominates at high redshifts and can help trigger the formation of the observed super-massive black holes.

  16. Seeds to monsters: tracing the growth of black holes in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-05-01

    An overview of our current knowledge of black seed formation models following their growth history over cosmic time is presented. Both light seed formation channels remnants of the first stars and the more massive direct collapse seed formation scenarios are outlined. In particular, the focus is on the implications of these various scenarios and what these initial conditions imply for the highest redshift black holes, the local black hole population, the highest mass black holes at each epoch and the low mass end of the black hole mass function all of which are currently observed. The goal is to present a broad and comprehensive picture of the current status; the open questions and challenges faced by black hole growth models in matching current observational data and the prospects for future observations that will help discriminate between competing models.

  17. On the number density of `direct collapse' black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habouzit, Mélanie; Volonteri, Marta; Latif, Muhammad; Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sébastien

    2016-11-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) reside in the centre of most local galaxies, but they also power active galactic nuclei and quasars, detected up to z = 7. These quasars put constraints on early BH growth and the mass of BH seeds. The scenario of `direct collapse' is appealing as it leads to the formation of large mass BH seeds, 104-106 M⊙, which eases explaining how quasars at z = 6-7 are powered by BHs with masses >109 M⊙. Direct collapse, however, appears to be rare, as the conditions required by the scenario are that gas is metal-free, the presence of a strong photodissociating Lyman-Werner flux, and large inflows of gas at the centre of the halo, sustained for 10-100 Myr. We performed several cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that cover a large range of box sizes and resolutions, thus allowing us to understand the impact of several physical processes on the distribution of direct collapse BHs. We identify haloes where direct collapse can happen, and derive the number density of BHs. We also investigate the discrepancies between hydrodynamical simulations, direct or post-processed, and semi-analytical studies. Under optimistic assumptions, we find that for direct collapse to account for BHs in normal galaxies, the critical Lyman-Werner flux required for direct collapse must be about two orders of magnitude lower than predicted by 3D simulations that include detailed chemical models. However, when supernova feedback is relatively weak, enough direct collapse BHs to explain z = 6-7 quasars can be obtained for Lyman-Werner fluxes about one order of magnitude lower than found in 3D simulations.

  18. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  19. Analysis of the Lignin Contents and Related Enzymes Activities in Seed Coat Between Black-Seeded and Yellow-Seeded Rapes (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Xiu-zhi; LIANG Ying; LI Jia-na

    2005-01-01

    One pair of near isonegic yellow/black seeded rape (Brassica napus L) were used as experimental materials to study the changes of lignin contents and enzymes activities of 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) in seedcoats during the stage of seed development. The variation analysis showed that the changes of lignin contents and enzyme activities of 4CL, CAD and F5H in seed coat had significant differences between black- and yellow-seeded rapes, and also between different development stages. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the lignin contents were positively correlative to the activities of all three enzymes investigated in the study, and the interactions between them in the seed coat of the two lines. For yellow-seeded rape, the correlation coefficient (0.7262018) of lignin content and the interaction between 4CL and F5H was significant, the lignin contents were highly positively correlative to the activities of CAD and F5H, the interaction between 4CL and CAD, and the interaction between CAD and F5H. For the black-seeded rape, only the lignin content was highly positively correlative to the activity of F5H (the correlation coefficient was 0.772949), the other correlation coefficients, i. e. lignin contents to 4CL, CAD activities, the interactions between the three enzymes were not significant although all the correlation coefficients were above 0.5000. The results suggested that 4CL, CAD and F5H regulated the biosynthesis of lignin in seedcoat of rapes,leading to the lignin contents in the seedcoats of the yellow-seeded rape much lower than that of the black-seeded line,and affecting the thickness of the developing seedcoats in rapes. Therefore, it was likely to change the seedcoat ratio by overexpressing or suppressing the activities of one of the enzymes, both of them or all of them.

  20. Physiological Differences Between Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) with Different Testa Characteristics During Artificial Ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; YANG Gui-tang; CHEN Li; LI Jia-na; TANG Zhang-lin

    2005-01-01

    Yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a new kind of breeding resources with yellow color, increased oil and protein content and less unwanted crude fiber content due to the thinner and transparent testa compared with traditional black or brown-seeded rapeseed. To analyze the longevity of the yellow-seeded rapeseed during storage, the physiological differences between the yellow and black-seeded near-isogenic lines were studied by artificial ageing method. The testa rate, anthocyanin content and melanin content of yellow-seeded rapeseeds decreased by 20.1, 25.2, and 80.4% respectively than black-seeded rapeseed. During artificial ageing, the yellow-seeded rapeseed showed significantly different effect of ageing compared with the black-seeded, as demonstrated by faster deterioration with lower germination percentage, seed vigour index, reducing sugar and soluble protein contents than the black-seeded, as well as a drastic increase in electrical conductivity, malnodialdehyde (MDA) content and a rapid decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT)and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results suggested that the transparent testa of the yellow-seeded rapeseed lost some abilities to protect the embryo against adverse environmental conditions and thus led to a poor storability.

  1. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus–Sinapis alba Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus–Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%, higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%, less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63% and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%, and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%, phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%, and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82% were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding.

  2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry as a Tool for Nondestructive Measurements of Seed Deterioration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, CV “Black Seeded Simpson”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to determine if changes in lipid phase behavior could be used to detect lost viability in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. We used seeds from the cultivar ‘Black Seeded Simpson’ that were purchased every 2-3 years since 1989 and stored in resealable plastic bags at constan...

  3. Phoma Macdonaldi on seed and its importance in etiology of Phoma black stem in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maširević Stevan N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoma macdonaldi Boerema, teleomorph Leptosphaeria lindquistii Frezzi, is a widespread pathogen of sunflower. The aim of this research was to identify the presence of fungus P. macdonaldi in seed of different sunflower hybrids, as well as the correlation between seed and field infection. Phoma black stem assessment was performed on three hybrids grown in six localities in Serbia. Untreated and processed seeds of these hybrids were used in the seed health test. Severity of the disease did not differ between localities. Average disease index for hybrids H7, H9 and H19 was 14.01%, 13.25% and 11.83% respectively, and it shows that there are no significant differences in hybrid susceptibility. The index of disease indicates tolerance of these hybrids to Phoma black stem. Seed analysis showed the presence of fungi from the following genera: Phoma, Alternaria, Botrytis, Sclerotinia, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Seed infection with Phoma (of the untreated seeds per hybrid ranged from 1.2-3.5%. There is no significant correlation between stem and seed infection.

  4. Diversity and relatedness in a black walnut seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Woeste; Doug Mersman

    2003-01-01

    Geneticists and silviculturists have selected over 450 black walnut clones for inclusion in the black walnut breeding program at Purdue University over the past 35 years. Most of the selections were from Indiana; a few were from other states in the Central Hardwoods Region. Selection of second and third generation clones out of this founder population was based...

  5. Seed-borne nature of a begomovirus, Mung bean yellow mosaic virus in black gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothandaraman, Satya Vijayalakshmi; Devadason, Alice; Ganesan, Malathi Varagur

    2016-02-01

    The yellow mosaic viruses (YMV) infecting legumes are considered to be the most devastating begomoviruses as they incite considerable yield loss. The yellow discoloration of pods and seeds of infected plants and symptom emergence in the very first trifoliate leaf of the plants in the field were suggestive that the virus may be seed borne, which was investigated in the present study. The distribution of the virus in various parts of the seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) plants naturally infected in the field was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analysis, and sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR amplicons from the seed parts from groups of ten seeds revealed the presence of mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in the seed coat, cotyledon, and embryonic axes. The presence of virion particles was confirmed through double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) even in a single whole seed. In confocal microscopy, positive fluorescent signals were obtained using coat protein gene-specific primers in the embryonic axes. However, in the growth tests performed with the same batch of seeds, there was no symptom development in the seedlings though the virus (both DNA A and B components) was detected in 32 % of tested seedlings. In this study, the MYMV was detected in seed coat, cotyledon, and embryo. This study revealed that the MYMV is a seed-borne virus.

  6. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes from Low-Mass Pop III Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    The existence of 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$ black holes (BH) in massive galaxies by $z \\sim 7$ is one of the great unsolved mysteries in cosmological structure formation. One leading model argues that they originate from much smaller seeds at high redshift and then accrete at the Eddington limit down to the epoch of reionization, which requires that they have constant access to rich supplies of fuel. Because early numerical simulations suggested that many first stars had masses $\\gtrsim 100$ M$_{\\odot}$, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds in this model were 100 - 300 M$_{\\odot}$ black holes formed by Pop III stars at $z \\sim 20$. However, there is growing numerical and observational evidence that most Pop III stars were tens of solar masses, not hundreds, and consequently that 20 - 140 M$_{\\odot}$ black holes may have been much more plentiful at high redshift. We have examined low-mass Pop III black holes as potential seeds of SMBH and find that the mass range for possible seeds is severely constrained. Progeni...

  7. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  8. Characterisation of proanthocyanidins from black soybeans: isolation and characterisation of proanthocyanidin oligomers from black soybean seed coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Chiaki; Oki, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Tadashi; Nanba, Fumio; Yamada, Katsushige; Toda, Toshiya

    2013-12-01

    Proanthocyanidin oligomers (dimers to tetramers) were isolated from black soybean seed coats, using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reversed-phase preparative HPLC. The isolated oligomers consisted of only (-)-epicatechin units, which were linked through either 4β→8 or 4β→6 (B-type) bonds. Procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, and cinnamtannin A2 were identified as the main compounds of the proanthocyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers, respectively.

  9. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae and seed source on nursery-grown black walnut seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Brookshire; H. E. Garrett; T. L. Robison

    2003-01-01

    A nursery study was established in Missouri to evaluate the effects of endomycorrhizal inoculation and seed source on the growth of black walnut seedlings. Inoculation, in general, resulted in seedlings with significantly larger sturdiness quotients. Glomus intraradicies was found to produce larger seedlings than Glomus etunicatus...

  10. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  11. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals.

  12. Sowing Black Hole Seeds: Forming Direct Collapse Black Holes With Realistic Lyman-Werner Radiation Fields in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Dunn, Glenna; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Luminous quasars detected at redshifts z > 6 require that the first black holes form early and grow to ~109 solar masses within one Gyr. Our work uses cosmological simulations to study the formation and early growth of direct collapse black holes. In the pre-reionization epoch, molecular hydrogen (H2) causes gas to fragment and form Population III stars, but Lyman-Werner radiation can suppress H2 formation and allow gas to collapse directly into a massive black hole. The critical flux required to inhibit H2 formation, Jcrit, is hotly debated, largely due to the uncertainties in the source radiation spectrum, H2 self-shielding, and collisional dissociation rates. Here, we test the power of the direct collapse model in a non-uniform Lyman-Werner radiation field, using an updated version of the SPH+N-body tree code Gasoline with H2 non-equilibrium abundance tracking, H2 cooling, and a modern SPH implementation. We vary Jcrit from 30 to 104 J21 to study the effect on seed black holes, focusing on black hole formation as a function of environment, halo mass, metallicity, and proximity of the Lyman-Werner source. We discuss the constraints on massive black hole occupation fraction in the quasar epoch, and implications for reionization, high-redshift X-ray background radiation, and gravitational waves.

  13. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)seedlings from four seed sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Moshki; Norbert P. Lamersdoff

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a greenhouse experiment to investigate the role of seed source in growth and symbiotic nitrogen fixation of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L).Seeds from different sources were planted in the same environmental conditions and inoculated with a suspension of mixed Rhizobium.We used the modified 15N isotope dilution method to estimate biological nitrogen fixation of Robinia trees.Different Robinia seed sources differed significantly in terms of tissue dry weight (50.6-80.1 g),total N (1.31-2.16 g) and proportion of nitrogen derived from the atmosphere ( 0-51%).A higher nitrogen fixation rate of Robinia trees was associated with higher dry weight.Moreover,the leaves of Robinia proved to adequately represent the nitrogen fixation capacity of entire plants.Our results confirmed that assessment of seed sources is a useful way to improve the nitrogen fixation capacity and therefore the growth rate of Robinia.

  14. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Lin, Xiaohui; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements.

  15. Initial mass function of intermediate mass black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, A; Yue, B; Schleicher, D R G

    2014-01-01

    We study the Initial Mass Function (IMF) and host halo properties of Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBH, 10^{4-6} Msun) formed inside metal-free, UV illuminated atomic cooling haloes (virial temperature T_vir > 10^4 K) either via the direct collapse of the gas or via an intermediate Super Massive Star (SMS) stage. We achieve this goal in three steps: (a) we derive the gas accretion rate for a proto-SMS to undergo General Relativity instability and produce a direct collapse black hole (DCBH) or to enter the ZAMS and later collapse into a IMBH; (b) we use merger-tree simulations to select atomic cooling halos in which either a DCBH or SMS can form and grow, accounting for metal enrichment and major mergers that halt the growth of the proto-SMS by gas fragmentation. We derive the properties of the host halos and the mass distribution of black holes at this stage, and dub it the "Birth Mass Function"; (c) we follow the further growth of the DCBH due to accretion of leftover gas in the parent halo and compute the...

  16. Testing scenarios of primordial black holes being the seeds of supermassive black holes by ultracompact minihalos and CMB μ distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Nakama, Tomohiro; Suyama, Teruaki

    2014-10-01

    Supermassive black holes and intermediate mass black holes are believed to exist in the Universe. There is no established astrophysical explanation for their origin, and considerations have been made in the literature that those massive black holes (MBHs) may be primordial black holes (PBHs), black holes which are formed in the early universe (well before the matter-radiation equality) due to the direct collapse of primordial overdensities. This paper aims at discussing the possibility of excluding the PBH scenario as the origin of the MBHs. We first revisit the constraints on PBHs obtained from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) distortion that the seed density perturbation causes. By adopting a recent computation of the CMB distortion sourced by the seed density perturbation and the stronger constraint on the CMB distortion set by the COBE/FIRAS experiment used in the literature, we find that PBHs in the mass range 6×104 M⊙-5×1013 M⊙ are excluded. Since PBHs lighter than 6×104 M⊙ are not excluded from the nonobservation of the CMB distortion, we propose a new method which can potentially exclude smaller PBHs as well. Based on the observation that large density perturbations required to create PBHs also result in the copious production of ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs), compact dark matter halos formed at around the recombination, we show that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) as dark matter annihilate efficiently inside UCMHs to yield cosmic rays far exceeding the observed flux. Our bound gives severe restriction on the compatibility between the particle physics models for WIMPs and the PBH scenario as the explanation of MBHs.

  17. Constraining the high redshift formation of black hole seeds in nuclear star clusters with gas inflows

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Alessandro; Devecchi, Bernadetta; Galanti, Giorgio; Volonteri, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore a possible route of black hole seed formation that appeal to a model by Davies, Miller & Bellovary who considered the case of the dynamical collapse of a dense cluster of stellar black holes subjected to an inflow of gas. Here, we explore this case in a broad cosmological context. The working hypotheses are that (i) nuclear star clusters form at high redshifts in pre-galactic discs hosted in dark matter halos, providing a suitable environment for the formation of stellar black holes in their cores, (ii) major central inflows of gas occur onto these clusters due to instabilities seeded in the growing discs and/or to mergers with other gas-rich halos, and that (iii) following the inflow, stellar black holes in the core avoid ejection due to the steepening to the potential well, leading to core collapse and the formation of a massive seed of $<~ 1000\\, \\rm M_\\odot$. We simulate a cosmological box tracing the build up of the dark matter halos and there embedded baryons, and explore...

  18. Impacts of vehicle exhaust black soot on germination of gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of carbon soot collected from exhaust tube of 15 years old petrol and diesel operated vehicles on gram seed germination and biochemical changes of seedling. In view of the widespread cultivation of gram seed in India and long-term impact of black carbon is the warming of the atmosphere as per the recommendation of IPCC (2007. Black soot were separately treated with different doses and the effects of these treatment had on seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, root and shoot growth, protein, sugar, phenol and proline estimation were studied. The treatment T6 significantly affected on seed germination (84% as well as seedling vigor and chlorophyll content. But other treatment promoted both seed germination and seedling vigor along with enhancement of other biochemical constituents. On the other hand micrograph study revealed that treatments T1 and T4 both showed negative effects on stomata rather than the ultra-structure of xylem and phloem.

  19. Coadministration of black seeds and turmeric shows enhanced efficacy in preventing metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faridah; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Siddiqui, Bina S; Khatoon, Nasima

    2015-02-01

    Among noncommunicable diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of metabolic disorders including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, is highly prevalent in modern society. Its management requires lifestyle modifications and/or the life-long use of multiple medications, hence demanding development of safe alternative remedies. This study was aimed to establish the efficacy of combined use of black seeds and turmeric using fructose-fed rat model of MS. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints of turmeric and black seeds showed the presence of curcumin and thymoquinone, respectively, as their major constitutes. Different doses of black seeds and turmeric, individually and in combination, were administered to fructose-fed rats for up to 6 weeks representing characteristic features of MS. At 3 weeks of the treatment, black seeds and turmeric lowered (P turmeric at low doses over individually tested herbs, in improving features of MS.

  20. Can supermassive black hole seeds form in galaxy mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, A; Salvaterra, R

    2013-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that supermassive black holes at z = 5-6 might form from super-fast (\\dot M > 10^4 Msun/yr) accretion occurring in unstable, massive nuclear gas disks produced by mergers of Milky-Way size galaxies. Interestingly, such mechanism is claimed to work also for gas enriched to solar metallicity. These results are based on an idealized polytropic equation of state assumption, essentially preventing the gas from cooling. We show that under more realistic conditions, the disk rapidly (< 1 yr) cools, the accretion rate drops, and the central core can grow only to \\approx 100 Msun. In addition, most of the disk becomes gravitationally unstable in about 100 yr, further quenching the accretion. We conclude that this scenario encounters a number of difficulties that possibly make it untenable.

  1. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  2. Novel gram-scale production of enantiopure R-sulforaphane from Tuscan black kale seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Rollin, Patrick; Mazzon, Emanuela; Iori, Renato

    2014-05-27

    Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of its natural precursor glucoraphanin. As an alternative to broccoli seeds, we have exploited Tuscan black kale seeds as a suitable source for gram-scale production of glucoraphanin. The defatted seed meal contained 5.1% (w/w) of glucoraphanin that was first isolated through an anion exchange chromatographic process, and then purified by gel filtration. The availability of glucoraphanin (purity≈95%, weight basis) has allowed us to develop a novel simple hydrolytic process involving myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) in a biphasic system to directly produce R-sulforaphane. In a typical experiment, 1.09 g of enantiopure R-sulforaphane was obtained from 150 g of defatted Tuscan black kale seed meal.

  3. Novel Gram-Scale Production of Enantiopure R-Sulforaphane from Tuscan Black Kale Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Rosalinda De Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of its natural precursor glucoraphanin. As an alternative to broccoli seeds, we have exploited Tuscan black kale seeds as a suitable source for gram-scale production of glucoraphanin. The defatted seed meal contained 5.1% (w/w of glucoraphanin that was first isolated through an anion exchange chromatographic process, and then purified by gel filtration. The availability of glucoraphanin (purity ≈ 95%, weight basis has allowed us to develop a novel simple hydrolytic process involving myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147 in a biphasic system to directly produce R-sulforaphane. In a typical experiment, 1.09 g of enantiopure R-sulforaphane was obtained from 150 g of defatted Tuscan black kale seed meal.

  4. Bulge-driven Fueling of Seed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Bogdanović, Tamara; Wise, John H

    2015-01-01

    We examine radiation-regulated accretion onto intermediate-mass and massive black holes (BHs) embedded in a bulge component. Using spherically symmetric one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, we track the growth of BHs accreting from a cold, neutral gas reservoir with temperature T=10^4 K. We find that the accretion rate of BHs embedded in bulges is proportional to r_{B,eff}/r_B, where r_{B,eff} is the increased effective Bondi radius that includes the gravitational potential of the bulge, and r_B is the Bondi radius of the BH. The radiative feedback from the BH suppresses the cold accretion rate to ~1 percent of the Bondi rate when a bulge is not considered. However, we find that the BH fueling rate increases rapidly when the bulge mass M_bulge is greater than the critical value of 10^6 M_sun and is proportional to M_bulge. Since the critical bulge mass is independent of the central BH mass M_{BH}, the growth rate of BHs with masses of 10^2, 10^4, and 10^6 M_sun exhibits distinct dependencies o...

  5. Constraining the high-redshift formation of black hole seeds in nuclear star clusters with gas inflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupi, A.; Colpi, M.; Devecchi, B.; Galanti, G.; Volonteri, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a possible route of black hole seed formation that appeals to a model by Davies, Miller & Bellovary who considered the case of the dynamical collapse of a dense cluster of stellar black holes subjected to an inflow of gas. Here, we explore this case in a broad cosmological

  6. Allelopathic Effects of Johnsongrass on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Basil, Black Cumin, Cummin, Fennel, Isabgol and Psyllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asgharipoor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effect of weeds frequently inhibited the germination and seedling growth of crops. Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepens is known to contain water-soluble substances that are allelopathic. To identify the allelopathic effect of Johnsongrass, the effect of different aqueous extracts (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g L-1 obtained from roots and leaves of Johnsongrass on the seed germination and early seedling growth of some popular medicinal plants of Iran [basil (Ocimum basilicum, black cumin (Nigella sativa, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, isabgol (Plantago ovate and psyllium (Plantago psyllium] were studied by bioassay. Both the root and leaf extracts of Johnsongrass in most cases inhibited the seed germination and early seedling growth of isabgol, psyllium, fennel and basil, while the seed germination and the early seedling growth of black cumin and cummin was simulated by both extracts at lower concentrations. However, this advantage was not found in higher concentrations, at which the extracts mostly had a negative effect on Nigella sativa and cumin. Leaf extracts was more effective to germination and early seedling growth than the root extract. The effectiveness of these extracts on the root growth was greater than that of the shoot growth of the test plants. The degree of sensitivity can be classified averaged across all extract concentrations in order of decreasing inhibition as follow: psyllium, isabgol, fennel, basil, black cumin and Cummin.

  7. Songlines from Direct Collapse Seed Black Holes: Effects of X-rays on Black Hole Growth and Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Aykutalp, Aycin; Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. To investigate the origin of SMBHs, we perform cosmological simulations that target the direct collapse black hole (DCBH) seed formation scenario in the presence of two different strong Lyman-Werner (LW) background fields. These simulations include the X-ray irradiation from a central massive black hole (MBH), $\\rm{H}_2$ self-shielding and stellar feedback from metal-free and metal-enriched stars. We find in both simulations that local X-ray feedback induces metal-free star formation $\\sim 0.5$ Myr after the MBH forms. The MBH accretion rate reaches a maximum of $10^{-3}$ $M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ in both simulations. However, the duty cycle differs which is derived to be $6\\%$ and $50\\%$ for high and low LW cases, respectively. The MBH in the high LW case grows only $\\sim 6\\%$ in 100 Myr compared to $16\\%$ in the low LW case. We find...

  8. Songlines from Direct Collapse Seed Black Holes: Effects of X-Rays on Black Hole Growth and Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John H.; Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. To investigate the origin of SMBHs, we perform cosmological simulations that target the direct collapse black hole seed formation scenario in the presence of two different strong Lyman-Werner (LW) background fields. These simulations include the X-ray irradiation from a central massive black hole (MBH), H2 self-shielding, and stellar feedback from metal-free and metal-enriched stars. We find in both simulations that local X-ray feedback induces metal-free star formation ~0.5 Myr after the MBH forms. The MBH accretion rate reaches a maximum of 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1 in both simulations. However, the duty cycle differs and is derived to be 6% and 50% for the high and low LW cases, respectively. The MBH in the high LW case grows only ~6% in 100 Myr compared to 16% in the low LW case. We find that the maximum accretion rate is determined by the local gas thermodynamics, whereas the duty cycle is determined by the large-scale gas dynamics and gas reservoir. We conclude that radiative feedback from the central MBH plays an important role in star formation in the nuclear regions and stifling initial MBH growth relative to the typical Eddington rate argument, and that initial MBH growth might be affected by the local LW radiation field.

  9. Protective effect of black raspberry seed containing anthocyanins against oxidative damage to DNA, protein, and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine bioactive components and radical scavenging capacity of black raspberry seed extracts as byproducts obtaining during the juice (FSE) and wine (WSE) making process. Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was identified as a major anthocyanin and the total anthocyanin contents of fresh and wine seed were 78.24 and 41.61 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of FSE and WSE were 2.31 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 360.95 mg catechin equivalent (CE), and 2.44 g GAE and 379.54 mg CE per 100 g dry weight, respectively. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values were 1041.9 μM TE/g for FSE and 1060.4 μM TE/g for WSE. Pretreatment of the FSE and WSE inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA and protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals, and Fe(3+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. WSE more effectively protected from oxidative damage than FSE. Results from the current study suggest that black raspberry seeds as byproducts from juice and wine processing could be potential sources for natural antioxidants.

  10. EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA ON NUMBER OF CYSTIC FOLLICLES IN LETROZOLE INDUCED POLYCYSTIC OVARIES IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of Nigella sativa on number of cystic follicles in Letrozole induced polycystic ovaries in mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of Health from Nov 2014 to Nov 2015. Material and Methods: Forty female BALB/c mice were selected and divided in four groups, each having 10 animals. Group A served as control and was given normal diet. Group B was given Letrozole at a dose of 1milligram/kilogram body weight. Group C was treated with Letrozole for eight weeks at a dose of 1milligram/kilogram body weight and Nigella sativa seeds powder at a dose of 10grams/kilogram body weight once daily starting at 22 day and continued up to eight weeks. Group D was treated with Letrozole for eight weeks at a dose of 1milligram/kilogram body weight and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 4milliliter/kilogram body weight once daily starting at 22 day and continued up to eight weeks. Animals were dissected a day after last dose. Size, shape, color and consistency of ovary was observed. Right ovary was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Number of cystic follicles were counted and noted. Results: Significant number of cystic follicles was observed in ovaries of animals of group B as compared to group A. While their number decreased significantly in group C and D as compared to group B. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seeds powder and its oil, both have a similar protective effect on histomorphology of ovary of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS in mice by decreasing the number of cystic follicles.

  11. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich constraints from black hole-seeded proto-galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Silk, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies of galactic nuclei suggest that most galaxies are seeded by super-massive black holes which power the central nucleus. In this picture, the proto-galactic object is likely to have undergone a very active phase during which the surrounding medium was shocked and heated up to very high temperatures. We predict the cosmological effects of this scenario in terms of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich distortions induced on galactic scales by a population of proto-galaxies. These predictions are compared to the observational limit on the mean Compton distortion set by the COBE-FIRAS instrument. This enables us to derive tight constraints on the fraction of proto-galaxies seeded by super-massive black holes as well as on the black hole-to-spheroid mass ratio. Finally, we estimate the contribution of such a population to the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature anisotropies on very small angular scales ($l\\simeq 10^4-10^5$).

  12. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  13. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t_E ~ few x 0.01 Gyr, is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 Gyr old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is trapped in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly-draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  14. Uji Efek Antibakteri Minyak Jintan Hitam (Nigella Sativa Dalam Kapsul yang Dijual Bebas Selama Tahun 2012 di Kota Padang Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezha Utama Putra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakJintan Hitam atau Nigella sativa diketahui memiliki kemampuan sebagai antibakteri, seperti terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Kedua bakteri ini memiliki sifat yang berbeda namun memiliki kesamaan dari penyakit yang disebabkannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkan efek antibakteri produk minyak jintan hitam (Nigella sativa dalam bentuk kapsul antara bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherechia coli secara in vitro. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Januari 2012 - Desember 2012 di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa semua sampel jintan hitam yang digunakan tidak memiliki efek antibakteri terhadap Escherichia coli dan semua sampel tersebut memiliki efek antibakteri yang bervariasi pada Staphylococcus aureus. Analisis Anova menunjukkan bahwa masing-masing sampel minyak Nigella sativa memberikan efek berbeda secara signifikan pada pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus, bahkan enam diantaranya memiliki efek yang lebih baik daripada Cepoperazon (25 mm sebagai kontrol yang digunakan.Kata kunci: Nigella sativa, efek antibakteri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. AbstractBlack Cumin or Nigella sativa known have the capability as antibacterial, such as to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Both of these bacteria have different properties but have similarities from diseases they may cause. The objective of this study was to compare anti-bacterial effects of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa which has been packaged in capsules towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro The research was conducted in January 2012 to December 2012 at the Microbiology laboratory, Medicine Faculty of Andalas University. The results of this research indicate that all black cumin samples that are used did not have antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and all samples had antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus aureus with germ-free area

  15. Germination and health quality of mucuna white and black seeds used as a green manure in Quevedo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Garcés Fiallos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the germination and sanitary quality of mucuna (Stizolobium spp. white and black used as green manure in Quevedo, Ecuador. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Plant, Universidade Técnica Estatal de Quevedo-UTEQ. The seeds of mucuna white and black were from the experimental field in La María 2010 harvest. The work consisted of two treatments for each type of seed of mucuna (white and black, totaling four. In each Petri plates were plated five (5 seeds, ten (10 plates per treatment, totaling 50 in each. Transferred to a growth chamber (incubator control temperature of 25°C ± 2 without photoperiod. We evaluated the physiological quality (germination for six days and rate (r of growth of the radicle and health (incidence of pathogens its seeds. The germination was between 68 (BDA medium and 40% (filter paper for white velvet, among both black velvet, half were between 70 (BDA medium and 34 (paper. The pathogens found in seeds of white and black velvet, were the fungi Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., as well as an unidentified bacterium, with averages for each of 10, 29, 30 and 33% incidence, respectively.

  16. Observational Signatures of High-Redshift Quasars and Local Relics of Black Hole Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Reines, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Observational constraints on the birth and early evolution of massive black holes (BHs) come from two extreme regimes. At high redshift, quasars signal the rapid growth of billion-solar-mass BHs and indicate that these objects began remarkably heavy and/or accreted mass at rates above the Eddington limit. At low redshift, the smallest nuclear BHs known are found in dwarf galaxies and provide the most concrete limits on the mass of BH seeds. Here we review current observational work in these fields that together are critical for our understanding of the origin of massive BHs in the Universe.

  17. Super-Critical Growth of Massive Black Holes from Stellar-Mass Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, Piero; Dotti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We consider super-critical accretion with angular momentum onto stellar-mass black holes as a possible mechanism for growing billion-solar-mass holes from light seeds at early times. We use the radiatively-inefficient "slim disk" solution -- advective, optically thick flows that generalize the standard geometrically thin disk model -- to show how mildly super-Eddington intermittent accretion may significantly ease the problem of assembling the first massive black holes when the Universe was less than 0.8 Gyr old. Because of the low radiative efficiencies of slim disks around non-rotating as well as rapidly rotating holes, the mass e-folding timescale in this regime is nearly independent of the spin parameter. The conditions that may lead to super-critical growth in the early Universe are briefly discussed.

  18. Anti-Aging Effect of Nigella Sativa Fixed Oil on D-Galactose-Induced Aging in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroudi, Mahdieh Jafari; Mehri, Soghra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Aging is an unconscious and gradual process that can lead to changes in biological systems. Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity are involved in the aging process. Regarding the antioxidant property of black seed oil, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-aging effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) oil on d-galactose-induced aging in mice. For induction of aging, D-galactose (500 mg/kg, subcoutaneously SC) was administrated to male mice for 42 days. Animals were treated with D-galactose alone or with b lack seed oil (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). Additionally, vitamin E (200 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. At the end of treatment, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and the glutathione (GSH) contents in brain and liver tissues were measured. Also, enzymes in serum, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), were determined. The levels of the proteins Bax, Bcl2, caspase-3 (pro and cleaved) in brain and liver tissues were evaluated. Administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg, SC) for 42 days increased serum levels of ALT and AST, as well as the MDA content, in brain and liver tissues, but decreased the GSH content. Additionally, the levels of apoptotic proteins, including Bax, procaspase-3 and caspase-3 cleaved, were markedly increased. N. sativa oil (0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg) diminished the levels of the biochemical markers ALT and AST. Administration of black seed oil (0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mL/kg) reduced lipid peroxidation and at doses 0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg significantly recovered the GSH content. The oil decreased Bax/Bcl2 levels and at 0.1 mL/kg down-regulated the expressions of caspase-3 (pro and cleaved) proteins in brain and liver tissues. Through its antioxidant and anti-apoptosis properties, black seed oil exhibited an anti-aging effect in a model of aging induced with D-galactose.

  19. 瘤果黑种草子挥发油的化学成分分析及百里醌的定量%Analysis on chemical components of volatile oil and determination of thymoquinone from seed of nigella glandulifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿东升; 张淑锋; 兰建国

    2009-01-01

    目的:分析瘤果黑种草子Nigella glandulifera Freyn(NG)挥发油化学成分,与国外果黑种草子N、sativa(NS)、黑种草子N damascena(ND)比较,对水蒸气蒸馏法(hydrodiStillation,HD)提取NG挥发油中百里醌定量.方法:采用HD与SFE-CO2萃取从NG提取挥发油,用GC-MS对化学成分分析,采用峰面积归一化法测定各成分相对百分含量,与NS,ND挥发油比较;用气相色谱外标一点法对挥发油中百里醌定量.结果:3个种属挥发性成分比较,NG,NS主要成分为间一伞花烃,分别是33.75%,61.48%,ND为β-榄香烯73.24%,NG,NS,ND百里醌相对百分含量分别为3.73%(HD),3.80%(HD),0.08%(HD),SFE-CO_2主要成分为亚油酸(66.36%),间-伞花烃较低(0.93%);NG挥发油百里醌定量1.58%.结论:NG挥发性成分与NS,ND有较大差异.

  20. Formation of the seed black holes: a role of quark nuggets?

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Strange quark nuggets (SQNs) could be the relics of the cosmological QCD phase transition, and they could very likely be the candidates of cold quark matter if survived the cooling of the later Universe, although the formation and evolution of these SQNs depend on the physical state of the hot QGP phase and the state of cold quark matter. We reconsider the possibility of SQNs as cold dark matter, and find that the evolution of the first generation stars (Population III stars) could then be different from the standard case. The SQNs near the center of a halo could sink into the center of the star via dynamical friction, and lose their kinetic energy by collisions with gas molecules. These SQNs would then collapse into a black hole, and after sufficient accretion the mass of the black hole could be of $\\sim 10^3 M_\\odot$. The black holes formed in this way could be the seeds of the supermassive black holes at redshifts as high as $z\\sim 6$.

  1. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Bakhashwain, Amal S.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w), respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa. PMID:28298934

  2. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  3. Blossoms from black hole seeds: properties and early growth regulated by supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Habouzit, Melanie; Dubois, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Massive black holes (BHs) inhabit local galaxies, including the Milky Way and some dwarf galaxies. BH formation, occurring at early cosmic times, must account for the properties of BHs in today's galaxies, notably why some galaxies host a BH, and others do not. We investigate the formation, distribution and growth of BH `seeds' by using the adaptive mesh refinement code Ramses. We develop an implementation of BH formation in dense, low-metallicity environments, as advocated by models invoking the collapse of the first generation of stars, or of dense nuclear star clusters. The seed masses are computed one-by-one on-the-fly, based on the star formation rate and the stellar initial mass function. This self-consistent method to seed BHs allows us to study the distribution of BHs in a cosmological context and their evolution over cosmic time. We find that all high-mass galaxies tend to a host a BH, whereas low-mass counterparts have a lower probability of hosting a BH. After the end of the epoch of BH formation, ...

  4. The Effect of Essential Oil of Nigella sativa and Satureia hortensis on Promastigot Stage of Lishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used for topical effects of leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Satureia hortensis and Nigella sativa on the Leishmania major. Methods: In this experimental study, the effects of the plant’s essential oils and savory black beans on the Leishmania major form were studied. Evaluation was determined based on the average of Leishmania parasites form survival after exposure to different concentrations of herbs and chemical drugs MA dose at different intervals. For this purpose, different extracts with ratios of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2% were added. Different groups of this study were kept in the same condition (incubated at 26 ° C. The parasites were removed from the incubator and the numbers of viable parasites were counted after 24hours. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tukey test and GM. Results: There was a significant difference in reducing parasites on groups receiving Satureia hortensis and Nigella sativa with Glucantime (p <0.05. Conclusion: Due to the increasing drug resistance of Leishmania, plant oils such as Satureia hortensis and Nigella sativa could be used as an alternative treatment for controlling leishmaniasis. Key words: Essential oil, Leishmaniasis, Nigella sativa, Satureia hortensis

  5. Growing massive black holes through super-critical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, A; Dotti, M; Fiacconi, D; Mayer, L; Madau, P

    2015-01-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at $z \\sim 6-7$ remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses $\\sim 10^5\\,\\rm M_\\odot$, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient super-critical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circum-nuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the "slim disc" solution can increase its mass by 3 orders of magnitudes within a few million y...

  6. Potato seed dressing with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 enhances yield and reduces black scurf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhizospheric strain RZ9 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed for in-vitro growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani and effectiveness to control black scurf on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. of the cultivars Spunta and Nicola, in greenhouse and field experiments. The strain RZ9 inhibited R. solani mycelial growth by more than 60% and completely inhibited the germination of sclerotia from infested potato tubers in in-vitro tests. In greenhouse assays, seed potato treatment with RZ9 cell suspension increased stem length, decreased the relative weight of infected potato tubers (by 67%, and increased the potato yield (by 16% compared to pathogen-inoculated plants for both potato cultivars. In field trials conducted on sandy soils during 2012 and 2013, strain RZ9 reduced black scurf incidence and increased potato yield by an average of 5.3 t ha-1 for ′Spunta′ and 5 t ha-1 for ′Nicola′. This study showed that the selected strain of P. aeruginosa is an efficient bacterium for enhancing yield and reducing black scurf of field-grown potatoes.

  7. Supermassive black hole seed formation at high redshifts: long-term evolution of the direct collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    We use cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO zoom-in simulations to study the long-term evolution of the collapsing gas within dark matter haloes at z. This direct collapse process is a leading candidate for rapid formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds. To circumvent the Courant condition at small radii, we apply the sink particle method, focusing on evolution on scales ˜0.01-10 pc. The collapse proceeds in two stages, with the secondary runaway happening within the central 10 pc. The sink particles form when the collapsing gas requires additional refinement of the grid size at the highest refinement level. Their growth is negligible with the sole exception of the central seed which grows dramatically to Mseed ˜ 2 × 106 M⊙ in ˜2 Myr, confirming the feasibility of this path to the SMBH. The variability of angular momentum in the accreted gas results in the formation of two misaligned discs. Both discs lie within the Roche limit of the central seed. While the inner disc is geometrically thin and weakly asymmetric, the outer disc flares due to turbulent motions as a result of the massive inflow along a pair of penetrating filaments. The filamentary inflow determines the dominant Fourier modes in this disc - these modes have a non-self-gravitational origin. We do not confirm that m = 1 is a dominant mode that drives the inflow in the presence of a central massive object. The overall configuration appears to be generic, and is expected to form when the central seed becomes sufficiently massive.

  8. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p acetic acid. No significant reductions in the population of B. subtilis spores inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper were obtained after the gas treatments at 0.3 mmol/L or 0.6 mmol/L (p > 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p < 0.05), and 4.0 log CFU/g and 3.5 log CFU/g reductions on fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment.

  9. Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) activity, foraging and seed dispersal patterns in shaded cocoa plantations versus rainforest in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Diego A; Andresen, Ellen; Estrada, Alejandro; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence has shown that primates worldwide use agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Detailed information on how these primates are using these systems is scant, and yet their role as seed dispersers is often implied. The main objective of this study was to compare the activity, foraging patterns and seed dispersal role of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting shaded cocoa plantations and rainforest in southern Chiapas, Mexico. We gathered data on three monkey groups living in shaded cocoa plantations and three groups living in rainforest, using focal sampling, and collecting fecal samples. General activity and foraging patterns were similar in both habitats, with the exception that monkeys in the cocoa habitat spent more time feeding on petioles. Monkeys in shaded cocoa plantations dispersed 51,369 seeds (4% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 16 plant species. Monkeys in the rainforest dispersed 6,536 seeds (78% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 13 plant species. Our data suggest that the difference between habitats in the proportion of large versus small seeds dispersed reflects differences in fruit species abundance and availability in cocoa versus forest. Mean seed dispersal distances were statistically similar in both habitats (cocoa = 149 m, forest = 86 m). We conclude that the studied cocoa plantations provide all elements necessary to constitute a long-term permanent habitat for black howler monkeys. In turn, howler monkeys living in these plantations are able to maintain their functional role as seed dispersers for those native tree and liana species present within their areas of activities.

  10. Locations of radical species in black pepper seeds investigated by CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Epel, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In this study, noninvasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR were used to investigate the locations of paramagnetic species in black pepper seeds without further irradiation. First, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) phantom was used to examine 9 GHz EPR imaging capabilities. The 9 GHz EPR-imager easily resolved the LiPC samples at a distance of ∼2 mm. Then, commercially available black pepper seeds were measured. We observed signatures from three different radical species, which were assigned to stable organic radicals, Fe3+, and Mn2+ complexes. In addition, no EPR spectral change in the seed was observed after it was submerged in distilled H2O for 1 h. The EPR and spectral-spatial EPR imaging results suggested that the three paramagnetic species were mostly located at the seed surface. Fewer radicals were found inside the seed. We demonstrated that the CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging were useful for the determination of the spatial distribution of paramagnetic species in various seeds.

  11. Water entry for the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seeds observed by dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mika; Kano, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Water entry at germination for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seeds which are known as hard seeds with impermeable seed coat to water, was examined using micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI apparatus equipped with a low-field (1 T; Tesla) permanent magnet was used, which is open access, easy maintenance, operable and transportable. The excellent point of the apparatus is that T 1-enhancement of water signals absorbed in dry seeds against steeping free water is stronger than the apparatuses with high-field superconducting magnets, which enabled clear detection of water entry. Water hardly penetrated into the seeds for more than 8 h but approximately 60 % of seeds germinated by incubating on wet filter papers for several days. Hot water treatments above 75 °C for 3 min effectively induced water gap; scarification was 70 % at 100 °C and 75 °C, declined to 15 % at 50 °C and decreased further at room temperature. Water entered into the scarified seeds exclusively through the lens, spread along the dorsal side of the seeds and reached the hypocotyl, whereas water migrated slowly through hilum side to radicle within 3 h.

  12. Antinociceptive effect of black seed feeding in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Vaez mahdavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Diabetic rats display exaggerated hyperalgesic behavior in response to noxious stimuli that may resemble and model aspects of painful diabetic neuropathy in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Nigella sativum (NS on formalin-induced nociceptive responses (standard formalin test in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.  Methods: For this purpose, STZ-diabetic rats received Nigella sativum mixed with standard rat chow at a weight ratio of 6.25% orally for a period of one month.  Results: It was found out that NS treatment did cause a significant reduction in blood glucose in diabetic rats and NS-treated diabetic rats exhibited a lower nociceptive score as compared to untreated-diabetic ones. Meanwhile, NS treatment reduced the nociceptive score in both phases of the formalin test. In contrast, sodium salicylate as positive control only reduced this score in the second phase of the test.  Discussion: The results suggest therapeutic potential of NS feeding for treating painful diabetic neuropathy. 

  13. Testing scenarios of primordial black holes being the seeds of supermassive black holes by ultracompact minihalos and CMB $\\mu$-distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Kohri, Kazunori; Suyama, Teruaki

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes and intermediate mass black holes are believed to exist in the Universe. There is no established astrophysical explanation for their origin and considerations have been made in the literature that those massive black holes (MBHs) may be primordial black holes (PBHs), black holes which are formed in the early universe (well before the matter-radiation equality) due to the direct collapse of primordial overdensities. This paper aims at discussing the possibility of excluding the PBH scenario as the origin of the MBHs. We first revisit the constraints on PBHs obtained from the CMB distortion that the seed density perturbation causes. By adopting a recent computation of the CMB distortion sourced by the seed density perturbation and the stronger constraint on the CMB distortion set by the COBE/FIRAS experiment used in the literature, we find that PBHs in the mass range $6\\times 10^4~M_\\odot \\sim 5 \\times 10^{13}~M_\\odot$ are excluded. Since PBHs lighter than $6 \\times 10^4~M_\\odot$ are no...

  14. Supermassive Black Hole Seed Formation at High Redshifts: Long-Term Evolution of the Direct Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Shlosman, Isaac; Begelman, Mitchell C; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    We use cosmological adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo zoom-in simulations to study the long term evolution of the collapsing gas within dark matter (DM) halos at high redshifts. This direct collapse process is a leading candidate for rapid formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds at high z. To circumvent the Courant condition at small radii, we have used the sink particle method, and focus on the evolution on scales ~0.01-10 pc. The collapse proceeds in two stages, with the secondary runaway happening within the central 10 pc, and with no detected fragmentation. The sink particles form when the collapsing gas requires additional refinement of the grid size at the highest refinement level. Their mass never exceeds ~10^3 Mo, with the sole exception of the central seed which grows dramatically to ~ 2 x 10^6 Mo in ~2 Myr, confirming the feasibility of this path to the SMBH. The time variability of angular momentum axis in the accreted gas results in the formation of two misaligned disks --- a smal...

  15. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Parolin, Pia; Junk, Wolfgang J

    2006-12-01

    Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and islands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari was analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha(-1). The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near Barcelos.

  16. Blossoms from black hole seeds: properties and early growth regulated by supernova feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habouzit, Mélanie; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2017-07-01

    Massive black holes (BHs) inhabit local galaxies, including the Milky Way and some dwarf galaxies. BH formation, occurring at early cosmic times, must account for the properties of BHs in today's galaxies, notably why some galaxies host a BH, and others do not. We investigate the formation, distribution and growth of BH 'seeds' by using the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We develop an implementation of BH formation in dense, low-metallicity environments, as advocated by models invoking the collapse of the first generation of stars, or of dense nuclear star clusters. The seed masses are computed one-by-one on-the-fly, based on the star formation rate and the stellar initial mass function. This self-consistent method to seed BHs allows us to study the distribution of BHs in a cosmological context and their evolution over cosmic time. We find that all high-mass galaxies tend to host a BH, whereas low-mass counterparts have a lower probability of hosting a BH. After the end of the epoch of BH formation, this probability is modulated by the growth of the galaxy. The simulated BHs connect to low-redshift observational samples, and span a similar range in accretion properties as Lyman-break analogs. The growth of BHs in low-mass galaxies is stunted by strong supernova (SN) feedback. The properties of BHs in dwarf galaxies thus remain a testbed for BH formation. Simulations with strong SN feedback, which is able to quench BH accretion in shallow potential wells, produce galaxies and BHs in better agreement with observational constraints.

  17. Variation in cone and seed characteristics in a clonal seed orchard of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivacioglu, A; Ayan, S

    2010-01-01

    Cone and seed characteristics of Anatolian black pine were investigated in a clonal seed orchard for two years, 2002 and 2006. The orchard, originated from Kastamonu-Karadere seed stand was established in 1993 by using 1 year-old grafts in an area of 13 ha, at Hanönü-Günlüburun, northern Turkey and includes 30 clones. The results showed that, significant variation exists among clones for 14 of cone and seed traits for 2006. The clones had cone wet weight in range of 16.92 to 38.51 g, whereas this value varied in range of 11.16 to 24.06 g for cone dry weight. Cone length varied from 55.19 to 74.43 mm, while cone width varied in range of 26.66 to 36 57 mm. The range of scale number and fertile scale number varied from 80.02 to 110.64 and 38.03 to 56.20, respectively. Among the clones, the seed and filled seed number were 6.70-24.97 and 5.79-21.12, respectively. The 1000 seed weight varied in range of 20.36 to 29.73 g. The respective values of average seed length and width were 6.29 mm and 3.57 mm, while wing length and width were 19.59 mm and 7.21 mm. The average seed efficiency was 13.5%. Coefficients of variation among grafts (CV(G)) were mostly bigger than among clones (CV(c)), indicating high variation within the population. Year to year correlation coefficients for seed and cone characteristics were varied from moderate (0.58) to strong (0.83). The respective broad sense heritability values of clone mean basis (H2) for cone dry weight, cone width, 1000 seed weight were 0.77, 0.83 and 0.76. The seed efficiency had a H2 value of 0.43.

  18. The impact of reionization on the formation of supermassive black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Black holes (BHs) formed from the direct collapse of primordial gas in the early Universe are strong candidates for the seeds of supermassive BHs residing in the centers of massive galaxies today and powering quasars at z > 6. These direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) are thought to form from pristine primordial gas collapsing in atomic cooling haloes in the presence of a strong molecule-dissociating, Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation field, which prevents the cooling of the gas to temperatures below ~ 10^4 K. The runaway gravitational collapse of this hot gas leads to the formation of a supermassive star which collapses to form a 10^4 - 10^6 M_Sun BH. Given that star forming galaxies are likely to be the source of the LW radiation in this scenario, it is likely that some ionizing radiation from these galaxies accompanies the LW radiation. We present cosmological simulations resolving the collapse of primordial gas into an atomic cooling halo, including the effects of both LW and ionizing radiation. We find that in...

  19. Massive primordial black holes from hybrid inflation as dark matter and the seeds of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; García-Bellido, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a new scenario where massive primordial black holes (PBHs) are produced from the collapse of large curvature perturbations generated during a mild-waterfall phase of hybrid inflation. We determine the values of the inflaton potential parameters leading to a PBH mass spectrum peaking on planetarylike masses at matter-radiation equality and producing abundances comparable to those of dark matter today, while the matter power spectrum on scales probed by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies agrees with Planck data. These PBHs could have acquired large stellar masses today, via merging, and the model passes both the constraints from CMB distortions and microlensing. This scenario is supported by Chandra observations of numerous BH candidates in the central region of Andromeda. Moreover, the tail of the PBH mass distribution could be responsible for the seeds of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies, as well as for ultraluminous x-ray sources. We find that our effective hybrid potential can originate e.g. from D-term inflation with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term of the order of the Planck scale but sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field. Finally, we discuss the implications of quantum diffusion at the instability point of the potential, able to generate a Swiss-cheese-like structure of the Universe, eventually leading to apparent accelerated cosmic expansion.

  20. Formation of massive black hole seeds: runaway collisions in the first stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bernadetta, Devecchi

    2008-01-01

    We present a model for the formation of massive black holes ($\\sim 1000 \\msun$) due to stellar-dynamical processes in the first stellar clusters formed at early cosmic times ($z\\sim10-20$). The high redshift black hole seeds form as a result of multiple successive instabilities that occur in low metallicity $Z\\sim 10^{-5}Z_\\odot$) protogalaxies. We focus on relatively massive halos at high redshift ($T_{\\rm vir} > 10^4$ K, $z\\gsim 10$) after the very first stars in the Universe have completed their evolution. This set of assumptions ensures that (i) atomic hydrogen cooling can contribute to the gas cooling process, (ii) a UV field has been created by the first stars, and (iii) the gas inside the halo has been mildly polluted by the first metals. The second condition implies that at low density $H_2$ is dissociated and does not contribute to cooling. The third condition sets a minimum threshold density for fragmentation, so that stars form efficiently only in the very inner core of the protogalaxy. Within this...

  1. Light or heavy supermassive black hole seeds: the role of internal rotation in the fate of supermassive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Rossi, Elena M.

    2016-10-01

    Supermassive black holes are a key ingredient of galaxy evolution. However, their origin is still highly debated. In one of the leading formation scenarios, a black hole of ˜100 M⊙ results from the collapse of the inner core of a supermassive star (≳ 104 - 5 M⊙), created by the rapid accumulation (≳ 0.1 M⊙ yr-1) of pristine gas at the centre of newly formed galaxies at z ˜ 15. The subsequent evolution is still speculative: the remaining gas in the supermassive star can either directly plunge into the nascent black hole, or part of it can form a central accretion disc, whose luminosity sustains a surrounding, massive, and nearly hydrostatic envelope (a system called a "quasi-star"). To address this point, we consider the effect of rotation on a quasi-star, as angular momentum is inevitably transported towards the galactic nucleus by the accumulating gas. Using a model for the internal redistribution of angular momentum that qualitative matches results from simulations of rotating convective stellar envelopes, we show that quasi-stars with an envelope mass greater than a few 105 M⊙ × black hole mass/100 M⊙)0.82 have highly sub-keplerian gas motion in their core, preventing gas circularisation outside the black hole's horizon. Less massive quasi-stars could form but last for only ≲ 104 years before the accretion luminosity unbinds the envelope, suppressing the black hole growth. We speculate that this might eventually lead to a dual black hole seed population: (i) massive (>104 M⊙) seeds formed in the most massive (>108 M⊙) and rare haloes; (ii) lighter (˜102 M⊙) seeds to be found in less massive and therefore more common haloes.

  2. Light or heavy supermassive black hole seeds: the role of internal rotation in the fate of supermassive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Rossi, Elena M.

    2017-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are a key ingredient of galaxy evolution. However, their origin is still highly debated. In one of the leading formation scenarios, a black hole of ˜100 M⊙ results from the collapse of the inner core of a supermassive star (≳104-5 M⊙), created by the rapid accumulation (≳0.1 M⊙ yr-1) of pristine gas at the centre of newly formed galaxies at z ˜ 15. The subsequent evolution is still speculative: the remaining gas in the supermassive star can either directly plunge into the nascent black hole or part of it can form a central accretion disc, whose luminosity sustains a surrounding, massive, and nearly hydrostatic envelope (a system called a `quasi-star'). To address this point, we consider the effect of rotation on a quasi-star, as angular momentum is inevitably transported towards the galactic nucleus by the accumulating gas. Using a model for the internal redistribution of angular momentum that qualitatively matches results from simulations of rotating convective stellar envelopes, we show that quasi-stars with an envelope mass greater than a few 105 M_{⊙} × (black hole mass/100 M_{⊙})^{0.82} have highly sub-Keplerian gas motion in their core, preventing gas circularization outside the black hole's horizon. Less massive quasi-stars could form but last for only ≲104 yr before the accretion luminosity unbinds the envelope, suppressing the black hole growth. We speculate that this might eventually lead to a dual black hole seed population: (i) massive (>104 M⊙) seeds formed in the most massive (>108 M⊙) and rare haloes; (ii) lighter (˜102 M⊙) seeds to be found in less massive and therefore more common haloes.

  3. Aut Ecology, Total Phenol and Total Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Activity and Ethno-pharmacological Survey of Nigella sativa Linn. in Traditional Medicine of Golestan Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nigella sativa Linn., which grows wildly in a small region of the national park of Golestan has been used in traditional medicine of this province. In the present study we evaluated the ecological requirements, antioxidant activity, phytochemistry and conducted an ethno-pharmacological survey of Nigella sativa in traditional medicine of Golestan province. Materials and Methods: Ecological requirements and ethno-pharmacological survey were obtained in many field observation through interviews with practitioners and housewives in September 2013. The ripen seeds of Nigella sativa were collected from its natural habitat (560 m in North east of national park of Golestan and ethanolic extract was obtained by maceration. Total phenolics (TPs and total flavonoids (TFs contents were determined spectrophotometrically and antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method. Results: Nigella sativa is usually grown wildly in a small region of the national park of Golestan (500-760 m, that has an average rain fall of 575.9-614.8 mm, Ec (electrical conductivity of soil 0.73 in sandy loam soils. The TP content is 121.3 ± 0.3 mg GAE g-1, TF contents was 194.04 ± 1.65 mg QUE g-1 and antioxidant activity (IC50 was measured in 0.13 ± 0.05 mg/ml-1. Results showed that the seeds of Nigella sativa has high content of TP and TF compounds as well as antioxidant activity, confirming the traditional use of Nigella sativa by rural healers as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetes and antitumour agent against breast cancer, hypertension and hyperglycaemia in north of Iran. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the seed extract of Nigella sativa L. could have good antioxidant potentials to prevent or control free radicals, which can produce many current inflammatory diseases such as cancer, diabetes, coronary diseases, infection, etc. So these data confirm the traditional use

  4. INFLUENCE OF BIOFERTILIZERS, VERMICOMPOST AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZRS ON GROWTH, NODULATION, NUTRIENT UPTAKE, SEED YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF BLACK GRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar Mehta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted during rabi season in medium black soil at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh to study the influence of biofertilizers, vermicompost and chemical fertilizers on growth, nodulation, nutrient uptake, seed yield and economics of Black gram. From the data, it was observed that 50%RDF + Vermicompost + Rhizobium + Pseudomonas significantly increased the plant height, root length, leaf area index and leaf chlorophyll content at 25 and 50 DAS over the other treatments including control. The same treatment recorded highest seed yield (707 kg ha-1 and haulm yield (7067 kg ha-1 as compared to the control. Nutrient uptake recorded significantly highest in the treatment supplied with biofertilizers along with Vermicompost and 50%RDF. Treatment supplied with 50%RDF + Vermicompost + Rhizobium + Pseudomonas recorded highest net return (17784 Rs ha-1 but highest B: C ratio (2.11 was recorded in the treatment supplied with 50%RDF + Rhizobium + Pseudomonas.

  5. Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cegielska-Taras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. Material and methods. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method. Results. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%. The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114 was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg. The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH. Signifi cantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p < 0.01, γ-T (r = –0,34, p < 0.01 and PC-8 content (r = 0.29, p < 0.01. Correlations between the seed color with total tocopherol and total phytosterol content were not noted. Conclusion. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may

  6. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

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    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  7. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  8. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Daly, E S

    1998-01-01

    Cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II)] is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that is toxic to the kidney. Concurrent administration of cysteine together with vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa reduced the toxicity of cisplatin in rats. When administered i.p. for 5 alternate days with 3 mg/kg cisplatin, cysteine (20 mg/kg) together with vitamin E (2 mg/rat) an extract of Crocus sativus stigmas (50 mg/kg) and Nigella sativa seed (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels as well as cisplatin-induced serum total lipids increases. In contrast, the protective agents given together with cisplatin led to an even greater decrease in blood glucose than that seen with cisplatin alone. The serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of cisplatin-treated rats were significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione reductase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Addition of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa in combination with cisplatin partially prevented many changes in the activities of serum enzymes. In cisplatin-treated rats, the liver activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly increased, whereas much greater changes were found in the kidneys, with increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased activities of alkaline phosphatase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, as well as a decreased phosphorylation to oxidation ratio in the mitochondria, indicating reduced adenosine triphosphate production. Also, administration of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa together with cisplatin partially reversed many of the kidney enzymes changes induced by cisplatin

  9. The impact of reionization on the formation of supermassive black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2014-11-01

    Direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) formed from the collapse of atomically cooled primordial gas in the early Universe are strong candidates for the seeds of supermassive BHs. DCBHs are thought to form in atomic cooling haloes in the presence of a strong molecule-dissociating, Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation field. Given that star-forming galaxies are likely to be the source of the LW radiation in this scenario, ionizing radiation from these galaxies may accompany the LW radiation. We present cosmological simulations resolving the collapse of primordial gas into an atomic cooling halo, including the effects of both LW and ionizing radiation. We find that in cases where the gas is not self-shielded from the ionizing radiation, the collapse can be delayed by ˜25 Myr. When the ionized gas does collapse, the free electrons that are present catalyse H2 formation. In turn, H2 cooling becomes efficient in the centre of the halo, and DCBH formation is prevented. We emphasize, however, that in many cases the gas collapsing into atomic cooling haloes at high redshift is self-shielding to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is only in a fraction of such haloes in which DCBH formation is prevented due to reionization.

  10. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes from Population III Seeds. I. Cosmic Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Banik, Nilanjan; Monaco, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    We model the cosmic distributions in space and time of the formation sites of the first stars that may be the progenitors of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Pop III.1 stars are defined to form in dark matter minihalos (i.e., with masses $\\sim10^6\\:M_\\odot$) that are isolated from neighboring astrophysical sources by a given isolation distance, $d_{\\rm iso}$. We assume these sources are the seeds for the cosmic population of SMBHs, based on a model of protostellar support by dark matter annihilation heating that allows these objects to accrete most of the baryonic content of their minihalos, i.e., $\\gtrsim10^5\\:M_\\odot$. Exploring a range of $d_{\\rm iso}$ from 10 to 100~kpc (proper distances), we predict the evolution with redshift of the number density of these Pop III.1 sources and their SMBH remnants. In the context of this model, the local, $z=0$ density of SMBHs constrains $d_{\\rm iso}\\gtrsim100$~kpc (i.e., a comoving distance of 3~Mpc at $z\\simeq30$). In our simulated ($\\sim$40.96 $h^{-1}$~Mpc)$^3$ com...

  11. Direct Collapse to Supermassive Black Hole Seeds: Comparing the AMR and SPH Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yang; Shlosman, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    We provide detailed comparison between the AMR code Enzo-2.4 and the SPH code GADGET-3 in the context of direct baryonic collapse within DM halos to form supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds, in isolated and cosmological frameworks, at z ~ 10-20. We find that both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse, however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, we find that the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, leading to substantially earlier collapse times in SPH due to higher gravitational resolution in GADGET-3. In fully cosmological runs, starting from z = 200, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during DM halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both numerical schemes agree in the buildup of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of direct collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so the evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind the AMR by ~10-...

  12. Effects of turbulence and rotation on protostar formation as a precursor to seed black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Borm, C; Latif, M A; Schleicher, D R G; Spaans, M; Grassi, T

    2014-01-01

    Context. The seeds of the first supermassive black holes may result from the direct collapse of hot primordial gas in $\\gtrsim 10^4$ K haloes, forming a supermassive or quasi-star as an intermediate stage. Aims. We explore the formation of a protostar resulting from the collapse of primordial gas in the presence of a strong Lyman-Werner radiation background. Particularly, we investigate the impact of turbulence and rotation on the fragmentation behaviour of the gas cloud. We accomplish this goal by varying the initial turbulent and rotational velocities. Methods. We have performed 3D adaptive mesh refinement simulations with a resolution of 64 cells per Jeans length using the ENZO code, simulating the formation of a protostar up to unprecedented high central densities of $10^{21}$ cm$^{-3}$, and spatial scales of a few solar radii. To achieve this goal, we have employed the KROME package to improve the modelling of the chemical and thermal processes. Results. We find that the physical properties of the simula...

  13. The in vivo synthesis and accumulation of lectin in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseelan, K N; Mitra, R; Bhatia, C R; Gopalakrishna, T

    2004-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) seed contains two D-galactose-specific lectin species, BGL-I and BGL-II, identified on the basis of elution from ion exchange column and immunochemical cross-reactivity. BGL-I consisted of two monomeric lectins, BGL-I-1 and BGL-1-2, of relative molecular weights 94 and 89 kDa, respectively. BGL-II is another monomeric lectin with a molecular weight of 83 kDa. The in vivo synthesis studies using pulse-chase experiment showed that BGL-II lectin was synthesized as early as 14 days after flowering (DAF). The 94-kDa BGL-I-1 lectin was synthesized around 17 DAF. There was no cotranslational or posttranslational modification of the lectin proteins. The amount of lectin in developing seeds was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay technique. The maximum amount of lectin per seed was found at 28 DAF.

  14. The Protective Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Constituents on Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an annual plant and widely used as medicinal plant throughout the world. The seeds of the plant have been used traditionally in various disorders and as a spice to ranges of Persian foods. N. sativa has therapeutic effects on tracheal responsiveness (TR and lung inflammation on induced toxicity by Sulfur mustard. N. sativa has been widely used in treatment of various nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and neurotoxicity. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of some phenolic compounds especially thymoquinone (TQ, which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a comprehensive study of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant on induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Simulating the formation of massive seed black holes in the early Universe. III: The influence of X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, Simon C O

    2016-01-01

    The direct collapse black hole (DCBH) model attempts to explain the observed number density of supermassive black holes in the early Universe by positing that they grew from seed black holes with masses of $10^{4}$-$10^{5} \\: {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ that formed by the quasi-isothermal collapse of gas in metal-free protogalaxies cooled by atomic hydrogen emission. For this model to work, H$_{2}$ formation must be suppressed in at least some of these systems by a strong extragalactic radiation field. The predicted number density of DCBH seeds is highly sensitive to the minimum value of the ultraviolet (UV) flux required to suppress H$_{2}$ formation, $J_{\\rm crit}$. In this paper, we examine how the value of $J_{\\rm crit}$ varies as we vary the strength of a hypothetical high-redshift X-ray background. We confirm earlier findings that when the X-ray flux $J_{\\rm X}$ is large, the critical UV flux scales as $J_{\\rm crit} \\propto J_{\\rm X}^{1/2}$. We also carefully explore possible sources of uncertainty arising from ho...

  16. Simulating the formation of massive seed black holes in the early Universe. II: Impact of rate coefficient uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, Simon C O

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how uncertainties in the chemical and cooling rate coefficients relevant for a metal-free gas influence our ability to determine the critical ultraviolet field strength required to suppress H2 cooling in high-redshift atomic cooling halos. The suppression of H2 cooling is a necessary prerequisite for the gas to undergo direct collapse and form an intermediate mass black hole. These black holes can then act as seeds for the growth of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) observed at redshifts $z \\sim 6$. The viability of this model for SMBH formation depends on the critical ultraviolet field strength, Jcrit: if this is too large, then too few seeds will form to explain the observed number density of SMBHs. We show in this paper that there are five key chemical reactions whose rate coefficients are uncertain enough to significantly affect Jcrit. The most important of these is the collisional ionization of hydrogen by collisions with other hydrogen atoms, as the rate for this process is very poorly...

  17. Comparison of Activities and Properties of Pyrophosphate and Adenosine Triphosphate-Dependent Phosphofructokinases of Black Gram (Phaseolus mungo) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, H; Stupavska, S

    1984-09-01

    Both pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFKase, EC 2.7.1.90) and ATPdependent phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFKase, EC 2.7. 1.11) were present in dry and germinated black gram seeds. In the absence of fructose-2,6-biphosphate (F2,6BP), the activity of PPi-PFKase expressed as nmol · min(-1) · (pair of cotyledons)(-1) was much lower than that of ATP-PFKase in both dry and germinated seeds. However, PPi-PFKase was activated by F2,6BP and its activity reached the same level as ATP-PFKase activity. ATP-PFKase showed sigmoidal kinetics respective to fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), while PPi-PFKase exhibited hyperbolic kinetics in the presence of F2,6BP. The F6P concentration for half maximal activity of ATP-PFKase (1.5 mM) was nearly 5 times lower than that of PPi-PFKase (7.1 mM). The apparent Km values of PPi-PFKase for PPi and that of ATP-PFKase for ATP were 0.29 mM and 0.23 mM, respectively. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and citrate inhibited ATP-PFKase activity, but they did not affect PPi-PFKase activity. The activity of PPi-PFKase was inhibited by Pi, while only a little Pi inhibition was observed in the case of ATP-PFKase. These results suggest that the control mechanism of PPi-PFKase and that of ATP-PFKase are quite different. In contrast to pineapple leaves (Carnal, N. W. and C. C. Black, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 86, 20-26, 1979) and caster bean seedlings (Krugar et al., FEBS Lett. 153, 409-412, 1983), PPi-PFKase is not the predominant PFKase activity in black gram seeds.

  18. Nigella seed oil as alternative to avilamycin antibiotic in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed Saleh

    2014-09-14

    Sep 14, 2014 ... Fifty four chicks at 15 d of age (average weight, 320 ± 3 g) were .... 6000000 IU vitamin A; 900000 IU vitamin D3; 40000 mg vitamin E; ..... Effects of fish oil on the production performances, polyunsaturated fatty acids and.

  19. The Effect of Different Temperatures and Durations on the Dormancy Breaking of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BASBAG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to break seed dormancy, different temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90o C and durations (10, 20 and 30 minutes were applied to black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. and honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L. seeds, in the Seed Laboratory of Dicle University - Faculty of Agriculture in 2009. According to the research results, the highest germination rate for black locust seeds was obtained in the case of 90o C for 30 minutes pre-treatment (94.5%, whilst the lowest value was obtained for the 40o C for 10 minutes pre-treatment (7.5.0%. For honey locust the highest value was obtained at 50o C for 30 minutes (25.5% and the lowest value was obtained in the case of control sample (6.8%.

  20. Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunnho; Jung, Hana; Lee, Heejae; Yi, Hae Chang; Kwak, Ho-kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-05-01

    Black raspberry (BRB) seeds are a major waste product after fruit processing. The seeds are abundant in ellagitannins (ET), a class of hydrolysable tannins, which are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) and further metabolized to urolithin A (UA) and urolithin B (UB), known to be bioavailable in the colon and the prostate. In this study, the anti-cancer activities of these compounds were evaluated on HT-29 colon cancer cells. ET, EA, UA and UB inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. EA caused a slight, but significant cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and urolithins caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and upregulated p21 expression. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay when treated with the compounds. Disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases 8 and 9 suggest that both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways may be involved. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP further confirmed the induction of the apoptosis. ET, EA, UA and UB showed anti-cancer activity by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This study suggests that the BRB seeds could be a potential source of anti-cancer ET.

  1. Radial Growth Response of Black Spruce Stands Ten Years after Experimental Shelterwoods and Seed-Tree Cuttings in Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Montoro Girona

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial cutting is thought to be an alternative to achieve sustainable management in boreal forests. However, the effects of intermediate harvest intensity (45%–80% on growth remain unknown in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. stands, one of the most widely distributed boreal species with great commercial interest. In this study, we analysed the effect of three experimental shelterwood and one seed-tree treatments on tree radial growth in even-aged black spruce stands, 10 years after intervention. Our results show that radial growth response 8–10 years after cutting was 41% to 62% higher than in untreated plots, with stand structure, treatment, tree position relative to skidding trails, growth before cutting and time having significant interactions. The stand structure conditioned tree growth after cutting, being doubled in younger and denser stands. Tree spatial position had a pronounced effect on radial growth; trees at the edge of the skidding trails showed twice the increase in growth compared to interior trees. Dominant trees before cutting located close to the skidding trails manifested the highest growth response after cutting. This research suggests that the studied treatments are effective to enhance radial wood production of black spruce especially in younger stands, and that the edge effect must be considered in silvicultural management planning.

  2. The Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants, Nigella sativa L., Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus L. an experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch. A completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications was used as separately for each species. Treatments were consisted of six salinity (NaCl concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1. The measured traits were root, shoot and seedling length, dry and fresh weight of seedling, germination rate and percent, seed vigor index, seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio. Salinity stress reduced significantly shoot, root and seedling length of the species. Increasing of salinity stress declined dry and fresh weight of Trigonella foenum and Nigella sativa L. and dry weight of Cannabis sativa L.. Seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio of Nigella sativa L. increased in salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity stress declined germination rate and percent in Nigella sativa L., but in other species (Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus only germination rate decreased. Trigonella foenum graecum germinated completely (%100 in all salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity until 16 dS m-1 reduced seed germination of Nigella sativa. Seed germination of Nigella sativa did not occurred in the highest salinity stress (20 dS m-1. Totally the results showed that in the germination stage, Trigonella foenum graecum and Cannabis sativa were relatively tolerate to salinity stress but Nigella sativa L. was the most sensitive one

  3. Molecular diversity study of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... phylogeny and species evolution, and have been applied to increase our ..... Banding patterns generated using the five selected primers, amplification quality and number .... with individual accessions showed group formation or clustering ... (2004). Essential trace metal (Zinc, Manganese, Copper and Iron).

  4. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnason John T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT and brown (irT soybean (Glycine max were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identified and characterized a UDP-glycose:flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UGT78K1 from the seed coat of black (iRT soybean with the aim to engineer seed coat color by suppression of an anthocyanin-specific gene. However, it remained to be investigated whether UGT78K1 was overexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the black (iRT seed coat compared to the nearly-isogenic brown (irT tissue. In this study, we performed a combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data to elucidate the control of the R locus over seed coat biochemistry and to identify pigment biosynthesis genes. Two differentially expressed late-stage anthocyanin biosynthesis isogenes were further characterized, as they may serve as useful targets for the manipulation of soybean grain color while minimizing the potential for unintended effects on the plant system. Results Metabolite composition differences were found to not be limited to anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, and phenylpropanoids present exclusively in the black (iRT or the brown (irT seed coat. A global analysis of gene expressions identified UGT78K1 and 19 other anthocyanin, (isoflavonoid, and phenylpropanoid isogenes to be differentially expressed between isolines. A combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression data enabled the assignment of putative functions to biosynthesis and transport isogenes. The recombinant enzymes of two genes were validated to catalyze late-stage steps in anthocyanin

  5. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside after 2-Week Administration of Black Bean Seed Coat Extract in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Jongtae; Hong, Taegon

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the pharmacokinetics of C3G on data from twelve subjects, after 2-week multiple dosing of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Cheongjakong-3-ho) seed coat extract, using the mixed effect analysis method (NONMEM, Ver. 6.2), as well as the conventional non-compartmental method. We also examined the safety and tolerability. The PK analysis used plasma concentrations of the C3G on day 1 and 14. There was no observed accumulation of C3G after 2-week multiple dosing of black bean seed coat extract. The typical point estimates of PK were CL (clearance)=3,420 l/h, V (volume)=7,280 L, Ka (absorption constant)=9.94 h-1, ALAG (lag time)=0.217 h. The black bean seed coat extract was well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events. In this study, we confirmed that a significant amount of C3G was absorbed in human after given the black bean seed coat extract. PMID:22915990

  6. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa:A miracle herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aftab Ahmad; Asif Husain; Mohd Mujeeb; Shah Alam Khan; Abul Kalam Najmi; Nasir Ali Siddique; Zoheir A Damanhouri; Firoz Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.

  7. Agronomical response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., variety “Black Seed Simpson”, to Enerplant biostimulant aplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Baldoquin Hernandez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done at the school vegetable garden of Los Indios in the municipality of Rio Cauto, Granma, from March through April, 2014. The objective was to evaluate the agronomical response of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L variety “Black Seeded Simpson to the foliar application of three doses of Enerplant. The biostimulant was applied in the morning 7 days after transplantation. The doses used were 0.5 mL.ha-1, 1 mL.ha-1 and 1.5 mL.ha-1. The yield components were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically processed using the software package STASTISTICA 6.0 for Windows. Results showed that the three doses had a positive effect on the cultivation yield. Best results were obtained with the application of the 1.5 mL.ha-1 dose. The majority of the evaluated indicators significantly increased.

  8. Positive or negative? The impact of X-ray feedback on the formation of direct collapse black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-09-01

    A nearby source of Lyman-Werner (LW) photons is thought to be a central component in dissociating H2 and allowing for the formation of a direct collapse black hole seed. Nearby sources are also expected to produce copious amounts of hydrogen ionizing photons and X-ray photons. We study here the feedback effects of the X-ray photons by including a spectrum due to high-mass X-ray binaries on top of a galaxy with a stellar spectrum. We explicitly trace photon packages emerging from the nearby source and track the radiative and chemical effects of the multifrequency source (Ephoton = 0.76 eV → 7500 eV). We find that X-rays have a strongly negative feedback effect, compared to a stellar only source, when the radiative source is placed at a separation greater than ≳ 1 kpc. The X-rays heat the low and medium density gas in the envelope surrounding the collapsing halo suppressing the mass inflow. The result is a smaller enclosed mass compared to the stellar only case. However, for separations of ≲ 1 kpc, the feedback effects of the X-rays becomes somewhat neutral. The enhanced LW intensity at close separations dissociates more H2 and this gas is heated due to stellar photons alone, the addition of X-rays is then not significant. This distance dependence of X-ray feedback suggests that a Goldilocks zone exists close to a forming galaxy where X-ray photons have a much smaller negative feedback effect and ideal conditions exist for creating massive black hole seeds.

  9. The Direct Collapse of a Massive Black Hole Seed under the Influence of an Anisotropic Lyman-Werner Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2014-11-01

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that the gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is set to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiation emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing techniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H2 is able to form at the very center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find that a radiation source, emitting >1054 (~ 103 J21) photons s-1, is required to cause the collapse of a clump of M ~ 105 M ⊙. The resulting accretion rate onto the collapsing object is ~0.25 M ⊙ yr-1. Our results display significant differences, compared to the isotropic radiation field case, in terms of the H2 fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly affect the dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, the final mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ~ 105 M ⊙. This is consistent with predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to a supermassive black hole.

  10. On the seed photon source for Comptonisation in the black hole binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Kajava, J J E; Tsygankov, S; Neustroev, V

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The black hole binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127 is providing a unique data-set to study accretion flows. Various investigations of this system and of other black holes have not, however, led to an agreement on the accretion flow geometry nor on the seed photon source for Comptonisation during different stages of X-ray outbursts. We aim to place constraints on these accretion flow properties by studying long term spectral variations of this source. Methods. We performed phenomenological and self-consistent broad band spectral modeling of SWIFT J1753.5-0127 using quasi-simultaneous archived data from INTEGRAL/ISGRI, Swift/UVOT/XRT/BAT, RXTE/PCA/HEXTE and Maxi/GSC instruments. Results. 1. We identify a critical flux limit, F \\sim 1.5 \\times 10^{-8} erg/cm^2/s, and show that the spectral properties of SWIFT J1753.5-0127 are markedly different above and below that. Above the limit, during the outburst peak, the hot medium seems to intercept roughly 50 per cent of the disc emission. Below it, in the outburst tail, t...

  11. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  12. Effects of arsenic on seed germination of mung bean and black soybean%砷对绿豆和黑豆种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万梦雪; 王敏; 周馥荔; 杨兰芳

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element both to animals and plants ,and arsenic pollution may reduce the crop yields and threat to food safety .An experiment germinating mung bean and black soybean seeds by arsenic addition in sands was conducted to understand the effect of arsenic on seed germination ,in which the situation of seed germination was observed and the percentage of seed germination and germination weight was determined . The results showed that 1 mg kg-1 arsenic addition stimulated the mung bean and black soybean seed germination and increased about 12% of the germination weight ,but the seed germination was significantly suppressed when the arsenic addition was over 5 mg kg-1 , and thereafter the suppression to seed germination was increased with the increasing of arsenic concentrations .The highest decreasing rate of percentage of seed germination and the germination weight at 6 days after incubation was 88 .2% and 56 .2% for mung bean and 57 .9%and 43 .6% for black soybean ,respectively .The suppression of arsenic to seed germination of mung bean and black soybean in the same arsenic level decreased with incubation time .Under the same high arsenic concentration ,such as 15 and 20 mg kg -1 ,the seed germination percentage of black soybean was higher than that of mung bean ,while the suppression rate to the percentage of seed germination of black soybean was lower than that of mung bean .Both germination rate and germination weight , the half maximal inhibitory concentration of black soybean seeds was higher than that of mung bean seeds .It was concluded that the seed germination of mung bean and black soybean was promoted by low arsenic addition and suppressed by over 5 mg kg-1 arsenic addition and the arsenic toxicity to seed germination was the declination of percentage of seed germination and germination weight , germination retardation and the short buds , but the arsenic tolerance of black soybean seeds was stronger than that of mung bean seeds .%为了

  13. Banco de sementes de aveia preta no solo sob dois sistemas de manejo Soil seed bank of black oat in two management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. possuem a capacidade de permanecer viáveis no solo de um ano de cultivo para outro. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o número de sementes de aveia preta resultantes de dois sistemas de manejo (colheita e ressemeadura natural, que poderão formar o banco de sementes do solo. Os ensaios foram realizados no município de Jari - RS, em uma área cultivada sob o sistema de "plantio direto". Foram coletadas 50 amostras em cada sistema de manejo, com um espaçamento de 10x20m, utilizando um amostrador de diâmetro de 0,05m e uma profundidade de 0,1m. O levantamento do número de sementes e da emergência das plântulas foi realizado no Laboratório Didático da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (UFPel. Constatou-se que a colheita e a ressemeadura natural possibilitam a presença de sementes no solo por área, em quantidades superiores à indicada para a semeadura. Com a colheita, a área fica heterogênea em número de sementes no solo e em plântulas emergidas. A ressemeadura natural resulta em uma grande quantidade de sementes no solo e formação de plântulas.The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. seeds are able to remain alive in soil from a culture to another. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of black oat seeds resulting from two management, harvesting, and natural reseeding, which could form the seed bank of soil. The experiments were conducted in Jari-RS, Brazil, the cultivation system is "No Tillage". Were collected 50 samples in each management, at a spacing of 10mx20m, using a sampler diameter of 0.05m and depth of 0.1m. The evaluation of the number of seeds and seedling emergence was accomplish at the Laboratory of Seeds Analysis of the Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel" (UFPEL. It was found that both as the crop as the natural seeding allow large quantities of seeds in the soil for the upper area suitable for planting. The harvest area is

  14. The Direct Collapse of a Massive Black Hole Seed Under the Influence of an Anisotropic Lyman-Werner Source

    CERN Document Server

    Regan, John A; Wise, John H

    2014-01-01

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation provides an attractive solution to the origin of the quasars now routinely observed at $z \\gtrsim 6$. We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to simulate the collapse of gas at high redshift, including a nine species chemical model of H, He, and H$_2$. The direct collapse model requires that the gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object. The source is set to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band only at $12.8 \\ \\rm{eV}$. The LW radiation emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing techniques. We find that, due to self-shielding, a small amount of H$_2$ is able to form at the very center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we ...

  15. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hye Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1. One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  16. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-06

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  17. Evolutionary processes in a continental island system: molecular phylogeography of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (Ranunculaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittkau, C; Comes, H P

    2005-11-01

    Continental shelf island systems, created by rising sea levels, provide a premier setting for studying the effects of past fragmentation, dispersal, and genetic drift on taxon diversification. We used phylogeographical (nested clade) and population genetic analyses to elucidate the relative roles of these processes in the evolutionary history of the Aegean Nigella arvensis alliance (= 'coenospecies'). We surveyed chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in 455 individuals from 47 populations (nine taxa) of the alliance throughout its core range in the Aegean Archipelago and surrounding mainland areas of Greece and Turkey. The study revealed the presence of three major lineages, with largely nonoverlapping distributions in the Western, Central, and Eastern Aegean. There is evidence supporting the idea that these major lineages evolved in situ from a widespread (pan-Aegean) ancestral stock as a result of multiple fragmentation events, possibly due to the influence of post-Messinian sea flooding, Pleistocene eustatic changes and corresponding climate fluctuations. Over-sea dispersal and founder events appear to have played a rather insignificant role in the group's history. Rather, all analytical approaches identified the alliance as an organism group with poor seed dispersal capabilities and a susceptibility to genetic drift. In particular, we inferred that the observed level of cpDNA differentiation between Kikladian island populations of Nigella degenii largely reflects population history, (viz. Holocene island fragmentation) and genetic drift in the near absence of seed flow since their time of common ancestry. Overall, our cpDNA data for the N. arvensis alliance in general, and N. degenii in particular, indicate that historical events were important in determining the phylogeographical patterns seen, and that genetic drift has historically been relatively more influential on population structure than has cytoplasmic gene flow.

  18. Forming supermassive black hole seeds under the influence of a nearby anisotropic multifrequency source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A; Johansson, Peter H; Wise, John H

    2016-07-01

    The photodissociation of H2 by a nearby anisotropic source of radiation is seen as a critical component in creating an environment in which a direct collapse black hole may form. Employing radiative transfer we model the effect of multifrequency (0.76-60 eV) radiation on a collapsing halo at high redshift. We vary both the shape of the spectrum which emits the radiation and the distance to the emitting galaxy. We use blackbody spectra with temperatures of T = 10(4) K and 10(5) K and a realistic stellar spectrum. We find that an optimal zone exists between 1 and 4 kpc from the emitting galaxy. If the halo resides too close to the emitting galaxy the photoionizing radiation creates a large H ii region which effectively disrupts the collapsing halo, too far from the source and the radiation flux drops below the level of the expected background and the H2 fraction remains too high. When the emitting galaxy is initially placed between 1 and 2 kpc from the collapsing halo, with a spectral shape consistent with a star-forming high-redshift galaxy, then a large central core forms. The mass of the central core is between 5000 and 10 000 M⊙ at a temperature of approximately 1000 K. This core is however surrounded by a reservoir of hotter gas at approximately 8000 K, which leads to mass inflow rates of the order of ∼0.1 M⊙ yr(-1).

  19. Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code ENZO-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body code GADGET-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in GADGET-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ˜ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, GADGET-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than ENZO-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.

  20. Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code enzo-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body code gadget-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in gadget-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ∼ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, gadget-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than enzo-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.

  1. Polyphenol compounds and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean black raspberry ( Rubus coreanus Miquel) wines produced from juice supplemented with pulp and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae Woong; Hwang, Hyun Joo; Shin, Chul Soo

    2012-05-23

    Three types of Korean black raspberry wine were produced via alcoholic fermentation from juice, juice-pulp, and juice-pulp-seed, respectively. These wines were compared in terms of their anti-inflammatory activities and polyphenol contents. The total content of polyphenol compounds in wines was increased by 22.4% after supplementation with pulp and by 56.7% after supplementation with both pulp and seed. The reduction rate of NO evolution was highest in the order juice-pulp-seed wine, juice-pulp wine, and juice wine. Addition of the juice-pulp-seed wine at a level of 62.5-500 mg/L decreased the NO evolution rate by 40.5-94.2%. Eight fractions were obtained from juice-pulp-seed wine via ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography. Of these, the AF fraction, which exhibited the highest in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, exerted inhibitory effects on ear edema, writhing response, and vein membrane vascular permeability in mice. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid accounted for 37.6% of the total polyphenol content in the AF fraction.

  2. Gastrointestinal effects of Nigella sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa (Ranunculacea has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.

  3. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafiq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.

  4. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Hammad; Ahmad, Asif; Masud, Tariq; Kaleem, Muhammad

    2014-12-01

    Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.

  5. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations.

  6. A review on the inhibitory potential of Nigella sativa against pathogenic and toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjatollah Shokri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations.

  7. Purification and characterization of a Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, E R; Dutta-Gupta, A; Padmasree, K

    2010-03-01

    A proteinase inhibitor (BgPI) was purified from black gram, Vigna mungo (cv. TAU-1) seeds by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by ion-exchange, affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. BgPI showed a single band in SDS-PAGE under non-reducing condition with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 8kDa correlating to the peak 8041.5Da in matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum. BgPI existed in different isoinhibitor forms with pI values ranging from 4.3 to 6.0. The internal sequence "SIPPQCHCADIR" of a peak 1453.7 m/z, obtained from MALDI-TOF-TOF showed 100% similarity with Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) family. BgPI exhibited non-competitive-type inhibitory activity against both bovine pancreatic trypsin (K(i) of 309.8nM) and chymotrypsin (K(i) of 10.7muM), however, with a molar ratio of 1:2 with trypsin. BgPI was stable up to a temperature of 80 degrees C and active over a wide pH range between 2 and 12. The temperature-induced conformational changes in secondary structure are reversed when BgPI was cooled from 90 to 25 degrees C. Further, upon reduction with dithiothreitol, BgPI lost both its inhibitory activity as well as secondary structural conformation. Lysine residue(s) present in the reactive site of BgPI play an important role in inhibiting the bovine trypsin activity. The present study provides detailed biochemical characteristic features of a BBI type serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from V. mungo.

  8. Anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soya bean and their anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, J-K; Chung, Y-C; Chen, G-H; Chang, C-H; Lu, Y-C; Hsu, C-K

    2016-06-01

    The seed coat of black soya bean (SCBS) contains high amount of anthocyanins and shows antioxidant and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. The objectives of this study were to analyse the anthocyanins in SCBS with different solvents and to find the relationship between anthocyanin profile with anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. SCBS was extracted with hot water, 50 and 80% ethanol, 50 and 80% acetone and 50 and 80% acidified acetone. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined. Anthocyanins in the extracts were analysed using HPLC and LC/MS/MS. A genetically engineered human tyrosinase was used to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase potential of the extracts from SCBS. 80% acetone extract from SCBS obtained the highest total phenol, total flavonoid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) contents among all the extracts, whereas the hot water extract showed the lowest antioxidant contents. Three anthocyanin compounds were found in all the extracts from SCBS, and the analysis of HPLC and LC/MS/MS indicated that they were C3G, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G). The ratios of C3G (2.84 mg g(-1) ), D3G (0.34 mg g(-1) ) and P3G (0.35 mg g(-1) ) in 80% acidified acetone extract were 76.6, 9.1 and 9.3%, respectively. All the extracts from SCBS possessed anti-human tyrosinase activity. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the anti-human tyrosinase activities and C3G contents in the extracts. Antioxidants in SCBS also possess anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Emerging clinical and therapeutic applications of Nigella sativa in gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailendra Kapoor

    2009-01-01

    Nigella sativa decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents such as azoxymethane. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance as it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of toxic metals such as lead, and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation following exposure to chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride.

  10. Analysis and antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa essential oil formulated in microemulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Hamdy A; Sadek, Zainab; Edris, Amr E; Saad-Hussein, Amal

    2015-01-01

    The Essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa (black cumin) was extracted from the crude oil and the volatile constituents were characterized using gas chromatographic analysis. The EO was formulated in water-based microemulsion system and its antibacterial activity against six pathogenic bacteria was evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. This activity was compared with two other well known biologically active natural and synthetic antimicrobials namely eugenol and Ceftriaxone(®). Results showed that N. sativa EO microemulsion was highly effective against S. aureus, B. cereus and S. typhimurium even at the lowest tested concentration of that EO in the microemulsion (100.0 μg/well). Interestingly, the EO microemulsion showed higher antibacterial activity than Ceftriaxone solution against S. typhimurium at 400.0 μg/well and almost comparable activity against E. coli at 500.0 μg/well. No activity was detected for the EO microemulsion against L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa. Eugenol which was also formulated in microemulsion was less effective than N. sativa EO microemulsion except against P. aeruginosa. The synthetic antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) was effective against most of the six tested bacterial strains. This work is the first report revealing the formulation of N. sativa EO in microemulsion system and investigating its antibacterial activity. The results may offer potential application of that water-based microemulsion in controlling the prevalence of some pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. UG157 and DPU915 were good general combiners. Two crosses namely PDB 88-31/DPU 915 and PLU 277/KAU7 had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  12. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. �UG157� and �DPU915� were good general combiners. Two crosses namely �PDB 88-31�/�DPU 915� and �PLU 277�/�KAU7� had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  13. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO (Piper nigrum L. DORMANCY OVERCOME IN BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Curado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de superar a dormência das sementes de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum, levou-se a efeito um ensaio com sementes colhidas em outubro de 2000 no horto de plantas medicinais do Hospital de Medicina Alternativa em Goiânia (GO e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Escola de Agronomia de Universidade Federal de Goiás. Os tratamentos empregados no ensaio foram: (1 testemunha (sementes com casca; (2 sementes sem casca; (3 sementes sem casca e lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos; (4 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos, imersas em solução 50% de detergente (Alquilbenzeno sulfonato de sódio e lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos; (5 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos e imersas em hipoclorito de sódio a 20% por cinco minutos, e depois lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos. Depois de tratadas, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste-padrão de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após o término do ensaio, aos 21 dias, observou-se que não houve germinação na testemunha. No tratamento 2 a germinação foi de 56%. Os tratamentos 3 e 5 apresentaram 58% e 60% de germinação, respectivamente, mas não foram diferentes, estatisticamente, do tratamento 2. A maior germinação (73% foi observada no tratamento 4, muito embora não tenha diferido estatisticamente dos tratamentos 3 e 5.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sementes; dormência; pimenta-do-reino.

    The black pepper fruits are largely used in culinary for its aroma but also useful for cosmetics, insect control and for its medicinal properties. Grafting has been used for propagation due to the period (six months and irregular seed germination. To overcome the

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  15. Determination of the Elemental Composition of the Pulp, Seed and Fruit Coat of Black Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

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    D.O. Ofosu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to provide data on the mineral composition of the fruit pulp, outer coat and seed of Dialiu guineense in an attempt to widen the sources of minerals for the rural population of sub-Saharan Africa. The elemental composition of the pulp, seed and fruit coat of black velvet tamarind (Dialiu guineense was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis. The fruit pulp contained manganese (23.40±1.57µg/g, chlorine (205.40±37.59 &mu g/g, calcium (5671.00±2132.30 &mug/g, sodium (332.95±8.76 &mud/gand potassium (6190.00±711.85 &mug/g. The seed and fruit coat contained all these minerals except potassium and sodium respectively. The fruit pulp can serve as a good source of macrominerals for humans while the fruit coat and seed could be ground and incorporated in various meal formulations of livestock as mineral supplements.

  16. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

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    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  17. Teste de envelhecimento precoce para sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto Accelerated aging test for ryegrass black oat grass and pearl millet seeds

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    Danton Camacho Garcia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade da aplicação e da padronização do teste de envelhecimento precoce em sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto foi verificada em três lotes, para cada espécie, com valores iniciais de germinação semelhantes. As sementes de cada lote foram submetidas ao teste por períodos de 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas, à temperatura de 41°C e 100% de umidade relativa do ar. Em aveia preta, o período de 24 horas estratifica lotes de sementes pelo vigor. Para milheto e azevém, o período de envelhecimento para estratificar lotes de sementes pelo vigor pode ser de 24 a 48 horas. Períodos de 72 a 120 horas são muito drásticos para as três espécies e impedem a estratificação de lotes de sementes pelo vigor.Accelerated aging test standardization for seeds of ryegrass, black oat grass and pearl millet was cheked in three lots, of each specie, with similar initial values of germination. The seeds of each lot were submited to periods of 24, 48, 96 and 120 hours of temperature of 41°C and air relative humidity of 100%. In black oat grass the 24h period stratifies seed vigor among lots. However, for pearl millet and ryegrass the period can be of 24 to 48h. Periods of 72 to 120 hours are very severe to the three species and prevent the seed vigor lots stratification.

  18. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes from Population III.1 Seeds. I. Cosmic Formation Histories and Clustering Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banik, Nilanjan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Monaco, Pierluigi

    2016-08-15

    We calculate the cosmic distributions in space and time of the formation sites of the first, "Pop III.1" stars, exploring a model in which these are the progenitors of all supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Pop III.1 stars are defined to form from primordial composition gas in dark matter minihalos with $\\sim10^6\\:M_\\odot$ that are isolated from neighboring astrophysical sources by a given isolation distance, $d_{\\rm{iso}}$. We assume Pop III.1 sources are seeds of SMBHs, based on protostellar support by dark matter annihilation heating that allows them to accrete a large fraction of their minihalo gas, i.e., $\\sim 10^5\\:M_\\odot$. Exploring $d_{\\rm{iso}}$ from 10--$100\\:\\rm{kpc}$ (proper distances), we predict the redshift evolution of Pop III.1 source and SMBH remnant number densities. The local, $z=0$ density of SMBHs constrains $d_{\\rm{iso}}\\lesssim 100\\:\\rm{kpc}$ (i.e., $3\\:\\rm{Mpc}$ comoving distance at $z\\simeq30$). In our simulated ($\\sim60\\:\\rm{Mpc}$)$^3$ comoving volume, Pop III.1 stars start forming just after $z=40$. Their formation is largely complete by $z\\simeq25$ to 20 for $d_{\\rm{iso}}=100$ to $50\\:\\rm{kpc}$. We follow source evolution to $z=10$, by which point most SMBHs reside in halos with $\\gtrsim10^8\\:M_\\odot$. Over this period, there is relatively limited merging of SMBHs for these values of $d_{\\rm{iso}}$. We also predict SMBH clustering properties at $z=10$: feedback suppression of neighboring sources leads to relatively flat angular correlation functions. Finally, we consider a simple "Str\\"omgren" model for $d_{\\rm iso}$, based on ionizing feedback from zero age main sequence supermassive Pop III.1 stars that may be the direct progenitors of SMBHs in this scenario. Such models naturally produce feedback effects on scales of $\\sim100\\:$kpc and thus self-consistently generate a SMBH number density similar to the observed value.

  19. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

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    Mohamad Hafanizam Bin Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet; low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa; normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa and high dose (supplemented with 1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa. All of supplements administered in powder form mixed with rats’ pellet for 28 days. To assess liver toxicity, liver enzymes measurement and histological study were done at the end of supplementation. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST between treatment groups. Histopathological study showed very minimal and mild changes in fatty degeneration in normal and high doses of Nigella sativa treated group. Inflammation and necrosis were absent. Conclusion: The study showed that supplementation of Nigella sativa up to the dose of 1 g/kg supplemented for a period of 28 days resulted no changes in liver enzymes level and did not cause any toxicity effect on the liver function.

  20. De novo Assembly, Characterization of Immature Seed Transcriptome and Development of Genic-SSR Markers in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper].

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    J Souframanien

    Full Text Available Black gram [V. mungo (L. Hepper] is an important legume crop extensively grown in south and south-east Asia, where it is a major source of dietary protein for its predominantly vegetarian population. However, lack of genomic information and markers has become a limitation for genetic improvement of this crop. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the immature seeds of black gram cv. TU94-2, by Illumina paired end sequencing technology to generate transcriptome sequences for gene discovery and genic-SSR marker development. A total of 17.2 million paired-end reads were generated and 48,291 transcript contigs (TCS were assembled with an average length of 443 bp. Based on sequence similarity search, 33,766 TCS showed significant similarity to known proteins. Among these, only 29,564 TCS were annotated with gene ontology (GO functional categories. A total number of 138 unique KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were identified, of which majority of TCS are grouped into purine metabolism (678 followed by pyrimidine metabolism (263. A total of 48,291 TCS were searched for SSRs and 1,840 SSRs were identified in 1,572 TCS with an average frequency of one SSR per 11.9 kb. The tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (35% followed by di-nucleotide repeats (32%. PCR primer pairs were successfully designed for 933 SSR loci. Sequences analyses indicate that about 64.4% and 35.6% of the SSR motifs were present in the coding sequences (CDS and untranslated regions (UTRs respectively. Tri-nucleotide repeats (57.3% were preferentially present in the CDS. The rate of successful amplification and polymorphism were investigated using selected primers among 18 black gram accessions. Genic-SSR markers developed from the Illumina paired end sequencing of black gram immature seed transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for genetic diversity, evolution, linkage mapping, comparative genomics and marker-assisted selection in black gram.

  1. De novo Assembly, Characterization of Immature Seed Transcriptome and Development of Genic-SSR Markers in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souframanien, J; Reddy, Kandali Sreenivasulu

    2015-01-01

    Black gram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] is an important legume crop extensively grown in south and south-east Asia, where it is a major source of dietary protein for its predominantly vegetarian population. However, lack of genomic information and markers has become a limitation for genetic improvement of this crop. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the immature seeds of black gram cv. TU94-2, by Illumina paired end sequencing technology to generate transcriptome sequences for gene discovery and genic-SSR marker development. A total of 17.2 million paired-end reads were generated and 48,291 transcript contigs (TCS) were assembled with an average length of 443 bp. Based on sequence similarity search, 33,766 TCS showed significant similarity to known proteins. Among these, only 29,564 TCS were annotated with gene ontology (GO) functional categories. A total number of 138 unique KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways were identified, of which majority of TCS are grouped into purine metabolism (678) followed by pyrimidine metabolism (263). A total of 48,291 TCS were searched for SSRs and 1,840 SSRs were identified in 1,572 TCS with an average frequency of one SSR per 11.9 kb. The tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (35%) followed by di-nucleotide repeats (32%). PCR primer pairs were successfully designed for 933 SSR loci. Sequences analyses indicate that about 64.4% and 35.6% of the SSR motifs were present in the coding sequences (CDS) and untranslated regions (UTRs) respectively. Tri-nucleotide repeats (57.3%) were preferentially present in the CDS. The rate of successful amplification and polymorphism were investigated using selected primers among 18 black gram accessions. Genic-SSR markers developed from the Illumina paired end sequencing of black gram immature seed transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for genetic diversity, evolution, linkage mapping, comparative genomics and marker-assisted selection in black gram.

  2. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seeds are tiny, brown, black or white seeds. They are almost as small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint ... minerals. Chia seeds are also rich in essential fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6. Essential fatty ...

  3. The protective effect of Nigella sativa oil in the brain of the biliary obstructed rats

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    Hale Zerrin Toklu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms of jaundice induced encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the possible protective effect of Nigella sativa (NS seed oil against the oxidative stress of brain tissue induced by experimentalobstructive jaundice in rats.BiliarY obstruction was performed in male Wistar albino rats by bile duct ligation and scission (BDL. Intragastric NS oil (1 mg/kg p.o. or saline was administered for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, in the half of the rats the blood brain barrier (BBB permeability wasevaluated by Evans blue (EB extravasation. Other rats were decapitated and brain tissue samples were obtained for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione(GSH levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO and Na+,K+-ATPase activities.ChronIC biliary obstruction caused a significant increase in the BBB permeability which was verified by EB extravasation while this effect was attenuated by NS oil treatment. On the other hand, BDL-induced decrease in brain GSH level and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were el-evated back to control level in NS oil-treated BDL group. Increase in tissue MDA level, and MPO activity due to BDL were also attenuated by NS oil treatment.Our results suggest that NS oil treatment protects the brain from oxidative damage following bile duct ligation in rats. This effect possibly involves the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation and the restoration of antioxidant status in the tissue. Accordingly, supplementing cirrhotic patients with adjuvant therapy of NS oil may have some benefit against hepatic encephalopathy

  4. Nigella sativa Infusion as an Antioxidant Agent Against Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Damaged in Mice

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    Hamsiah binti Halim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gentamicin is one of the most common antibiotics related to nephrotoxicity. It has been proposed that the nephrotoxicity is associated with the generation of the reactive oxygen species. Thymoquinone, an active compound of Nigella sativa, shows to have an antioxidant property. The study aims to identify the possible nephroprotective action of Nigella sativa infusion against gentamicin-induced kidney damaged in mice. Methods:This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Cell Biology Laboratory, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung from 10th November 2012 to 14th December 2012. There were four groups, each consisting of 6 mice. Group I (control negative, group II (gentamicin 100 mg/kg, group III (3.9 mg Nigella sativa infusion+gentamicin 100mg/kg and group IV (7.8 mg Nigella sativa infusion+gentamicin 100mg/kg. The kidneys were evaluated histopathologically by light microscope. The percentage average number of normal proximal tubules in group I and the percentage average number of proximal tubules damaged in group II, III and IV were measured. Results: The results showed the percentage average number of the proximal tubules damaged in group II, III and IV were 14.53%, 7.49% and 3.94% respectively. Significant differences were observed between group II and III, group II and IV, and group III and IV. Conclusion:Nigella sativa infusion protects against gentamicin-induced kidney damage in mice.

  5. Black Soybean Seed Coat Extract Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Cell Death via Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase Signalling in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Oki, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Suda, Ikuo; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress reduces cell viability and contributes to disease processes. Flavonoids including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins reportedly induce intracellular antioxidant defence systems. Thus, in this study, we examined the antioxidant effects of a commercial extract from black soybean seed coats (BE), which are rich in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, and investigated the associated intracellular mechanisms in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (HPO) showed 60% viability, whereas pretreatment with BE-containing media for 2 h ameliorated HPO-mediated cell death by up to 90%. Pretreatment with BE for 2 h partially blocked HPO-mediated activation of ERK in HepG2 cells, and that for 1 h led to a 20% increase in intracellular total protein phosphatase (PP) activity, which is known to deactivate protein kinases. These results indicate that BE prevents HPO-mediated cell damage by inhibiting ERK signalling, potentially via PPs.

  6. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

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    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  7. A study of Nigella sativa induced growth inhibition of MCF and HepG2 cell lines: An anti-neoplastic study along with its mechanism of action

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    Y Padmanabha Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potential of seeds of Nigella sativa using MCF and HepG2 cell lines along with its mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide nuclear staining technique were selected to evaluate anticancer potential and mechanism of action of test extract. Results: Aqueous extract of N.sativa at a test dose of 180 mg and 300 mg was identified to be the best as anticancer agent against MCF and HepG2 cell lines among different solvent test extract where doxorubicin and cisplatin were employed as standard references. Discussion: Further study including separation and characterization of active principles in the aqueous extract shall prove beneficial.

  8. In silico analysis for predicting fatty acids of black cumin oil as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein

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    Babar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black cumin oil is obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. which belongs to family Ranunculaceae. The seed oil has been reported to possess antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, central nervous system depressant, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory activities. These bioactivities have been attributed to the fixed oil, volatile oil, or their components. Seed oil consisted of 15 saturated fatty acids (17% and 17 unsaturated fatty acids (82.9%. Long chain fatty acids and medium chain fatty acids have been reported to increase oral bioavailability of peptides, antibiotics, and other important therapeutic agents. In earlier studies, permeation enhancement and bioenhancement of drugs has been done with black cumin oil. Objective: In order to recognize the mechanism of binding of fatty acids to P-glycoprotein (P-gp, linoleic acid, oleic acid, margaric acid, cis-11, 14-eicosadienoic acid, and stearic acid were selected for in silico studies, which were carried out using AutoDock 4.2, based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm principle. Materials and Methods: Template search with BLAST and HHblits has been performed against the SWISS-MODEL template library. The target sequence was searched with BLAST against the primary amino acid sequence of P-gp from Rattus norvegicus. Results: The amount of energy needed by linoleic acid, oleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, margaric acid, and stearic acid to bind with P-gp were found to be − 10.60, −10.48, −9.95, −11.92, and − 10.37 kcal/mol, respectively. The obtained data support that all the selected fatty acids have contributed to inhibit P-gp activity thereby enhances the bioavailability of drugs. Conclusion: This study plays a significant role in finding hot spots in P-gp and may offer the further scope of designing potent and specific inhibitors of P-gp.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

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    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  10. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P compounds differed (P bioactive compounds, total polyphenols tended to be different (6.3 vs 7.2 g/kg DM), but there were no differences in erucic acid and condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in

  11. Salicylic Acid Ameliorates the Effects of Oxidative Stress Induced by Water Deficit in Hydroponic Culture of Nigella sativa

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    Rozita Kabiri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic stress associated with drought, and salinity is a serious problem that inhibits the growth of plants, mainly due to disturbance of the balance between production of ROS and antioxidant defense and causing oxidative stress. The results obtained in the last few years strongly prove that salicylic acid could be a very promising and protective compound for the reduction of biotic and abiotic stresses in sensitive of crops, because under certain conditions, it has been found to mitigate the damaging effects of various stress factors in plants. In this research, salicylic acid was used in control, and drought stressed plants, and the role of this compound in reduction of oxidative damages in Nigella plant was investigated. Data presented in this study indicated that SA application through the root medium brought on the increased levels of drought tolerance in black cumin seedlings. Plants pre-treated with SA exhibited slight injury symptoms whereas those that were not pre-treated with SA had moderate damage and lost considerable portions of their foliage. SA very profoundly inducing the activity of CAT, APX and GPX in plants, which led to reduction in H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation (MDA and LOX activity so it seems that the application of SA greatly improves the dehydration tolerance through elevated activities of antioxidant systems or may be the expression of genes encoding some ROS-scavenging enzymes under drought stress, which would maintain the redox homeostasis and integrity of cellular components.

  12. Organic and inorganic fertilizer effect on soil CO2 flux, microbial biomass, and growth of Nigella sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Aliyeh; Fallah, Seyfollah; Sourki, Ali Abasi

    2017-01-01

    Cattle manure has a high carbon/nitrogen ratio and may not decompose; therefore, full-dose application of urea fertilizer might improve biological properties by increasing manure decomposition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of combining cattle manure and urea fertilizer on soil CO2 flux, microbial biomass carbon, and dry matter accumulation during Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) growth under field conditions. The treatments were control, cattle manure, urea, different levels of split and full-dose integrated fertilizer. The results showed that integrated application of cattle manure and chemical fertilizer significantly increased microbial biomass carbon by 10%, soil organic carbon by 2.45%, total N by 3.27%, mineral N at the flowering stage by 7.57%, and CO2 flux by 9% over solitary urea application. Integrated application increased microbial biomass carbon by 10% over the solitary application and the full-dose application by 5% over the split application. The soil properties and growth parameters of N. sativa L. benefited more from the full-dose application than the split application of urea. Cattle manure combined with chemical fertilizer and the full-dose application of urea increased fertilizer efficiency and improved biological soil parameters and plant growth. This method decreased the cost of top dressing urea fertilizer and proved beneficial for the environment and medicinal plant health.

  13. Nephro-protective effect of vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin associated nephrotoxicity in rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saleem, Uzma; Ahmad, Bashir; Rehman, Kanwal; Mahmood, Saeed; Alam, Maqsood; Erum, Alia

    2012-01-01

    .... An aminoglycoside, gentamicin, has pronounced nephrotoxic effect in humans and animals and this study was planned to observe the nephro-protective effect of antioxidants, vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil...

  14. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

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    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  15. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

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    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  16. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  17. Effects of the crude and the n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa Linn.(kalajira upon diabetic rats

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    Matira Khanam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate into the effect of concomitant administration of the crude and the n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa (kalajira upon streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult male rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin on day 1 while crude nigella powder in deionized water and the n-hexane extract of nigella were administered orally concomitantly from day 1 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 22. The serum glucose and cholesterol concentrations that were elevated in diabetic rats were normalized or near normalized by the crude nigella or the n-hexane extract administration; while the elevated serum triglyceride concentrations of the diabetic rats were brought down to lower than control values. The pancreatic GSH was closer to control value, and pancreatic histology suggested reappearance of β cells. The crude nigella concomitant to streptozotocin (STZ+Nc administration appeared to provide better alleviation compared to the n-hexane extract of nigella concomitant to streptozotocin (STZ+H administration.

  18. Production of Nigella sativa Beverage Powder under Foam Mat Drying Using Egg Albumen as a Foaming Agent

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    Norhazirah Affandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content of roasted Nigella sativa, and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Foams were prepared from Nigella sativa solution by adding different concentrations of egg albumen (2.5%, 8.75%, and 15% w/w and methyl cellulose (0, 0.5% and 1% w/w, using whipping times of 2, 5, and 8 min. The drying temperature was set at 50–70 °C, with a foam thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm. The optimum recorded conditions for the foaming process were 15% of egg albumen concentration, 0.69% of methyl cellulose concentration, and a whipping time of 8 min. Thus, the optimum conditions for the drying process were 60 °C, with 2 mm of foam thickness. The results showed that there were significant differences in DPPH inhibition, the total phenolic content, and mineral content, whereas no significant differences were recorded in the water solubility index between the roasted Nigella sativa and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder.

  19. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica.

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    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-12-01

    Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds.

  20. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Method Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Key Results Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. Conclusions The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds. PMID:22975287

  1. Removal of Acid Black 1 and Basic Red 2 from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation/Moringa oleifera seed adsorption coupling in a batch system.

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    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Ni, Jiaheng; Zhao, Meixia; Yang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The removal of Acid Black 1 (AB1) and Basic Red 2 (BR2) from aqueous solutions via an electrocoagulation (EC)/Moringa oleifera seeds (MOS) adsorption coupling process by using aluminum and stainless steel electrode in a batch reactor is described in this study. The influences of the operational parameters, i.e. current density, MOS dosage, and dye initial concentration, on degree of color removal were studied, and the unit energy demand, the unit electrode material demand, and the charge loading were calculated and discussed. The amounts of adsorbent and energy consumption were considered as main criteria of process evaluation, and ideal conditions were chosen. The addition of an appropriate MOS dosage (0.6 g/L for AB1 and 5 g/L for BR2) resulted in faster decolorization of dyes especially at lower current densities and was simultaneously accompanied by a significant reduction in contact time compared to the conventional simple EC process. The coupling process achieved degree of removals above 99.3% and 94% for AB1 and BR2, respectively. The EC/MOS coupling technique could be recommended to replace the conventional simple EC because of its high degree of removal, short contact time, and low energy consumption.

  2. Low gamma radiation dose effect on germination and initial growing of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds; Efeito de baixas doses de radiacao gama na germinacao de sementes de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Silva, Anderson de O. Melo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we analyze the effect of low gamma irradiation doses and low concentrations of sodium alginate on the germination and growing of black beans seeds. The seeds were obtained from an organic farmer at Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State. The seeds were submitted to radiation doses between 0 and 150 Gy with a Cobalt 60 source in a Gammacell Excel 220 Nordion Irradiator with a dose rate of 70 Gy/min. After germination the seeds were left to grow three weeks on a hydroponics system. The system used was the water culture with nutritive solution that was supplemented with the nutritional needs for plant grows. We also tested the influence of the sodium alginate on the plant grows. A 4% solution of sodium alginate in distilled water was irradiated with 120 kGy gamma ray dose. Concentrations of sodium alginate irradiated and non-irradiated varying from 50 to 500 {mu}g/g were used in the hydroponics' solution. After three weeks the mass and the height of the plant were measured. Statistic analyses of he result with the SAS program show that there was no significant difference between the height and mass of seeds submitted different doses, but irradiated solution of sodium alginate with concentration of 400 and 500 {mu}g/g present a significant difference on plant grow. (author)

  3. Are the fatty acids responsible for the higher effect of oil and alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa over its aqueous extract on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona Abd El-Fattah Ahmad; Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Trichomoniasis, the disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the sexually transmitted infection with the largest annual incidence. Metronidazole is the drug of choice recommended for the treatment of human trichomoniasis but it can lead to drug resistance and many other adverse effects. So, it is necessary for new alternatives for the treatment of this infection. Medicinal plants or herbs could be good alternative regimens to be inexpensive, effective and safe to use. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as seeds oil was examined. Different concentrations of these plant preparations were incubated in vitro with cultivated T. vaginalis trophozoites and its effect on growth was compared with metronidazole under the same conditions. Both the alcoholic extract and oil proved to be valuable agents as efficient as metronidazole in treating T. vaginalis infection. The remarkable effect of N. sativa oil may be attributed to the fact that the active principles extracted from N. sativa seeds are mostly from its essential oil (omega 3, 6, 9 as well as 7 fatty acids). However, further experimental and clinical investigations are needed to evaluate and standardize the doses of these natural products to be safe and efficient.

  4. Prediction of canned black bean texture (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from intact dry seeds using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernando A; Cichy, Karen A; Sprague, Christy; Goffnett, Amanda; Lu, Renfu; Kelly, James D

    2017-06-05

    Texture is a major quality parameter for the acceptability of canned whole beans. Prior knowledge of this quality trait before processing would be useful to guide variety development by bean breeders and optimize handling protocols by processors. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the predictive power of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (visible/NIRS, 400-2498 nm) and hyperspectral imaging (HYPERS, 400-1000 nm) techniques for predicting texture of canned black beans from intact dry seeds. Black beans were grown in Michigan (USA) over three field seasons. The samples exhibited phenotypic variability for canned bean texture due to genetic variability and processing practice. Spectral preprocessing methods (i.e. smoothing, first and second derivatives, continuous wavelet transform, and two-band ratios), coupled with a feature selection method, were tested for optimizing the prediction accuracy in both techniques based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Visible/NIRS and HYPERS were effective in predicting texture of canned beans using intact dry seeds, as indicated by their correlation coefficients for prediction (Rpred ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP). Visible/NIRS was superior (Rpred  = 0.546-0.923, SEP = 7.5-1.9 kg 100 g(-1) ) to HYPERS (Rpred  = 0.401-0.883, SEP = 7.6-2.4 kg 100 g(-1) ), which is likely due to the wider wavelength range collected in visible/NIRS. However, a significant improvement was reached in both techniques when the two-band ratios preprocessing method was applied to the data, reducing SEP by at least 10.4% and 16.2% for visible/NIRS and HYPERS, respectively. Moreover, results from using the combination of the three-season data sets based on the two-band ratios showed that visible/NIRS (Rpred  = 0.886, SEP = 4.0 kg 100 g(-1) ) and HYPERS (Rpred  = 0.844, SEP = 4.6 kg 100 g(-1) ) models were consistently successful in predicting

  5. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

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    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model.

  6. Comparison of Nigella sativa- and exercise-induced models of cardiac hypertrophy: structural and electrophysiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asoom, Lubna Ibrahim; Al-Shaikh, Basil Abdulrahman; Bamosa, Abdullah Omar; El-Bahai, Mohammad Nabil

    2014-09-01

    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapeutic intervention for heart failure, due to its ability to induce physiological cardiac hypertrophy. In parallel, supplementation with Nigella sativa (N. sativa) was found to enhance myocardial function and induce cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we aim to compare the morphological and electrophysiological changes associated with these patterns of cardiac hypertrophy and the possible changes upon administration of N. sativa to exercise-trained animals. Fifty-six adult Wistar rats were divided into: control, Nigella-treated (N), exercise-trained (E), and Nigella-treated-exercise-trained (NE) rats. Daily 800 mg/kg N. sativa was administered orally to N and NE. E and NE ran on treadmill, 2 h/day. At the end of 8 weeks ECG, body weight (BW), heart weight (HW), and left ventricular weight (LVW) were recorded. Hematoxylin and Eosin and periodic acid-Schiff sections were prepared to study the histology of left ventricles and to measure diameter of cardiomyocytes (Cdia). HW/BW, LVW/BW, and mean Cdia were significantly higher in all experimental animals compared to the controls. Histology showed normal cardiomyocytes with no fibrosis. ECG showed significantly lower heart rates, higher QRS amplitude, and ventricular specific potential in NE group compared to control group. Supplementation of N. sativa demonstrated a synergistic effect with exercise training as Nigella-exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy had lower heart rate and well-matched electrical activity of the heart to its mass. Therefore, this model of cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment for heart failure with superior advantages to exercise training.

  7. Protective effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced DNA damage in PC12 cells

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    Beheshteh Babazadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant properties has been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for treatment of CNS injuries. The most significant consequence of the oxidative stress is thought to be the DNA modifications, which can become permanent via the formation of mutations and other types of genomic instability resulting cellular dysfunction. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Nigella sativa (N. sativa seeds and thymoquinone (TQ, its most abundant constituent, have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and anti-neoplastic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study we investigated genoprotective effects of N. sativa and TQ on DNA damage of PC12 cells under SGD condition. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% (v/v fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 µg/ml streptomycin. Initially cells were pretreated with different concentrations of N. sativa extract (NSE, (10, 50, 250 µg/ml and TQ (1, 5, 10 µg/ml for 6 h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD for 18 h. The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate the effect of these compounds on DNA damage following ischemic insult. The amount of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA was measured as an indicator of DNA damage. Results: A significant increase in the % tail DNA was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD induced  DNA damage (p0.05. NSE and TQ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (p

  8. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberis vulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica

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    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris fruits and chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds against Leishmania tropica. Methods: In this study, antileishmanial activity of B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA was evaluated, using MTT assay and macrophage model, respectively. MTT test was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of extracts on murine macrophages. The significance of differences was determined by analysis of variances (ANOVA and student’s t-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that ethanolic extract of B. vulgaris (IC50 4.83 μg/ml and chloroform extract of N. sativa (IC50 7.83 μg/ml significantly reduced the viability of promastigotes of L. tropica in comparison to MA (IC50 11.26 μg/ml. Furthermore, extracts of B. vulgaris (IC50 24.03 μg/ml and N. sativa (IC50 30.21 μg/ml significantly decreased the growth rate of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive control (p <0.05. Our findings also revealed that extracts of B. vulgaris and N. sativa had no significant cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Conclusion: The B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts exhibited an effective leishmanicidal activity against L. tropica on in vitro model. Further, works are required to evaluate the exact effect of these extracts on Leishmania species using a clinical setting.

  9. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis.

  10. Assessment of Cellular Responses to Oxidative Stress using MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Black Seed (N. Sativa L. Extracts and H2O2

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    Ibrahim O. Farah

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Black seed (N. Sativa L is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE and ethanol (AE extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 Bg/ml in descending potency for H2O2+AE to the mix of 3. In contrast, H2O2 alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H2O2, WE+H2O2, AE+WE, and WE+AE+H2O2. Mixtures other than AE+H2O2 showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the field of cancer

  11. Métodos para a superação da dormência em sementes de sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth. Methods for dormancy overcoming of black sucupira (Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth. seeds

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    Keline Sousa Albuquerque

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliados diferentes métodos para a superação da dormência em sementes de sucupira-preta. O experimento foi realizado inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3 x 7, correspondendo a três lotes de sementes e sete tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. Foram utilizados ácido sulfúrico por 4, 8 e 12 minutos, água a 80°C por 5 e 10 minutos, escarificação mecânica, mantendo-se uma testemunha. Foi observado que a espécie possui dormência tegumentar e que todos os tratamentos utilizados permitiram a entrada de água nas sementes. Contudo, alguns métodos estudados, como a água a 80°C por 10 minutos, resultou em um elevado número de sementes mortas. O método mais eficiente para a superação da dormência de sementes de sucupira-preta é a imersão em ácido sulfúrico, por 4, 8 ou 12 minutos, beneficiando a porcentagem e a velocidade de germinação.This study evaluated diferent methods to overcome dormancy of black sucupira seeds. The experiment was installed in a fully randomized design composed by a factorial scheme 3x7, correspoding to three lots of seeds and seven treatments, with 4 replicates of 25 seeds. Sulfuric acid for 4, 8 and 12 minutes, water at 80°C for 5 and 10 minutes, sandpaper treatments were compared to the control. It was observed that this species has tegument dormancy and all treatments allowed seed imbibition. However in some of the methods used, such as like water at 80°C for 10 minutes, occurred a high number of dead seeds. The most suitable method for dormancy overcoming of black sucupira seeds was the imersion in sulfuric acid for 4, 8 and 12 minutes, that showed higher percentage and speed of germination.

  12. Panacea seed “Nigella”: A review focusing on regenerative effects for gastric ailments

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    Shahida A. Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS or black cumin is a dark, thin, and crescent-shaped, seeded shrub belonging to the Ranunculaceae family commonly growing on Mediterranean coasts in Saudi Arabia, northern Africa and Asia. They have amazing curative and therapeutic features that make them one of the most popular, safe, non-detrimental, and cytoprotective medicinal plant that can be used for prevention and treatment of many complicated diseases. Originally, N. sativa was used to treat migraines and allergy, and researches have shown its effectiveness in destroying cancer cells as well. The gastro protective effect of NS oil and its constituents has also been reported earlier; however, the complete perception on etiology and pathogenesis of gastric ulcer is not yet clear. Herein, we attempt to unveil some of the potential mechanisms exhibited by NS in preventing problems related to gastric ulcers. Gastric ailments like ulcers and tumors are the most common disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract in the present day life of the industrialized world. Gastric ulcer being a multifaceted problem exhibits complex etiology and is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. Drug interactions and toxicity are the main hindrances in chemotherapy. The existing merits and demerits of modern-day drugs make us turn toward the plant kingdom which may provide a valuable resource of novel potent natural compounds for pharmaceuticals or alternately, as dietary supplements. In this context, the revered phytotherapeutic N. sativa comes as a promising savior in today’s times. This review aims to summarize, both the functional and disease-related effects in the area of gastroenterology.

  13. The Effects of Suplementation of Nigella Sativa Oil on Performance and Egg Fatty Acid Composition During the Late Laying Period in Hens

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    M.Kuddusi Erhan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine effects of dietary Nigella sativa oil on performance, egg quality, blood metabolic profile and fatty acid composition of egg yolk of laying hens. Sixty four of 70 weeks old white Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups equally (n = 16. Each treatment was replicated four times. Diets were prepared by adding 0,1.5 ,2.5, and 3.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil to basal diets. Dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa oil had no significant effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, and egg production, Hough Unit, ratio of yolk, albumen and shell. The addition of 3.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil to the laying hens feed led to a significant decrease in the cholesterol ratio of the serum. It was found that serum globulin concentration increased significantly with supplementation of 2.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil. The addition of 2.5 and 3.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil to feed significantly (P<0.05 increased the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, eicosapentaenoic asit (EPA, docosahexaenoic asit (DHA, and n-3 content in the egg yolk. Consequently, it was determined that the addition of Nigella sativa oil did not effect performance values, however, it reduced cholesterol level of serum and n-6/n-3 ratio of egg yolk and increased the EPA, DHA and n-3 ratio of the egg yolk.

  14. Inheritance of Seed Color and Luster in Mungbean(Vigna radiata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The inheritance of seed color and seed luster of mungbean was studied by using accessions/varieties with different seed colour, black (Black), green (KPS1) and green (KPS2). In KPS2×Black combination, the F2 seed color was shiny black. The F3 data indicated the following genotype: 3B-for black seed color, and 1 bb for green seed color. Plant purple petiole gene and black seed color gene were very close linkage. There was no segregation between them. Perhaps the same gene B controlled the color of purple petiole. Moreover in KPS1×Black combination F3 seed color population showed a wide rang of phenotypic variability. Perhaps seed luster was controlled by more than two genes.

  15. The Effects of 8-week Nigella sativa Supplementation and Aerobic Training on Lipid Profile and VO2 max in Sedentary Overweight Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Esmail; Nia, Farhad Rahmani; Mehrtash, Mohammad; Mirmoeini, Fatemeh Sadat; Jalilvand, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    Regular moderate intensity physical activity and lipid lowering effects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) supplementation may be appropriate management for sedentary overweight females. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of long-term N. sativa supplementation and aerobic training on lipid profile and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in sedentary overweight females. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, which was conducted in Kerman city (Iran), 20 sedentary overweight females were divided into two groups and assigned to N. sativa supplementation (N. sativa capsules) or a placebo for the 8 weeks, both groups participated in an aerobic training program (3 times/week). Each N. sativa capsule contained 500 ± 10 mg N. sativa crushed seeds and subjects had to take 2 g N. sativa per day for 8 weeks. Blood lipids and VO2 max were determined at baseline and at the end of 8 weeks. N. sativa supplementation lowered total cholesterol (TC) (P high density lipoprotein (HDL) and VO2 max (P training program lowered TC (P training program and N. sativa supplementation lowered LDL and HDL (P training plus N. sativa supplementation have a synergistic effect in improve profile lipid parameters.

  16. Nigella sativa relieves the deleterious effects of ischemia reperfusion injury on liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahrettin Yildiz; Alpaslan Terzi; Sacit Coban; Mustafa Ares,; Nurten Aksoy; Hale Cakir; Ali Riza Ocak; Muharrem Bitiren,

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine whether Nigella sativa prevents hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver.METHODS:Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham(Group 1),control(Group 2),and Nigella sativa(NS)treatment group(Group 3).All rats underwent hepatic ischemia for 45 min followed by 60 min period of reperfusion.Rats were intraperitoneally infused with only 0.9% saline solution in group 2.Rats in group 3 received NS(0.2 mL/kg)intraperitoneally,before ischemia and before reperfusion.Blood samples and liver tissues were harvested from the rats,and then the rats were sacrificed.Serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)Ievels were determined.Total antioxidant capacity(TAC),catalase(CAT),total oxidative status(TOS),oxidative stress index(OSI)and myeloperoxidase(MPO)in hepatic tissue were measured.Also liver tissue histopathology was evaluated by light microscopy.RESULTS:The levels of liver anzymes in group 3 were significantly lower than those in the group 2.TAC in liver tissue was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2.TOS,OSI and MPO in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2.Histo logical tissue damage was milder in the NS treatment group than that in the control group.CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that Nigella sativa treatment protects the rat liver against to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro and in vivo study of the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa methanol extract in dairy cow mastitis

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    Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-07-01

    Results and conclusion: The extract showed significant in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects on causative organisms compared to standard drugs and also induced healing of the disease. This is the first veterinary experiment, to our knowledge, that investigated the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa.

  18. Protective role of Nigella sativa against experimentally induced type-II diabetic nuclear damage in Wistar rats

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    T. J. Sheikh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the anti-mutagenic effect of Nigella sativa on the experimentally induced chronic diabetes (type – II in Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: The anti-mutagenic effect was evaluated in Nigella sativa treated diabetic rats against the streptozotocin - nicotinamide (STZ-NA (at a dose rate of 45-110 i.p mg/kg b.wt for 90 days induced type-II diabetes mellitus using bone marrow micronucleus tests. The antioxidant status was tested by estimating the serum levels of lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase.Results: Our results indicated that diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa decreased the frequency of micronuclei in the erythrocytes of bone marrow (P < 0.05 and enhanced the antioxidant status (P < 0.05 in the treated diabetic rats as compared to controls.Conclusion: The observations indicated that the diabetic patients are more prone to cell mutations which are related to the level of cellular oxidative status and it could be reduced by Nigella sativa.

  19. UJI SITOTOKSISITAS DAN ANTIPROLIFERATIF FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI JINTEN HITAM (Nigella sativa, Lour TERHADAP SEL MIELOMA

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    Laela Hayu Nurani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the formation of new tissue which is abnormal and malignant. A group of cells suddenly become disorganized and reduplicate themselves rigorously (hyperproliferation. Nigella sativa L. is one of the herbs which have an anticancer effect. This research aims to assess the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of Nigella sativa L. ethanol extract of Myeloma cells. Ethanolic extract was produced from Nigella sativa L. powder with maseration method. The cytotoxicity test was done by incubating Myeloma cells with the treatment concentration group of N. sativa L. ethyl acetic fraction of ethanolic extract 2000; 1000; 500; 250; and 62,5 µg/ml, respectively. The test was done with an MTT method and then with a calculation of its death percentage. The LC50 is calculated using a probit analysis method. The test was then continued with the antiproliferative test to assess the doubling time at treatment concentration 125; 62,5 µg/ml and cellular control at hours 24, 48, and 72. The results showed that Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract had cytotoxic activity towards the Mieloma cells with an LC50 value 177,01 µg/ml. The antiproliferative test showed that there was a growth inhibition, even cell death at the extract treatments. The doubling time was 253 hours at 62,5 µg/ml concentration, 298,4 hours at 125 ug/ml, while the cell control had 54,52 hours.

  20. The Study Of The Insecticidal Effect Of Nigella Sativa Essential Oil Against Tuta Absoluta Larvae

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    Benchouikh Adil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To contribute to the development of an integrated strategy of pests associated with the tomato crop the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Nigella sativa was evaluated on larvae of Tuta absoluta which is considered the most destructive insect in the production of tomato Solanum lycopersicum and which causes serious damages in invaded areas. Rearing larvae of Tuta absoluta and the testing of toxicity were conducted in laboratory conditions in petri dishes at a temperature of 262C with a relative humidity ranging from 60 to 70 and a photoperiod of 16 8. The method of Finney based on probits regression of mortalities according to the logarithms of essential oil doses allowed us to determine the LD50. The results of these tests showed that the essential oil of Nigella sativa has remarkable larvicidal properties. After four hours of exposure they induced 100 of mortality of larvae in the concentration of 0203amp956lcm. The measured LD50 indicated the value of 0105amp956lcm. Field trials are needed to confirm the practical relevance of these results in the development of a natural pesticide against the larvae of Tuta absoluta.

  1. Protective effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced DNA damage in PC12 cells

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    Beheshteh Babazadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant properties has been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for treatment of CNS injuries. The most significant consequence of the oxidative stress is thought to be the DNA modifications, which can become permanent via the formation of mutations and other types of genomic instability resulting cellular dysfunction. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Nigella sativa (N. sativa seeds and thymoquinone (TQ, its most abundant constituent, have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and anti-neoplastic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study we investigated genoprotective effects of N. sativa and TQ on DNA damage of PC12 cells under SGD condition. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% (v/v fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 µg/ml streptomycin. Initially cells were pretreated with different concentrations of N. sativa extract (NSE, (10, 50, 250 µg/ml and TQ (1, 5, 10 µg/ml for 6 h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD for 18 h. The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate the effect of these compounds on DNA damage following ischemic insult. The amount of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA was measured as an indicator of DNA damage. Results: A significant increase in the % tail DNA was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD induced DNA damage (p0.05. NSE and TQ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (p<0.001. This suppression of DNA damage by NSE and TQ was found to be dose-dependent.Conclusion: These data indicate that NSE and TQ have a genoprotective property, as revealed by

  2. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  3. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  4. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375–970 nm were captured of all the s...

  5. Home About Us » Editorial Board Indexed in Current Issue Coming Issue Archives Submission » Contact Us Effects of Processing on Physicochemical and Antinutritional Properties of Black Turtle Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seeds Flour

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    S. S. Audu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is popular among the people of Bokkos in Plateau State, Nigeria where it is cultivated and locally known as “Kwakil”. The effects of different processing methods (boiling, cooking, roasting, sprouting and fermenting were investigated on fatty acid composition, physicochemical parameters and antinutritional factors of black turtle bean seeds. All the analyses were carried out using standard analytical techniques. The results showed that oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most concentrated fatty acids in the raw and processed samples with values ranging from 27.7 to 30.8% and 54.7 to 64.0%, respectively. Capric, lauric and myristic acids were present in small quantities with maximum value of 1.6% in roasted sample. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with an adequate amount of essential fatty acids. Significant differences were observed (p<0.05 in the fatty acid compositions between the raw and processed seed samples. The results of physicochemical properties of the seed oils for all the samples showed mean range values of the following parameters: Saponification value (190.5 – 198.05 mg KOH/g, peroxide value (3.20 – 3.42 meq O2/kg, iodine value (136.4 – 146.4 mg of I/100g, acid value (10.40 – 10.78 mg KOH/g, kinematic viscosity at 100oC (8.12 – 8.44 mm2/s, specific gravity at 25oC (0.96 – 0.97, unsaponifiable matter (3.37 – 3.62% and flash point (302 – 315oC. Generally, the values of the physicochemical parameters showed that the oils may be useful as edible oils due to their stability as frying oils. The results of antinutrients revealed that reductions were almost recorded in all the processed seed samples compared with the raw sample.

  6. Roles of Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid in Regulating Germination of Suaeda salsa Dimorphic Seeds Under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Khan, M. Ajmal; An, Ping; Liu, Xiaojing; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA homeostases by salt

  7. 黑豆皮花色苷抗禽白血病病毒A亚群活性的研究%Study on the effect of anthocyanin from black soybean seed coat resistance subgroup A avian leukosis virus activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷用东; 王丹; 童军茂; 张莉; 马越; 张超; 赵晓燕

    2013-01-01

    To study the inhibitory action of anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat (ABSC) to subgroup A avian leukosis virus (ALV-A) in vitro.ABSC powder was chosen as the raw material and its anthocyanins structure was identified by HPLC-MS.Then in vitro, MTT assay and cell morphological changes were used to observe the cytotoxic effect of ABSC on monolayer DF-1 cells, and cell model was used to research ABSCs prevention and treatment roles in the ALV-A-infected different phase.The result showed that the extract of black soybean seed coat contained four major anthocyanins, the one of the main component was cyanidin-3-glucoside.When mass concentration of ABSC was less than 20μg/mL, DF-1 cells was well-grown without the cell toxicity. Introduced ALV-A to DF-1, ABSC could restrain the proliferation of ALV-A under the 20μg/mL, and inhibition effect was dose-response in the security concentration range.In summary, anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat of 12μg/mL had significantly inhibitory effect for DF-1 cell induced by ALV-A.%为探寻黑豆皮花色苷(anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat,ABSC)抗禽白血病病毒A亚群(subgroup Aavian leukosis virus,ALV-A)的活性效果 本文以ABSC粉为原料,采用高效液相色谱仪与质谱仪联机(HPLC-MS)的方法鉴定了其花色苷主要活性成分,随后采用体外实验,应用MTT法和观察细胞形态法检测了ABSC对鸡成纤维细胞系(DF-1)的细胞毒性,建立细胞模型,研究加入ABSC后对ALV-A的预防和治疗作用 结果表明:黑豆皮花色苷粉中含四种花色苷成分,其中主要为矢车菊色素-3-葡萄糖苷;ABSC对DF-1无细胞毒性的最大相对安全质量浓度为20μg/mL; ABSC在安全浓度范围内能抑制A LV-A的增殖,且抑制程度成剂量关系 结论,ABSC质量浓度为12 μg/mL能够显著抑制ALV-A诱导的DF-1细胞形态变化,降低调亡.

  8. Vigor de sementes de populações de aveia preta: II. Desempenho e utilização de nitrogênio Seed vigor of plant populations of black oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Osmar Braga Schuch

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do vigor das sementes e das possíveis interações com a variação na população de plantas (150, 300 e 450 pl/m2, sobre o desempenho a campo de dois cultivares de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, e sobre alguns componentes envolvidos na utilização do nitrogênio, foi avaliado neste trabalho. O rendimento biológico na antese e na maturação, a remobilização de nitrogênio, a eficiência de remobilização e de utilização de nitrogênio, a concentração de nitrogênio nos tecidos na maturação e a qualidade fisiológica das sementes produzidas, não foram afetados pela diferença nos níveis de vigor das sementes e pela variação na população de plantas. O rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento não foram afetados pelo nível de vigor das sementes, embora as baixas populações de plantas tenham reduzido o rendimento de grãos. As plantas provenientes de sementes de menor vigor foram mais eficientes na alocação de produtos da fotossíntese nas sementes. A cultivar Embrapa 29 foi menos eficientes na acumulação de nitrogênio na biomassa da parte aérea na época da antese, e na biomassa da parte vegetativa aérea na época da maturação, do que a cultivar Embrapa 140. Ocorreram diferenças genotípicas na resposta ao vigor das sementes para algumas características ligadas a eficiência no uso de nitrogênio. Não foram observadas interações entre níveis de vigor de sementes e populações de plantas.This study evaluated the effects of seed vigor and of possible interactions with different plant populations (150, 300, and 450 pl/m2, on the growth of two cultivated black oats cultivars, and on some components of the nitrogen utilization. The biological yield at anthesis and at maturity, nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen utilization efficiency, nitrogen concentration in plant tissues at maturity and physiological quality of the produced seeds, were not affected by differences of the levels of seed

  9. Produtividade e qualidade de sementes de flores produzidas em Santa Maria Productivity and quality of flower seeds produced in Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de produção e a qualidade de sementes, foram cultivadas 15 espécies deflores nas condições de Santa Maria (Latitude 29°41'S e Longitude 53°48'W. O experimento foi realizado a campo no delineamento blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A grande maioria das espécies produz rendimento médio de sementes elevado apesar da variabilidade. Nas condições de benefïciamento oferecidas, as espécies Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella e Fhlox produziram sementes com alta germinação. As espécies Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gailiardia, Nicotina, Scabiosa e Zinnia possuem potencial de produção de sementes de melhor qualidade, desde que se melhore, principalmente, o beneficiamento.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential and quality of flowers seeds. Fifteen species were tested for Santa Maria (24°41'S latitude and 53°48'W longitude. The majority of the species had high seed production despite of variability. Considering the local conditions of seeds cleaning and processing the species Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella and Phlox produced seeds with high germination. The species Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gaillardia Nicotinic, Scabbiest and Zinnia have potential to potential to produce seeds of high quality, specially, when seed cleaning and processing are improved.

  10. Produtividade e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de aveia preta em função da calagem superficial em plantio direto = Black oat yield and seed physiologic quality under superficial lime application in no tillage system

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    Tiago Roque Benetoli da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de aveia preta em razão da aplicação superficial de calcário em plantio direto, foi realizado um experimento em Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, sob condições de sequeiro. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em que os tratamentos foram constituídos por aplicação superficial de doses de calcário dolomítico (D0 = zero – sem aplicação de calcário; D1 = 1,8 t ha-1 – quantidade de calcário para elevar a saturação por bases a 54%; D2 = 3,6 t ha-1 – quantidade de calcário para elevar a saturação por bases a 68% e D3 = 5,4 t ha-1 – quantidade de calcário para elevar a saturação por bases a 80%, realizada em outubro de 2002. A cultura da aveia preta, cultivar Comum, foi semeada em abril de 2004, no segundo ano após a rotação milheto (primavera, feijão (verão e aveia preta (outono e inverno. Com os resultados obtidos, observou-se ganho de produtividade com a aplicação superficial de calcário, porém sem influenciar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de aveia preta.The experiment carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in dry conditions, aiming to evaluate the yield and physiologic quality of black oat seeds, under superficial liming in no tillage system. A randomized complete block design was used, with four replications. The treatments were superficial application of different dolomitic lime rates (R0 = zero – without lime; R1 = 1.8 t ha-1 – lime to increase the base saturation at 54%; R2 = 3.6 t ha-1 – lime to increase the base saturation at 68%, and R3 = 5.4 t ha-1 – lime to increase the base saturation at 80%, in October 2002. The blackoat Common cultivar was sowed in April 2004, in second year, after the crop rotation of millet (spring, common bean (summer, black oat (autumn/winter. The results showed that the black oat physiologic quality seed was not affected by

  11. Floral vascular patterns of the double-flowered and wildtype morphs of Nigella damascena L. (Ranunculaceae

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    Thierry Deroin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The perianth of the double-flowered morph of Nigella damascena L. consists of spirally inserted petaloid sepals and sepal-like organs, similar in shape and colour to the petaloid sepals of the wild-type flower. It is devoid of petals. We compare the vascularization of each organ category of the double flower with that of the wild-type. We show that the vascular patterns of the sepal-like organs and of the petals are identical, and found an inverse relationship between the number of bracts and the number of sepals in the double-flowered morph. These two surprising findings will influence the future evo-devo studies on this plant model.

  12. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations

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    Shawky Mohamed Aboelhadid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study.Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or ab­solute ethyl alcohol only, 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions, 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions, and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions. The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials.Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% con­centration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic prepa­rations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol resulted in no mortality. All differences were sta­tistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5% and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%. The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%.Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20% that could achieve the highest lethal (100% effect in shortest time (12 hours. Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae.

  13. HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF NIGELLA SATIVA IN PARACETAMOL (ACETAMINOPHEN INDUCED LIVER DISEASES OF RATS: A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION

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    Farida Yesmin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute over dose of paracetamol (acetaminophen causes serious hepatic necrosis. So, this study was conducted to observe the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats in Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2008 to 2010. Single dose of paracetamol was administered on day one and rats were sacrificed on day three. Liver damage was evaluated by hepatic histology. Aqueous and n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa was administered orally into two other rat groups through intra-gastric tube for 28 days in which paracetamol was administered orally on day 28 and were sacrificed on day 30. Liver of all rats were excised and processed for light microscopy with a view to histopathological evaluation. The histological examination of the liver tissues in vehicle treated group and paracetamol-control group of rats showed normal hepatic architecture, centrilobular necrosis, polymorph (neutrophils infiltration and pyknosis of the hepatocytes respectively. The hepatic architecture of rats pre-treated with aqueous extract of Nigella sativa showed improvement of necrosis with very few pyknotic nuclei when compared to the paracetamol-control group. The hepatic architecture of rats pre-treated with aqueous extract as well as with the n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa did not show pyknotic nuclei and polymorph infiltration while apparently regenerating hepatocytes, visible under the microscope. Aqueous extract and n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa extended hepatoprotection by reducing oxidative stress in experimental liver damage in rats. Furthermore, the protection afforded by the n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa pre-treated group was superior to the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa pre-treated group.

  14. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  15. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  16. Nephro-protective effect of vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin associated nephrotoxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Uzma; Ahmad, Bashir; Rehman, Kanwal; Mahmood, Saeed; Alam, Maqsood; Erum, Alia

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress causes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to nephrotoxicity. An aminoglycoside, gentamicin, has pronounced nephrotoxic effect in humans and animals and this study was planned to observe the nephro-protective effect of antioxidants, vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and antioxidant activity were measured as indicators of nephrotoxicity for all the groups of rabbits. Results showed that vitamin C and Nigella sativa oil both had nephro-protective effect as they lowered the values of nephrotoxicity indicators (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and antioxidant activity) as compared to gentamicin control group values. When these two antioxidants were given as combination, they proved to have synergistic nephro-protective effect.

  17. A study of effect of Nigella sativa oil in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Manik S. Ghadlinge; Jugalkishor B. Jaju; Rakhamaji D. Chandane; Rakesh R. Jadhav; Rama R. Bhosle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) toxicity is a common cause of drug induced hepatotoxicity in children and adults. Specific treatment of paracetamol induced hepatitis is available in the form of N acetylcysteine only. Nigella sativa (NS) is used for the treatment of various ailments. Many studies have shown that NS plant has hepatoprotective potential. Hence, this study study was carried out to explore the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of NS oil against hepatotoxicity induced by ...

  18. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  19. A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iddamaldeniya SS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root bark and Smilax glabra rhizome is being recommended for cancer patients by a family of traditional medical practitioners of Sri Lanka. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a short term (10 weeks treatment with the decoction can significantly inhibit diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediated expression of Glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P in rat liver. The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether long term (16 months treatment with the decoction would be successful in inhibiting in rat livers, not only DEN- mediated expression of GST-P, but also the carcinogen mediated development of overt tumours (OT or histopathological changes leading to tumour development (HT. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 each. Groups 1 and 2 were injected intraperitoneally (i.p with DEN (200 mg/kg while group 3 was injected normal saline (NS. Twenty-four hours later, decoction (DC; 6 g/kg body weight/day was orally administered to group 1 rats, while groups 2 and 3 (DEN-control and normal control were given distilled water (DW. Treatment with DC or DW continued for 16 months. At the end of the 9th month and 16th months (study 1 and study 2 respectively, six rats from each group were sacrificed, and livers observed for OT or HT, both visually and by subjecting liver sections to staining with Haemotoxylin and Eosin (H & E, Sweet's Silver stain (for reticulin fibers, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS staining (for glycogen, and immunohistochemical staining (for GST-P. Results At the end of 9 months (study 1 a hepatocellular adenoma (HA developed in one of the rats in the DEN + DW treated group (group 2. At the end of 16 months (study 2, livers of all rats of group 2 developed OT and HT. Large areas of GST-P positive foci were also observed. No OT, HT or GST-P positive foci were detected in any of the other groups. Conclusion

  20. A review of Neuropharmacology Effects of Nigella sativa and Its Main Component, Thymoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Soheila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Neuropharmacology is the scientific study of drug effect on nervous system. In the last few years, different natural plants and their active constituents have been used in neurological therapy. The availability, lower price, and less toxic effects of herbal medicines compared with synthetic agents make them as simple and excellent choice in the treatment of nervous diseases. Nigella sativa, which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, is a widely used medicinal plant all over the world. In traditional and modern medicines several beneficial properties have been attributed to N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone (TQ). In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the neuropharmacological aspects of N. sativa and TQ have been introduced. Results of these studies showed that N. sativa and TQ have several properties including anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-ischemic, analgesic, antipsychotic, and memory enhancer. Furthermore, its protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and multiple sclerosis have been discussed. Although there are many studies indicating the beneficial actions of this plant in nervous system, the number of research projects relating to the human reports is rare. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety evaluation of Phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa, on pregnant rats

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    Reza Salarinia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa, which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation. Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells.  Results: The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL. Conclusion: Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells.

  3. Effect of n-Hexane extract of Nigella sativa on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim A Begum

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of the n-hexane extract of the Nigella sativa Linn. (kalajira ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day for 7 days was administered and nephrotoxicity was evaluated biochemically (significantly decreased reduced glutathione in renal cortex and significantly increased serum creatinine and serum urea and histologically (moderate degree of proximal tubular damage. The n-hexane extract of N. sativa (5 ml/kg/day was administered as pre-, post- and concomitant treatment for 7 days in the nephrotoxic rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved renal cortical histology was observed in the n-hexane extract of N. sativa treated nephrotoxic rats, which was more evident in the post-treatment group than the pre- treatment and the concomitantly-treated group. It is suggested that some ingredients contained in the n-hexane extract of N. sativa effected in ameliorating the signs of nephrotoxicity and that the specific active principle of the n-hexane extract of N. sativa responsible for this amelioration if obtained, would be more useful.

  4. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa on ischemia-reperfusion induced rat kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Havakhah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:There are a few previously reported studies about the effect of Nigella sativa oil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether pre- or post-treatment with N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (NSE would reduce tissue injury and oxidative damages in a clinically relevant rat model of renal IRI.    Materials and Methods: IRI was induced by clamping of bilateral renal arteries for 40 min fallowed by reperfusion for 180 min. NSE was prepared in a Soxhlet extractor and administrated with doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg at 1 hr before ischemia induction (P-150 and 300 or at the beginning of reperfusion phase (T-150 and 300, via jugular catheter intravenously. The kidneys were then removed and subjected to biochemical analysis, comet assay or histopathological examination. Results: The kidneys of untreated IRI rats had a higher histopathological score (P

  6. Biological control of Alternaria radicina in seed production of carrots with Ulocladium atrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Langerak, C.J.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Black rot of carrots is caused by seed-borne Alternaria radicina. Biological control of seed infestation by treatments applied to plants in flower during seed production with the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum was investigated in laboratory and field experiments resulting in a reduction of seed

  7. Formation of Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.

  8. The effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone on lipopolysaccharide - induced depression like behavior in rats

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    Mahmoud Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects, Nigella sativa and its main ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ, have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone was investigated on lipopolysaccharide- induced depression like behavior in rats. Materials and Methods: 50 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of NS extract, thymoquinone or lipopolysaccharide. The animals in group 2 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS were treated by saline instead of NS extract and were injected LPS (100μg/kg, ip 2 hours before conducting each forced swimming test. Groups 3 (LPS + NS 200 and 4 (LPS + NS 400 were treated by 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS (ip, respectively, from the day before starting the experiments and before each forced swimming test. These animals were also injected LPS 2hours before conducting each swimming test. The animals in group 5 received TQ instead of NS extract. Forced swimming test was performed 3 times for all groups (in alternative days, and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in an open- field apparatus, and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the LPS group was higher than that in the control group in all 3 times (P<0.001. The animals in LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ had lower immobility times in comparison with LPS groups (P<0.01, and P<0.01. In the open- field test, the crossing number of peripheral in the LPS group was higher than that of the control one (P<0.01 while the animals of LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ groups had lower crossing number of peripheral compared with the LPS group (P <0.05, and P<0.001. Furthermore, in the LPS group

  9. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments.

  10. Effects of germination time on seed morph ratio in a seed-dimorphic species and possible ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Cao, Dechang; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-01-01

    Diaspores of heteromorphic species may germinate at different times due to distinct dormancy-breaking and germination requirements, and this difference can influence life history traits. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of germination time of the two seed morphs of Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica on life history traits of the offspring. Germinated brown and black seeds were sown on the 20th of each month from April to September in a simulated but near-natural habitat of the species. Phenological and vegetative traits of the maternal plants, and number, size and germination percentage of the offspring were determined. Germinated seeds sown late in the year produced smaller plants that had a higher proportion of non-dormant brown than dormant black seeds, and these brown seeds were larger than those produced by germinated seeds sown early in the year. The length of the seedling stage for brown seeds was shorter than that for black seeds, and the root/shoot ratio and reproductive allocation of plants from brown seeds were more variable than they were for plants from black seeds. Late-germinating brown seeds produced larger plants than late-germinating black seeds. Altering the proportion of the two seed types in response to germination timing can help alleviate the adverse effects of delayed germination. The flexible strategy of a species, such as S. corniculata, that produces different proportions of dimorphic seeds in response to variation in germination timing may favour the maintenance and regeneration of the population in its unpredictable environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of germination time on seed morph ratio in a seed-dimorphic species and possible ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.; Yang, Xuejun; Cao, Dechang; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Diaspores of heteromorphic species may germinate at different times due to distinct dormancy-breaking and germination requirements, and this difference can influence life history traits. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of germination time of the two seed morphs of Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica on life history traits of the offspring. Methods Germinated brown and black seeds were sown on the 20th of each month from April to September in a simulated but near-natural habitat of the species. Phenological and vegetative traits of the maternal plants, and number, size and germination percentage of the offspring were determined. Key Results Germinated seeds sown late in the year produced smaller plants that had a higher proportion of non-dormant brown than dormant black seeds, and these brown seeds were larger than those produced by germinated seeds sown early in the year. The length of the seedling stage for brown seeds was shorter than that for black seeds, and the root/shoot ratio and reproductive allocation of plants from brown seeds were more variable than they were for plants from black seeds. Late-germinating brown seeds produced larger plants than late-germinating black seeds. Conclusions Altering the proportion of the two seed types in response to germination timing can help alleviate the adverse effects of delayed germination. The flexible strategy of a species, such as S. corniculata, that produces different proportions of dimorphic seeds in response to variation in germination timing may favour the maintenance and regeneration of the population in its unpredictable environment. PMID:25395107

  12. MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SOME STORED SEEDS AND THEIR CONTROL BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKARIA A. M. BAKA*, MAMDOUH S. SERAG AND TAREK A. KARDOSHA

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne fungi associated with some seeds collected from Egypt markets during storage and the possibility of their control by medicinal plant extracts. The studied seeds were Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, Lens esculentus, Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogea and Vicia faba. Thirteen fungal species were isolated from those Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most prevalent. Sixteen medicinal plants named Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Mentha basilicum, Musa acuminate, Eucalptus rostrata, Datura stramonium, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Euphorbia peplis, Ocimum basilicum, Carum carvi, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum and Citrullus colocynthis were screened for their antifungal activities. Aqueous plant extracts of all mentioned plants were tested against the most prodomonant fungal species. Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Datura stramonium and Citrullus colocynthis exhibited the highest antifungal activity within all plants tested. Treated seeds by plant extracts showed an increase of the percentage of their germination and reduction of seed-borne fungal infection. Mycotoxins of infected seeds and fungal pathogens were also determined.

  13. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  14. Antibacterial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa essential oil coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Shanthi, Sathappan; Jaishabanu, Ameeramja; Ekambaram, Perumal; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using essential oil of Nigella sativa (NsEO-AuNPs). The synthesized NsEO-AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-vis spectra of NsEO-AuNPs showed strong absorption peak at 540 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed crystalline nature of nanoparticle with distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 311 planes) of NsEO-AuNPs. The FTIR spectra recorded peaks at 3388, 2842, 1685, 1607, 1391 and 1018 cm(-1). TEM studies showed the spherical shape of nanoparticles and the particle size ranges between 15.6 and 28.4 nm. The antibacterial activity of NsEO-AuNPs was greater against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 9542 (16 mm) than Gram negative Vibrio harveyi MTCC 7771 (5 mm) at the concentration of 10 μg ml(-1). NsEO-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm formation of S. aureus and V. harveyi by decreasing the hydrophobicity index (78% and 46% respectively). The in-vitro anti-lung cancer activity confirmed by MTT assay on the cell line of A549 carcinoma cells showed IC50 values of bulk Au at 87.2 μg ml(-1), N. sativa essential oil at 64.15 μg ml(-1) and NsEO-AuNPs at 28.37 μg ml(-1). The IC50 value showed that NsEO-AuNPs was highly effective in inhibiting the A549 lung cancer cells compared to bulk Au and N. sativa essential oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential immunomodulation effect of the extract of Nigella sativa on ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad-Hossein BOSKABADY; Rana KEYHANMANESH; Saeed KHAMENEH; Yousef DOOSTDAR; Mohammad-Reza KHAKZAD

    2011-01-01

    Several different pharmacological effects have been described for Nigella sativa (Siah-Daneh), including an anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, the effect of the extract of N. saliva on lung pathology and blood interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) of sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Three groups (n=8 for each group)of guinea pigs sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) were given drinking water alone, and drinking water containing low and high concentrations of the plant extract, respectively. The animals of the control group (n=8) were treated with saline instead of OA and were given drinking water. The pathological changes of the lung, including infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes, local epithelial necrosis, the presence of oedema, thickening of the basement membrane, smooth muscle layer hypertrophy, mucosal secretion, and the presence of mucosal plug, and blood IL-4 and IFN-γ of sensitized guinea pigs were evaluated. The lungs of the sensitized group showed significant pathological changes (P<0.001). Blood IL-4 and IFN-γ were increased in sensitized animals compared to the controls (P<0.01 and P<0.001,respectively). Treatment of sensitized animals with the extract led to a significant decrease in pathological changes of the lung (P<0.01 to P<0.001), except for the oedema in the sensitized group treated with low concentration of the extract, but an increased IFN-γ. These results confirm a preventive effect of N. sativa extract on lung inflammation of sensitized guinea pigs.

  16. The effect of Nigella sativa on learning and memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Jalali nodoushan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: Diabetes mellitus accompanies with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of Nigella sativum (NS , this research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic consumption of NS on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, NS-treated control, diabetic, and NS-treated diabetic groups. NS treatment continued for 1 month. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, alternation behavior percentage was determined using Y maze. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and NS-treated diabetic groups after 4 weeks as compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and NS-treated diabetic groups. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.01 in NS-treated diabetic group as compared to control group at the end of study. In addition, results of Y-maze test showed that there is a significant difference between diabetic and NS-treated diabetic groups (p<0.05 regarding alternation behavior. Discussion: In summary, chronic oral administration of NS could enhance the consolidation and recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in diabetic animals.  

  17. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Sara Hosseinian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The clinical use of cisplatin is highly restricted, because of its nephrotoxicity.In this study the protective effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: In the current study, the effects of the administration of aqueous-ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 and 200 mg/kg, BW and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, BW against blood and urine biochemical alterations and kidney function in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. Cisplatin was injected at a dose of 6 mg/kg, BW, on the sixth day of the experiment. Results: The results indicated significant changes in serum urea and creatinine concentration, urine glucose concentration, and urine output in cisplatin group compared with control group. Serum urea and creatinine concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW groups and also serum creatinine concentration in preventive+treatment N. sativa (100 mg/kg, BW group significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group. Urine glucose concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa groups and urine output in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW groups significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group.Osmolarity excretion rate in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive N. sativa groups was significantly higher than control group. Conclusions: The current study suggests that N. sativa extract and vitamin E in a dose- and time-dependent manner improved the serum and urine biochemical parameters and kidney function in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it needs more investigations to determine the mechanism of N. sativa action on cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity.

  18. Nigella Sativa and Oriental Spices with Protective Role in Iron Intoxication: in vivo Experiments on Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of hematological parameters is essential for assuring a general health status for any living organism. Iron is one of the essential mineral, involved in many vital processes – mainly in blood cells production, but in the same way it can become toxic in very high concentration. Hemoglobin and red blood cells are directed related with the iron ion, due to the high quantity (70% of total iron from organism being part of the blood (hemoglobin and muscle (myoglobin cells. Ferrous ion is part of hemoglobin structure, and red blood cells. But, the administration of high doses of iron can negatively affect the general health status, because the iron alters the enzymatic system in the vital organs. The aim of our experimental study was to verify the hypothesis that in rabbit’s organism, after intraperitoneal administration of 15g Fe2+/body weight as ferrous-gluconate hydro solution, a special diet based on a complex, fresh, organic vegetables (roots and leaves protects the organism by iron intoxication and help the hematological homeostasis. The research experiment was conducted during 43 days in summer time, on German Lop Eared breed young rabbits, which were protected with a diet that consisted of administration of Nigella sativa, some oriental spices (Allium ampeloprasum, Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Eruca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum and other vegetables (Trifolium, Petroselinum crispum, Dacus carrota subsp.sativus and Cucumis sativus. At the final of experiment we collected blood samples for hematological test and we evaluated the erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. The results were analytical evaluated and only for hemoglobin we obtained significant increase value in experimental rabbits compared to control group of rabbits.

  19. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  1. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS ON GAMMA- IRRADIATED NIGELLA SATIVA EXTRACT INDUCED BLOOD AND IMMUNE CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moseilhy Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted to test the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS, 5 mg kg-1 of body weight, or γ-irradiated Nigella Sativa (GRNS on the changes of blood component profiles, liver, kidney functions and immune cytokines secretion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the possible protection by propolis (200 mg kg-1 B. W. on the changes induced by NS and GRNS was examined. Results revealed that both NS and GRNS administration for two weeks induced changes in blood, GPT, GOT and urea levels and co-administration with propolis significantly ameliorated such changes. Also, liver histology showed numerous vacuolar degeneration and fatty changes in γ-irradiated groups which disappeared in presence of propolis. Kidney histology of NS administered rats showed less lymphocytic infiltration, while GRNS groups showed desquamation in the cytoplasm of the renal tubules, hemorrhage in the renal corpuscle and lymphocytic infiltration which disappeared when propolis given together with GRNS. Finally propolis induced protective effect on the changes induced in TNF-α and IL-10 secretion by either NS or GRNS in Wistar rats. In conclusion, the findings of present study clarified the protective effect of propolis on changes induced by γ-irradiated NS on blood, liver, kidney and cytokines changes in Wistar rats.

  2. The effects of Nigella sativa oil, thymoquinone, propolis, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on radiation-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Elif; Taysi, Seyithan; Al, Behcet; Demir, Tuncer; Okumus, Seydi; Saygili, Oguzhan; Saricicek, Edibe; Dirier, Ahmet; Akan, Muslum; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), Nigella sativa oil (NSO), and thymoquinone (TQ) against ionizing radiation-induced cataracts in lens after total cranium irradiation of rats with single dose of 5-Gy cobalt-60 gamma rays. A total of 74 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 8 groups to test the radioprotective effectiveness of Nigella sativa oil, thymoquine, propolis, or caffeic acid phenethyl ester administered by either orogastric tube or intraperitoneal injection. Appropriate control groups were also studied. Chylack's cataract classification was used in the study. At the end of the tenth day, cataracts developed in 80 % of the rats in the radiotherapy group. After irradiation, cataract rate dropped to 20 % in NSO, 30 % in propolis, 40 % in CAPE, and 50 % in TQ groups and was limited to grade 1 and grade 2. Cataract formation was observed the least in NSO group and the most in TQ group. In the irradiated (IR) group, superoxide dismutase activity was lower, while glutathione peroxidase and xanthine oxidase activities and malondialdehyde level were higher compared with the other groups. Total superoxide scavenger activity and nonenzymatic superoxide scavenger activity were not statistically significant in IR group compared with the other groups. The findings obtained in the study might suggest that propolis, CAPE, NSO, and TQ could prevent cataractogenesis in ionizing radiation-induced cataracts in the lenses of rats, wherein propolis and NSO were found to be more potent.

  3. Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iddamaldeniya Samantha S

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root and Smilax glabra rhizome is used to treat cancer patients in Sri Lanka. However, the anti-carcinogenic properties of this decoction have not been experimentally confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the above decoction could protect against chemically induce hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods The effects of this decoction on diethylnitrosamine (DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis were examined in male Wistar rats using the medium term bioassay system of Ito, based on a 2-step model of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 each. Groups 1 to 4 were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg to initiate carcinogenesis. Twenty-four hours later groups 1 and 2 were administered the decoction at 4 g/kg body weight/day (dose 1 and 6 g/kg body weight/day (dose 2, respectively. Group 3 and group 4 were given distilled water instead of the decoction and a suspension of garlic powder (20 g/kg body weight/day in distilled water (positive control, respectively. Group 5 and 6 were injected with normal saline and twenty-four hours later group 5 was given distilled water (normal control while group 6 was given decoction dose 2 (decoction control. Oral feeding continued for two weeks after which all rats were subjected to 2/3 partial hepatectomy to promote carcinogenesis. Oral feeding continued for eight more weeks. At the end of the 10th week, rats were sacrificed and samples of livers taken for immunohistochemical studies. Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the number, area and staining intensity of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P positive foci and the number of cells/cm2 of the positive foci in the livers of the six groups of rats. Results The number and area of DEN-mediated GST-P positive foci, number of cells/cm2 of foci and staining intensity of the foci were significantly (P > 0.001 reduced by the

  4. Variation of seed heteromorphism in Chenopodium album and the effect of salinity stress on the descendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shixiang; Lan, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Chenopodium album is well-known as a serious weed and is a salt-tolerant species inhabiting semi-arid and light-saline environments in Xinjiang, China. It produces large amounts of heteromorphic (black and brown) seeds. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the germination characteristics of heteromorphic seeds, the diversity of plant growth and seed proliferation pattern of the resulting plants, and the correlation between NaCl stress and variation of seed heteromorphism. Methods The phenotypic characters of heteromorphic seeds, e.g. seed morphology, seed mass and total seed protein were determined. The effects of dry storage at room temperature on dormancy behaviour, the germination response of seeds to salinity stress, and the effect of salinity on growth and seed proliferation with plants derived from different seed types were investigated. Key Results Black and brown seeds differed in seed morphology, mass, total seed protein, dormancy behaviour and salinity tolerance. Brown seeds were large, non-dormant and more salt tolerant, and could germinate rapidly to a high percentage in a wider range of environments; black seeds were salt-sensitive, and a large proportion of seeds were dormant. These characteristics varied between two populations. There was little difference in growth characteristics and seed output of plants produced from the two seed morphs except when plants were subjected to high salinity stress. Plants that suffered higher salinity stress produced more brown (salt-tolerant) seeds. Conclusions The two seed morphs of C. album exhibited distinct diversity in germination characteristics. There was a significant difference in plant development and seed proliferation pattern from the two types of seeds only when the parent plants were treated with high salinity. In addition, seed heteromorphism of C. album varied between the two populations, and such variation may be attributed, at least in part, to the salinity

  5. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  6. Black holes and the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...

  7. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  8. Chemical composition, carbohydrate digestibility, and antioxidant capacity of cooked black bean, chickpea, and lentil Mexican varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva-Cristobal, L; Osorio-Díaz, P; Tovar, J; Bello-Pérez, L. A

    2010-01-01

    .... The cooked seeds of three Mexican pulses (black bean, chickpea, and lentil) were evaluated regarding their chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity...

  9. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  10. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and IIyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  11. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402,Shanyou 10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and Ilyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  12. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  13. The effects of Nigella sativa on thyroid function, serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) - 1, Nesfatin-1 and anthropometric features in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Dehghan, Parvin; Tajmiri, Siroos; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari

    2016-11-16

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder and the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The use of Nigella sativa, a potent herbal medicine, continues to increase worldwide as an alternative treatment of several chronic diseases including hyperlipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa on thyroid function, serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) - 1, Nesfatin-1 and anthropometric features in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Forty patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, aged between 22 and 50 years old, participated in the trial and were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control receiving powdered Nigella sativa or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometric variables, dietary intakes, thyroid status, serum VEGF and Nesfatin-1 concentrations after 8 weeks were measured. Treatment with Nigella sativa significantly reduced body weight and body mass index (BMI). Serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies decreased while serum T3 concentrations increased in Nigella sativa-treated group after 8 weeks. There was a significant reduction in serum VEGF concentrations in intervention group. None of these changes had been observed in placebo treated group. In stepwise multiple regression model, changes in waist to hip ratio (WHR) and thyroid hormones were significant predictors of changes in serum VEGF and Nesgfatin-1 values in Nigella sativa treated group (P Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, Nigella sativa significantly reduced serum VEGF concentrations in these patients. Considering observed health- promoting effect of this medicinal plant in ameliorating the disease severity, it can be regarded as a useful therapeutic approach in management of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Iranian registry of clinical trials (registration number IRCT2015021719082N4 - Registered March

  14. Quasistars: Accreting black holes inside massive envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Armitage, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure and evolution of "quasistars," accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate onto the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasistars. We derive analytically the scaling of the photospheric temperature with the black hole mass and envelope mass, and show that it decreases with time as the black hole mass increases. Once the photospheric temperature becomes lower than 10000 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and the photospheric temperature hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hy...

  15. Physiological quality and imbibitions of soybean seeds with contrasting coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bahry

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The attributes that confer seed quality can largely be considered dependent on the coat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and hydration pattern of the seeds of four contrasting soybean genotypes for the coats characteristics; BMX Potência RR and CD 202 with yellow coats and IAC and TP with black coats. The first stage of the study consisted of seed multiplication in the 2012/2013 harvest. After storage for five months at a temperature of 17 ºC and a relative humidity of 50%, the seeds were subjected to the following tests: germination, first count and seedling height, with and without immersion of the seeds, emergence in soil, emergence speed and germination index; electrical conductivity; thousand weight seeds and imbibitions of seeds. The design was completely randomized, with five replicates. The data was subjected to variance analysis and the means compared using the Tukey test at a 5% level of probability. Regression analysis was used for the seeds imbibitions test. Genotypes with black coats (especially IAC presented better physiological quality in relation to genotypes with yellow coats. The latter had greater thousand weight seeds. BMX Potência RR presented greater hydration than the other genotypes in the first hours of imbibitions and TP, the least. Genotypes with black coats emitted a radicle faster than the yellow coats genotypes.

  16. Modifying effects of Soybean and Nigella Sativa against Experimental Hepato-carcinogenesis induced By Nitrosamine Precursor in Rats Histopathological and electron microscopically study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa F. Waer, **Abdel Baset EL Asser, ***Hamdy A. Ibrahim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become an important topic in medicine since it is a major cause of death in the developing countries and it is now only secondary to that of myocardial infraction. Nitrosamines precursors are known to be carcinogenic to humans, in various organs at relatively low levels of exposure. It induces benign and malignant tumors especially liver tumors following its administration by various routes, including ingestion and inhalation. Humans may be exposed to Nitrosamines through the ingestion of food that contains it, such as cured meat products, and smoked fish. Other exposures to Nitrosamines may be from drinking contaminated water and from breathing cigarette smoke and contaminated ambient air. Individual are most likely to be exposed to Nitrosamines in occupational settings such as in the rubber, tannery, fish processing, dyes, and surfactant industries. The prevalence of liver tumors throughout the world makes in imperative to seek chemo preventive agents. Vegetables, natural products of plant origin and numerous non-nutritive dietary constituents have been shown to play a salutary role in cancer chemoprevention. The present study aims to evaluate the chemo preventive efficacy of soy bean and Nigella sativa on hepato-carcinogenesis induced by dibuty1 nitrosamine (DEN. It could be observed that both soy bean and Nigella sativa have a good effect of amelioration against liver hepatoma induced by nitrosamine. Soy bean more or less showed more prerogative effect than Nigella 9 and 12 months after administration.

  17. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  18. Solitonic generation of five-dimensional black ring solution

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, H; Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Using the solitonic solution-generating technique we rederived the one-rotational five-dimensional black ring solution found by Emparan and Reall. The seed solution is not the Minkowski metric, which is the seed of $S^2$-rotating black ring. The obtained solution has more parameters than the Emparan and Reall's $S^1$-rotating black ring. We found the conditions of parameters to reduce the solution to the $S^1$-rotating black ring. In addition we examined the relation between the expressions of the metric in the prolate-spheroidal coordinates and in the canonical coordinates.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extract on cell death in hippocampal neurons following experimental global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbenaghi, R; Javanbakht, J; Sadeghzadeh, Sh; Kheradmand, D; Abdi, F S; Jaberi, M H; Mohammadiyan, M R; Khadivar, F; Mollaei, Y

    2014-02-15

    Global cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, leads to extensive neuronal damage, particularly the neurons in the hippocampal CA region. Recent studies have demonstrated that pharmacological agents, such as Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) that is an annual herbaceous flowering plant, given at the time of reperfusion afforded protection against ischemia, which is referred to as pharmacological post conditioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa in the hippocampus neurons of rats exposed to global ischemia/reperfusion. In the present study 30 Wister rats (200-250 g) were divided into 5 groups namely sham (operated without treatment), control (operation with normal saline treatment), and 3 treatment groups with Nigella sativa 1mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 50mg/kg. Firstly, the animals were anesthetized by ketamin and xylazine, and then the right carotid artery was operated upon dissection of the soft tissues around it and ligation by a clamp for 20 min. The Nigella sativa extraction was used during surgery through IP route and after 72 h the animals were euthanized and their brain removed, fixed and prepared for histopathological examinations. In treatment group (1mg/kg) the interstitial neuron frequency which contains cytoplasmic edema, along with CA, was 28 cells, whereas the edematous astrocyte number along with CA in this group was 115 cells. In the treatment group (10mg/kg) the interstitial neurons of cornua ammonis (CA) were 15 and the edematous astrocytes were 122 cells and in the treatment group (50mg/kg) the number of edematous interstitial neurons was 7 cells in distance of 2900 μ of CA. In such group the number of edematous interstitial neurons was less as well. In this group the appearance of CA cells was more similar to control group, not only the edema decreased in interstitial and astrocyte cells, but it dramatically decreased in pyramidal cells. Our study revealed that the Nigella sativa extraction could

  20. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  1. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  2. Black Hole Formation and Growth: Simulations in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Stuart L

    2007-01-01

    Black holes are popping up all over the place: in compact binary X-ray sources and GRBs, in quasars, AGNs and the cores of all bulge galaxies, in binary black holes and binary black hole-neutron stars, and maybe even in the LHC! Black holes are strong-field objects governed by Einstein's equations of general relativity. Hence general relativistic, numerical simulations of dynamical phenomena involving black holes may help reveal ways in which black holes can form, grow and be detected in the universe. To convey the state-of-the art, we summarize several representative simulations here, including the collapse of a hypermassive neutron star to a black hole following the merger of a binary neutron star, the magnetorotational collapse of a massive star to a black hole, and the formation and growth of supermassive black hole seeds by relativistic MHD accretion in the early universe.

  3. Evolution of supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M

    2006-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies, and the available data show an empirical correlation between bulge luminosity - or stellar velocity dispersion - and black hole mass, suggesting a single mechanism for assembling black holes and forming spheroids in galaxy halos. The evidence is therefore in favour of a co-evolution between galaxies, black holes and quasars. In cold dark matter cosmogonies, small-mass subgalactic systems form first to merge later into larger and larger structures. In this paradigm galaxy halos experience multiple mergers during their lifetime. If every galaxy with a bulge hosts a SMBH in its center, and a local galaxy has been made up by multiple mergers, then a black hole binary is a natural evolutionary stage. The evolution of the supermassive black hole population clearly has to be investigated taking into account both the cosmological framework and the dynamical evolution of SMBHs and their hosts. The seeds of SMBHs have to be looked ...

  4. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Lens culinaris Medikus seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kripi Vohra; Vivek Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the Lens culinaris Medikus (Fabaceae) seeds, a food grain used as Dhal in India. Methods: The macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis of powdered drug, physicochemical analysis, preliminary testing and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results: Seeds are greyish brown in colour. Treatment of powdered drug with various chemical reagents showed the presence of proteins, cellulose, lignins and fixed oils. Microscopy of seeds revealed the presence of starch grains in seed. The colour of seed coat changed from brown to greenish grey in day light and brown to black at 254nm when treated with acetic acid. Total ash value of the seeds was found to be 1.86% w/w whereas foreign organic matter was found to be nil. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and flavonoids in acetone extract. Conclusions: The present study on pharmacognostic profile of Lens culinaris Medikus seeds provides an important tool in identification and authentication of this plant to researchers in future.

  5. Nigella sativa Fixed and Essential Oil Supplementation Modulates Hyperglycemia and Allied Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauseef Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent era, diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the significant threats to public health and this situation demands the attention of the researchers and allied stakeholders. Dietary regimens using functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining wide range of acceptance and some traditional medicinal plants are of considerable importance. The main objective of this instant study was to explore the antidiabetic potential of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO and essential oil (NSEO. Three experimental groups of rats received diets during the entire study duration, that is, D1 (control, D2 (NSFO: 4.0%, and D3 (NSEO: 0.30%. Experimental diets (NSFO & NSEO modulated the lipid profile, while decreasing the antioxidant damage. However, production of free radicals, that is, MDA, and conjugated dienes increased by 59.00 and 33.63%, respectively, in control. On the contrary, NSFO and NSEO reduced the MDA levels by 11.54 and 26.86% and the conjugated dienes levels by 32.53 and 38.39%, respectively. N. sativa oils improved the health and showed some promising anti-diabetic results.

  6. Effect of using different levels of Nigella sativa meal on the growth performance and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mousapour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Nigella sativa meal (NSM on the growth performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, egg yolk cholesterol and meat quality in Japanese quail. For this purpose 300 one-day old Japanese quail chicks in a completely randomized design was used with five treatments in four replicates containing 15 birds each(. The experimental diets were control group (without NSM and diets containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of NSM. Feed intake of birds fed diets with 5 and 15% of NSM were statistically higher than control group. Weight gain in birds fed with 15% of NSM was significantly higher than control group. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed diets with 20% of NSM was statistically higher than control. No significant treatment effect was observed on egg yolk cholesterol, blood parameters (including triglyceride, HDL and total cholesterol concentrations and meat quality parameters (TBA, WHC, Dripping loss, Cooking loss. And also the use of different levels of NSM had no any significant effect on internal organs weight, except gizzard. NSM significantly decreased feed costs compared to control group. So, by using NSM up to 15% in Japanese quails diets, can improve weight gain and feed conversion ratio and decrease feed and meat production costs.

  7. Nigella sativa improves the carbon tetrachloride-induced lung damage in rats through repression of erk/akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aslan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine whether Nigella sativa plays a protective role against the damage in the lung by administering carbon tetra-chloride (CCl4 to rats. Male Wistar albino (n=28, 8 weeks old rats were divided into 4 groups: a negative control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 and N. sativa was administered; b Positive control: Normal water consuming group to which no CCl4 was administered but N. sativa was administered; c CCl4 Group: Normal water consuming and group to which CCl4 was administered (1.5 mL/kg, ip; d N. sativa plus CCl4 group: CCl4 and N. sativa administered group (1.5 mL/kg, ip. Caspase-3, caspase -9, erk, akt protein syntheses were examined via Western blotting. Malondialdehyde determination in lung tissue was made using spectrophotometer. As a results, malondialdehyde amount was decreased in the CCl4 plus N. sativa group in comparison to CCl4 group whereas caspase-3, caspase-9 was increased and erk, akt had decreased. These results show that N. sativa protects the lung against oxidative damage.

  8. In vitro decreases of the fibrinolytic potential of cultured human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, by Nigella sativa oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E M

    2005-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the fibrinolytic potential of tumor cells is related to their malignant phenotype. In the present study, Nigella sativa oil (NSO) was studied to evaluate its effect on the fibrinolytic potential of the fibosarcoma cell line HT1080 to elucidate whether this oil might have an antitumor activity through its modulation of the fibrinolytic potential of such cells. NSO produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). When subconfluent HT1080 cells were conditioned with oil, a concentration (0.0-200 microg oil/ml)-dependent decrease in t-PA, u-PA and PAI-1 antigen was observed. There was also a concentration-dependent decrease (from 0.0 to 112.5 microg oil/ml) in the confluent cultures. The results showed that blackseed oil decreases the fibrinolytic potential of the human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) in vitro, implying that inhibition of local tumor invasion and metastasis may be one such mechanism.

  9. The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Liu, Xiaojing; Ajmal Khan, M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2005-06-01

    Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of S. salsa. Brown seeds had a higher germination rate than black seeds in all experiments. Black seeds were more sensitive to salt in the absence of light in comparison to brown seeds. Brown seeds absorbed water more quickly in comparison to black seeds and were found to be more tolerant of salt stress. Our results showed that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene), nitrite, GA(4) and BA improved seed germination in the presence of salt. However, nitrate, GA(1), GA(3) failed to alleviate salt stress. ABA inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Possible mechanisms involved in the alleviation of salt stress in S. salsa seeds and the ecological adaptation of the seeds to the environment are discussed.

  10. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  11. Black rot of cabbage in The Netherlands: studies on spatial and temporal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Black rot in cabbage is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris . An exploratory survey at farm level suggested that major aspects contributing to black rot development are cultivar, initial inoculum, refuse management, origin of transplants, and seed quality. Black rot develop

  12. Quantum Creation of Topological Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhong Chao

    2000-01-01

    The constrained instanton method is used to study quantum creation of a vacuum or charged topological black hole. At the WKB level, the relative creation probability is the exponential of a quarter sum of the horizon areas associated with the seed instanton.

  13. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  14. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  15. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  16. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  17. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temp

  18. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  19. The effectiveness of Nigella sativa, methotrexate and their combination in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Hassan Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Methotrexate (MTX is a commonly prescribed drug for patients with psoriasis. Nigella sativa (NS has been shown beneficial in vitiligo and in eczema. Recently, NS has shown activity in modifying psoriatic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination (NS+MTX on psoriasis and to compare that with NS or MTX monotherapy. Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe plaque, palmoplantar and guttate psoriasis were enrolled for 12 weeks study. The patients were divided into 3 groups; 20 patients in each. Group 1 was treated with NS ointment (20% w/w 2 times daily + 500 mg NS capsule 3 times daily. Group 2 received MTX tablets 15 mg weekly and group 3 received MTX + NS (topical + oral. Results: Marked response was achieved in 60%, 80%, and 90% of patients on NS, MTX, and (NS + MTX respectively. The respective relapse rate was 33.3%, 56.3%, and 27.8%. Serum malondialdehyde (sMDA, a parameter of oxidative stress was decreased from 4.39 ± 0.81 to 2.31 ± 0.72 µmol/L with NS treatment while a small increase in sMDA was observed with MTX. NS + MTX treatment reduced sMDA from 4.39 ± 0.67 to 3.49 ± 0.65 µmol/L after 12 weeks treatment. All treatments did not change liver enzymes or complete blood count. NS was well tolerated and showed ability in ameliorating gastric upset of MTX. Conclusion: NS augments antipsoriatic effect of MTX. Topical and oral use of NS is effective and safe in moderate to severe psoriasis. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 521-528

  20. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  1. Alternative supplement for enhancement of reproductive health and metabolic profile among perimenopausal women: a novel role of Nigella sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Parhizkar, Saadat; Dollah, Mohammad Aziz; Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this open label crossover study was to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa on reproductive health and metabolic profile of perimenopausal women in Rawang, Malaysia. Sixty nine perimenopausal women aged 45 to 65 were allocated into the experimental group treated orally with 1600mg/day of encapsulated pure powdered N. sativa compared to control groups treated with placebo for 12 weeks. At the end of study, participants underwent washout period for fourteen days before being crossed over and continued for another cycle of treatment. Participants were abstained from taking any other drugs, herbal preparations or food supplements throughout the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, biochemical parameters and hormonal levels were measured at baseline and at the end of experiment for both cycles. Face to face interview was carried out at baseline and every week to check for compliance, minimize dropouts and to record reproductive health and quality of life indicators using Greene climacteric and SF-36 instruments. The treatment groups in both cycles showed significant improvement with reference to low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood glucose (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentration. Treatment with N. sativa induced a significant reduction of prevalence and severity of menopausal symptomsas well as significant improvement in some components of quality of life (P<0.05). These results suggested that treatment with N. sativa exert a therapeutic and protective effect by modifying weight gain, improving lipid profile and blood glucose as well as hormonal level which is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome during menopause.

  2. Review on the Potential Therapeutic Roles of Nigella sativa in the Treatment of Patients with Cancer: Involvement of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (N. sativa, family Ranunculaceae is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ is the main component (up to 50% in the essential oil of N. sativa. Also, pinene (up to 15%, p-cymene (40%, thymohydroquinone (THQ, thymol (THY, and dithymoquinone (DTQ are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil. The main pharmacological characteristics of this plant are immune system stimulatory, anti- inflammatory, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti- tussive, milk production, uricosuric, choleretic, anti-fertility, and spasmolytic properties. In this regard, we have searched the scientific databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar with keywords of N. sativa, anti-cancer, apoptotic effect, antitumor, antioxidant, and malignancy over the period from 2000 to 2017. The effectiveness of N. sativa against cancer in the blood system, kidneys, lungs, prostate, liver, and breast and on many malignant cell lines has been shown in many studies, but the molecular mechanisms behind that anti-cancer role are still not clearly understood. From among the many effects of N. sativa, including its anti-proliferative effect, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, ROS generation, anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis effects, Akt pathway control, modulation of multiple molecular targets, including p53, p73, STAT-3, PTEN, and PPAR-γ, and activation of caspases, the main suggestive anti-cancer mechanisms of N. sativa are its free radical scavenger activity and the preservation of various anti-oxidant enzyme activities, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione-S- transferase. In this review

  3. Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

  4. Amelioration of paracetamol hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress on mice liver with silymarin and Nigella sativa extract supplements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reham; Zakaria; Hamza; Mohammad; Salem; Al-Harbi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ameliorator property of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa(N. sativa) extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol(APAP)-induced injury in male mice at the biochemical, histological and ultrastructural levels.Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups(10/group). The first group was served as control. While, the second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa extract alone respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa extract respectively. The seventh group was treated with combination of both ameliorative compounds(silymarin and N. sativa extract) with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose to mice led to an alteration of liver functions, increased the alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, decreased total protein level as well as the increasing the superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde while decreased catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reduced activities. The effects of APAP on the biochemical parameters of mice were dose-dependent. Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa extract to APAP-treated mice attenuates the toxicity of this compound, objectified by biochemical, histological and ultrastructural improvement of liver. But the alleviation was more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Conclusions: The synergistic effect of silymarin and N. sativa extract is the most powerful in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the liver functions and antioxidant capacities of mice.

  5. Amelioration of paracetamol hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress on mice liver with silymarin and Nigella sativa extract supplements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza; Mohammad Salem Al-Harbi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ameliorator property of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced injury in male mice at the biochemical, histological and ultrastructural levels. Methods:The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group). The first group was served as control. While, the second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa extract alone respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa extract respectively. The seventh group was treated with combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa extract) with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results:Exposure to APAP at the treated dose to mice led to an alteration of liver functions, increased the alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, decreased total protein level as well as the increasing the superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde while decreased catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reduced activities. The effects of APAP on the biochemical parameters of mice were dose-dependent. Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa extract to APAP-treated mice attenuates the toxicity of this compound, objectified by biochemical, histological and ultrastructural improvement of liver. But the alleviation was more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Conclusions:The synergistic effect of silymarin and N. sativa extract is the most powerful in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the liver functions and antioxidant capacities of mice.

  6. Inhibition of aflatoxin production and growth of Aspergillus parasiticus by Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Minooeianhaghighi, Mohammadhassan

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may control the production of aflatoxins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the essential oils (EOs) of Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides, and Nigella sativa on growth and aflatoxins production by A. parasiticus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs were determined and compared with each other. Determination of aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) was performed by immunoaffinity column extraction using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The major oil components were α-pinene (30%) in C. cyminum, pulegone (37%) in Z. clinopodioides, and trans-anthol (38.9%) in N. sativa oils. In broth microdilution method, C. cyminum oil exhibited the strongest activity (MIC(90): 1.6; MFC: 3.5 mg/mL), followed by Z. clinopodioides (MIC(90): 2.1; MFC: 5.5 mg/mL) and N. sativa (MIC(90): 2.75; MFC: 6.25 mg/mL) oils against A. parasiticus (pAflatoxin production was inhibited at 0.25 mg/mL of C. cyminum and Z. clinopodioides oils, of which that of C. cyminum was a stronger inhibitor. C. cyminum EO caused significant reductions in values of 94.2% for AFB(1), 100% for AFB(2), 98.9% for AFG(1), 100% for AFG(2), and 97.5% for total aflatoxin. It is concluded that the EOs of C. cyminum, Z. clinopodioides, and N. sativa could be used as natural inhibitors in foods at low concentrations to protect from fungal and toxin contaminations by A. parasiticus.

  7. Prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa against lead acetate induced changes in spermiogram, reproductive hormones and gonadal histology of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa (NS treatment on toxic effects induced by lead acetate (LA on the reproductive hormones, spermiogram and gonadal histology of rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 (negative control [NC] was the NC and was given distilled water, Group 2 served as the positive control (PC and was administered 10 mg/kg/day of LA per overall survival (OS, Group 3 (T1 was administered 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for a month, and Group 4 (T2 was pretreated with 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for 1 month, followed by 10 mg/kg/daily of LA alone per OS for another. The rats were euthanized at the end of the experimental period for collection of blood and the right caudal epididymis and testis. Serum was used for determination of reproductive hormones by using radioimmunoassay kits. The epididymal segment was cut and homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline, and the homogenate was used for determination of the spermiogram parameters such as sperm concentration, sperm viability, percentage of live sperm, motility and abnormality. Both the epididymis and testis were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological processing. Results: The sperm concentration, general, and individual motilities were higher (p0.05 between control and T2. The concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was comparable (p>0.05 in all groups, while testosterone (TS hormone concentration was lower (p<0.05 in the PC and higher in the control and T1 groups. Conclusion: This study showed the preventive effects of NS administration against alterations in reproductive hormnes, sperm parameters and gonadal histology caused by LA in rats.

  8. Seed vigour and seed lot quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Slavoljub S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses seed vigour as the most important seed characteristic the seed lot quality depends on. In Serbian, the terms such as vigor, viability and germ inability are used in various ways, depending on the author, which leaves room to possible misunderstanding in interpretation of research results and misuse of expert terminology. The modest lexical fund, compared to that of the English language, for instance, greatly contributes to the problem, and so does the absence of terminological standardization. Since the current technology and research level in seed science and technology requires appropriate terminology, this article offers an outline of basic seed traits related expert terminology as a foundation of future seed research and technology development. .

  9. Genetic control of the seed coat colour of Middle American and Andean bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possobom, Micheli Thaise Della Flora; Ribeiro, Nerinéia Dalfollo; Zemolin, Allan Emanoel Mezzomo; Arns, Fernanda Daltrozo

    2015-02-01

    Seed coat colour of bean seeds is decisive for acceptance of a cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether there is maternal effect for "L", a* and b* colour parameters in Middle American and Andean bean seeds; to obtain estimates of heritability and gain with selection for "L", a* and b* values; and select recombinants with the seed coat colour required by the market demand. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and between the Andean lines Cal 96 and Hooter, for obtaining F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations for each hybrid combination. Parents and generations were evaluated in two field experiments (2012 normal rainy and 2013 dry seasons) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seed coat colour was quantified with a portable colorimeter. Genetic variability for "L" (luminosity), chromaticity a* (green to red shade), and chromaticity b* (blue to yellow shade) values was observed in seeds with F2 seed coat of Middle American and Andean beans. "L", a* and b* values in bean seeds presented maternal effects. High broad-sense heritability are observed for luminosity (h(2)b: 76.66-95.07%), chromaticity a* (h(2)b: 73.08-89.31%), and chromaticity b* (h(2)b: 88.63-92.50%) values in bean seeds. From the crossings, it was possible to select bean seeds in early generation for the black group, and for carioca and cranberry types (dark or clear background) which present the colour required by the market demand.

  10. Expression of VINV1, SCB1 and SCS1 genes in the seed coats of contrasting soybean seeds1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bahry

    Full Text Available The seed coat is vital for the proper development of soybean seeds and also, after their physiological maturity, for providing protection against various biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relative expression of three candidate genes, VINV1, SCB1 and SCS1, which are possibly involved in seed quality, in the contrasting seed coats of four soybean genotypes. Two yellow seed coat genotypes, BMX Potência RR and CD 202, and two black seed coat genotypes, TP and IAC, were used. Relative gene expression was evaluated by the qPCR technique for seven phases of seed coat development in the four genotypes, at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 days after anthesis. The design was completely randomised, with three replications. Data were subjected to variance analysis and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The VINV1 and SCS1 genes exhibit greater expression in the early stages of seed coat development in the cultivar BMX Potência RR. The SCB1 gene displays greater expression in the cultivar CD 202, also in the early stages of seed coat development. The three genes under study show greater expression in yellow seed coat genotypes.

  11. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jushan Liu

    Full Text Available Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively, indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they

  12. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jushan; Bai, Yuguang; Lamb, Eric G; Simpson, Dale; Liu, Guofang; Wei, Yongsheng; Wang, Deli; McKenney, Daniel W; Papadopol, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively), indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they potentially

  13. Investigation of radical locations in various sesame seeds by CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K; Hara, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the location of radical in various sesame seeds using continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9-GHz EPR imaging. CW EPR detected persistent radicals (single line) for various sesame seeds. The EPR linewidth of black sesame seeds was narrower than that of the irradiated white sesame seeds. A very small signal was detected for the white sesame seeds. Two-dimensional (2D) imaging using a 9-GHz EPR imager showed that radical locations vary for various sesame seeds. The paramagnetic species in black sesame seeds were located on the seed coat (skin) and in the hilum region. The signal with the highest intensity was obtained from the hilum part. A very low-intensity image was observed for the white sesame seeds. In addition, the 2D imaging of the irradiated white sesame seeds showed that free radicals were located throughout the entire seed. For the first time, CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging showed the exact location of radical species in various sesame seeds.

  14. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  15. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Genotypes. plant popUlation, seed production. seed quality. sesame. ..... (68%). Greater standard gennination and EWSG occurred in seed produced in 2001 .... Table 7: Heritability (H2B) and genetic advance (GA) of seed quality ...

  16. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities)

  17. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  18. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains the antioxidant compound oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), which has been studied for a variety of health conditions. OPCs are found in extracts of grape skin and seeds, which are by-products of the ...

  19. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  20. Chemical composition and structural characterization of contrasting colors of soybean seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bahry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed coats provide protection to seeds and present differential traits between soybean genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and analyze the internal coat structure of soybean genotypes with contrasting seed coat color, as well as to evaluate the rate of water absorption by seeds. Four genotypes were tested: two genotypes with black seed coat (IAC and TP lines and two genotypes with yellow seed coat (BMX Potência RR and CD 202 cultivars.The seeds of the four genotypes were grown during the 2012/0213 crop season, in a greenhouse at the Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental Terras Baixas. After the harvest, the seeds were stored in controlled conditions for five months. After this period, concentration of phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and lignin in seed coats were determined at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Internal coat structure was examined on anatomical slides and documented with image capturing software using a microscope at the Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Universidade de São Paulo. Finally, water absorption of contrasting seeds was evaluated at 42 hours of imbibition. Experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey’s test, at 5% probability level. Coat structure was characterized by the image analysis. Imbibition data were subjected to regression analysis. The concentration of phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and lignin are higher in black coated genotypes. Their palisade layer and hourglass cells are thicker and the former are more lignified in black seed coats compared to yellow seed coats. The water gain by the seeds is dependent on the conditions in which the seeds were formed and varied between genotypes, independent of coat coloration and lignin concentration.

  1. Hydrodynamics and Elasticity of Charged Black Branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gath, Jakob

    charge and a dilaton coupling. For the case of Maxwell black branes we furthermore compute the charge diffusion constant. We find that the shear viscosity to entropy bound is saturated and comment on proposed bounds for the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio. With the transport coecients we compute......)isotropic uid branes in terms of two sets of response coecients, the Young modulus and the piezoelectric moduli. We subsequently consider a large class of examples in gravity of this effective theory. In particular, we consider dilatonic black p-branes in two different settings: charged under a Maxwell gauge...... as a seed solution, we obtain a class of charged black brane geometries carrying smeared Maxwell charge in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. In the specific case of ten-dimensional space-time we furthermore use T-duality to generate bent black branes with higher-form charge, including smeared D...

  2. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  3. Seed Development and Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  4. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  5. Seeds and Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Sara; Sorenson, Crista; Heineman, Bethany; Workman, Ashley Walker

    2010-01-01

    To be certified organic you must order organic seed. If for some reason organic seed is not available for a certain plant or variety, you have to write a paragraph stating that organic seed is not available and why that the certain plant or variety is needed for your system.

  6. On the detection of high-redshift black holes with ALMA through CO and H(2) emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    2008-01-01

    Many present-day galaxies are known to harbor supermassive, >= 10(6) M(circle dot), black holes. These central black holes must have grown through accretion from less massive seeds in the early universe. The molecules CO and H 2 can be used to trace this young population of accreting massive black h

  7. Electroelasticity of Charged Black Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    We present the first order corrected dynamics of fluid branes carrying higher-form charge by obtaining the general form of their equations of motion to pole-dipole order. Assuming linear response theory, we characterize the corresponding effective theory of stationary bent charged (an)isotropic fluid branes in terms of two sets of response coefficients, the Young modulus and the piezoelectric moduli. We subsequently find large classes of examples in gravity of this effective theory, by constructing stationary strained charged black brane solutions to first order in a derivative expansion. Using solution generating techniques and bent neutral black branes as a seed solution, we obtain a class of charged black brane geometries carrying smeared Maxwell charge in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity. In the specific case of ten-dimensional space-time we furthermore use T-duality to generate bent black branes with higher-form charge, including smeared D-branes of type II string theory. By subsequently measuring the be...

  8. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols.

  9. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  10. The seed nuclear proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  11. Cell wall polysaccharides in black currants and bilberries-characterisation in berries, juice, and press cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Bakx, E.J.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides from black currants and bilberries were characterised in three approaches. First, compositions of skin, pulp, and seeds show the distribution of polysaccharides over these tissues. A sequential extraction of cell wall material with different aqueous extractants informs

  12. From the first stars to the first black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, Rosa; Schneider, Raffaella; Volonteri, Marta; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The growth of the first supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z > 6 is still a major challenge for theoretical models. If it starts from black hole (BH) remnants of Population III stars (light seeds with mass ˜100 M⊙), it requires super-Eddington accretion. An alternative route is to start from heavy seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas on to an ˜105 M⊙ BH. Here we investigate the relative role of light and heavy seeds as BH progenitors of the first SMBHs. We use the cosmological, data constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSODUST to simulate several independent merger histories of z > 6 quasars. Using physically motivated prescriptions to form light and heavy seeds in the progenitor galaxies, we find that the formation of a few heavy seeds (between 3 and 30 in our reference model) enables the Eddington-limited growth of SMBHs at z > 6. This conclusion depends sensitively on the interplay between chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback effects, which easily erase the conditions that allow the suppression of gas cooling in the low-metallicity gas (Z Jcr). We find that heavy seeds cannot form if dust cooling triggers gas fragmentation above a critical dust-to-gas mass ratio (D ≥ D_cr). In addition, the relative importance of light and heavy seeds depends on the adopted mass range for light seeds, as this dramatically affects the history of cold gas along the merger tree, by both SN- and AGN-driven winds.

  13. Constrained instanton and black hole creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhongchao; XU Donghui

    2004-01-01

    A gravitational instanton is considered as the seed for the creation of a universe. However, there exist too few instantons. To include many interesting phenomena in the framework of quantum cosmology, the concept of constrained gravitational instanton is inevitable. In this paper we show how a primordial black hole is created from a constrained instanton. The quantum creation of a generic black hole in the closed or open background is completely resolved. The relation of the creation scenario with gravitational thermodynamics and topology is discussed.

  14. EFFECT OF SOYBEAN SEED SIZE ON SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atin Yulyatin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seed is a seed that is rapidly deteriorate or decrease in viability and vigor, especially if stored in conditions that are less optimum savings. Soybean seed size can affect the quality of the seed. Seed quality is characterized by germination of seeds. Grain size effect on soybean utilization. Large seed size tends to be used as an industrial raw material utilization while small seed size as a seed planted back. Purpose of this study was to determine whether soybean seed size can affect the quality of the seeds while in storage. The experimental design used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD using soybean seed size is a large size (Grobogan, medium (Kaba, and small (Willis is repeated four times. Parameter observations are normal seeds, dirt seed, weight of 100 grains, moisture content, germination. Data were tabulated and analyzed using the F test, if significantly different then tested further by DMRT level of 5 percent. Large size seed has the normal number of seeds, seed dirt, moisture content higher than medium and small seed size. But has a lower germination than seeds of medium and small size. To maintain the water content of <11 percent should be larger seed size is more frequent than the dried seed medium and small sizes.

  15. Quasistars and the cosmic evolution of massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We explore the cosmic evolution of massive black hole (MBH) seeds forming within 'quasistars' (QSs), accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These structures could form if the infall of gas into the center of a halo exceeds about 1 solar mass per year. We use a merger-tree approach to estimate the rate at which QSs might form as a function of redshift, and the statistical properties of the resulting QS and seed black hole populations. We relate the triggering of runaway infall to major mergers of gas-rich galaxies, and to a threshold for global gravitational instability, which we link to the angular momentum of the host. This is the main parameter of our models. Once infall is triggered, its rate is determined by the halo potential; the properties of the resulting QS and seed black hole depend on this rate. After the epoch of QSs, we model the growth of MBHs within their hosts in a merger-driven accretion scenario. We compare MBH seeds grown inside quasistars to a seed mod...

  16. Charged rotating dilaton black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Christian; Nedkova, Petya

    2016-03-01

    We construct a class of stationary and axisymmetric solutions to the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity, which describe configurations of charged rotating black objects with Kaluza-Klein asymptotics. The solutions are constructed by uplifting a vacuum seed solution to six dimensions, performing a boost and a subsequent circle reduction. We investigate the physical properties of the charged solutions and obtain their general relations to the properties of the vacuum seed. We also derive the gyromagnetic ratio and the Smarr-like relations. As particular cases, we study three solutions, which describe a charged rotating black string, a charged rotating black ring on Kaluza-Klein bubbles, and a superposition of two black holes and a Kaluza-Klein bubble.

  17. Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Michalis; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Kubica, Marcin; Pissis, Solon P; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Szreder, Bartosz; Walen, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the cover is a generalization of a period of a string, and there are linear time algorithms for finding the shortest cover. The seed is a more complicated generalization of periodicity, it is a cover of a superstring of a given string, and the shortest seed problem is of much higher algorithmic difficulty. The problem is not well understood, no linear time algorithm is known. In the paper we give linear time algorithms for some of its versions --- computing shortest left-seed array, longest left-seed array and checking for seeds of a given length. The algorithm for the last problem is used to compute the seed array of a string (i.e., the shortest seeds for all the prefixes of the string) in $O(n^2)$ time. We describe also a simpler alternative algorithm computing efficiently the shortest seeds. As a by-product we obtain an $O(n\\log{(n/m)})$ time algorithm checking if the shortest seed has length at least $m$ and finding the corresponding seed. We also correct some important details missing in th...

  18. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T{sub c} suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown.

  19. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  20. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  1. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  2. Implications of primordial black holes on the first stars and the origin of the super--massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D; Freese, Katherine; Volonteri, Marta

    2008-01-01

    If the cosmological dark matter has a component made of small primordial black holes, they may have a significant impact on the physics of the first stars and on the subsequent formation of massive black holes. Primordial black holes would be adiabatically contracted into these stars and then would sink to the stellar center by dynamical friction, creating a larger black hole which may quickly swallow the whole star. The first stars would thus live only for a very short time and would not contribute much to reionization of the universe. They would instead become $10 - 10^3 M_\\odot$ black holes which (depending on subsequent accretion) could serve as seeds for the super--massive black holes seen at high redshifts as well as those inside galaxies today.

  3. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  4. Genetic Diversity of Testa Pigments and RAPD Marker of Yellow-Seeded Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; CHEN Li; YIN Jia-ming; TANG Zhang-lin; LI Jia-na

    2003-01-01

    14 yellow-seeded rapeseed lines (Brassia napus L. ) from different genetic sources were used toanalyze diversity of testa pigments content, oil and protein content, and RAPD markers. The results showedthat the anthocyanin and melanin were the most important pigments in testa and their content were responsiblefor the variation in seed color ranging from orange to black yellow, 14 yellow-seeded lines could be classifiedinto 3 groups., high anthocyanin content group with anthocyanin content over 2.54 mg g-1 DW, the seed colorwas light yellow or orange; low pigments content group with low content of anthocyanin and melanin, the testawas transparent and the seed color was light yellow, greenish yellow or twany; high melanin content groupwith melanin content over 178.4U(A290nm), the testa was black, the seed color was black yellow. Oil eantentchanged from 36.2% to 45.5%, protein content from 21.1% to 27.7%, and the correlation analysis revealedthat the oil content is highly significantly negatively correlated with the protein content. The cluster analysisshowed that the extensive genetic variation existed among 14 yellow-seeded lines by using unweighted pairedgroup method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) based on RAPD markers which were amplified with decamerprimers, the genetic similarity among them ranged from 0.25 to 0. 909, and 14 yellow-seeded lines could putinto 2 clusters corresponding to genome difference.

  5. Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Filloux, Ch; Pacheco, J A de Freitas; Silk, J

    2009-01-01

    The correlations between the mass of supermassive black holes and properties of their host galaxies are investigated through cosmological simulations. Black holes grow from seeds of 100 solar masses inserted into density peaks present in the redshift range 12-15. Seeds grow essentially by accreting matter from a nuclear disk and also by coalescences resulting from merger episodes. At z=0, our simulations reproduce the black hole mass function and the correlations of the black hole mass both with stellar velocity dispersion and host dark halo mass. Moreover, the evolution of the black hole mass density derived from the present simulations agrees with that derived from the bolometric luminosity function of quasars, indicating that the average accretion history of seeds is adequately reproduced . However, our simulations are unable to form black holes with masses above $10^9 M_{\\odot}$ at $z\\sim 6$, whose existence is inferred from the bright quasars detected by the Sloan survey in this redshift range.

  6. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  7. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  8. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  9. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  10. Music from the heavens - gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  11. ddressing constraints in propagation of Allanblackia spp. through seed sectioning and air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori D A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allanblackia species are indigenous to West, East and Central African regions with the potential of providing an alternative source of income for rural populations through sale of seed oil. The species therefore needs to be domesticated to support sustainable production of Allanblackia seed oil. Propagation of Allanblackia parviflora through seed germination and air layering was therefore undertaken. Stratified and non-stratified seeds or seed sections were germinated in sand, plain and black polythene bags. Air layering was undertaken on pollarded shoots growing on 1.5, 4 and 6m stumps using coir dust as the medium. At 90 days, germination of un-stratified seeds showed significant differences for the following treatments; proximal sections (0 – 54%; p < 0.0001, longitudinal sections (0 – 44%, p < 0.0001 and whole seed (13 - 31%, p < 0.0001. Germination of stratified seeds and seed sections also showed significant differences; proximal sections (37 - 53%, p < 0.0001, whole seed (21 - 32%, p < 0.0001. Distal seed sections did not germinate but only produced seed roots. For air layering, rooting success (P < 0.05 declined with increasing stump height from 72% to 21.4% for 1.5m and 6m stumps respectively. The results are discussed in relation to mass propagation of Allanblackia spp. to support large scale cultivation.

  12. The Effect of Clove Bud, Nigella, Salix Alba and Olive Oil on Wart Treatment in Comparison with Conventional Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghaye Jebraili

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Jebraili R1, Rezaei K2, Matourianpour H3, Moradi L4, Meshkaat MH5, Tarrahi MJ6 1. Assistant professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Islamic Azad University of Tehran 2. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 4. BSc. Nurse, Haaj Seddiq Health and Treatment Center, Khorramabad 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University 6. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Wart is a common and contagious viral disease of the skin caused by papilloma viruses which leads to aesthetic and psychological problems, and if occurred in touching and pressured parts of the body causes pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Clove bud, Nigella, Salix alba and Olive oil which have wound disinfectant, anesthetic, analgesic and wound healing properties on wart treatment in comparison with the conventional treatment. Materials and methods: This randomized double blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 291 female students selected form guidance and high schools in Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran, during the year 2007. The diagnosis of wart was confirmed by a dermatologist according to the diagnosis criteria. The cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were assigned in 3 study groups randomly. The first group was treated with the conventional treatment (Salicylic acid 16.7%, lactic acid 16.7% in Collodione body, the second group with herbal medicine without acid in olive oil, and the third group with herbal medicine alongside salicylic acid 1% and lactic acid 1% in olive oil. Each group was administered the drugs for 6 weeks. The effects of drugs on lesions were assessed after 4 and 6 weeks and compared among 3

  13. Processing black mulberry into jam: Effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and

  14. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

    2004-01-01

    A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C...

  15. The early evolution of massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Massive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. When did it all start? In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.

  16. Black hole formation in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes with up to a $\\rm 10^{9}~M_{\\odot}$ dwell in the centers of present-day galaxies, and their presence has been confirmed at z $\\geq$ 6. Their formation at such early epochs is still an enigma. Different pathways have been suggested to assemble supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang. Direct collapse has emerged as a highly plausible scenario to form black holes as it provides seed masses of $\\rm 10^{5}-10^{6}~M_{\\odot}$. Gravitational collapse in atomic cooling haloes with virial temperatures T$_{vir} \\geq 10^{4}$~K may lead to the formation of massive seed black holes in the presence of an intense background UV flux. Turbulence plays a central role in regulating accretion and transporting angular momentum. We present here the highest resolution cosmological large-eddy simulations to date which track the evolution of high-density regions on scales of $0.25$~AU beyond the formation of the first peak, and study the impact of subgrid-scale turbulence. The pe...

  17. Probing Black Holes With Gravitational Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Neil J.

    2006-09-01

    Gravitational radiation can provide unique insights into the dynamics and evolution of black holes. Gravitational waveforms encode detailed information about the spacetime geometry, much as the sounds made by a musical instrument reflect the geometry of the instrument. The LISA gravitational wave observatory will be able to record black holes colliding out to the edge of the visible Universe, with an expected event rate of tens to thousands per year. LISA has unmatched capabilities for studying the role of black holes in galactic evolution, in particular, by studying the mergers of seed black holes at very high redshift, z > 5. Merger events at lower redshift will be detected at extremely high signal-to-noise, allowing for precision tests of the black hole paradigm. Below z=1 LISA will be able to record stellar remnants falling into supermassive black holes. These extreme mass ratio inspiral events will yield insights into the dynamics of galactic cusps, and the brighter events will provide incredibly precise tests of strong field, dynamical gravity.

  18. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  19. USE OF OIL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF NEEM SEEDS, AZADIRACHTIN AND ACEPHATE TO CONTROL COWPEA BLACK APHID ÓLEO E EXTRATO AQUOSO DE SEMENTES DE NIM, AZADIRACTINA E ACEFATO NO CONTROLE DO PULGÃO-PRETO DO FEIJÃO-DE-CORDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Teixeira Gomes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    In this research, different trademarks and an aqueous neem seed extract were used to control the cowpea black aphid. The experimental unit consisted of a plant in a 300 mL disposable plastic cup, under greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were applied: 1 Absolute control (water; 2 Acephate (Orthene® 750 BR, 1.0 g of the commercial product (c. p. L-1; 3 Natuneem® (10 mL c. p. L-1; 4 Neemazal T/S® 1.0% (10 mL c. p. L-1; and 5 Aqueous seed extract (100 g L-1. Six adult apterous females were used to infest 15-days-old plants and pulverization took place 17 days after planting. Two days later, all living black aphids were counted. All azadiracthin treatments differed statistically from the control and the acephate. The seed aqueous extract was the least efficient one (44.8%, followed by Nattuneen® (81.15%, while Neenmazal T/S®

  20. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. Salvia hispanica seed is often sold under its common name "chia" as well as several trademarked names. Its origin is believed to be in ... plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native ...

  1. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  2. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and redu

  3. Massive Black Holes from Dissipative Dark Matter arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Lupi, Alessandro; Bovino, Stefano; Silk, Joseph

    We show that a subdominant component of dissipative dark matter resembling the Standard Model can form many intermediate-mass black hole seeds during the first structure formation epoch. We also observe that, in the presence of this matter sector, the black holes will grow at a much faster rate with respect to the ordinary case. These facts can explain the observed abundance of supermassive black holes feeding high-redshift quasars. The scenario will have interesting observational consequences for dark substructures and gravitational wave production.

  4. Soil seed-bank structure and seed-germination dynamics contribute to pulsed shrub encroachment in a grassland-shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Turnbull, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2015-04-01

    Shrub encroachment is pervasive in many arid and semi-arid landscapes worldwide. Large areas of desert grasslands in southwestern USA have shifted to sparse shrublands dominated by woody species over the last 150 years, accompanied by accelerated soil erosion. A complex range of mechanisms has been suggested to explain the occurrence of this phenomenon, including land-use change, climate variations, and soil erosion feedbacks of vegetation change. An important step to understand patterns in species dominance at desert grassland-shrubland transitions is the understanding of limitations on plant establishment imposed by the shrub-encroachment process. We analyze the structure of soil seed banks and the environmental limitations for seed germination (i.e. soil-water availability and temperature) of dominant species (black grama and creosotebush) across a Chihuahuan grassland-shrubland ecotone (Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico). Seed density in soils across the ecotone is generally low (200-400 seeds m-2), although is largely concentrated in vegetation clumps (reaching peaks up to 800-1200 seeds m-2 in grass and shrub patches). Species composition in the soil seed-bank is strongly affected by shrub encroachment, with seed densities of grass species (and particularly for black grama) sharply decreasing in shrub-dominated areas. Optimal temperature for seed germination of both black grama and creosotebush (20-25°C) suggests synchronization of plant establishment with the summer monsoonal period. Water-level limitations for seed germination are similar for the two species (about 8-10% soil moisture), although creosotebush seeds need a longer time under optimal water-availability conditions for germination (about 12 days) than black grama seeds (about 7 days). Analysis of temporal series of field-based and simulated soil-moisture levels suggests that creosotebush requires very strong monsoonal precipitation for plant establishment, and therefore shrub

  5. Seed germination and vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  6. The earliest seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Dissonant Black Droplets and Black Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are "detuned" when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  8. The role of dung beetles as a secondary seed disperser after dispersal by frugivore mammals in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Morimoto, Hideto; Kozakai, Chinatsu; Arimoto, Isao; Soga, Masashi; Yamazaki, Koji; Koganezawa, Masaaki

    2012-05-01

    We studied the effects of dung beetles on the fates of endozoochorous seeds of five species (Prunus jamasakura, Prunus verecunda, Prunus grayana, Swida controversa, and Vitis coignetiae) in a temperate deciduous forest in Japan during 2004-2006. In field experiments using dung of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), we investigated the depths that dung beetles (Onthophagus atripennis, Onthophagus lenzii, and Phelotrupes auratus) buried seeds (4.8-6.8 mm diameter) and plastic markers (2 or 5 mm diameter), the levels of predation on buried and unburied seeds, and germination rates of seeds buried to different depths. All three species buried the 2-mm markers, but only P. auratus buried the seeds and 5-mm markers. There were seasonal differences in mean seed burial rates (range, 27-51%) and depths (range, 1-27 mm). Significantly more seeds were buried in June, July, and September than in August or October, and the mean burial depth was significantly deeper in June and July. Most seeds and markers were buried to a 3-6 cm depth. Germination of seeds that were positioned at depths of 1-4 cm was significantly greater than that of seeds left on the surface or buried at greater depths. Buried seeds were less likely to disappear than seeds at the surface, which may reflect differential predation. These results suggested that dung beetles, especially P. auratus, acted as a secondary seed disperser that affected the survival and distribution of seeds dispersed by a frugivore.

  9. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  10. Practical strategies of black walnut genetic improvement—an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Rink; J.W. Van Sambeek; Phil O' Connor; Mark. Coggeshall

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of any tree improvement program is the large-scale production and distribution of genetically improved seedlings. In black walnut, projections based on earlier research indicate that genetically improved seedlings could provide growth improvement of between 15 to 25 percent by using seed or seedlings of the proper geographic origin (Bey 1980; Clausen...

  11. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  12. The Early Growth of the First Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  13. Accretion onto the First Stellar Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Marcelo A; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The first stars in the universe, forming at redshifts z>15 in minihalos with masses of order 10^6 Msun, may leave behind black holes as their remnants. These objects could conceivably serve as "seeds" for much larger black holes observed at redshifts z~6. We study the growth of the remnant black holes through accretion including for the first time the emitted accretion radiation with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the accretion flow from large scales, resulting in negligible mass growth of the black hole. We compare cases with the accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that the accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, where gas temperatures are increased by an order of magnitude. The gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo prevented for the two hundred million years of evolution we followed. These calculation...

  14. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  15. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  16. Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo controlled participant blinded clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Kaatabi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Our previous study has shown glucose lowering effect produced by 3 months supplementation of Nigella sativa (NS in combination with oral hypoglycemic drugs among type 2 diabetics. This study explored the long term glucose lowering effect (over one year of NS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral hypoglycemic drugs and to study its effect on redox status of such patients.114 type 2 diabetic patients on standard oral hypoglycemic drugs were assigned into 2 groups by convenience. The control group (n = 57 received activated charcoal as placebo and NS group (n = 57 received 2g NS, daily, for one year in addition to their standard medications. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, C- peptide, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS at the baseline, and every 3 months thereafter were determined. Insulin resistance and β-cell activity were calculated using HOMA 2 calculator.Comparison between the two groups showed a significant drop in FBG (from 180 ± 5.75 to 180 ± 5.59 in control Vs from 195 ± 6.57 to 172 ± 5.83 in NS group, HbA1c (from 8.2 ± 0.12 to 8.5 ± 0.14 in control VS from 8.6 ± 0.13 to 8.2 ± 0.14 in NS group, and TBARS (from 48.3 ± 6.89 to 52.9 ± 5.82 in control VS from 54.1 ± 4.64 to 41.9 ± 3.16 in NS group, in addition to a significant elevation in TAC, SOD and glutathione in NS patients compared to controls. In NS group, insulin resistance was significantly lower, while β-cell activity was significantly higher than the baseline values during the whole treatment period.Long term supplementation with Nigella sativa improves glucose homeostasis and enhances antioxidant defense system in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs.Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI CTRI/2013/06/003781.

  17. Effect of Nigella sativa meal in native milking cows rations on milk production and its composition and the digestion coefficient of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of Sharabi cows were examined, each consisted of four cows during the first month of labor, having aboutequal live body weight and milk production. The cows in the first group were fed individually on concentrated ration containing 5% of soybean meal in an enough amount for maintenance and milk production according to N.R.C., 1984. Wheat straw was given in an amount equal to 1.25% of cow’s weight. The cows in the second group were fed on the same ration except that 70% of the protein of the soybean meal was replaced with protein of Nigella sative meal when it was added as 5% of the ration. The feeding process was continued for 6 weeks during which the amounts of milk production were checked and samples of milk were weekly taken for laboratory analysis. The cross over design was used for second 6 weeks. At the end of each feeding period the feces produced from each cow was collected for five successive days and samples for chemical analysis were taken. There were no significant differences between the cows of the two groups regarding to the amount of the milk 9.1 and 9.7 kg milk/cow/day with 3.5 and 3.3% of fat, respectively. Also the results indicated that there are no any significant differences in milk composition regarding crude protein, lactose, ash and total solid compounds percentages, as well as no significant differences between the two groups to produce one kg of normal or 4% fat adjusted milk. Where the values were 1.32, 1.48 and 1.43, 1.66 kg ration/kg milk produced respectively. The results showed a significant (P<0.01 improvement in all digestion coefficient, for nutrient of the experimental rations. Our conclusion is that the Nigella sativa meal could be used at 5% level of concentrate rations for native milking cows to cover 70% of the protein from soybean meal without any negative effects on milk production or its composition and improve nutrients digestion coefficient of these rations.

  18. Formation of the Black Holes in the Highest Redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, J

    2004-01-01

    The recent discovery of luminous quasars up to a redshift z=6.43 has renewed interest into the formation of black holes massive enough to power the quasars. If black holes grow by Eddington-limited gas accretion with a radiative efficiency of at least 10%, the time required to grow from a stellar black hole to ~10^9 Msun is ~10^9 years, close to the age of the universe at z=6. Black hole mergers may accelerate the rate of mass growth, but can also completely eject black holes from halo centers owing to the gravitational wave recoil effect. Recently, Haiman concluded that black hole ejections likely do not allow black holes to grow to ~10^9 Msun by z=6.43. We reexamine this problem and show that, by using a different relation between halo velocity dispersion and escape velocity, and taking into account the dependence of the gravitational wave recoil velocity on the mass ratio of the merging black holes and spins, black hole masses could reach ~10^9 Msun as early as z=9 starting from stellar seeds without super...

  19. Improved Constraints to the Local Supermassive Black Hole Occupation Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P.

    2017-01-01

    The occupation fraction of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in local dwarf galaxies is thought to be related to the formation mechanism of the first black holes in the early Universe. Light black hole seeds, such as Pop III star remnants, are likely to result in a significantly higher occupation fraction compared to heavy seeds (~104 solar mass) arising from the global collapse of massive gas clouds. Chandra observations of nearby dwarf galaxies can push the detection threshold for SMBH activity down to the lowest observable Eddington ratios. This, folded with analytical prescriptions for the intrinsic occupation fraction across the mass spectrum, yields an observational constraints to the SMBH occupation fraction in the dwarf galaxy regime. Building on previous work by Miller et al. (2015), here we analyze a sample of ~240 early-type galaxies (D < 30 Mpc) with archival Chandra coverage, and report on our improved constraints to the local SMBH occupation fraction.

  20. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  1. The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Aziz, Mohamad A Abd; Hassan, Hosny A; Mohamed, Mahmoud H; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M A; Abdel-Ghaffar, Sary K H; Hussein, Mahmoud R

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women and the third most common cancer. Although our understanding of the molecular basis of this fatal disease has improved, this malignancy remains elusive. Melatonin (Mel), retinoic acid (RA) and Nigella sativa (NS) are substances with anticancer effects. To date, our understanding of the mechanisms of therapeutic effects of these products in mammary cancer is still marginal. To look at the preventive and therapeutic values of these products, we carried out this investigation. An animal model formed of 80 rats was established. The animals were divided into eight groups of 10 animals each: (a) control group injected with the same vehicle used for treatments in the relevant dosages and routes; (b) carcinogen group injected with the known carcinogenic substance 7,12-di-methylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) that induces mammary carcinoma; (c) three prophylactic (Pro) groups (Mel-Pro, RA-Pro and NS-Pro) injected with test substances (Mel, RA and NS, respectively) 14 days before the intake of the carcinogenic substance DMBA and then continued until the end of the experiments; and (d) three treated (Tr) groups (Mel-Tr, RA-Tr and NS-Tr) injected with the vehicles after the intake of DMBA. In both the Pro and Tr groups, the drugs were daily administered for 3 months. The animals were killed, and their serum and tissues were evaluated for (a) markers of tumorigenicity [serum levels of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA)], (b) markers of endocrine derangement (serum prolactin, estradiol and progesterone levels), (c) apoptotic changes [serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, tissue caspase-3 activity, percentage of DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural features of apoptosis] and (d) markers of oxidative stress (tissue levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide). Carcinoma was absent both in the control and in the NS-Pro groups. Mammary carcinoma occurred in DMBA and other Pro and Tr

  2. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  3. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    germinating seeds in improper sealed/ broken storage polyethylene bags attracted adult flies which gained ... an alcoholic beverage or processed into various types of ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study ..... The life history of Megaselia.

  4. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  5. Prescribed seed plantings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains memos, notes, and tables related to tallgrass prairie seed harvesting on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1995.

  6. Black holes in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-12-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.

  7. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average reflecta......We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  8. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  9. Seeds Recovered from the Droppings at Latrines of the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus): The Possibility of Seed Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuka; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2015-04-01

    Medium-sized carnivorous mammals are important seed dispersers of fleshy fruits. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) often feeds on fleshy fruits and forms latrines. This behavior may potentially lead to seed dispersal. To determine if this is the case, we studied 1) seed recovery in the droppings of raccoon dogs, and 2) the transportation of seeds between habitats using plastic markers in a western suburb of Tokyo, Japan. In total, 32,473 seeds of 50 plant taxa were recovered from 120 raccoon dog droppings during a year, and 95.7% of the seeds were found to be those of fleshy fruits. The species most frequently recovered were the eurya (Eurya japonica, 52.6%), the brambles (Rubus spp., 17.4%), and the black night shade (Solanum nigrum, 16.0%). A total of 7,412 plastic markers were embedded in baits at 14 bait plots and were recovered in the feces of the raccoon dogs at 22 latrines. The "transportation rates" were calculated in 50-m distance classes and found that most seeds (43.5%) were deposited within 50 m from the bait point, suggesting very short seed dispersal distances. Inter-habitat transportation was observed: 64.9% of the retrieved markers deposited in the forest were transported to other places within the forest. In contrast, almost all of the markers (99.4%) deposited in the open site were transported within the same habitat. These findings suggest that the seeds of forest plants bearing berries can be dispersed out of the forest to open areas by raccoon dogs.

  10. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

  11. Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Rizal Ab Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF’s function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-β was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67±3.06 µg/mL (P<0.05 with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100 µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-β. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds.

  12. Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Inflammatory Cells, Interleukin-10, Interferon-γ and Histological of Kidney in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrauf A Mahmud Yousif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence, suggest that, consumption of food additives monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer was unhealthy. Herbal medicine Nigella sativa (NS has antioxidant properties able to cure the toxic induced by MSG. This study aimed to evaluate the risks of excessive use of MSG and to study the role of NS to inhibit inflammation and renal damage. Treated rats (twenty four male wistar rats were divided into six group and analyzed by measuring the cells in blood, interleukin-10, interferon-γ serum levels by ELISA method and remove kidneys for histological examination. Histological of kidney for all groups except control, were showed different abnormalities include congestion of some blood vessels, hemorrhage between tubules, widening in the renal tubules, revealed severe dilatation of Bowman's capsule and shrinkage of glomeruli, and areas of huge vacuole, were observed compared with control. Interleukin-10 was reduced in Groups 2,3,4 and 5, whereas increase in NS group compared with control. Interferon-γ was increased in groups 2,3,4 and reduced in groups 5,6 compared with control. Eosinophil was increased in groups 2,5 and reduced in groups 3,4, 6 compared with control. This present study showed that administration of MSG to rats induced many changes effects on inflammatory cells, cytokines and histological of kidneys. NS has benefit in blood parameters, whereas harmful on kidney at these doses.

  13. The effect of substituting Nigella Sativa Meal as a source of protein in the rations of local rabbits on their productive performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen local male rabbits (6-8 weeks old were allocated into three nutritional groups. The first group fed standard ration, 5 and 10% of the Nigella Sativa Meal (NSM were added to the concentrated rations of the 2nd and 3rd groups replacing 36 and 72% of the soybean meal (SBM protein respectively. The feeding period lasted for eight weeks. Feed consumption and body weight gain were recorded weekly. At the end of feeding period, all rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were studied. No significant differences were found in total body weight gain and feed conversion rate (475, 502, 478 gm and (4.8, 4.8, 4.9 kg ration/1 kg wt. gain. Feed cost per 1 kg body gain declined 16% in the 3rd group, which cost 2294 ID, compared with the 1st group (2717 and the 2nd group (2561 ID. No significant differences in all carcass traits were found. Substituting 72% of SBM protein by NSM protein in rabbit ration showed no negative effects on all productive parameters and carcass traits.

  14. A double-blind, randomize, placebo-control trial to evaluate the effect of Nigella sativa on palmer arsenical keratosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmina Bashar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to examine the role of Nigella sativa in 28 patients of palmer arsenical keratosis. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group A (n-15 receive capsules of placebo and vitamin E (200 mg whereas Group B (n= 13 receive capsules of N. sativa oil (500 mg and vitamin E (200 mg orally for 8 weeks. The mean (± SD clinical scoring of palmer arsenical keratosis in Group A before and after treatment was 99.3 ± 21.5 and 62.3 ± 14.3 respectively (37% reduction. On the other hand, in N. sativa oil treated group, the mean clinical score was 119.1 ± 20.3 before treatment which was reduced to 39.2 ± 8.4 (p<0.0001 after treatment (67% reduction. There were 65% reduc-tion of total arsenic in nail of Group A and 30% in Group B. In conclusion, oral administration of N. sativa oil improves the symptom of palmer arsenical keratosis as a result of reduction of body arsenic load.

  15. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis.

  16. Serum trace elements status of rabbits supplemented with Nigella sativa, vitamins C and E, and selenium against damage by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, H; Dede, S; Agaoglu, Z T; Atasoy, N; Mert, N

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Nigella sativa, vitamins C and E, and selenium on the levels of trace elements in the serum of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-injected rabbits. The rabbits were separated into one control and three experimental groups, each consisting of eight rabbits. MNNG was administered to all rabbits at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Group A received a suspension of N. sativa, group B received a combination of vitamins C and E and selenium, and group C received MNNG without any additional treatment. Group D did not receive any treatment and acted as control. The concentrations of serum zinc, copper, and iron were determined for groups A, B, C, and D. The zinc levels were 155.3+/-25.8, 304.7+/-14.22, 117.2+/-27.9, and 87.0+/-8 ng/dL for groups A-D, respectively; copper was measured at 234.8+/-31.9, 214.3+/-14.2, 196.5+/-19.3, and 359.2+/-19.9 ng/dL and iron levels were 276.3+/-10.71, 260.8+/-7.15, 211.2+/-13.47, and 223.4+/-9.5 ng/dL, in the stated group order. There were statistically significant differences between groups (peffects of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and similar carcinogens.

  17. Oral administration of Nigella sativa oil ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative damage in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeba Farooqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CP is a potent anti-cancer drug widely used against solid tumors. However, it exhibits pronounced adverse effects including hepatotoxicity. Several strategies were attempted to prevent CP hepatotoxicity but were not found suitable for therapeutic application. Nigella sativa has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain type of cardiovascular, kidney and liver diseases. Present study investigates whether N. sativa oil (NSO can prevent CP induced hepatotoxic effects. Rats were divided into four groups viz. control, CP, NSO and CPNSO. Animals in CPNSO and NSO group were administered NSO (2 ml/kg bwt, orally with or without single hepatotoxic dose of CP (6 mg/kg bwt, i.p. respectively. CP hepatotoxicity was recorded by increased serum ALT and AST activities. CP treatment caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Furthermore, the activities of various carbohydrate metabolism and membrane enzymes were altered by CP treatment. In contrast, NSO administration to CP treated rats, markedly ameliorated the CP elicited deleterious alterations in liver. Histopathological observations showed extensive liver damage in CP treated animals while greatly reduced tissue injury in CPNSO group. In conclusion, NSO appears to protect CP induced hepatotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and strengthening antioxidant defense mechanism.

  18. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (Pextraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  19. Ergoregions in Magnetised Black Hole Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N

    2013-01-01

    The spacetimes obtained by Ernst's procedure for appending an external magnetic field $B$ to a seed Kerr-Newman black hole are commonly believed to be asymptotic to the static Melvin solution. We show that this is not in general true. Unless the electric charge of the black hole satisfies $Q= jB(1+ 1/4 j^2 B^4)$, where $j$ is the angular momentum of the original seed solution, an ergoregion extends all the way from the black hole horizon to infinity. We give a self-contained account of the solution-generating procedure, including including explicit formulae for the metric and the vector potential. In the case when $Q= jB(1+ 1/4 j^2 B^4)$, we show that there is an arbitrariness in the choice of asymptotically timelike Killing field $K_\\Omega= \\partial/\\partial t+ \\Omega \\partial/\\partial \\phi$, because there is no canonical choice of $\\Omega$. For one choice, $\\Omega=\\Omega_s$, the metric is asymptotically static, and there is an ergoregion confined to the neighbourhood of the horizon. On the other hand, by ch...

  20. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions.

  1. Enhanced Single Seed Trait Predictions in Soybean (Glycine max) and Robust Calibration Model Transfer with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Gustin, Jeffery L; Louisma, Jean; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Walker, Alejandro R; Settles, A Mark

    2016-02-10

    Single seed near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait data for globally diverse soybean germplasm. X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) was used to collect seed density and shape traits to enhance the number of soybean traits that can be predicted from single seed NIR. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression gave accurate predictive models for oil, weight, volume, protein, and maximal cross-sectional area of the seed. PLS models for width, length, and density were not predictive. Although principal component analysis (PCA) of the NIR spectra showed that black seed coat color had significant signal, excluding black seeds from the calibrations did not impact model accuracies. Calibrations for oil and protein developed in this study as well as earlier calibrations for a separate NIR analyzer of the same design were used to test the ability to transfer PLS regressions between platforms. PLS models built from data collected on one NIR analyzer had minimal differences in accuracy when applied to spectra collected from a sister device. Model transfer was more robust when spectra were trimmed from 910 to 1679 nm to 955-1635 nm due to divergence of edge wavelengths between the two devices. The ability to transfer calibrations between similar single seed NIR spectrometers facilitates broader adoption of this high-throughput, nondestructive, seed phenotyping technology.

  2. Matter of Life & Death : The impact of environmental conditions on the origins of stars and supermassive black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Borm, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that some very large supermassive black holes (SMBHs) already existed less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. Explaining the formation and growth of the 'seeds' of these SMBHs is quite challenging. We explore the formation of such seeds in the direct collapse scenario. Us

  3. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGP MULIARTA ARYANA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Santoso BB, Budianto A, Aryana IGPM. 2012. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 113-117. The effect of fruit maturity stages and seed storage period to seed viability were investigated. Seed samples of West Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara genotype of Jatropha curcas were collected from standing two year old trees at experimental field. The seed samples obtained were in four different stages of fruit maturity involving early maturity (green fruit, physiological maturity (yellow fruit, over maturity (brownies fruit, and senescence (black-dry fruit. The results showed that fruit maturity had an influence as well storage period on the seed viability of Jatropha curcas. The best fruit maturity stage for seed viability including seed oil content was yellow fruit and brownies fruit. For germination to be maintained or preserved, seeds could be stored in the ambient room storage for at least five months. For the purpose of oil extraction, seed should preferably be stored maximum not more than four months under ambient room conditions.

  4. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per

    2011-01-01

    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  5. Black widow spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a black widow spider. Note the red "hour glass" on the abdomen. The bite of the black widow can produce severe symptoms but is seldom fatal, except in young children and older adults. (Image courtesy ...

  6. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  7. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  8. Counseling Black Adolescent Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn C.

    1974-01-01

    Black adolescent parents need counsel from social workers who are able to intervene with a discerning knowledge of concepts, such as neocolonialism, survival, and liberation, that are important to them and to the black community. (Author)

  9. Empowering Rhetoric: Black Students Writing Black Panthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pough, Gwendolyn D.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Black student responses to Black Panther Party documents and how those documents moved the students toward change. Maintains that by allowing the classroom to function as a public space which students can discuss the issues that matter to them, teachers can help to foster and encourage student activism and ultimately their empowerment.…

  10. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  11. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  12. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  13. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  14. Is there an upper limit to black hole masses?

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2008-01-01

    We make a case for the existence for ultra-massive black holes (UMBHs) in the Universe, but argue that there exists a likely upper limit to black hole masses of the order of $M \\sim 10^{10} \\msun$. We show that there are three strong lines of argument that predicate the existence of UMBHs: (i) expected as a natural extension of the observed black hole mass bulge luminosity relation, when extrapolated to the bulge luminosities of bright central galaxies in clusters; (ii) new predictions for the mass function of seed black holes at high redshifts predict that growth via accretion or merger-induced accretion inevitably leads to the existence of rare UMBHs at late times; (iii) the local mass function of black holes computed from the observed X-ray luminosity functions of active galactic nuclei predict the existence of a high mass tail in the black hole mass function at $z = 0$. Consistency between the optical and X-ray census of the local black hole mass function requires an upper limit to black hole masses. This...

  15. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  16. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  17. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  18. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Intermediate mass black holes in AGN disks: I. Production & Growth

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, B; Lyra, W; Perets, H B

    2012-01-01

    Here we propose a mechanism for efficiently growing intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in disks around supermassive black holes. Stellar mass objects can efficiently agglomerate when facilitated by the gas disk. Stars, compact objects and binaries can migrate, accrete and merge within disks around supermassive black holes. While dynamical heating by cusp stars excites the velocity dispersion of nuclear cluster objects (NCOs) in the disk, gas in the disk damps NCO orbits. If gas damping dominates, NCOs remain in the disk with circularized orbits and large collision cross-sections. IMBH seeds can grow extremely rapidly by collisions with disk NCOs at low relative velocities, allowing for super-Eddington growth rates. Once an IMBH seed has cleared out its feeding zone of disk NCOs, growth of IMBH seeds can become dominated by gas accretion from the AGN disk. However, the IMBH can migrate in the disk and expand its feeding zone, permitting a super-Eddington accretion rate to continue. Growth of IMBH seeds via N...

  20. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  1. A new TiW seed layer for SmCo{sub 5} films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weiming; Liu, Wenwu [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xiao [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Dai, Yifan; Cheng, Xiaomin [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Miao, Xiangshui, E-mail: miaoxs@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    A new seed layer TiW is proposed for SmCo{sub 5} films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The influence of a TiW seed layer on the microstructure and the surface morphology of Cu underlayer are studied. The grain size and surface roughness dependence of Cu underlayer on the thickness and the annealing of the TiW seed layer are also investigated. The improvement in the perpendicular magnetic properties of SmCo{sub 5} film from the TiW seed layer is approved. The results show that a 5 nm Ti{sub 3}W{sub 7} seed layer improves the microstructure and surface morphology of Cu underlayer, and significantly improves the perpendicular magnetic properties of SmCo{sub 5} film. The diffusion barrier and a high melting point of the TiW seed layer are regarded as the physical mechanism of the improvement for SmCo{sub 5} film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiW seed layer improves the texture of Cu under layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiW seed layer decreases the surface roughness of Cu underlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 5 nm TiW seed layer significantly improves the perpendicular coercivity of SmCo{sub 5} film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion barrier and a high melting point of TiW seed layer are the physical mechanism of the improvement for SmCo{sub 5} film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  2. Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Sampath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

  3. Solving puzzles of GW150914 by primordial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Blinnikov, S; Porayko, N K; Postnov, K

    2016-01-01

    The black hole binary properties inferred from the LIGO gravitational wave signal GW150914 posed several serious problems. The high masses and low effective spin of black hole binary can be explained if they are primordial (PBH) rather than the products of the stellar binary evolution. Such PBH properties are postulated ad hoc but not derived from fundamental theory. We show that the necessary features of PBHs naturally follow from the slightly modified Affleck-Dine (AD) mechanism of baryogenesis. The log-normal distribution of PBHs, predicted within the AD paradigm, is adjusted to provide an abundant population of low-spin stellar mass black holes. The same distribution gives a sufficient number of quickly growing seeds of supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts and may comprise an appreciable fraction of Dark Matter which does not contradict any existing observational limits. Testable predictions of this scenario are discussed.

  4. The Merging History of Massive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M; Madau, P; Sesana, A

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a hierarchical structure formation scenario describing the evolution of a Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) population. The seeds of the local SMBHs are assumed to be 'pregalactic' black holes, remnants of the first POPIII stars. As these pregalactic holes become incorporated through a series of mergers into larger and larger halos, they sink to the center owing to dynamical friction, accrete a fraction of the gas in the merger remnant to become supermassive, form a binary system, and eventually coalesce. A simple model in which the damage done to a stellar cusps by decaying BH pairs is cumulative is able to reproduce the observed scaling relation between galaxy luminosity and core size. An accretion model connecting quasar activity with major mergers and the observed BH mass-velocity dispersion correlation reproduces remarkably well the observed luminosity function of optically-selected quasars in the redshift range 1

  5. (Super-)renormalizably dressed black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Méndez-Zavaleta, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    Black holes supported by self-interacting conformal scalar fields can be considered as renormalizably dressed since the conformal potential is nothing but the top power-counting renormalizable self-interaction in the relevant dimension. On the other hand, potentials defined by powers which are lower than the conformal one are also phenomenologically relevant since they are in fact super-renormalizable. In this work we provide a new map that allows to build black holes dressed with all the (super-)renormalizable contributions starting from known conformal seeds. We explicitly construct several new examples of these solutions in dimensions $D=3$ and $D=4$, including not only stationary configurations but also time-dependent ones.

  6. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  7. From the first stars to the first black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Valiante, Rosa; Volonteri, Marta; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs) at z > 6 is still a major challenge for theoretical models. If it starts from black hole (BH) remnants of Population III stars (light seeds with mass ~ 100 Msun) it requires super-Eddington accretion. An alternative route is to start from heavy seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas onto a ~ 10^5 Msun BH. Here we investigate the relative role of light and heavy seeds as BH progenitors of the first SMBHs. We use the cosmological, data constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSOdust to simulate several independent merger histories of z > 6 quasars. Using physically motivated prescriptions to form light and heavy seeds in the progenitor galaxies, we find that the formation of a few heavy seeds (between 3 and 30 in our reference model) enables the Eddington-limited growth of SMBHs at z > 6. This conclusion depends sensitively on the interplay between chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback effects, which easily erase the conditions that allow the su...

  8. Farmers, seeds and varieties : supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, M.H.; Bishaw, Z.; Beshir, A.; Boef, de W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the

  9. Restoration seed reserves for assisted gene flow within seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.S. Echt; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate and declining forest populations imperil the future of certain forest tree species. To complement forest management and genetic conservation plans, we propose a new paradigm for seedling seed orchards: foster genetic mixing among a variety of seed sources to increase genetic diversity and adaptive potential of seed supplies used for forest restoration...

  10. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Ben T.; Visser, Marco D.; Kays, Roland; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  11. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  12. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  13. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Ben T.; Visser, Marco D.; Kays, Roland; Jansen, Patrick A.

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  14. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, B.T.; Visser, M.D.; Kays, R.; Jansen, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  15. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  16. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  17. The importance of good seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  18. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mussury, Rosilda M; Lima, Andréa A

    2012-03-01

    The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1) Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black) and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2) Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg.L(-1) gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C). The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.

  19. The Effects of Exposure, Elevation and Tree Age on Seed Characteristics of Fagus orientalis Lipsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ertekin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Natural or artificial regeneration, rehabilitation, and conversion from coppice to high forest are important practices in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky forests in Turkey. Studies of the seeds of this species have increased in number because mast years are infrequent and seed germination is inhibited by dormancy. In this study we quantified the effects of tree age (40-59, 60-79 and 80-99 years, stand exposure (north, west, east and south and elevation (600 and 800 m a.s.l. on seed characteristics (germination, moisture content, and weight of Oriental beech. Material and Methods: The seeds used in this study were collected from natural beech forest at Kumluca, Bartin, in the western Black Sea region of Turkey. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and the greenhouse of Bartin University. Results: Seed germination and moisture content varied significantly by elevation, and seed germination was strongly influenced by elevation. Moisture content was 14% at 600 m and 16% at 800 m. The effects of elevation and tree age on 100 seed weights were not significant but exposure had a significant effect. The highest 100 seed weight was recorded for trees on southern exposures and the highest germination percentage of 82% was recorded for trees on northern exposures. Conclusions: In conclusion, since oriental beech seedlings are produced by generative propagation method, seeds should be harvested in optimum distribution area of beech, from average ages and phenotypically plus tree.

  20. RELATIVE EXPRESSION OF GENES CHIA1, SGF14C AND CHS8* IN SOYBEAN SEED COATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ANDRÉ BAHRY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative expression of three candidate genes, CHIA1, SGF14c and CHS8 * possibly involved in seed quality, in contrasting seed coats from four soybean genotypes. Two genotypes with yellow seed coats, BMX Potência RR and CD 202, and two genotypes with black seed coats, TP and IAC were studied to determine the relative gene expression through the qPCR technique, in sev- en stages of seed coat development for all four genotypes, at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 days after anthesis. The CHIA1 and SGF14c genes showed higher expression in cultivar CD 202; the former in the final stages of seed coat development, at 55 days after anthesis, the latter gene at earlier stages, specifically at 25 days after anthesis. The CHS8* gene showed higher expression in CD 202 seed coats at 50 days after anthesis. All three genes expressed at higher levels on genotypes of yellow seed coats, and are considered relevant to new areas of research based on the expression of genes related to seed quality.

  1. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreedi...

  2. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  3. Genetics of Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...

  4. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  6. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  7. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, John; Su, Lan; Moore, Jeffrey; Cheng, Zhihong; Luther, Marla; Rao, Jaladanki N; Wang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2006-05-31

    Seed flours from black raspberry, red raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, pinot noir grape, and chardonnay grape were examined for their total fat content, fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), radical scavenging capacities against the peroxyl (ORAC) and stable DPPH radicals, chelating capacity against Fe(2+), and antiproliferative activities using the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. Significant levels of fat were detected in the fruit seed flours and their fatty acid profiles may differ from those of the respective seed oils. Cranberry seed flour had the highest level of alpha-linolenic acid (30.9 g/100 g fat) and the lowest ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (1.2/1). The ORAC value of the chardonnay seed flour was 1076.4 Trolox equivalents mumol/g flour, and its TPC was 186.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g flour. These values were 3-12 times higher than the other tested fruit seed flours. Furthermore, the ORAC value was significantly correlated to the TPC under the experimental conditions (P seed flours also differed in their TAC values and Fe(2+)-chelating capacities. In addition, black raspberry, cranberry, and chardonnay grape seed flour extracts were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects using HT-29 colon cancer cells. All three tested seed flour extracts significant inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation. The data from this study suggest the potential of developing the value-added use of these fruit seed flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal human health.

  8. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  9. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  10. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanter; Omer Coskun; Mustafa Budancamanak

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS)and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats.METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals.All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc,twice a week for 60 d). Tn addition, B, C and D groups also received daily J.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand,received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d.Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment.RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased thelipid peroxidation and liver enzymes,and also decreasedthe antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (aloneor combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipidperoxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increasedthe reduced antioxidant enzyme levels.The weight ofrats decreased in group A,and increased in groups B, Cand D.CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.

  12. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Kanter; Halit Demir; Cengiz Karakaya; Hanefi Ozbek

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of acute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and the effect of Nigella sativa L oil (NS) and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) in an experimental model.METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned into 4groups. Control group was given physiologic saline orally (10 mL/kg body weight) as the vehicle (gavage); ethanol group was administrated 1 mL (per rat) absolute alcohol by gavage; the third and fourth groups were given NS (10 mL/kg body weight) and TQ (10 mg/kg body weight p.o) respectively 1 h prior to alcohol intake. One hour after ethanol administration, stomach tissues were excised for macroscopic examination and biochemical analysis.RESULTS: NS and TQ could protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of absolute alcohol and promote ulcer healing as evidenced from the ulcer index (UI) values. NS prevented alcohol-induced increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation. NS also increased gastric glutathione content (GSH), enzymatic activities of gastric superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Likewise, TQ protected against the ulcerating effect of alcohol and mitigated most of the biochemical adverse effects induced by alcohol in gastric mucosa, but to a lesser extent than NS. Neither NS nor TQ affected catalase activity in gastric tissue.CONCLUSION: Both NS and TQ, particularly NS can partly protect gastric mucosa from acute alcohol-induced mucosal injury, and these gastroprotective effects might be induced, at least partly by their radical scavenging activity.

  13. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa L.and Portulaca oleracea L. on free radical induced hemolysis of RBCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Taghiabadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: It has been shown that Nigella sativa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. have many antioxidant components. In the present study, the cytoprotective effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N.sativa and P.oleracea against hemolytic damages induced by free radical initiator, AAPH [2, 2' azobis (2- amidinopropane hydrochloride] was evaluated. "n  Methods: Hemolysis was induced by addition of AAPH. To study the cytoprotective effect, aqueous (50, 200, 300, 400, 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (25, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N. sativa and aqueous (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1800 μg/ml extracts of P. oleracea were employed. RBCs were incubated with both extracts and AAPH at 37 °C for 6 hrs. In order to evaluate the impact of the time of addition, extracts were added one and 2 hrs after AAPH. Samples of suspensions were removed at different times and the degree of hemolysis was assessed spectrophotometrically by reading the absorption of supernatants at 540 nm. "n  Results: Aqueous (300, 400 and 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N.sativa and also, aqueous (100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (1200, 1800 μg/ml extracts of P.oleracea showed concentration-dependent cytoprotective effects. Addition of extracts one hour after AAPH reduced but did not eliminate protective activities of extracts. "n  Conclusion: Cytorotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa and P. oleracea against AAPH- induced hemolysis may be related to antioxidant properties of these plants.

  14. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor in Brassica rapa Reveals QTL Hotspots and Epistatic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Ram K; Duwal, Anita; Tiwari, Dev N; Xiao, Dong; Monakhos, Sokrat; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G F; Groot, Steven P C; Bonnema, Guusje; Maliepaard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across all 10 linkage groups for traits related to seed weight, seed germination and seedling vigor under non-stress and salt stress conditions illustrating the polygenic nature of these traits. QTLs for multiple traits co-localized and we identified eight hotspots for quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed weight, seed germination, and root and shoot lengths. A QTL hotspot for seed germination on A02 mapped at the B. rapa Flowering Locus C (BrFLC2). Another hotspot on A05 with salt stress specific QTLs co-located with the B. rapa Fatty acid desaturase 2 (BrFAD2) locus. Epistatic interactions were observed between QTL hotspots for seed germination on A02 and A10 and with a salt tolerance QTL on A05. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetics of seed quality and seeding vigor in B. rapa and can offer tools for Brassica breeding.

  15. Study on Effect of Moringa oleifera Seed Pesscake as Natural Coagulant on Removal of Direct Black 19 in Aqueous Solution%辣木油渣对水中偶氮染料直接耐晒黑G的混凝去除效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁步先; 张浏; 郑西强; 帖靖玺; 李寒超; 张帅

    2015-01-01

    Jar tests were carried to explore the feasibility of use of Moringa oleifera seed presscake(MOSP)as a natural coagulant for removal of direct black 19(DB-19)from the effluent . The results indicated that the MOSP contained various proteins which were the active agents for its coagulating ability. Low temperature and strongly basic condition were unfavorable for DB-19 removal. The DB-19 removal efficiencies increased with the increasing MOSP dosage. There existed an optimal MOSP dosage for each DB-19 concentration. The relationship between the two parameters could be described by the equation y=3.75x+22.5(R2=0.986 8,x is DB-19 concentration,y is optimal MOSP dosage). The DB-19 removal efficiencies were improved by inorganic salts and weakened by suspended solids. The mechanism for DB-19 removal by MOSP was a combinaition of adsorption and neutralisation of charges and the nucleation of MOSP powders. MOSP is a potential natural coagulant for DB-19 removal.%通过杯罐混凝试验,研究了辣木油渣对溶液中直接耐晒黑G的去除效果及其影响因素。结果表明:辣木油渣中含有大量的具有混凝能力的蛋白质,低温和强碱性对直接耐晒黑G的去除不利;直接耐晒黑G的去除率随辣木油渣粉末用量的增大而提高;对于每一个固定的浓度,都存在一个最佳辣木油渣粉末投加量,最佳辣木油渣粉末投加量和直接耐晒黑G的浓度之间的关系可以用方程式y=3.75x+22.5(R2=0.9868,x为染料浓度,y为辣木油渣粉末投加量)描述。无机盐能提高直接耐晒黑G的去除效果,而悬浮物则降低直接耐晒黑G的去除效果。辣木油渣去除直接耐晒黑G的机理为吸附-电性中和辣木油渣粉末成核效应的联合作用。辣木油渣是一种良好的处理直接耐晒黑G的天然混凝剂。

  16. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  17. Black Hole Growth from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Micic, Miroslav; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We use high resolution cosmological N-body simulations to study the growth of intermediate to supermassive black holes from redshift 49 to zero. We track the growth of black holes from the seeds of population III stars to black holes in the range of 10^3 < M < 10^7 Msun -- not quasars, but rather IMBH to low-mass SMBHs. These lower mass black holes are the primary observable for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The large-scale dynamics of the black holes are followed accurately within the simulation down to scales of 1 kpc; thereafter, we follow the merger analytically from the last dynamical friction phase to black hole coalescence. We find that the merger rate of these black holes is R~25 per year between 8 < z < 11 and R = 10 per year at z=3. Before the merger occurs the incoming IMBH may be observed with a next generation of X-ray telescopes as a ULX source with a rate of about ~ 3 - 7 per year for 1 < z < 5. We develop an analytic prescription that captures the ...

  18. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  19. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  20. Braneworld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Whisker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, an...