WorldWideScience

Sample records for black sea

  1. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  2. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  3. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  4. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  5. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  6. Magnetite in Black Sea Turtles (Chelonia agassizi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Garduño, V.; Sanchez, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have reported experimental evidence for magnetoreception in marine turtles. In order to increase our knowledge about magnetoreception and biogenic mineralization, we have isolated magnetite particles from the brain of specimens of black sea turtles Chelonia agassizi. Our samples come from natural deceased organisms collected the reserve area of Colola Maruata in southern Mexico. The occurrence of magnetite particles in brain tissue of black sea turtles offers the opportunity for further studies to investigate possible function of ferrimagnetic material, its mineralogical composition, grain size, texture and its location and structural arrangement within the host tissue. After sample preparation and microscopic examination, we localized and identified the ultrafine unidimensional particles of magnetite by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particles present grain sizes between 10.0 to 40.0Mm. Our study provides, for the first time, evidence for biogenic formation of this material in the black sea turtles. The ultrafine particles are apparently superparamagnetic. Preliminary results from rock magnetic measurements are also reported and correlated to the SEM observations. The black turtle story on the Michoacan coast is an example of formerly abundant resource which was utilized as a subsistence level by Nahuatl indigenous group for centuries, but which is collapsing because of intensive illegal commercial exploitation. The most important nesting and breeding grounds for the black sea turtle on any mainland shore are the eastern Pacific coastal areas of Maruata and Colola, in Michoacan. These beaches are characterized by important amounts of magnetic mineral (magnetites and titanomagnetites) mixed in their sediments.

  7. Crustal seismicity of the Black Sea areal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Mihail; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela

    2014-05-01

    The main target of the study is to decipher the seismicity of the Black Sea areal from the tsunami-genetic potential. From the seismotectonical point of view the earthquakes which are responsible for tsunami are those associated with thrust faults (subduction zones), normal and inverse faults and less strike slip faults (only if the oblique-slip and deep slip components are predominant), with magnitude higher than 6.5 (even the USGS cited tsunami at 5.1 magnitude) and depth, a shallow one, less than 20 km depth. In order to delimit the seismic sources from Black Sea and to discrimate among them the tsunamigenic ones, the following elements have been taken into account: - depth of the earthquakes foci, that allow separation of two major categories: deeper than 40 km depth and crustal, normal, (less than 40 km deep); - development of the earthquakes epicenters in the orogen zone or in zones with active tectonics (fault systems); - establishment of the areas of active faults along which the earthquakes epicenters are aligned; - the absence of a recent or actual tectonic activity; the epicenters recorded in these tectonically stable zones are considered as the result of a diffuse, accidental seismicity. The studies on active tectonics have clearly shown the position of the seismic sources (connected to well define active fault) which do not interfere and do not result in alternatives of other seismotectonic model constructions. According to the distribution map of earthquakes and as well as to the map of the areas with active tectonics, ten seismic sources were established: Central Dobrogea(S1), Shabla(S2), Istanbul(S3), North Anatolian Fault(S4), Georgia(S5), Novorossjsk(S6), Crimea(S7), West Black Sea Fault(S8) and Mid Black Sea Ridge(S9). The maximum possible magnitude of each seismic source was obtained through three aproaches: (i) using seismotectonics and geological database (the length of the faults, possible apparition on surface, geomorphology, etc

  8. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  9. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  10. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  11. Paleomagnetic research on Black Sea Quaternary sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcheva, V.; Nozharov, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Shopov, V.

    1990-10-01

    The paper reports the first paleomagnetic study of a Black Sea Quaternary sediment core made by a Bulgarian research group. The experimental results show an important difference in magnetic behaviour between the samples from the Holocene part and those from the Pleistocene part of the core. Suggestions are made for the character of the remanent magnetization and the main carriers of it. The presence of greigite (Fe 3S 4) and pyrite (FeS 2) is discussed. A rough correlation is established between the variation of inclination for the Holocene part of the sediment and for the Bulgarian archeomagnetic curve. On the basis of the comparison of inclination data obtained from the Pleistocene part of the core and previously studied Black Sea core (related to the absolute time scale), it is suggested that the lower boundary of the Pleistocene part is ˜ 16000 years old (BP).

  12. Kinetics of Ce and Nd scavenging in Black Sea waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing experiments were performed during Leg 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Expedition in order to learn more about the mechanism and kinetics of rare earth element (REE) scavenging at the oxic-anoxic interface of anoxic basins and, more specifically, in the suboxic zone of the Black Sea. Water from the de

  13. Geopolitical Interests in the Black Sea / Caspian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    conquest was focused on reaching step by step the Carpathian Mountains and the Baltic Sea in the west and northwest, the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in...Plain, Ural Mountains and the Barents Sea in the North), determined an offensive and aggressive political stance towards the neighboring countries...the south, then, the Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains range in the south east, and later the Pacific Ocean coast in the Far East (natural boundaries).9

  14. Reducing future nutrient inputs to the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, M.; Kroeze, C.; Kopilevych, V.A.; Voytenko, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of dissolved inorganic (DIN, DIP) and organic (DON, DOP) nitrogen and phosphorus to the Black Sea causing coastal eutrophication. The aim of this study is to explore future trends in river export of these nutrients to the sea through a sensitivity analysis. We used t

  15. Introduction: The Black Sea as region and horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Caroline; Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning of ...... brought about by migration and trade. In the concluding section we discuss how the Black Sea has appeared as a “horizon” and imaginary of the beyond for the peoples living around its shores....

  16. Recent decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that from 1955 to 2013, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 36 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2013, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulphide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication. Enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. The consecutive increase of oxygen inventory in 1985–1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, this increase also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not free from a significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depths. Considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  17. Subcrustal structure of the black sea basin from seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovskaya, T. B.; Gobarenko, V. S.; Yegorova, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The P-wave travel time data from the earthquakes offshore and onshore around the Black Sea are used for the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) velocity distribution in the lithosphere of the region. The preliminary refinement of the foci parameters (the coordinates and origin time) has reduced the random errors in the travel-time data. The earthquake data were supplemented by the previous deep seismic sounding (DSS) data on the profiles in Crimea and offshore off the Black Sea. The dataset included more than 4000 travel times overall. In order to eliminate the crustal effect, the travel times were reduced to a surface at a depth of 35 km corresponding to the mean Moho depth in the region. The improved crustal model was used for removing the contribution of the crust from the initial data. The new tomography method, which was recently developed by one of the authors and which relies on the assumption of smoothness of the lateral velocity variations, was applied for reconstructing the velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Black Sea up to a depth of 95 km. The lateral velocity variation maps at different depths and the vertical velocity distributions along the meridional and sublatitudinal cross sections across the Black Sea were constructed. High velocities were revealed in the subcrustal lithosphere, and the structural difference below two subbasins—the West Black Sea (WBS) and the East Black Sea (EBS) ones—was established. It shows that the high-velocity body below the WBS is located deeper than below the EBS and is distinguished by higher velocities. Based on these results, it is concluded that the lithosphere beneath the Black Sea has a continental origin.

  18. Coastal benthic diversity in the Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative data pertaining to the composition of macrobenthic communities of soft bottoms along the coastal zones of the Black and Aegean Seas are reviewed. The study area includes one site in the Russian coastal zone, four sites in Ukraine (at depths 3-125 m, four sites in Bulgaria (at depths 12-83 m, and four sites in Greece (at depths 9-90 m. The species variety, population density and community diversity are compared between Seas, among regions and among stations. The fluctuation of these parameters in connection to anthropogenic impact (ranging from open undisturbed sites to those receiving heavy organic and chemical effluent are discussed. The low species number of benthic fauna in the Black Sea, as opposed to the richness of the Aegean Sea (three times higher a ratio well established for other marine groups, is not reflected in the overall abundance. Thus, the average population density of benthic organisms may reach 12352 ind per m2 in the Black Sea (Cocketrice sandy bank while in the Aegean it did not exceed 4,000 ind per m2 (Saronikos Gulf. Community diversity was always lower in the Black Sea than similar sites in the Aegean Sea. Within the various regions examined, the protected areas exhibited the most complex community structure.

  19. Potential and challenges for the Black Sea regional cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galya VLADOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early nineties, the Black Sea region has witnessed fundamental geopolitical changes and significant shifts in its regional context and dynamics. In an attempt to react to the altered circumstances after the collapse of the Soviet Union and to address an increasing number of common challenges, the Black Sea states have jointed efforts in various regional cooperation activities. Throughout the years, the Black Sea cooperation has evolved with different speed and success, reflecting the difficult regional circumstances and attracting increasing external involvement. Today, more than twenty years after the first cooperation activities have been launched, the Black Sea cooperation is still shadowed by persisting historical rivalries, unrecognized territorial entities, ‘frozen conflicts’ and security threats. As a result, despite the many pressing problems of regional character, the cooperation efforts are currently showing rather limited outcomes. Seen against this background, the current paper presents a study of the main challenges and the existing potential for further development of the Black Sea regional cooperation.

  20. Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bilyay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the extreme waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing extreme waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between –0.01 and –0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1–4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the extreme waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hsrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f–9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f–4, –5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5–70 for the extreme wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, extreme waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that extreme waves appear within a group of high waves.

  1. On the wave energy potential of Western Black Sea shelf

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we evaluate the approaches to estimate the wave energy potential of the western Black Sea shelf with numerical models. For the purpose of our evaluation and due to the lack of long time series of measurements in the selected area of the Black Sea, we compare the modeled mean wave power flux output from the SWAN wave model with the only available long term measurements from the buoy of Gelendzhik for the period 1997-2003 (with gaps). The forcing meteorological data for the numerical wave models for the selected years is extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Forecasts). For the year 2003 we also compare the estimated wave power with the modeled by SWAN, using ALADIN regional atmospheric model winds. We try to identify the shortcomings and limitations of the numerical modeling approach to the evaluation of the wave energy potential in Black Sea.

  2. Nutrient exchange fluxes between the Aegean and Black Seas through the Marmara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TUGRUL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term data obtained in the Turkish Strait System (TSS including the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits, during 1990-2000, have permitted us to calculate seasonal and annual fluxes of water and nutrients (nitrate, phosphate exchanged between the Aegean and Black Seas through the TSS. Two-layer flow regimes in the TSS introduce the brackish waters of the Black Sea into the Aegean basin of the northeastern Mediterranean throughout the year. A counter flow in the TSS carries the salty Mediterranean water into the Black Sea via the Marmara deep basin. The annual volume influx from the Black Sea to the Marmara upper layer is nearly two-fold the salty water exported from the Marmara to the Black Sea via the Bosphorus underflow. The brackish Black Sea inflow is relatively rich in nitrate and phosphate in winter, decreasing to the lowest levels in late summer and autumn. Biologically labile nutrients of Black Sea origin are utilized in photosynthetic processes in the Marmara Sea and are partly exported to the Marmara lower layer. Eventually, the brackish Black Sea waters reach the Dardanelles Strait, with modified bio-chemical properties. On the other hand, the salty Mediterranean waters with low concentrations of nutrients enter the Marmara deep basin. During threir 6-7 year sojourn in the Marmara basin, the salty waters become enriched in nitrate (DIN and phosphate (DIP, due to oxidation of planktonic particles sinking from the Marmara surface layer. The annual nutrient inputs from the Black Sea to the Marmara basin were estimated as 8.17x108 moles of DIN and 4.25x107 moles of DIP, which are much less than the importation from the Marmara lower layer via the Bosphorus undercurrent. The salty Aegean water introduces nearly 6.13x108 moles of DIN and 2.79x107 moles of DIP into the Marmara lower layer. The estimated DIP outflux from the Aegean Sea is nearly 2 times less than the importation from the Marmara Sea via the Dardanelles

  3. Storm surges in the Western Black Sea. Operational forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MUNGOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the storm surges in the Black Sea is lower than that in other regions of the World Ocean but they cause significant damages as the magnitude of the sea level set-up is up to 7-8 times greater than that of other sea level variations. New methods and systems for storm surge forecasting and studying their statistical characteristics are absolutely necessary for the purposes of the coastal zone management. The operational forecasting storm surge model of Meteo-France was adopted for the Black Sea in accordance with the bilateral agreement between Meteo-France and NINMH. The model was verified using tide-gauge observations for the strongest storms observed along the Bulgarian coast over the last 10 years.

  4. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mityagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment.

  5. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Landing, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earths in the deep anoxic Black Sea are about one order of magnitude higher than in normal open ocean waters. From a minimum at the suboxic-anoxic interface at about 107 m depth, concentrations increase strongly to a maximum at about 300–400 m depth. Concentrations of Ce range

  6. Collision processes at the northern margin of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobarenko, V. S.; Murovskaya, A. V.; Yegorova, T. P.; Sheremet, E. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extended along the Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Black Sea, the Crimean Seismic Zone (CSZ) is an evidence of active tectonic processes at the junction of the Scythian Plate and Black Sea Microplate. A relocation procedure applied to weak earthquakes (mb ≤ 3) recorded by ten local stations during 1970-2013 helped to determine more accurately the parameters of hypocenters in the CSZ. The Kerch-Taman, Sudak, Yuzhnoberezhnaya (South Coast), and Sevastopol subzones have also been recognized. Generalization of the focal mechanisms of 31 strong earthquakes during 1927-2013 has demonstrated the predominance of reverse and reverse-normal-faulting deformation regimes. This ongoing tectonic process occurs under the settings of compression and transpression. The earthquake foci with strike-slip component mechanisms concentrate in the west of the CSZ. Comparison of deformation modes in the western and eastern Crimean Mountains according to tectonophysical data has demonstrated that the western part is dominated by strike-slip and normal- faulting, while in the eastern part, reverse-fault and strike-slip deformation regimes prevail. Comparison of the seismicity and gravity field and modes of deformation suggests underthusting of the East Black Sea Microplate with thin suboceanic crust under the Scythian Plate. In the Yuzhnoberezhnaya Subzone, this process is complicated by the East Black Sea Microplate frontal part wedging into the marginal part of the Scythian Plate crust. The indentation mechanism explains the strong gravity anomaly in the Crimean Mountains and their uplift.

  7. Variational data assimilation system "INM RAS - Black Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agoshkov, Valery; Assovskiy, Maksim; Giniatulin, Sergey; Zakharova, Natalia; Kuimov, Grigory; Fomin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for Data Assimilation Procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The problems discussed above are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for Personal Computers (PC). Special problems and questions arise while effective ICS versions for PC are being developed. These problems and questions can be solved with applying modern methods of numerical mathematics and by solving "parallelism problem" using OpenMP technology and special linear algebra packages. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the work the following problems and questions are discussed: practical problems that can be studied by ICS; parallelism problems and their solutions with applying of OpenMP technology and the linear algebra packages used in ICS "INM - Black Sea"; Interface of ICS. The results of ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" testing are presented. Efficiency of technologies and methods applied are discussed. The work was supported by RFBR, grants No. 13-01-00753, 13-05-00715 and by The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, project 8291, project 11.519.11.1005 References: [1] V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 5-31 [2] E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 [3] V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V

  8. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-year sea ice and "dry" and "wet" snow types that suggest black carbon is the dominating absorbing impurity. The albedo response of first year and multi-year sea ice to increasing black carbon, from 1–1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm thick sea ice was calculated using the radiative transfer model: TUV-snow. Sea ice albedo is surprisingly unresponsive to black carbon additions up to 100 ng g−1 with a decrease in albedo to 98.7% of the original albedo value due to an addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon in first year sea ice compared to an albedo decrease to 99.6% for the same black carbon mass ratio increase in multi-year sea ice. The first year sea ice proved more responsive to black carbon additions than the multi-year ice. Comparison with previous modelling of black carbon in sea ice suggests a more scattering sea ice environment will be less responsive to black carbon additions. Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. "Wet" and "dry" snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm were added onto the sea ice surface and the snow surface albedo calculated with the same increase in black carbon in the underlying sea ice. Just a 0.5 cm layer of snow greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon on surface albedo, and a 2–5 cm layer (less than half the e-folding depth of snow is enough to "mask" any change in surface albedo owing to additional black carbon in sea ice, but not thick enough to ignore the underlying sea ice.

  9. On the Bioeconomic potential of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian

    2015-04-01

    The paper is a plea for the need to engage in more intensive researches on the Black Sea region bioeconomy so that they should keep pace with the researches taking place in other European seas. Bioeconomy offers Europe a unique opportunity to address complex inter-connected challenges, while achieving economic growth. Bioeconomy refers to the set of economic activities relating to the invention, development, production and use of biological products and processes. According to the European Commission, bioeconomy can be found in societal challenge category entitled "Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research, and the Bioeconomy" (http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/h2020/index_en.htm); a transition is needed towards an optimal and renewable use of biological resources and towards sustainable primary production and processing systems. The author makes a brief overview of the European preoccupations concerning scientific research into bioeconomy and, equally, presents Romanian thinking in the field, launched several decades ago, but never applied and developed in practice. In 1933 Dr. Gr. Antipa, former outstanding student of Ernst Haeckel at Jena, expounded his conception of general biology and the biological structure of the Black Sea introducing the concepts of "biosociology" and "bioeconomy", drawing conclusions on the natural mechanism of fish production in this sea and specifying the determining factors in functioning. Antipa notes the lack of uniformity of the living conditions in the Black Sea and draws conclusions based on indices and faunal aspects found in different areas and at different depths: 1. The Black Sea, to an even greater extent than the Baltic Sea, with which it has some similarity both of them having a continuous surface and homogeneous appearance, is divided into more zones or biotypes, bounded horizontally and vertically - i.e. depending on areas and depths - each with distinct and well

  10. An Introduction to the Black Sea Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Kuyalnitsky liman nearly Odessa wth salinity up to 100‰. The bright red larvae of С. salinarius are cultivated and used as food for aquarium fish...Comparing with the open sea, the blue mussel was growing better in the Khadzhibeyskiy liman and it was successfully cultivated . At the market, the...Modiolus phaseolinus. On this background, like tangerines that have been spread by somebody, the orange-red sponges Suberites carnosus with a diameter up

  11. Black carbon in deep-Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello; Druffel

    1998-06-19

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is 4 to 22 percent of the DOC pool. If soils are the intermediate reservoir, then the importance of riverine carbon in the ocean carbon cycle has been underestimated.

  12. Black carbon in deep-sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is ...

  13. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p microplastic concentrations suggest that Black Sea is a hotspot for microplastic pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life.

  14. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  15. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  16. Crustal underthrusting in the Crimea - Northern Black Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, Tamara; Gobarenko, Valentina; Murovskaya, Anna; Sheremet, Yevgeniya

    2016-04-01

    The southern Crimean Mountains and the Greater Caucasus form a fold and thrust belt located on the northern margin of the Black Sea, south of Precambrian East European Craton. It is limited to the south by the Main Caucasus Thrust that runs along the whole of the northern margin of the Black Sea and is related to a zone of present day seismicity along the southern Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Sea (Crimean Seismogenic Zone). Strong seismic activity in the region indicates active on-going tectonic processes caused by collision of Eurasian and Arabian plates. In the vicinity of the seismogenic zone there is a transition from thick continental crust on the north to thin suboceanic one on the south in the sea. However, type and structural relations between them are known poorly. To understand better geodynamic processes, there were collected data on the earthquakes that were analyzed together with focal mechanisms of strong earthquakes, new results of geological structural analysis and paleostress reconstructions by kinematic method. These allowed drawing the following conclusions. Seismic activity in the study region, evidenced of active tectonic processes under compression and transpression at the transition from the southern margin of the East European Craton (Scythian Platform) to the Black Sea, is confirmed by predominance of reverse mechanisms among 31 focal mechanisms. In the seismogenic zone, much of which is located along the continental slope, there are three subzones (from east to west): 1) Kerch-Taman one dipping northwards at angle 30 degrees to the depth of 90 km; 2) South-Coast subzone gently dipping to the southeast at angle of 18 degrees with foci depth range 10-45 km, and 3) orthogonal to the latter and confining it from the west the Sevastopol one, characterized by scattered seismicity. The earthquake foci are located in the gradient zone that separates intense Crimea gravity high and positive anomaly of Northern Caucasus from negative gravity field

  17. Light Absorption in Arctic Sea Ice - Black Carbon vs Chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Hunke, E. C.; Flanner, M.; Wang, H.; Dubey, M. K.; Jeffery, N.

    2015-12-01

    The fingerprint of climate change is more obvious in the Arctic than any other place on Earth. This is not only because the surface temperature there has increased at twice the rate of global mean temperature but also because Arctic sea ice extent has reached a record low of 49% reduction relative to the 1979-2000 climatology. Radiation absorption through black carbon (BC) deposited on Arctic snow and sea ice surface is one of the major hypothesized contributors to the decline. However, we note that chlorophyll-a absorption owing to increasing biology activity in this region could be a major competitor during boreal spring. Modeling of sea-ice physical and biological processes together with experiments and field observations promise rapid progress in the quality of Arctic ice predictions. Here we develop a dynamic ice system module to investigate discrete absorption of both BC and chlorophyll in the Arctic, using BC deposition fields from version 5 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and vertically distributed layers of chlorophyll concentrations from Sea Ice Model (CICE). To this point, our black carbon mixing ratios compare well with available in situ data. Both results are in the same order of magnitude. Estimates from our calculations show that sea ice and snow around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay has the least black carbon absorption while values at the ice-ocean perimeter in the region of the Barents Sea peak significantly. With regard to pigment concentrations, high amounts of chlorophyll are produced in Arctic sea ice by the bottom microbial community, and also within the columnar pack wherever substantial biological activity takes place in the presence of moderate light. We show that the percentage of photons absorbed by chlorophyll in the spring is comparable to the amount attributed to BC, especially in areas where the total deposition rates are decreasing with time on interannual timescale. We expect a continuous increase in

  18. Simulations of The Extreme Precipitation Event Enhanced by Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly over the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakan Doǧan, Onur; Önol, Barış

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul Technical University, Aeronautics and Astronautics Faculty, Meteorological Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey In this study, we examined the extreme precipitation case over the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey by using regional climate model, RegCM4. The flood caused by excessive rain in August 26, 2010 killed 12 people and the landslides in Rize province have damaged many buildings. The station based two days total precipitation exceeds 200 mm. One of the usual suspects for this extreme event is positive anomaly of sea surface temperature (SST) over the Black Sea where the significant warming trend is clear in the last three decades. In August 2010, the monthly mean SST is higher than 3 °C with respect to the period of 1981-2010. We designed three sensitivity simulations with RegCM4 to define the effects of the Black Sea as a moisture source. The simulation domain with 10-km horizontal resolution covers all the countries bordering the Black Sea and simulation period is defined for entire August 2010. It is also noted that the spatial variability of the precipitation produced by the reference simulation (Sim-0) is consistent with the TRMM data. In terms of analysis of the sensitivity to SST, we forced the simulations by subtracting 1 °C (Sim-1), 2 °C (Sim-2) and 3 °C (Sim-3) from the ERA-Interim 6-hourly SST data (considering only the Black Sea). The sensitivity simulations indicate that daily total precipitation for all these simulations gradually decreased based on the reference simulation (Sim-0). 3-hourly maximum precipitation rates for Sim-0, Sim-1, Sim-2 and Sim-3 are 32, 25, 13 and 10.5 mm respectively over the hotspot region. Despite the fact that the simulations signal points out the same direction, degradation of the precipitation intensity does not indicate the same magnitude for all simulations. It is revealed that 2 °C (Sim-2) threshold is critical for SST sensitivity. We also calculated the humidity differences from the simulation and these

  19. A wave prediction system for real time sea state forecasting in Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Kortcheva, Anna; Galabov, Vasko

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the existing operational system for wind waves forecasting in the Black Sea. It is a system of coupled atmospheric and wave numerical models aiming at a detailed and accurate sea state forecast on an operational level. The system was created at the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) in collaboration with the Meteorological Office of France - Meteo-France. The present work introduces the use of wave models at NIMH-BAS and shows the model results, as well as an intercomparison. The numerical wave models VAG, WAVEWATCH III and WAM, developed by the research groups of Meteo-France, NCEP and WAMDI, have been adopted for the Black Sea area and implemented at the NIMH-BAS to allow real-time forecasts and hindcasts of the waves in the Black Sea. The coupling of two atmospherics models ARPEGE and ALADIN has been used to force the wave models. The operational use has indicated that the system is suitable for general purposes and the resu...

  20. Differences In Skull Size Of Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea, In The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea: Evidence For Different Morphotypes And Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldin P. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two porpoise stocks in the northern Black Sea: the north-western (Odessa Gulf and northeastern (Crimean and Caucasian waters; in addition, another stock is in the Sea of Azov. The Azov porpoises are distinct in their body size and biology. This research was conducted on the skulls of stranded sexually mature porpoises from the north-eastern Black Sea, north-western Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. In the north-eastern Black Sea samples, both present-day and old-time, the sexual dimorphism of the skull size was not significant, whereas in the Sea of Azov the females were significantly larger than males. The Azov skulls were strongly different from those from the Black Sea: they were larger, proportionally wider and had the wider rostra; also, there was no significant chronological variation within the Black Sea. The Azov and Black Sea samples were classified with the 100 % success with four variables. The northwestern Black Sea skulls were somewhat intermediate in their characteristics between the Azov and northeastern Black Sea samples, but they were classify ed together with other Black Sea specimens. The difference between the Azov and Black Sea skulls was greater than between many North Atlantic populations, despite the extreme geographical proximity of the two stocks. The low variation within the Black Sea supports the earlier conclusions on the lack of genetic variation: all the Black Sea stocks are expected to be genetically similar sub-populations, whereas the Azov and Marmara stocks possibly represent the genetically distant populations. The porpoises from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov equally show the traits which characterize the subspecies Phocoena phocoena relicta, but the Black Sea porpoises appear to be more paedomorphic in terms of ontogenetic trajectories.

  1. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  2. Bioecology of tulip trees at the Ajara Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tskhoidze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L. andLiriodendron chinense(Hemsl. Sarg. grow well along the Batumi coastline, develop, bloom, produce fruit, give natural revival. There they already have blooming and fruiting self-seeds. Chinese tulip poplar sometimes reaches here bigger sizes than in natural habitat. It resists winter temperatures very well. Both species can be jointly used along the Caucasian Black Sea coast as ornamental trees because there are the most favorable conditions for their vegetation. Due the great resistance American tulip trees can grow along the coastline as well as inland of Ajara.

  3. The water mass variability on the Romanian Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, Luminita; Mihailov, Maria-Emanuela; Malciu, Viorel; Stefan, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    The long-term trends in the water mass thermohaline structure and the effect of Danube River freshwater discharge into the western Black Sea during the last four decades (1971 - 2010) are analyzed using the data collected on the Romanian shelf (NIMRD data base). The variations of the temperature and salinity over the studied period are relatively small. The temperature data reveal a slightly warming trend for the upper mixed layer (UML) while for the shelf cold water (SCW) - identified by the 8˚C upper isotherm depth - thermohaline structure remains practically constant. At the same time the salinity exhibits a decreasing trend in the entire water column.

  4. Changing Coastal oceanography of the Black Sea. I: Northwestern Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmazin, D.

    This article describes the hydrography of the Northwestern Shelf (NWS), of the Black Sea emphasizing the changes induced by water management in the Dniejer and Dniester river basins. The existing literature and previously unpublished data have been reviewed and synthesized to describe water property fields and transport mechanisms of the NWS and the Dnieper and Dniester estuaries before the early 1960s, or the so-called precontrol period, when the effect of artificial river flow control upon the coastal waters was insignificant. After the hydroenergy complexes and water withdrawal and disposal systems on rivers became fully operational in the early 1970s (the so-called postcontrol period), the annual river discharge from the Dnieper and Dniester had noticeably decreased and seasonal river flow patterns had been artificially modified. Instead of a powerful and short early spring flood, typical for the natural conditions in the Dnieper river, the hydrographs in the postcontrol period exhibit two smaller peaks of river discharge of much longer period. One of them (winter-early spring) is caused by intense hydroenergy generation and weir discharges through the cascade of storage reservoirs. Another is associated with spring flood, modified by intense water consumption and storage in this period. High average river discharge in late May-early June strengthened the summer pycnocline which inhibits vertical mixing in the estuaries and coastal waters. Owing to a slow summer circulation, the rate of natural purification of the entire coastal system has been reduced. This coupled with the increased nutrient, organic and pollutant transport, decreased the dissolved-oxygen concentration and led to anoxic events and mass mortalities of marine organisms in the previously productive regions. These effects have primarily plagued the benthic communities along the entire western coast of the NWS since 1973. Winter convective overturn in the Black Sea reaches its maximum depth at the

  5. Attributing extreme precipitation in the Black Sea region to sea surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Edmund; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Park, Wonsun; Chernokulsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) warm and moisten the overlying atmosphere, increasing the low-level atmospheric instability, the moisture available to precipitating systems and, hence, the potential for intense convective systems. Both the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions have seen a steady increase in summertime SSTs since the early 1980s, by over 2 K in places. This raises the question of how this SST increase has affected convective precipitation extremes in the region, and through which mechanisms any effects are manifested. In particular, the Black Sea town of Krymsk suffered an unprecedented precipitation extreme in July 2012, which may have been influenced by Black Sea warming, causing over 170 deaths. To address this question, we adopt two distinct modelling approaches to event attribution and compare their relative merits. In the first, we use the traditional probabilistic event attribution approach involving global climate model ensembles representative of the present and a counterfactual past climate where regional SSTs have not increased. In the second, we use the conditional event attribution approach, taking the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme as a showcase example. Under the second approach, we carry out ensemble sensitivity experiments of the Krymsk event at convection-permitting resolution with the WRF regional model, and test the sensitivity of the event to a range of SST forcings. Both experiments show the crucial role of recent Black Sea warming in amplifying the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme. In the conditional event attribution approach, though, the explicit simulation of convective processes provides detailed insight into the physical mechanisms behind the extremeness of the event, revealing the dominant role of dynamical (i.e. static stability and vertical motions) over thermodynamical (i.e. increased atmospheric moisture) changes. Additionally, the wide range of SST states tested in the regional setup, which would be

  6. Need Of Intercultural Dialogue Between Black Sea Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ahmet SALGÜR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In human history, living together in peace without violence and problem has been a challenge for all humanity. Sometimes it has achieved, but it has just as frequently failed. It means that human beings prefer living together with people who are like them rather than with people who are different in appearance, speaking, eating, dressing, behaviour and beliefs, i.e. people from different cultures. However, cultural diversity and difference is a standard characteristic of modern societies. In these societies, individuals have to live with the people from different nations, colors, religions, languages and cultures. Black Sea Region is one of the most diverse regions in the world in terms of all these differences. Ethnic and religious diversity is an historical reality in this part of the world. There are Christians, Muslims and Jewish populations living together over centuries in a peaceful atmosphere. The States in Black Sea Region should develop cultural, educational and social policies to maintain this coexistence for the future generations.

  7. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  8. Hillmen of the Black Sea Province (Early XIX Century: Geography, Demography, Antropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, using the materials by the travellers, considers geographical and demographical aspects of the lives of hillmen of the Black Sea Region in early XIX century. The notion hillmen includes the tribes of the Ubykhi, Shapsugi, Natukhaevtsy, Abazin, Dzhigets, Medoveevtsy and Sadzy. Special attention is attached to the antropologic image of a hillman of the Black Sea Region.

  9. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.;

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily i...

  10. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  11. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS FLOWS IN BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU-MARCEL JOIA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time when the world’s economy is in a constantly change. Foreign direct investments flows are in actual economy one of the most dynamic and prospective part of the world’s economy being in a continuous globalization. These international financial flows determine the traders who take part at the world’s economy to know to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field. We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the foreign direct investments flows in Black Sea Economic Cooperation. This study is based on UNCTAD reports and on an econometrical model which gives us the possibility to create different analysis concerning FDI flow in this cooperation. So we defined a simple regression model, in which the dependent variable is represented by Nominal and real GDP, total and per capita, variable explicated by FDI flows, using as method the Least Squared, including 19 observations. Through this paper, we tried to illustrate the relation between the FDI flows and the economic growth rate in the past years inRomania, member of Black Sea Economic region. In line with a general upward trend in FDI to Central and Eastern Europe, inward FDI to the Russian Federation held steady between 1998 and 2001, at an annual average of $2.8 billion. In Black Sea Economic region, Russian average is the biggest one, Russia being a leader country in warding FDI. The Russian Federation is by far the leading investor country in the region, accounting for more than 75% of its annual outflows. Inward and outward direct investments flows in Russia have reached in 2009 an amount of $38,722 billion. In Romania, following years of stagnation at very low levels, 1991 to 1997, FDI flows reached $1.1 billion in 2002. Inflows to Bulgaria peaked at $1 billion in 2000; the surge is largely due to flows from developed countries. Inward and outward direct investments flows in

  12. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  13. Evaluatıon Of Tourism Opportunies in the Black Sea Region With Swot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat YEŞİLTAŞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, tourism activities are generally based on sea-sand-sun trio. Although it has an outstanding place in tourism supply and potential, Turkey has not realized the value of it yet. In this study, the Black Sea Region is analysed for alternative tourism activities and possible tourism activities are explained. In parallel with this, the tourism assests of the Black Sea Region are evaluated by SWOT analysis.

  14. Megafloods in Marginal Basins: New Data from the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.; Mart, Y.; McHugh, C. M.; Vachtman, D.; Cagatay, N. M.; Kadir, E. K.; Ryan, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    One of Jim Kennett's long-standing scientific interests has been the study of abrupt events ranging from destabilization of the gas hydrate reservoir, to volcanism, to megafloods. In appreciation to his contribution to the study of catastrophes in paleoceanography, we present new data on the Holocene reconnection of the Black Sea basin to the ocean, resulting from a July 2005 survey aboard the R/V Mediterranean Explorer of the EcoOcean Foundation. The survey included tightly-spaced Chirp subbottom profiling on the outer shelf northwest of the Bosporus outlet (Istanbul Bogazi), combined with precisely targeted gravity coring. Subbottom horizons are calibrated by radiocarbon and optical luminescence ages on cores. Chirp profiles reveal channels and ridges nearly transversal to the bathymetric contours. Ridges have grown on a seaward-dipping erosion surface that truncates the top of older prograding clinoforms. The ridges are up 12 m in height and have an asymmetrical cross-section, gentler on the west and steeper on the east. Sediment drifting is apparent on the gentler side. In the interiors of the ridges we found highly reflective mounds that are rooted directly on the erosion surface. The mounds organize in both elongated and circular to oval features. Shell-bearing marine mud drapes the mounds. Between the ridges and mounds the drape rests directly on the erosion surface that can be traced seaward to beyond -120 m. High abundance of exceptionally large shells of Mytilus sp. at the base of the drape suggests that bedforms were seeded by a colonization of mollusks building bioherms right on top of the erosion surface beginning at the time of the Mediterranean connection. The Black Sea lacustrine stage experienced an evaporative drawdown below its outlet and has only tracked the global sea level rise since 8.4 ky bp. The saltwater megaflood from the Mediterranean led to dramatic morphologic reorganization of the shelf sea-floor close to the Bosporus and exceptional

  15. Vertical diffusion processes in the Eastern Mediterranean - Black Sea System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioroglou, Sotiris; Tragou, Elina; Zervakis, Vassilis; Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Herut, Barak; Gertman, Isaak; Kovacevic, Vedrana; Özsoy, Emin; Tutsak, Ersin

    2014-07-01

    The identification and examination of ‘complete' potential density overturns in CTD profiles, within the framework of SESAME project, are employed to assess vertical eddy diffusivities, mostly in the top 100 m of the water column, for a broad area covering the East Mediterranean, the Turkish Straits and the Black Sea. The implementation of this method shows that, mixing induced by mechanical turbulence is enhanced in frontal areas, in the proximity of straits and inside anticyclones; furthermore, that mechanical turbulence is insignificant, down to the scale of CTD resolution, within areas of double diffusive staircases, encountered in deep layers of the water column. Consequently, only laminar theories about double diffusion are applied for assessing diffusivities therein. Susceptibility to different types of double diffusion seems to be related to the interaction of different types of water masses.

  16. IMPACT OF FINANCIAL CRISIS ON BLACK SEA TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA TRANDAFIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, using a linear regression model, how the antisocial measures (reducing wages, taxation of pensions, increased VAT rate, adopted by the government amid the global financial crisis, affect various aspects of life in Romania. In this respect, using a simple linear correlation, we analyzed the impact of the average wage in Romania on the number of days of accommodation and on the number of tourists staying in southern Black Sea coast hotel during 2004-2011. Analysis revealed a strong correlation (as detected by the correlation matrix between the variables mentioned above and also a strong impact of the independent variable (average salary on the two dependent variables (number of days of stay and the number of Romanian tourists staying in unit from 2004-2011.

  17. Isotopic characterisation of the methane plumes in the Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, E. [ISO4 s.s., Torino (Italy); Delalande, M.; Bergonzini, L.; Massault, M. [Paris-11 Univ., FRE-CNRS, 2566 Orsay Terre, 91 - Orsay (France); Sacchi, E. [Pavia Univ., Dipt. di Scienze della Terra (Italy); Zuppi, G.M. [Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    The EU CRIMEA project aims at evaluating the contribution of high-intensity gas seeps in the Black Sea to methane emission to the atmosphere. This is achieved through the investigation of the physical and chemical interfaces (sediment-water, oxi-anoxic and water-atmosphere boundaries) that control mass transfer rates from one level to another through phase changes, chemical reactions or biological consumption/production pathways. In addition, work is also being conducted to quantify the flux of seep-produced methane to the atmosphere and to compare this amount with other sources in the area, such as upper-water column production and riverine run-off. In this framework, stable isotope analyses were conducted on pore water and water samples ({sup 18}O and {sup 2}H), dissolved gases ({sup 13}C and {sup 2}H in dissolved CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and dissolved compounds ({sup 13}C in DIC). (authors)

  18. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem.The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  19. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  20. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea.The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  1. Dissolved Black Carbon in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z.; Yang, W.; Chen, M.; Ma, H.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved black carbon (DBC) has been ubiquitously reported in dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, the abundance and provenance of DBC in the ocean are not well understood. Here, DBC in the South China Sea (SCS) was determined at molecular level using the benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) method. DBC showed high concentrations in the upper 100 m seawater with the average of 1.13 μmol l-1 (n=55). In the intermediate seawater (200-1500 m), DBC ranged from 0.67 to 0.89 μmol l-1 with the average of 0.78 μmol l-1 (n=9), exhibiting nearly homogeneous distributions. The vertical distribution pattern indicated that DBC significantly degraded in the photic zone, corresponding to an attenuate constant of 12.5±4.9 km-1. The ratios of B6CA/B3CAs increased downward, implying that aromatic condensation degree of DBC increase during transport from surface to deep water. Using the standing crops of DBC in the upper 200 m and the residence time of seawater, atmospheric deposition of DBC was estimated to be 1.94 TgC yr-1, accounting for around 16% of the global BC deposition. Our study highlights that DBC could be an important component of ocean carbon cycling in Pacific Asia Marginal Seas.

  2. Late Miocene evolution of the Black Sea: insights from palynology and strontium isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Arjen; van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    During the late Miocene, the connection(s) between the Mediterranean Basin and the Atlantic Ocean deteriorated, which ultimately culminated in thick evaporite deposits and a water level drop in the Mediterranean Basin during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97 - 5.33 Ma). It has been claimed that Black Sea, in response to the MSC, also desiccated but these claims have been proven incorrectly. Here we present palynological (dinoflagellate cysts and pollen) and strontium isotope ratios from two Black Sea records: the Zheleznyi Rog outcrop section and Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 380A. Organic walled cyst-producing dinoflagellates are highly sensitive to even small changes in surface waters and strontium isotope ratios are excellent recorders of changing connectivity. Our records provide therefore more insights in the sensitivity of the Black Sea to Messinian Salinity Crisis and the general evolution of the late Miocene Black Sea.

  3. Assessment of Tsunami Hazard for Western coast of the Black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ionescu, Constantin; Iren, Moldovan

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami hazard in the Black Sea is considered low to moderate but not negligible. At present, New European Tsunami Catalogue counts 29 historical tsunami events in the Black Sea, 22 of which are considered as reliable. Some of them can be affected Romanian coast including a strong neares earthquakes event 544/545 of offshore Varna (Bulgaria). In this study we discuss a forecast of possible tsunami wave heights at Romanian coasts of the Black Sea. In the analysis, the prognostic numerical simulations are performed by using 55 tsunami events. In the simulations non-linear Boussinesq equation model in the Black Sea is used. All tsunami sources are selected as uniformly distributed in the Black Sea basin. The results of prognostic numerical simulations are compared with the results of numerical modelling of two instrumentally measured tsunami events (1939 and 1966). On this basis a preliminary forecast of tsunami inundation map along the Romanian coast of the Black Sea is developed. As the summary the level of tsunami risk is discussed by considering recent development of the coastal utilization in the Black sea.On this basis a preliminary forecast of tsunami inundation map along the Western coast of the Black Sea is given developed. Certainly a the tsunami the risk in the Black Sea is not too high but considering development of the European coastal infrastructure and utilization it becomes important. This work is funded by project ASTARTE-Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  4. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  5. The European Eel Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Anguillidae. Native or Alien in the Black Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos I. Apostolou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STEFC of EU suggested the Black Sea region should be excluded from the list of natural areas, where the European eel (Anguilla anguilla is distributed. The basic conception of this idea was that the eels caught in the Black Sea region represent escaped specimens from fish farming in some Danubian countries. This article illustrates an effort to be given an indirect answer on the question if Black Sea is the end of natural distribution of European eel. The species is present but never been abundant in the region and do not represent an object of commercial fishing.

  6. RETHINKING THE BLACK SEA: BETWEEN THE TRANS-ATLANTIC AND THE EURASIAN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerban Filip Cioculescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea region as a buffer between great powers and cordon sanitaire was and still is important in European history. After the 18th century, the Russian empire began a gradual but unstoppable move towards the conquest of the region, leading to a setback for Turkish influence. The Crimean War enabled Western powers to contain Russian expansion for some decades. For small and medium-sized countries like Romania, it is difficult to erase historic experiences from their collective memory. During the Cold War, the Black Sea was a virtual “Soviet lake” from a military point of view. The West controlled only the straits “owned” by Turkey following the Montreux Convention. After the implosion of the USSR, this strategic area was neglected by the Western powers and viewed by the Russian Federation as a traditional sphere of influence. Since 1991, Ukraine holds about 30% of the northern shore of the Black Sea, Georgia controls roughly 12% of the maritime littoral (including the separatist territories while Russia owns about 13% of the Black Sea shores. Turkey and Ukraine hold the biggest share of the Black Sea shore. Generally speaking, during the two last decades, there have been two competing visions about the future: the Euro-Atlantic one, which insists on opening and internationalising the sea, and the Eurasian vision, which wants the Black Sea to remain closed and impenetrable to foreign interferences. This article deals with these issues.doi: 10.5787/41-1-1051

  7. Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prescott-Steed

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This discussion explores the intersection of chaos and writing in the context of the Eridu Genesis, a Sumerian cuneiform text dating back to the 18th century BC and containing three narratives : the Creation of humankind, the building of cities, and a flood myth. Researchers analyze the extent to which conceptions of chaos, found in this text, recount the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC. Having authored the world’s oldest known historical texts, Sumerian writings simultaneously mark the beginning of written literature and the birth pangs of chaos ‘in’ writing. Thus the Eridu Genesis, as the archetype for these narratives, deserves critical attention when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. The question of whether or not the Black Sea flood continues to underpin late modern notions of chaos remains open. However, this geo-cultural reading shows that writing about chaos can provide insight into the human condition, by giving expression to what it means for a civilization to exist in an unpredictable world.Esta discusión examina la intersección del caos y la escritura en el contexto del Eridu Genesis, un texto cuneiforme Sumerio que data del siglo XVlll AC y que contiene tres narraciones : la creación de la humanidad, la construcción de las ciudades, y un mito sobre una inundación. Los investigadores consideran hasta qué punto las concepciones sobre el caos halladas en este texto, hablan sobre el diluvio del Mar Negro, que los científicos están de acuerdo en afirmar que ocurrió aproximadamente 5500 AC. Las escrituras Sumerias son los más antiguos textos históricos conocidos del mundo, y marcan simultáneamente el principio de la literatura escrita y el nacimiento del caos en la escritura. Así, el Génesis de Eridu, como arquetipo de estas narrativas, merece una atención crítica cuando mencionamos ‘escritura y caos’, en un contexto histórico. La pregunta de si el diluvio

  8. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  9. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  10. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Stancheva, M; Galunska, B.; Dobreva, A. D.; Merdzhanova, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus), Round Goby (Neogobius rattan), Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus) and Shad (Alosa pontica). Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously usi...

  11. Proximate composition of plant origin traditional foods from Black Sea Area Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, T.G.; Costa, H. S.; A. Sanches-Silva; Fontes, T.; Mota, C.; Santos, M; Vasilopoulou, E; Trichopoulou, A.; D’Antuono, F.; Alexieva, I.; Fedosova, K.; Karpenko, D.; Kilasonia, Z.; Kocaoglu, B.; Koval, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the European Project BaSeFood (Sustainable Exploitation of Bioactive Components Black Sea Area traditional foods), thirty-three traditional foods from six Black Sea Area Countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) were selected and prepared according to the traditional recipe, ingredients and traditional preparation methods. The aim is to promote and preserve traditional foods and to produce new and reliable data of the overall nutritiona...

  12. Marine fish diversity and habitat use along the western coast of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Dumitru Gavril

    2015-01-01

    Over the years the conditions of the Black Sea marine habitats have been modified due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change, and it is likely that the diversity of fish fauna changed as a result. This study provides new data regarding marine fish population diversity and habitat use along the western coast of the Black Sea. I recorded fish species and habitat data between 2011 and 2014 in two locations: Constanta, Romania and Shabla-Tyulenovo coast, Bulgaria, using fishing (only in R...

  13. Sensitivity of the N. AEGEAN SEA ecosystem to Black Sea Water inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PETIHAKIS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Black Sea Water (BSW inputs on the North Aegean Sea productivity and food web dynamics was investigated, by means of sensitivity simulations, investigating the effect of the inflowing BSW, in terms of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic matter. The model used has been successfully applied in the area in the past and extensively presented. Considering the importance of the microbial loop in the ecosystem functioning, the role of the dissolved organics and in order to achieve a more realistic representation of the Dissolved Organic Matter pool, the bacteria sub-model was appropriately revised. The importance of the microbial loop is highlighted by the carbon fluxes where almost 50% of carbon is channelled within it. The impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM (in the inflowing to the Aegean Sea, BSW appears to be stronger than the impact of dissolved inorganic nutrients, showing a more extended effect over the N Aegean. Bacterial production and biomass is more strongly affected in the simulations by modified DOM, unlike phytoplankton biomass and production, which are more dependent on the inflowing nutrients and particularly phosphorus (inorganic and dissolved organic. In the phytoplankton composition, the dinoflagellates appear to be mostly affected, being favoured by higher nutrient availability at the expense of all other groups, particularly picoplankton, indicating a shift to a more classical food chain.

  14. Sulfide Oxidation in the Anoxic Black-Sea Chemocline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; FOSSING, H.; WIRSEN, CO;

    1991-01-01

    The depth distributions of O2 and H2S and of the activity of chemical or bacterial sulfide oxidation were studied in the chemocline of the central Black Sea. Relative to measurements from earlier studies, the sulfide zone had moved upwards by 20-50 m and was now (May 1988) situated at a depth of 81......-99 m. Oxygen in the water column immediately overlying the sulfide zone was depleted to undetectable levels resulting in a 20-30-m deep intermediate layer of O2- and H2S-free water. Radiotracer studies with S-35-labelled H2S showed that high rates of sulfide oxidation, up to a few micromoles per liter...... to a maximum of 200 nmol l-1 at the top of the sulfide zone. Sulfide oxidation was stimulated by particles suspended at the chemocline, probably by bacteria. Green phototrophic sulfur bacteria were abundant in the chemocline, suggesting that photosynthetic H2S oxidation took place. Flux calculations showed...

  15. Can Overfishing be Responsible for the Successful Establishment of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucu, A. C.

    2002-03-01

    It is widely known that in 1989 a tremendous biomass of Mnemiopsis leidyi was reported in the Black Sea. At the same time, drastic declines in the pelagic fish stocks were reported. Several authors, overlooking the rapid development of the fisheries industry in the Black Sea, pointed out that the new invader was the major factor responsible for the fisheries collapse in the Black Sea. This study examines the development of the Black Sea fisheries industry, along with the ecological changes that were taking place, and evaluates its effect on the ecosystem. A set of balanced steady-state models, corresponding to the periods of the 1960s to 1970s, the 1980s, before the outburst of the Mnemiopsis leidyi, and the 1990s, which reflect the present state of the ecosystem, are used to study the successful establishment of the gelatinous organisms in the Black Sea. Using these models, a series of experiments are performed in order to explore the role of each major ecological group within the Black Sea ecosystem at different stages in time over the last 30 years. The budget calculations suggest a minimal role of gelatinous species on the decline of the fish stocks, contrary to the general belief. More interestingly, the model results indicate that the decline in the fish stocks was as a consequence of overfishing and that ever-increasing plankton productivity associated with eutrophication during the 1980s led to the outburst of gelatinous organisms.

  16. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  17. The Use of Tritiated Wastewater from NPP Cernavoda in Agigea Black Sea Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Vagner, I.; Dobrinescu, D.

    2009-04-01

    Danube-Black Sea Channel is situated in the south east part of Romania. It takes its waters from Danube upstream of Cernavoda town, and flows into the Black Sea at Agigea. The main uses of the channel are numerous, but it can be mentioned navigation and nuclear power generation - Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. Maximum weigh carrying of the canal is 70 million t/year. Agigea is the most important harbor of the Channel and due to intensive activity the accidents can happened any time. In this study we propose to use tritiated liquid effluents from CANDU type NPP Cernavoda as a tracer, to study dilution factor between fresh water of the canal and the Black Sea waters. Tritiated water can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of solutes in Danube-Black Sea Channel because they have the same physical characteristics as water. Measured tracer-response curves produced from injection of a known quantity of soluble tracer provide an efficient method of obtaining necessary data. We established tritium level in monitored zone Agigea-Black Sea by monthly samples and precipitation during may 2005- may 2006. The average tritium concentration for Black Sea near Agigea location was 12.5 +/- 2.2 TU. During the NPP evacuation we establish inside Agigea canal lock a well mixed tritium concentration of 174.07 +/- 6.2 TU. Using waters lock as a tracer we establish dilution factor of 1: 4.28 inside Agigea harbor, and dilution factor of 1:2.17 in open sea. This experimental parameter can be used in dispersion simulation for Agigea - Black Sea area.

  18. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  19. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  20. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...... and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations...

  1. A 6,000-year sedimentary molecular record of chemocline excursions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Wakeham, S. G.; Kohnen, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin; it is also a contemporary analogue of the environment in which carbonaceous shales and petroleum source beds formed. Recently, Repeta et al. reported that anoxygenic photosynthesis may be an important component of carbon cycling in the present Black Sea, owing to a shoaling of the chemocline and consequent penetration of the photic zone by anaerobic waters in the past few decades. It has been suggested that this was due to an anthropogenic decrease in freshwater input to the Black Sea, although natural causes were not ruled out. Here we report the distributions of sequestered photosynthetic pigments in eight core samples of sediments from the Black Sea ranging in age from zero to 6,200 years before the present. Our results show that photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae [correction of Clorobiaceae]) have been active in the Black Sea for substantial periods of time in the past. This finding indicates that the penetration of the photic zone by anaerobic waters is not a recent phenomenon, and suggests that natural causes for shoaling of the chemocline are more likely than anthropogenic ones.

  2. Potential economic impacts of achieving good environmental status in Black Sea fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C. Goulding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD mandates that European Union (EU member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.

  3. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents.In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December.Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October.In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December.Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  4. The Karangatian epoch in the Neopleistocene history of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Black Sea Quaternary history shows an alternation of transgressive and regressive stages that are related to global climate change and pronounced due to semi-isolation from the World Ocean. In warm epochs, the Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., World Ocean) via connecting seas and straits. In cold epochs, it becomes isolated or connects to the Caspian Sea via the Manych outlet. During transgressions, sea level rises as does salinity. During regressions, when it drops below the Bosphorus sill, the basin transforms into an isolated lake. During transgressions, organisms migrate into the Black Sea from either the Mediterranean or Caspian. Such migrations affect assemblage structure and increase the number of species, especially in case of Mediterranean transgressions. During regressive stages, the number of species drops, and only holeuryhaline Mediterranean species can survive the lowering of salinity (Yanko-Hombach, 2007). The most powerful Mediterranean transgression in the Black Sea occurred during the Mikulino (MIS 5e) interglacial, corresponding to the central European Eemian interglacial; it is usually compared with the Alpine Riss-Würm interglacial. Clear traces of this transgression are preserved in coastal outcrops exposed in tectonically elevated terraces of the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, and Caucasus. They are also found in numerous cores and drill holes recovered from the Black Sea bottom. These traces contain numerous Mediterranean organisms (molluscs, foraminifera, ostracoda, etc.), many of which do not live in the Black Sea today. These sediments were first described by N.I. Andrusov (1925) on Cape Karangat, Kerch peninsula, in the early XX century. He called them "Tyrrenean" as they were similar to those in the "Tyrrenean" beds that form a coastal terrace in the Mediterranean. This similarity enabled him to conclude that the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins were connected to each other. Later, the "Tyrrenian" beds were renamed

  5. Sea surface Ka-band radar cross-section from field observations in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Yury; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Grodsky, Semyon; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    An interest in Ka-band radar backscattering from the ocean surface is growing due to better spatial resolution and more accurate Doppler anomaly estimate. But, available empirical models of Ka-band cross-section are quite scarce and sometime controversial. Here we present multi-year (2009-2015) field measurements of Ka-band co-polarized (VV and HH) sea surface normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) from research platform in the Black sea collected in a wide range of observation and sea state conditions. The data are fitted by polynomial function of incidence angle, azimuth and wind speed with accounting for measured radar antenna pattern. This empirical NRCS is compared with published Ka- and Ku-band data. Our Ka-band NRCS is close to Ku-band, but is 5-7 dB higher than 'pioneer' measurements by Masuko et al. (1986). Following the two-scale Bragg paradigm, the NRCS is split into polarized (Bragg) and non-polarized components and analyzed in terms of polarization ratio (VV/HH) and polarization difference (VV-HH) to estimate wave spectra at the Bragg wave number. Non-polarized component dominates at low incidence angles 60°) NRCS azimuth dependency is unimodal (upwind peak) for HH and bimodal (with up- and downwind peaks) for VV polarization. This again can be attributed to different backscattering mechanisms for VV and HH polarizations. With decreasing of incidence angle, up- to downwind ratio tends to 1, and under light wind conditions (4-6 m/s) can be less than 1. The same situation is observed for polarization difference, which reflects Bragg backscattering properties only. This effect can be explained by enhanced roughness on upwind (windward) face of the tilting wave. Retrieval of Bragg roughness properties shows that omni-directional saturation spectra at ~1000 rad/m are 2-3 times higher (0.01 at 10 m/s wind speed) than the spectra obtained from optical measurements of regular sea surface without wave breaking. This suggests that observed difference can arise

  6. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  7. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply...... this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ∼14...... ± 0.91 psu around 9.9 cal ka BP to a minimum ∼12.3 ± 0.91 psu around 8.5 cal ka BP, reaching current salinities of ∼17.1 ± 0.91 psu around 4.1 cal ka BP. The resolution of our sampling is about 250 years, and it fails to reveal a catastrophic salinization event at ∼9.14 cal ka BP advocated by other...

  8. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  9. The Evolution of Public Views of the Black Sea Province During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of public views of the Black Sea province during the First World War. The materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals of the Black Sea province became the main source of work. This article employs the records of personal origins. As a result of study, the authors come to the conclusion the First World War began for Russian society with massive patriotic speeches, but at the end of 1916 year for both in Russia in general and in the Black Sea province comes a complex social process that can be described as war weariness. To the reasons for war weariness the authors referred: the protracted war, and as a consequence – the complexity of an economic nature.

  10. Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tyrrell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic and Black Seas are both brackish, that is to say both have salinities intermediate between freshwater and seawater. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is abundant in one, the Black Sea, but absent from the other, the Baltic Sea. Here we present summertime coccolithophore measurements confirming this difference, as well as data on the calcium carbonate saturation state of the Baltic Sea. We find that the Baltic Sea becomes undersaturated (or nearly so in winter, with respect to both the aragonite and calcite mineral forms of CaCO3. Data for the Black Sea are more limited, but it appears to remain strongly supersaturated year-round. The absence of E. huxleyi from the Baltic Sea could therefore potentially be explained by dissolution of their coccoliths in winter, suggesting that minimum annual (wintertime saturation states could be most important in determining future ocean acidification impacts. In addition to this potential importance of winter saturation state, alternative explanations are also possible, either related to differences in salinity or else to differences in silicate concentrations.

  11. Total antioxidant capacity in the black mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Black Sea coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncheva, S.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Katrich, E.; Zemser, M.; Goshev, I.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Doncheva, V.; Gorinstein, S.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the total antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (TARSC) in tissue extracts for understanding biochemical adaptations involving the antioxidant defense system of a bivalve mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled in polluted (Pol) and non-polluted (Npol) sites from Black Sea coasts. Antioxidant-rich polyphenol fractions were extracted from whole dry mussel tissue with methanol and water in different proportions. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content and their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ), β-carotene-linoleate (β-carotene) and nitric oxide (NO rad ). The total polyphenol extract of the whole mussel tissue from polluted site (TPMEPol) showed the highest antioxidant capacity among all of the extracts with the tested methods and was comparable with the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antioxidant capacities of this extract determined by DPPH rad , β-carotene and NO rad methods and polyphenol content showed the highest correlation coefficients ( R2) such as 0.9985, 0.9915 and 0.9895, respectively. The free polyphenol extracts (FPMEPol and FPMENPol) had lower antioxidant capacity than the two others of total polyphenols (TPMEPol and TPMENPol) with three scavenging methods. Responses were linear in all tested methods and the antioxidant capacity values of soluble antioxidants showed the following relative order: Trolox>BHA>TPMEPol>TPMENPol>FPMEPol>FPMENPol. Nutritional antioxidants, such as polyphenols, were probably the main antioxidant contribution to mussel antioxidants. The mussel extracts from the polluted site exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than from the non-polluted one. The results presented in this report indicate that the antioxidant capacity of the whole tissue of the mussel extract could possibly be a useful biomarker for aquatic environments.

  12. Spatiotemporal variability of the Black Sea wave climate in the last 37 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divinsky, B. V.; Kosyan, R. D.

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of our work is analysis of spatiotemporal variability of the Black Sea wave climate from 1979 to 2015. The analysis is based on mathematical modeling using the modern DHI MIKE 21 SW spectral wave model. Verification of the wave model was performed using numerous data of instrumental observations of wind wave parameters in the Black and Azov seas. Our studies revealed climatic trends in the spatial distribution of wave energy and made possible determining the main frequencies of wave energy fluctuations.

  13. Variability of mesozooplankton spatial distribution in the North Aegean Sea, as influenced by the Black Sea waters outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siokou-Frangou, Ioanna; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Christou, Epaminondas D.; Zervakis, Vassilis; Georgopoulos, Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    The North Aegean Sea constitutes an important region of the Mediterranean Sea since in its eastern part the mesotrophic, low salinity and relatively cold water from the Black Sea (outflowing from the Dardanelles strait) meets the oligotrophic, warm and very saline water of Levantine origin, thus forming a thermohaline front. Mesozooplankton samples were collected at discrete layers according to the hydrology of the upper 100 m, during May 1997 and September 1998. In May highest biomass and abundance values (up to 66.82 mg m - 3 and 14,157 ind m - 3 ) were detected in the 10-20 m layer (within the halocline) of the stations positioned close to the Dardanelles strait. The front moved slightly southwards in September, characterized by high biomass and abundance values within the halocline layer. The areas moderately or non influenced by Black Sea water revealed lower standing stock values than the frontal area in both cruises and maxima were detected in the uppermost low salinity layer. Samples collected at the stations and/or layers more influenced by Black Sea water were distinguished from those collected at layers and/or stations more affected by Levantine waters in both periods. In May the former samples were characterized by the copepods Acartia clausi, Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus. The abundance of the above species decreased gradually with increasing salinity, in the horizontal and/or in the vertical dimension, with a parallel increase of the copepods Oithona plumifera, Oithona copepodites, Oncaea media, Ctenocalanus vanus, Farranula rostrata. During September the frontal area as well as that covered by the modified Black Sea water, were highly dominated by the cladoceran Penilia avirostris and doliolids. For both seasons, MDS plots, issued from the combination of mesozooplankton and water-type data, revealed the gradual differentiation of zooplankton composition from the frontal area towards the area covered by Levantine water, following the

  14. On experience in recording the voice of the sea in the water area of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, V. G.; Kulichkov, S. N.; Chunchuzov, I. P.; Repina, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Some data on a high-frequency infrasound recorded within a range of 2-16 Hz (voice of the sea) in the water area of the Black Sea are given. Different parameters of the recorded infrasonic signal—the direction and phase velocity of arriving infrasonic waves, spectral composition, and coherence—have been studied. In the course of measurements, both wind and wave conditions in the water area of the Black Sea have been studied in detail. The collision of two atmospheric vortices was observed a few hours before the first arrivals of infrasonic waves, and the collision of differently directed sea waves was observed during infrasound recording. The direction of the arrivals of infrasonic waves coincides with the direction between the zone of collision of sea waves and the point of infrasound recording. The assumption was made that, in order to explain the observed infrasonic waves, it is necessary to use the mechanism responsible for the emission of infrasound into the atmosphere by standing surface waves formed due to the nonlinear interaction of surface waves propagating in opposite directions and to take into account the frequency-filtering properties of both wind-velocity and temperature stratifications of the atmosphere itself along the path of infrasound propagation. This assumption calls for additional verification.

  15. Connecting export fluxes to plankton food web efficiency in the Black Sea waters inflowing into the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The short-time scale evolution of plankton carbon partitioning and downward flux of the modified Black Sea Water (BSW) mass entering the northeast Aegean Sea was studied using a Lagrangian approach (6-10/04/2008). The free-drifting sediment trap positioned at the bottom of the BSW layer and the control drifter, followed the same path within the anticyclone that circulates the BSW in the area. ?ooplankton biomass increased (from 159 to 292 mg C m-2), as did faecal pellet pr...

  16. Air-Sea Fluxes and River Discharges in the Black Sea With a Focus on the Danube and Bosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    ANSI Std Z39.18 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ELSEVIER ScienceDirect Journal of Marine Systems 74 (2008) 74 95 J () li R N A 1...response to the annual 20090306221 Ill Karaetal. / Journal of Marine Systems 74 iJ(H)S) 74 95 ’> cycle of buoyancy fluxes at the sea surface (e.g...al. Journal of Marine Systems 74 COOS) 74 l>5 is to discuss monthly and annual mean river flow values discharged into the Black Sea as

  17. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  18. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  19. PS-InSAR Monitoring of Landslide Activity in the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, E.; Mikhailov, V.; Smolyaninova, E.; Dmitriev, P.; Golubev, V.; Timoshkina, E.; Hooper, A.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The landslide activity in the area of Bolshoy Sochi (Big Sochi) situated at the Black Sea coast of the Great Caucasus has been studied using the StaMPS PS-InSAR method. We incorporated three sets of radar images from the satellites with different wavelengths ALOS, Envisat and Terra-SAR-X from both a

  20. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  1. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  2. Sulfur and iron speciation in surface sediments along the northwestern margin of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bottcher, M.E.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2001-01-01

    The speciation of sedimentary sulfur (pyrite, acid volatile sulfides (AVS), S-0 H2S, and sulfate) was analyzed in surface sediments recovered at different water depths from the northwestern margin of the Black Sea. Additionally, dissolved and dithionite-extractable iron were quantified, and the sulf

  3. The spiritual culture of the Black sea and linear cossack. A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina U. Goroganina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article a main place is devoted to coverage of major components spiritual culture of the Black Sea Cossacks and Linear Cossacks. The author points out the factors that influenced the development of this culture. Identified as common features so and specifics. It is proposed periodization of the development of spiritual culture of the Kuban Cossacks.

  4. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  5. Spatial patterns of biodiversity in the Black Sea: An assessment using benthic polychaetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor; Revkov, Nikolai; Todorova, Valentina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Valavanis, Vasilis; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2010-06-01

    The current study broadens the biodiversity information available for the Black Sea and neighbouring regions and improves our knowledge about the polychaete biogeographic patterns to be discerned in them. There appears to be a well-defined zoogeocline from the Marmara Sea and Bosphorus Strait to the inner parts of the region (Azov Sea), depicted both as a multivariate pattern and in terms of species (or taxa) numbers. The emergent multivariate pattern complies, to a certain extent, with Jakubova's (1935) views: three main sectors can be defined in the basin: (a) Prebosphoric, (b) the Black Sea and, (c) the Azov Sea, whereas the Bosphorus Strait and Marmara Sea show less faunal affinities with the afore-mentioned sectors. Patterns derived both from the cosmopolitan and Atlanto-Mediterranean species closely follow the one coming from the polychaete species and genera inventories. As a general trend, species numbers decrease along with the decrease in salinity towards the inner parts of the region. The trend is homologous to that seen in the benthic invertebrate inventories of all the major European semi-enclosed regional seas. Salinity and food availability appear to be the dominant abiotic factors correlated, though weakly, with the various patterns deriving from the taxonomic/zoogeographic categories. With the exception of the Anatolia, polychaete inventories from all sectors appear to be random samples of the total inventory of the region, in terms of taxonomic distinctness values. Therefore, these sectoral inventories can be used for future biodiversity/environmental impact assessment studies. A massive invasion of Mediterranean species after the opening of the Black Sea, in the lower Quaternary period, appears to be the likely biogeographic mechanism through which the old Sarmatic fauna was almost completely replaced by species of marine origin.

  6. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  7. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  8. STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SPECIES Mytilus galloprovincialis OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  9. [Study of the new settler Beroe ovata in the Black sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Bulgakova, Iu V; Sorokin, P Iu; Lukashev, Iu F

    2000-01-01

    Primary data on population, size, and distribution of a new settler--comb jelly Beroe ovata--in the Black Sea are presented. We studied certain aspects of its nutrition, consumed organisms, and digestion time. Comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobachia pileus were established as the nutritional targets of B. ovata. Mnemiopsis proved to be more accessible and assimilable. Preliminary data on metabolic level and threshold oxygen content in B. ovata were obtained; proportions of dry and wet weight of B. ovata were determined. Population changes of new settler Mnemiopsis and other jellylike animals in the Northeast part of the sea induced by B. ovata were analyzed. We observed sharp decrease in population of Mnemiopsis, a species that induced degradation of the Black Sea ecosystem within the last decade.

  10. Long-term variations of the Black Sea dynamics and their impact on the marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, Arseny A.; Stanichny, Sergey V.; Zatsepin, Andrey G.; Kremenetskiy, Viacheslav V.

    2016-11-01

    Satellite altimetry data are used to study the long-term dynamics variability of the Black Sea from 1993 to 2013, its dependence on wind forcing and its impact on the marine ecosystem. Basin-scale dynamics have significant interseasonal and interannual variability. The most distinctly observed feature of the interannual dynamics variability is an almost twofold increase of the current kinetic energy from 2002 to 2012, based on anomaly weak values from 1998 to 2001. The amplitudes of a seasonal cycle of current velocity variability from 2002 to 2102 were two times higher than the amplitudes from 1998 to 2001. The seasonal variability of the current Mean Kinetic Energy (MKE) significantly varies among the years. Although usually maximal values of MKE are observed in winter and minimal values are observed in summer, the seasonal variability may exhibit two distinct peaks in spring and autumn, or even can be opposite with maximum values observed in warm period of a year. The variability of wind stress curl (or the Ekman pumping velocity) averaged over the basin is the main factor for the observed changes in the Black Sea dynamics. The analysis shows that the integral effect of the cyclonic wind curl causes water divergence in the centre of the basin, rising sea level gradients and Rim current intensification. The mean kinetic energy of the Black Sea currents follows the variability of Ekman pumping on seasonal and interannual time scales with a time delay of approximately two weeks. This lag is consistent with the estimated time that is required for water particles to drift from the central part to the basin periphery due to rising Ekman divergence. We employ an eddy-identification method to show that the interannual variability of the number of mesoscale eddies in the basin and their energy are opposite to the variability of the mean kinetic energy of the Black Sea currents and Ekman pumping over the basin. The number of eddies and their total energy decreased after

  11. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ERNST KRENKEL, MUSSON and other platforms in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from 1978-02-11 to 1979-12-20 (NCEI Accession 9000266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Station data in this accession was collected in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea as part of the International Council for the Exploration of Seas (ICES)...

  12. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The advection of cold water below the surface mixed layer has a significant role in shaping the properties of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) in the Black Sea, and thus the horizontal redistribution of nutrients. The minimal temperature of the CIL in the southwest deep region of the sea in summer was shown to be lower than the winter surface temperature at the same location, indicating the horizontal advective nature of CIL formation in the area (Kolesnikov, 1953). In addition to advection in the deep area of the sea, the transport of cold waters from the northwest Black Sea shelf across the shelf break in winter was shown to contribute to the formation of the CIL (Filippov, 1968; Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However less is known of the exchanges between the CIL waters and the outer shelf areas in summer, when a surface mixed layer and the underlying seasonal thermocline are formed. Ivanov et al. (1997) suggested that the cross frontal exchange within the CIL is strongly inhibited, so that CIL waters formed in the deep sea (i.e. offshore of the Rim Current) do not replenish the CIL waters onshore of the Rim Current (also known as near-bottom shelf waters, or BSW), due to strong cross frontal gradients in potential vorticity (PV). To the contrary, Shapiro et al. (2011) analysed in-situ observations over the period of 1950-2001 and showed a high correlation between the CIL temperatures in the open sea and outer shelf. However, the statistical methods alone were not able to clearly establish the relation between the cause and the consequences. In this study we use a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea (NEMO-SHELF-BLS) to quantify the exchange of CIL waters between the open sea and the outer northwest Black Sea shelf and to assess its significance for the replenishment of BSW on the outer shelf. The model has a resolution of 1/16º latitude × 1/12º longitude and 33 levels in the vertical. In order to represent near-bottom processes better, the model uses a hybrid

  13. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  14. DNA and lipid molecular stratigraphic records of haptophyte succession in the Black Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Saenz, James P.; Giosan, Liviu; Trowbridge, Nan Y.; Dimitrov, Petko; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi entered the Black Sea ~ 3400 yrs ago and since then a coccolith ooze defined as Unit I has developed. Unit I sediments contain long-chain alkenones derived from E. huxleyi whereas the alkenone distribution of the deeper coccolith-free sapropel (Unit II) is rather unusual. Alkenone-derived past sea surface temperature (SST) estimates suggest a large difference between Unit II and Unit I, which is likely a result of unusual biological precursors of the alkenones in Unit II. Here, we report a high-resolution stratigraphic analysis of ancient haptophyte DNA to establish the Holocene succession of haptophytes as sources of the alkenones in the Black Sea. Haptophytes related to brackish Isochrysis spp. were the initial sources of alkenones, and appeared immediately after the onset of sapropel deposition (~ 7550 yrs before present [a BP]). As salinity increased, Isochrysis-related haptophytes were slowly replaced by a complex suite of E. huxleyi strains as sources of alkenones. Our paleogenetic data showed that E. huxleyi colonized the Black Sea shortly after the onset of sapropel deposition, ~ 4000 yrs earlier than previously recognized based on their preserved coccoliths. E. huxleyi strains were the most likely source of the previously reported abundant and unusual C 36 di-unsaturated "Black Sea alkenone". Strong haptophyte species and strain-specific effects were observed on the level of unsaturation of alkenones which resulted in spurious alkenone-derived SST estimates before 5250 a BP. In contrast, from ~ 5250 a BP onwards a relatively stable haptophyte assemblage dominated by a different suite of E. huxleyi strains yielded robust alkenone-SST values and indicated a gradual cooling from 19 °C to ~ 15 °C at the top of the record (~ 450 a BP).

  15. Impact of winter cooling on the northern part of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Anatolii

    2016-07-01

    Climate change in the future may have a negative impact on many countries due to the increasing surface temperature and sea level rise. Probably, unprecedented largest positive trend of surface temperature, which observed since the mid XX century, has associated with increasing human activities around the world. Moreover, this warming will continue in this century, and at the end of the XXI century will be 2 - 5 ºC. Thus, investigation and monitoring of current climate are very important and necessary tasks. Regional model data (downscaling) and satellite data are used, because of underdeveloped network of meteorological stations in the northern part of the Black Sea region. Experiment of downscaling was carried out for the Black Sea region with a high spatial resolution of 0.22° x 0.22° for 1958 - 2007(daily values). For the Black Sea were also used satellite data of sea surface temperature(SST) from MyOcean-2 Project, which CNR(Rome) has reprocessed Pathfinder V5.2 (PFV52) AVHRR data over period 1981 - 2012 with daily gap-free maps (L4) at the original PFV52 resolution at 0.04° x 0.04°. Correlation between satellite SST and surface temperature from regional model climate are amounted 0,99. Thus, surface temperature of model and satellite data for the Black Sea is much correlated between yourself. The following integral characteristics of the Black Sea are referred to the area of sea limited by the 44 - 47º N and 28 - 34º E. Maximum cooling of the north-western part of the Black Sea in winter is occurs after invasion of cold air across the northern border of the basin. In addition, this water area is also interesting in the presence of her huge oil and gas reserves, as well as the construction of liquefied gas (crude oil) terminals. The maximum values of total heat flux (sensible + latent heat fluxes= Q) corresponding to the minimum values of SST are observed during the periods of the negative phase of the NAO. Besides, fluxes with extreme days P (Q) = 95

  16. Persistent thermal fronts in the Black Sea: Existence, variability, and response to atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmin, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution satellite sea surface temperature (SST) measurements (PATHFINDER dataset) have been used to confirm an existence of persistent thermal frontal zones in the Black Sea. Fronts have been revealed in the winter season between the intensively cooling shallow northwestern area and warmer waters of central part, and in spring-summer season between the actively warming waters of the southeastern part and cooler central area. Interannual and quasi-decadal variability of the northwestern front have been documented, as well as a high negative correlation of its intensity with the winter-mean SST.

  17. Ukraine’s trade and economic priorities in the Black sea economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Goncharuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of trade and economic priorities of Ukraine’s integration into the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC. The country’s integration options have been analyzed including the Western European vs. pro-Russian integration vector, the bidirectional gravity model, and an alte — native subregional cooperation direction. Ukraine’s sectoral priorities for deepening economic cooperation with the BSEC member countries in the context of implementation of the national interests have been identified, in particular in the field of goods, transport and tourism services, and energy trading. The ways of and instruments for improving Ukraine’s trade activities within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation have been offered for the various working groups of the Organization that are focused on such areas of cooperation as macroeconomics, policy and law, finance and economics, science and technology, culture and society, infrastructure, and institutional renewal.

  18. NW Black Sea ecosystems recovery from former severe seasonal hypoxia and effect on macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Begun, Tatiana; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The benthos researches carried out in the last decade on the NW Black Sea shelf established the transitional process of the bottom communities, from the severe disturbed state resulted from seasonal hypoxia of high eutrophication from 1970-2000 period towards a new state. The authors, with their expertise achieved in the framework of several national and EU FP6&7 projects (SESAME, HYPOX, PERSEUS), analyzing more than 600 quantitative samples, consider the benthic associations influenced mainly by the Danube River discharge being characterized as follows: • decrease in the specific diversity (e.g. Mollusca - from 170 species in the 1960s - 1970s to 70 species in the present in NW Black Sea); • loss or diminishing of some habitat areas (typical habitat with Zostera, Phyllophora, Cystoseira, Barnea, Donacilla etc.); • increase in the numeric abundance and biomass of some specific benthic populations (Melinna, Alitta, Dipolydora etc.); • loss or reduction of some specific populations (Abra prismatica, Spisula subtruncata, Chamelia gallina etc.); • replacement of some strong and quite large benthic populations by metapopulation of small extension; • diminution of the biofilter strength by reduction of the filter - feeder populations; • qualitative and quantitative worsening of benthic biological resources, especially molluscs - forms playing an important ecological part and with great economic importance (mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, soft-shell clam Mya arenaria, veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa); • thriving of opportunistic forms (especially worms populations causing sediment bioturbation - Melinna palmata, Heteromastus filiformis) and, temporarily, some exotic species recently pervading Black Sea (Mya, Anadara, Rapana etc.); • great quantitative fluctuations of all benthic populations; • occurrence of some weak sing of ecosystem recovery. However, recovery of the benthic ecosystem appears to be less certain although an improvement on

  19. Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, W.; Seifert, R.; Nauhaus, K.

    2002-01-01

    Massive microbial mats covering up to 4-meter-high carbonate buildups prosper at methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea shelf. Strong (13)C depletions indicate an incorporation of methane carbon into carbonates, bulk biomass, and specific lipids. The mats mainly consist of d...... precipitation and substantial biomass accumulation, which has implications for our understanding of carbon cycling during earlier periods of Earth's history.......Massive microbial mats covering up to 4-meter-high carbonate buildups prosper at methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea shelf. Strong (13)C depletions indicate an incorporation of methane carbon into carbonates, bulk biomass, and specific lipids. The mats mainly consist...

  20. The Fight Against Emissaries across the Black Sea Coastline Area (1834–1847 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival sources examines the work of foreign emissaries on the Black Sea coastline in 1834-1847 years. The significant part of sources is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The importance is given to the activities of foreign agents, their life among the hillmen, and methods of fighting of the Russian administration with foreign agents. The author comes to the conclusion that in the period of 1834-1847 years, on the Black Sea coastline the emissaries were carried out the diverse activities aimed against the Russian Empire. This activity was shown at the instigation of the hillmen for the war against Russia, the spread of false information, work as instructors, as well as to the personal involvement of emissaries in fighting.

  1. Numerical studies on the dynamics of the Northwestern Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOURAFALOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Black Sea shelf dynamics are studied with numerical simulations based on the Princeton Ocean Model. The study focus is on buoyancy and wind driven flows and on the transport and fate of low salinity waters that are introduced through riverine sources (the Danube, Dnestr and Dnepr Rivers, under the seasonal changes in atmospheric forcing. The study is part of the DANUBS project (NUtrient management in the DAnube basin and its impact on the Black Sea. The numerical simulations show that the coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially that of the Danube, which is dominant with monthly averaged values ranging from 5,000 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transport of low-salinity waters associated with the Danube runoff is greatly influenced by wind stress, topographic effects and basin-scale circulation patterns, such as changes in the position of the Rim Current.

  2. SOZOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF VEGETATION OF FORESTS AND SHRUBS OF THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Solomakha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of sociological analysis found that in the vegetation cover of forests and shrubs in the Northern Black Sea found 88 view of rare and endangered plants. For 37 species, there are phytocoenotic table, the data on the other - are induced for that literary materials herbarium. They have a different distribution in the classes of the vegetation on the study territory: Pulsatillo-Pinetea sylvestris (13 species, Dactilydo glomeratae-Populetea tremulae (13, Festuco-Brometea (9, Rhamno-Prunetea (8, Nerio-Tamaricetea (7, Salicetea purpureae (5, Robinietea (3, Alnetea glutinosae (3, Franguletea (3. Some rare and endangered communities of the territory need to be included in the «Green Book of Ukraine». Key words: vegetation, syntaxonomy, forests, shrubs, sozological characteristic, Northen Black Sea region.

  3. Causes and consequences of hypoxia on the Western Black Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jana; Gomoiu, Marian-Trajan; Naeher, Sebastian; Secrieru, Dan; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Black Sea, containing the world's largest natural anoxic basin since ca 7500 years (Jones & Gagnon 1994), suffers from combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate variability (Oguz & Gilbert 2007). We discuss causes for hypoxia in western shelf waters. Freshwater runoff by the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnieper results in strong thermohaline stratification that limits bottom water ventilation on the north-western shelf during warm seasons. This makes the western shelf generally prone to oxygen deficiency. During autumn and winter, the thermohaline stratification is eroded by frequent storms and the water column is re-oxygenated. The causal chain of anthropogenic eutrophication since the 1970s led to seasonal hypoxia on the western shelf for more than 20 years causing the catastrophic decline of key shelf habitats (Mee et al. 2005). More frequent and intense algal blooms, red tides (i.e. Noctiluca, Prorocentrum cordatum) and changes in species composition in phytoplankton resulted in deposition of surplus organic matter on the seafloor increasing the oxygen demand, with serious consequences for pelagic and benthic ecosystem structure and functioning. During hypoxia, release of reduced substances like ammonia and phosphate from the sediment to the water fuelled eutrophication internally (Friedrich et al. 2002). The combination of existing data with those gained during EU FP7 HYPOX on the Romanian shelf enables to assess the development of bottom water hypoxia and changes in benthic community and hence, the current state and trends in recovery of the Romanian Black Sea shelf ecosystem. Mud worms are the winners of eutrophication and hypoxia, whereas filter feeders like Mytilus galloprovincialis and Acanthocardia paucicostata are the losers. The western shelf benthic ecosystem showed a significant reduction in species diversity, a reduction of biofilter strength due to the loss of filter-feeder populations and flourishing of

  4. Palaeoceanography & Palaeoclimate during the penultimate Glacial-Interglacial transition in the Black Sea - Termination II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Kaiser, Jérôme; Bard, Edouard; Ménot, Guillemette; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Plessen, Birgit; Schnetger, Bernhard; Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge

    2013-04-01

    The epicontinental Black Sea is very sensitive to environmental changes thus forming an ideal archive of regional climate change and teleconnective responses to the coupled North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere system. Here we focus on the climatic and hydrological evolution of the SE Black Sea during the glacial-interglacial transition of Termination II to the Eemian (~134-122 ka BP) by using different geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Long-term cold conditions during the ending penultimate glacial are provided by TEX86 derived summer sea-surface temperatures (SST) of around 9°C and are thus considerable lower than present values of about 23°C. Coastal ice formation during extreme winters accounted for huge discharge of ice rafted debris (IRD) until 130.5 ka BP. Milder more humid conditions during this period are indicated for instance by elevated Cr/Al values typical for an ultramafic Pontic Mountain source (Piper and Calvert, 2011) thereby suggesting an increased sediment load mainly from the east-Anatolian rivers Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak. The abrupt disappearance of IRD along with increasing δ18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca of benthic ostracods (Candona spp.) resulted from slightly rising temperatures (SST 11°C) until 128.8 ka BP. Thereafter, SST rapidly increased within less than 500 years to about 25°C revealing a dramatic change from glacial to interglacial conditions. First analyses of U/Ca-ratios of ostracods show sharply increasing values not before ~128.3 ka BP, synchronous to the appearance of larval Mytilus galloprovincialis shells, due to the Mediterranean transgression into the Black Sea. The simultaneous increase of TOC and Mo/Al of the bulk sediment indicates the development of oxygen-deficient bottom waters and Eemian sapropel formation favoured by the establishment of a halocline shortly after the Mediterranean-Black Sea reconnection. About 500 years after the temperature maximum, the continental environment responded to the warming by elevated

  5. Operative forecast of hydrophysical fields in the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone within the ECOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kordzadze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area, which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic regional model of the Black Sea dynamics developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics (RM-IG. This model is nested in the basin-scale model (BSM of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI, Sevastopol/Ukraine. The regional area is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with a meridian 39.36° E. Since June 2010 we regularly compute 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea with 1 km spacing. In this study results of two forecasts are presented. The first forecast corresponds to Summer season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 6 August to 00:00 h, 9 August 2010. The second one corresponds to Autumn season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 26 October to 00:00 h, 29 October 2010. Data needed for the forecasts – the 3-D initial and prognostic hydrophysical fields, also 2-D prognostic meteorological fields at the sea surface, wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates for the our regional area are placing on the MHI server every day and we are available to use these data operatively. Prognostic hydrophysical fields are results of forecast by BSM of MHI and 2-D meteorological boundary fields represent results of forecast by regional atmospheric model ALADIN. All these fields are given on the grid of BSM with 5 km spacing and with one-hour time step frequency for the integration period. The analysis of predicted fields shows that to use the model with high resolution is very important factor for identification of nearshore eddies of small sizes. It should be noted very

  6. Stability of the Black Sea Littoral Region: Focus on the Montreux Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    agreements and a proposed Eurasian- Balkan region,9 as it continues to experience economic development and rapid gravitation to NATO.10 BSLR countries...major oil spills and Kruppa 12 tanker collisions in the Black Sea have strengthened Turkey’s concerns over ecological dangers to its shoreline and...reach record in 2012. 20 Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits signed at Montreux, July 20th, 1936, American Journal of International Law

  7. THE PHENOTYPIC STRUCTURE OF A MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LMK POPULATION FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA SHORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona Novac

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : Among the specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. from the Black Sea, function of the color of the ostracum (brown, dark blue or brown with blue stripes, one can differentiate several forms. These colors are genetically determined (Stolbova, Pirkova, Ladyghina, 1996; Scherban, 2000; Shurova, 2001. The present paper analyzes the situation of these phenotypic groups, using specimens sampled at different depths in the area of Agigea dike.

  8. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Black Sea assessments (STECF-15-16).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG 15-12 was held from 28 Sep-02 Oct 2015 in Ispra, Italy to assess the status of Black Sea against the proposed FMSY reference points. The meeting was preceded by a two-day data preparatory meeting held at JRC premises during 24-25 Sep 2015. The report was reviewed by written procedure in October 2015.

  9. Numerical Simulation of a Quasi-Tropical Cyclone over the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Efimov; Shokurov, M. V.; Yarovaya, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes results of numerical experiments on the simulation of a mesoscale quasi-tropical cyclone, a rare event for the Black Sea, with the MM5 regional atmospheric circulation model. General characteristics of the cyclone and its evolution and physical formation mechanisms are discussed. The balances of the momentum components have been estimated, and sensitivity experiments have been performed. It is shown that, according to its main physical properties and energy supply mechanis...

  10. Dynamics of the population phenological structure of Polistes dominulus in the black sea biosphere reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Rusina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The change in the phenotypic population structure of Polistes dominulus (Christ (Hymenoptera, Vespidae paper-wasp nested in the Black Sea Reserve was analysed. It was shown that colour patterns of clypeus, mesoscutum and first tergite vary considerably in different phases of the population number. The impact of factors of different nature on the relationship between the colour patterns and mode of colony foundation is discussed.

  11. Dynamics of the population phenological structure of Polistes dominulus in the black sea biosphere reserve

    OpenAIRE

    L. Y. Rusina; Е. S. Orlova

    2009-01-01

    The change in the phenotypic population structure of Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) paper-wasp nested in the Black Sea Reserve was analysed. It was shown that colour patterns of clypeus, mesoscutum and first tergite vary considerably in different phases of the population number. The impact of factors of different nature on the relationship between the colour patterns and mode of colony foundation is discussed.

  12. The Analysis Regarding the Building of a Hydraulic Power Plant on the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the result of a research project regarding the construction of a wave driven hydraulic plant that is going to be installed on the Black Sea shore in the area of the city of Constanta. Several phases were analyzed: numerical simulations for the micro plant – wave energy theory; finite element simulation – results and conclusions; generating the blueprint for the construction of the plant.

  13. Stimulation of autotrophic denitrification by intrusions of the Bosporus Plume into the anoxic Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara A. Fuchsman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic denitrification was measured in the southwestern coastal Black Sea, where the Bosporus Plume injects oxidized chemical species (especially O2 and NO3- into the oxic, suboxic and anoxic layers. Prominent oxygen intrusions caused an overlap of NOx- and sulfide at the same station where autotrophic denitrification activity was detected with incubation experiments. Several bacteria that have been proposed to oxidize sulfide in other low oxygen environments were found in the Black Sea including SUP05, Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and BS-GSO2. Comparison of TRFLP profiles from this mixing zone station and the Western Gyre (a station not affected by the Bosporus Plume indicate the greatest relative abundance of Sulfurimonas and Arcobacter at the appropriate depths at the mixing zone station. The autotrophic gammaproteobacterium BS-GSO2 correlated with ammonium fluxes rather than with sulfide fluxes and the maximum in SUP05 peak height was shallower than the depths where autotrophic denitrification was detected. Notably, anammox activity was not detected at the mixing zone station, though low levels of DNA from the anammox bacteria Candidatus Scalindua were present. These results provide evidence for a modified ecosystem with different N2 production pathways in the southwest coastal region compared to that found in the rest of the Black Sea. Moreover, the same Sulfurimonas phylotype (BS139 was previously detected on >30 μm particles in the suboxic zone of the Western Gyre along with DNA of potential sulfate reducers, so it is possible that particle-attached autotrophic denitrification may be an overlooked N2 production pathway in the central Black Sea as well.

  14. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Vasko; Kortcheva, Anna; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protect...

  15. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May–November due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May–November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980–2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was

  16. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  17. Molecular Diversity and Predictability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus along the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradd J. Haley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis and is also an autochthonous member of marine and estuarine environments worldwide. One hundred seventy strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from water and plankton samples collected along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea during 28 months of sample collection. All isolated strains were tested for presence of tlh, trh, and tdh. A subset of strains were serotyped and tested for additional factors and markers of pandemicity. Twenty-six serotypes, five of which are clinically relevant, were identified. Although all 170 isolates were negative for tdh, trh, and the Kanagawa Phenomenon, 7 possessed the GS-PCR sequence and 27 the 850 bp sequence of V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. The V. parahaemolyticus population in the Black Sea was estimated to be genomically heterogeneous by rep-PCR and the serodiversity observed did not correlate with rep-PCR genomic diversity. Statistical modeling was used to predict presence of V. parahaemolyticus as a function of water temperature, with strongest concordance observed for Green Cape site samples (Percent of total variance = 70, P < 0.001. Results demonstrate a diverse population of V. parahaemolyticus in the Black Sea, some of which carry pandemic markers, with increased water temperature correlated to an increase in abundance of V. parahaemolyticus.

  18. The Black Sea Wave Energy: The Present State and the Twentieth century Changes

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the present state of the Black Sea wave energy. The studies of other authors are based on the use of input data from atmospheric reanalysis or a downscaling of such reanalysis. Instead of reanalysis data, we use input data from the operational limited area numerical weather prediction model ALADIN. We showed that the estimations of the Black Sea wave energy based on reanalyses deviate significantly from the real potential. We showed also that the highest values of the mean annual wave power flux is between 4.5 and 5.0 kW/m2 and the near shore areas with the highest wave energy potential are the southernmost Bulgarian coast and the coast of Turkey north of Istanbul. While we showed that the wind data from the reanalysis are not useful for the estimation of the actual wave energy potential, we claimed that the reanalysis data is useful to study the long term changes of the wave energy of the Black Sea. We used the 10m winds from the recent ERA-20C reanalysis, which covers the...

  19. Distribution and biological turnover of dissolved organic compounds in the water column of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopper, Kenneth; Kieber, David J.

    Water column concentrations and turnover rates were determined for a suite of low molecular weight organic compounds in the Black Sea. The classes of compounds studied included amino acids, simple sugars, α-keto acids, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, flavins and thiols. Our study yielded some new insights, as well as a few surprising discoveries, regarding the composition and cycling of organic matter in the Black Sea. (1) Uptake rates of organic compounds were from 2 to 4640 times faster in oxic surface waters than in anoxic waters. (2) Sharp maxima or minima in concentrations of organic compounds coincided with zones of enhanced microbial activities, especially in the vicinity of the oxic-suboxic and suboxic-anoxic interfaces. (3) The benthic boundary layer, 300-400 m thick, had a markedly different organic composition and substantially higher concentrations of organic acids, and to a lesser extent sugars and thiols, than the overlying water. (4) A dramatic change in the composition and concentration of dissolved free amino acids occurred in the water column during the cruise and appeared to be related to biological patchiness. (5) Organic thiols constituted a significant portion (e.g. 10-20%) of the total reduced sulfur near the top of the sulfidic zone, and may contribute to the origin of hydrogen sulfide in this zone. (6) Major unknown amine and carbonyl compounds were discovered in the anoxic zone, providing evidence that the Black Sea contains unique anaerobic bacteria with possibly new biochemical pathways.

  20. Sedimentary records of black carbon in the sea area of the Nansha Islands since the last glaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Core 17962 taken from the sea area of the Nansha Islands recorded a sedimentary history of more than 30 000 years. The black carbon data from the core, which can inform us of the history of vegetation fires, show that during the last glaciation, especially during the last glacial maximum at about 18 kaBP, the fluctuation of the concentration and accumulation rate of the black carbon was relatively great, whereas it was small during the Holocene. The isotope composition of the black carbon indicates that the precursors of black carbon were mainly grasses from the last glaciation to the Holocene. The sub-alpine and alpine vegetation zones covered mainly with grass and bush on the lands around the southern South China Sea were probably the sources of black carbon. The altitudinal vegetation changes from the last glaciation to the Holocene gave rise to the changes of the sedimentary characteristics of black carbon.

  1. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  2. State of the benthic ecosystem on western Black Sea shelf in spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Aleynik, D.; Eulenburg, A.; Kusch, St.; Mee, L. D.; Minicheva, G.; Stevens, T. F.; Teaca, A.; Shapiro, G. I.; Soloviev, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since the changes in the economies in the Black Sea countries in the 1990's, the momentarily associated decrease in anthropogenic pressures has put the ecosystem of Black Sea western shelf on a trajectory to recovery. However, the suspected non-linearity of recovery and the ecological instability of the benthic shelf ecosystem in particular became evident in the field surveys supported by the BSERP in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, e.g. in the spread of opportunistic species taking new niches and the re-occurrence of large-scale bottom water hypoxia like in 2001. The temporal dynamics of the recovery (as well as of the decline) may also be tied to climatic effects. The Black Sea is known to respond to north Atlantic oscillation (NAO) forcing and decadal climate changes. The target of the 363th cruise of R/V Poseidon in March 2008 has been to map the current state of the benthic ecosystem in a quasi-winter situation. We assessed: a) the current state of the benthic ecosystem on the north-western shelf; to what degree it recovered during the past decade from its collapse in the 1980's. In this respect, we investigated the role of the seabed as storage media of nutrients from past eutrophication, and the role of the sediments as internal source of nutrients to the pelagic system. We focused on zoo- and phytobenthos distribution, the interaction of benthic biota with the sediment, accumulation of nutrients in the sediment, and the flux of nutrients from the sediments to the water. b) The benthic-pelagic coupling, i.e. how the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and silica for algal growth are transported from the seafloor to the sea surface and thus fuel biologic productivity. c) The exchange of water between the shelf and the open Black Sea, and hence the transport of nutrients, i.e. the fertilization of the open Black Sea with nutrients from the shelf. Here, we are presenting results from the spring 2008 survey and compare them to findings from a summer survey in 2006

  3. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  4. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hermoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the T-OAE (defined by the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes. In the present studied, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphy framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo, the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by > 10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE, likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the Atmosphere–Ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales were restricted to epicontinental seas (higher Mo to TOC ratios during a period of relative high sea level, and carbon

  5. Numerical modeling of roll structures in mesoscale vortexes over the Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Iarova, D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study of horizontal atmospheric rolls that formed over the Black Sea on 16 August 2007. The rolls were discovered in WRF modeling results for a mesoscale cyclone that originated over the sea on 15 August 2007. The roll formation mechanisms, such as Rayleigh-Benard convective instability, dynamic instability, advection and stretching of vertical velocity field inhomogeneities, are considered. It is shown that indeed convective instability played an important role in the roll formation but dynamic instability did not occur. In order to distinguish other possible mechanisms of the roll formation numerical experiments were performed. In these experiments sea surface temperature in the initial conditions was decreased in order to prevent convective instability. Even though convective instability was suppressed roll-like structures still appeared in the modeling results, although their height and circulation velocity were smaller than in the control run. It was found that these structures were ...

  6. Causes and systematics of inundations of the Krasnodar territory on the Russian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry V.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Toropov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The inundation situations on the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar territory for the period from 1945 until 2013 were analysed and the main types of inundations at the coast are described. Synoptic factors of the formation of extreme precipitation and rainfall floods, features and regularities of the downstream flood wave transformation in the rivers are also studied. Therefore, assessments of seasonal and maximum flow of the Black Sea coast rivers for the period of hydrometric measurements were done. Regularities of change of the occurrence of inundations and their characteristics on the coastal terrain were analysed, for a year and on a perennial timescale. Most catastrophic and exceptional inundations arise in the summer and in early autumn. Small inundations during the remaining year reflect the seasonal distribution of river flow and floods in the Black Sea rivers. Extensive and sometimes extreme precipitation dominates the river flow regimes. The seasonal distribution of small and moderately dangerous inundations reflects, on average, a water regime of two groups of rivers of the coast - to the north and to the south of the Tuapse River. To the north of the Tuapse River, floods prevail from November until March (up to 70 % of observed floods took place in this period) as a result of precipitation and winter snowmelt during frequent thaw periods. In winter, high waters often overlap to form a multi-peak high water of 2-3 weeks' duration. In the summer and in early autumn we observe a steady low flow. The total amount of runoff increases both in a southeast direction, and with the altitude of the river basins. Interannual variability of mean annual runoff, as well as maximum runoff, on the contrary decreases in the southern direction and with an increasing area of the river basins. The coastal high waters of the rivers of the Sochi part of the coast are typical at any time of the year, but more often floods in the cold season result from incessant rain, and

  7. Nitrogen Cycling in the Black Sea on Glacial-Interglacial Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, T. M.; Wright, J. D.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    On geological time scales, the nitrogen cycle consists of three main processes: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification/anammox, all of which are affected by the amount of oxygen present in the water column. The balance between nitrogen fixation and denitrification/anammox controls the pool of fixed inorganic nitrogen, and can be traced using nitrogen isotopes. We have previously proposed a conceptual model that relates sedimentary δ15N to deep water oxygen concentrations using a simple, non-linear curve. Provided that the sediment record is well-preserved, the nitrogen isotopic profile at a given location reflects history of the relative contributions of nitrogen fixation to denitrifiation and thus the past redox environment. Our goal was to test this model using deep sea sediments from the Black Sea, which alternates from an anoxic, stratified, marine water body during interglacial periods to a less saline, oxygenated lake during glacial events. We find that the measured δ15N profile in general corresponds to the changes in redox state as determined by trace metal concentrations and micropaleontology. Higher δ15N values occur during suboxic transitional periods, with lower δ15N values appearing under anoxic and oxic conditions, supporting our hypothesis that the nitrogen cycle is regulated by oxygen concentration. We also identify some intervals where the correlation between redox proxies appears to fail. While the lack of ancillary data from the paleo-Black Sea makes interpretation difficult, we believe analysis of these intervals may provide more information about Black Sea paleoenvironmental and paleoredox conditions.

  8. Genetic divergence between the scad subspecies Trachurus Mediterraneus (Carangidae, pisces from the Black Sea and the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. DOBROVOLOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of myogen and eleven enzymes (AAT, ADH, EST, GPI, IDHP, LDH, MDH, MEP, PGDH, PGM and SOD were carried out by using starch gel and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis on thinlayer and ultrathin polyacrylamide ampholine and servalite gels in scad species from the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean. Data from electrophoretic investigations was used to clarify the population structure of the scad migrating in the Bulgarian aquatory of the Black Sea and consisting of two main subpopulations: a a "Black Sea" one hibernating in this sea only, and b a "Sea of Marmara" one hibernating in that sea and contiguous Black Sea regions around the Bosporus. Non-specific muscular esterases were used, because they were appropriate for identification of both subspecies: Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev and Tr.m.mediterraneus Steindachner. Nei's genetic distance (D=0,0113 was used as an indication of their isolation dated back to the Carangate Period. An attempt was made to check the hypothesis of the origin of "large" ("giant" scad in the Black Sea as a result of the heterozygotic interbreeding between Tr.m.ponticus Aleev and Tr.m.mediterraneus Steindachner. A new allele Est-1E as well as the previously known alleles Est-1A and Est-1-B, were found in Mediterranean scad Tr.m.mediterraneus caught off Nice (France. It's proposed that the presence of the large form of large scat in this area is also a consequence of the heterozytic efect from the interbreeding between a population marked by Est-1-A and Est-1-B and a population marked by Est-1-E, probably inhabiting the waters around Gibraltar in the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Anaerobic oxidation of methane alters sediment records of sulfur, iron and phosphorus in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Sapart, Célia J.; Röckmann, Thomas; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-09-01

    The surface sediments in the Black Sea are underlain by extensive deposits of iron (Fe)-oxide-rich lake sediments that were deposited prior to the inflow of marine Mediterranean Sea waters ca. 9000 years ago. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the sedimentary cycles of sulfur (S), methane and Fe in the SMTZ have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring below the SMTZ.Here we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and porewater with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the western Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of Fe, S and phosphorus (P), and demonstrate that diagenesis has strongly overprinted the sedimentary burial records of these elements. In line with previous studies in the Black Sea, we show that sulfate-mediated AOM substantially enhances the downward diffusive flux of sulfide into the deep limnic deposits. During this downward sulfidization, Fe oxides, Fe carbonates and Fe phosphates (e.g., vivianite) are converted to sulfide phases, leading to an enrichment in solid-phase S and the release of phosphate to the porewater. Below the sulfidization front, high concentrations of dissolved ferrous Fe (Fe2+) lead to sequestration of downward-diffusing phosphate as authigenic vivianite, resulting in a transient accumulation of total P directly below the sulfidization front.Our model results further demonstrate that downward-migrating sulfide becomes partly re-oxidized to sulfate due to reactions with oxidized Fe minerals, fueling a cryptic S cycle and thus stimulating slow rates of sulfate-driven AOM ( ˜ 1-100 pmol cm-3 d-1) in the sulfate-depleted limnic deposits. However, this process is

  10. Arctic sea ice a major determinant in Mandt's black guillemot movement and distribution during non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoky, G J; Douglas, D C; Stenhouse, I J

    2016-09-01

    Mandt's black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) is one of the few seabirds associated in all seasons with Arctic sea ice, a habitat that is changing rapidly. Recent decreases in summer ice have reduced breeding success and colony size of this species in Arctic Alaska. Little is known about the species' movements and distribution during the nine month non-breeding period (September-May), when changes in sea ice extent and composition are also occurring and predicted to continue. To examine bird movements and the seasonal role of sea ice to non-breeding Mandt's black guillemots, we deployed and recovered (n = 45) geolocators on individuals at a breeding colony in Arctic Alaska during 2011-2015. Black guillemots moved north to the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas immediately after breeding, moved south to the Bering Sea during freeze-up in December, and wintered in the Bering Sea January-April. Most birds occupied the MIZ in regions averaging 30-60% sea ice concentration, with little seasonal variation. Birds regularly roosted on ice in all seasons averaging 5 h d(-1), primarily at night. By using the MIZ, with its roosting opportunities and associated prey, black guillemots can remain in the Arctic during winter when littoral waters are completely covered by ice.

  11. Disposal of solid waste in Istanbul and along the Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Mehmet; Aras, Egemen; Nemlioglu, Semih

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of solid waste arising from municipalities and other sources and its consequent disposal has been one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Istanbul is a metropolitan city with a current population of around 14 million, and produces about 9000 ton of solid waste every day. The waste composition for Istanbul has changed markedly from 1981 to 1996 with large decreases in waste density, much of which is related to decreased amounts of ash collected in winter. In recent years, the Istanbul region has implemented a new solid waste management system with transfer stations, sanitary landfills, and methane recovery, which has led to major improvements. In the Black Sea region of Turkey, most of the municipal and industrial solid wastes, mixed with hospital and hazardous wastes, are dumped on the nearest lowlands and river valleys or into the sea. The impact of riverside and seashore dumping of solid wastes adds significantly to problems arising from sewage and industry on the Black Sea coast. Appropriate integrated solid waste management systems are needed here as well; however, they have been more difficult to implement than in Istanbul because of more difficult topography, weaker administrative structures, and the lower incomes of the inhabitants.

  12. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the North-Western Black Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Staneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the coupling between physical and biogeochemical models and analyses the response of the ecosystem in the north-western Black Sea to nutrient loads and climate changes. The basic physical and biological dynamics of the upper north-western Black Sea is illustrated as well. The physical model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM; additionally, a parameterisation of mixed layer is included. The biogeochemical model is based on the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model (ERSEM and consists of five modules: (1 primary producers, (2 microbial loop, (3 mesozooplankton, (4 benthic nutrients, and (5 benthic biology. The ecosystem in ERSEM is subdivided into three functional types, producers (phytoplankton, decomposers (pelagic and benthic bacteria and consumers (zooplankton and zoobenthos. Model-data comparisons have been performed for both calibrating and verifying coupled model simulations. We address here the impact of nutrient discharge from the Danube River on the functioning of the biological system. The evolution of the mixed layer, as well as the response of the biological system to variability of the nutrient discharge from the Danube River is described in detail. Several scenarios have been developed to study the impact which nutrient reduction has on the coastal marine system. The model predictions indicate that the biological system is very sensitive to the changes in nutrient concentrations, as well as to their ratios.

  13. Northwestern Black Sea coastal zone environmental changes detection by satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.

    2004-02-01

    The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, climatic change effects. A multitemporal data set consisting of LANDSAT MSS, TM and SAR ERS-1 images was used for comparing and mapping landcover change via change detection. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection of coastal area. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on existing historical and more recent in situ and remote sensing data to establish the link between phytoplankton bloom development, increasing erosion and diminishing of beaches and related coastal zone harmful phenomena.

  14. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  15. The Contemporary State of Development of Free-living Nematodes of the Northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakova, I.

    2007-05-01

    The work was carried out on samples taken during an expedition on the Black Sea Western shelf (Bulgarian, Romanian, Ukrainian) in October, 2003 in the framework of the UNDP-GEF Black Sea, Ecosystem Recovery Project. Nematodes due to specific biological characteristics (high productivity, short life cycles) quickly respond to environmental changes by reducing species diversity, increasing abundance and decreasing biomass. Our studies have confirmed this. For the western Black Sea shelf 67 nematode species of 6 orders have been recorded. Of the 12 groups of meiobenthos encountered on the western Black Sea shelf the frequency of the dominating group of nematodes made up 93.8-100%. Results show that quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes in the study areas on the Black Sea shelf are heterogeneous. This is due to hydrological conditions. The Bulgarian and Romanian zone have great depths (from 15 to 125m), while 15-45m depths prevail on the Ukrainian shelf. Each shelf has specific sediment type. As observed earlier sediment type and depth determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes. For the Bulgarian and Romanian shelves there is a tendency for increasing diversity from shallows to deep water. On the Ukrainian shelf the species composition of nematodes is higher at small depth. Quantitative characteristics of nematodes increase from the Bulgarian to the Ukrainian shelf. The nematode fauna on the Bulgarian shelf has the greatest species similarity with that the Romanian. Under the influence of river runoff the species diversity is low in those areas of close proximity. In more distant areas the diversity increases. Key species communities are formed under the influence of the abiotic environmental factors and interrelations between organisms. The study of these key communities around which other species assemble is interesting. Sabatieria abissalis dominates among all key species on the Bulgarian shelf transects making up 37

  16. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  17. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  18. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin from R/Vs GORIZONT and OKEANOGRAF, 1960 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0074609)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin of the Mediterranean...

  19. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  20. Recent sedimentation in the Black Sea: New insights from radionuclide distributions and sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Moore, Willard S.; Butler, Ian B.; Boyce, Adrian; Luther, George W., III

    2012-08-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic-sulfidic marine basin and has unique sedimentation conditions. Recent studies suggested that mass accumulation rates (MAR) in this environment have increased in the past century when compared to the last 2000 years (Unit 1 period). In this paper we test this hypothesis with new MAR data and further explore the relationship between the depositional pattern and pyrite-sulfur isotopic signature. Based on 15 cores sampled in 2001 and 2003, our dataset comprises radioactive isotopes (210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs) and sulfur stable isotopes (δ34SVCDT) along with organic, inorganic carbon and pyrite-sulfur. We calculated MARs using 210Pb profiles and/or Chernobyl-derived 137Cs horizon buried in the sediment column. Our turbidite-free deep basin sediment MARs (61 to 76 g m-2 yr-1) agreed with the previous results (50-100 g m-2 yr-1) and confirm the view that MARs of the deep Black Sea basin have been increasing. A unique feature of our dataset was the presence of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides below up to 20 cm thick turbidite layers (deposited between 1986 and 2003), which enabled us to compute MARs for these coring locations. MARs were 1120±103 and 5230±125 g m-2 yr-1 for the last two decades in two turbidite-impacted western central basin cores, 20-100 times the long-term rates of the deep basin. This fast depositional pattern was reflected in the geochemical and isotopic data as well. Turbidites had isotopically heavier pyrite-sulfur compared to the Unit 1-type water column formed pyrite. This is probably because the turbidites originated from slope and transported slope pyrite isotopic signature to the deep basin. Diagenetic effects within the turbidite can make pyrite-sulfur even heavier. These tightly linked results demonstrate the importance of turbidites in recent sedimentation of the Black Sea.

  1. Decrease of the Black Sea Oxygen Inventory through the second half of the XXth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the oxygen inventory and penetration depth in the Black Sea over the period 1955-2013 using CTD and ARGO profiles. Several authors (e.g. Codispoti et al., 1991; Konovalov and Murray, 2001; Stanev et al., 2013) have proposed that the upper interface of the suboxic layer has shoaled on a density scale during the last decades in answer to eutrophication. Those studies are based on the assumption that oxygen vertical properties are sufficiently stable, spatially and seasonally, when expressed on a density scale to permit representative interannual statistics. We used the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) software and in particular the de-trending algorithm (Capet et al. 2014) to explicitly evaluate the spatial, seasonal and interannual variabilities of the total Oxygen vertical content and penetration depth (in depth and density scales). The most striking result is the strong and quasi-monotonous decrease of the Black Sea total oxygen inventory which, in 2013, only amounts to 70% of what it was in 1955. The study also confirms a shoaling of the [O2]=20 mmol/m3 iso-surface, on the order of 8m (0.06 kg/m3) per decade. Profiles obtained from two Argo float (2010-2012) confirmed the present status of the properties obtained from CTD cast, and were used to assess the role of the Cold Intermediate Layer in ventilating the upper part of the Black Sea open basin. It effectively appears that the important dense water formation in the period 1985-1995 refrained the upper-mentioned trends and that the lower formation in 1995-2010 has contributed to their more recent increases.

  2. Cetacean stranding records in the Turkish Western Black Sea coast during October 2012 - September 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda M. Tonay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Between October 2012 and September 2013, a research has been conducted on marine mammal strandings on Turkish western Black Sea coast. In total, 54 stranded cetaceans were found, which included 22 bottlenose dolphins (41%, 19 harbour porpoises (35%, 11 common dolphins (20%, and 4% unidentified individuals. Most strandings were observed in May and June. Bycaught carcases were found especially in April, June and July. The aim of the study is to collect first-hand data on the monthly stranding rates in order to understand the seasonal variation of stranding cases in a year.

  3. Marine fish diversity and habitat use along the western coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Dumitru Gavril

    2015-11-01

    I identified 34 species of fish in the Shabla-Tyulenovo area and 39 species in the Constanta area, of which 19 species preferred sandy bottoms, 21 rocky bottoms, 16 rocky habitats with Cystoseira sp., 19 man-made structures and 9 were pelagic. For 7 species habitat preferences could not be determined as a result of capture only by fishing. In conclusion, the scuba visual transects along with fishing methods provide a relevant image to the current state of the fish diversity along the western coast of the Black Sea.

  4. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  5. Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Knab

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM and sulfate reduction (SRR were investigated in sediments of the western Black Sea, where methane transport is controlled by diffusion. To understand the regulation and dynamics of methane production and oxidation in the Black Sea, rates of methanogenesis, AOM, and SRR were determined using radiotracers in combination with pore water chemistry and stable isotopes. On the shelf of the Danube paleo-delta and the Dnjepr Canyon, AOM did not consume methane effectively and upwards diffusing methane created an extended sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ that spread over more than 2.5 m and was located in formerly limnic sediment. Measurable AOM rates occurred mainly in the lower part of the SMTZ, sometimes even at depths where sulfate seemed to be unavailable. The inefficiency of methane oxidation appears to be linked to the limnic history of the sediment, since in all cores methane was completely oxidized at the limnic-marine transition. The upward tailing of methane was less pronounced in a core from the deep sea in the area of the Dnjepr Canyon, the only station with a SMTZ close to the marine deposits. Sulfate reduction rates were mostly extremely low, and in the SMTZ were even lower than AOM rates. Rates of bicarbonate-based methanogenesis were below detection limit in two of the cores, but δ13C values of methane indicate a biogenic origin. The most depleted δ13C-signal was found in the SMTZ of the core from the deep sea, most likely as a result of carbon recycling between AOM and methanogenesis.

  6. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under great anthropogenic pressure due to the substantial freshwater input from the surrounding industrial and agricultural areas, especially central and middle-Eastern Europe, the Black Sea basin is ranked among the most ecologically threatened water bodies of the world. Oil levels are unacceptable in many coastal areas perilously close to polluted harbors and many river mouths; the places presenting the highest levels of bio-diversity and having a high socio-economic importance due to human use of coastal resources. There are about sixty sources of pollution which resulted in "hot spots" having disastrous impacts on sensitive marine and coastal areas and needing immediate priorities for action. Beyond such land-based sources, trans-boundary pollution sources from Black Sea riparian countries, heavy maritime traffic, particularly involving petroleum transports and fishing boats, and the improper disposal of ballast and bilge waters and solid waste are also important marine sources of pollution. Found in fossil fuels such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In order to estimate their distribution in sediment and their sources, they were monitored from the bottom samples offshore the Zonguldak industry region, one of the most polluted spots in the Turkish Black Sea. There the budget of pollutants via rivers is not precisely known due to an evident lack of data on chemical and granulometric composition of the river runoff and their fluxes. Therefore the marine sediments, essential components of marine ecosystems, are very important in our estimating the degree of the damage given to the ecosystem by such inputs. Realization of the sources and transport of these contaminants will be a critical tool for future management of the Zonguldak industry region and its watershed. The sea bottom in study area is composed of mainly sand and silt mixtures with small amount of clay. Geochemical analyses have shown that oil

  7. Comparative analysis of Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from different biotopes of the Black Sea based on its morphological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos'yan, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Asian whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Muricidae), being tolerant to wide variations in the temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration, successfully settled down in the Black Sea and eventually became one of the dominant species in the benthic ecosystems. The whelk inhabits all types of grounds all over the Black sea demonstrating a wide spectrum of morphological modifications. The objective of this research is to compare 10 samples of R. venosa from different biotopes of the Black Sea coast from the western Crimea to Sochi. The results of the statistical comparison based on 15 morphological characteristics showed that most of the samples differed from each other with high statistical significance ( p Mytilus galloprovincialis, Anadara sp., Chamelea gallina), the prevailing prey size, and its abundance.

  8. Trace Metal Levels in Lichen Samples From Roadsides in East Black Sea Region, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZGUR DOGAN ULUOZLU; KADIR KINALIOGLU; MUSTAFA TUZEN; MUSTAFA SOYLAK

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the metal contents of lichen species from East Black Sea region of Turkey for investigation of trace metal pollution sourced traffic.Methods The levels of copper,cadmium,lead,zinc,manganese,iron,chromium,nickel,cobalt,palladium in lichen samples collected from East Black Sea region of Turkey were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method.The accuracy of the method was corrected by standard reference material(NIST SRM IAEA-336 Lichen). Results The contents of investigated trace metals in lichen samples were 7.19-22.4 μg/g for copper,0.10-0.64 μg/g for cadmium,4.03-44.6 μg/g for lead,14.5-41.8 1.μg/g for zinc,25.8-208 μg/g for manganese,331-436 μg/g for iron,1.20-3.01 μg/g for chromium,1.48-3.90 μg/g for nickel,0.20-3.55 μg/g for cobalt.0.11-0.64 μg/g for palladium.The results were compared with the literature values.Conclusion Some lichen species such as Xanthoparmelia conspersa,Xanthoria calcicola,Peltigera membranacea,and Physcia adscendens are accumulated trace metals at a high ratio.

  9. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  10. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  11. Occurency of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in river water sources of Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Zeynep; Seferoğlu, Onuralp; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-12-01

    A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58.7%), 125 (52.1%) and 120 (50%) samples respectivelly were positive by each method. Out of 240 environmental samples collected from 25 sites of Samsun Province have been found positive for G. duodenalis by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. 55 (30.5%), 50 (27.8%) and 47 (26.1%) of 180 environmental samples collected from 20 other sampling sites of Giresun Province were positive for Giardia by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. Five PCR products from different samples of the Giresun Province and 10 other samples from the Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage B. Five PCR products from Giresun Province and 5 samples from Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage A. This is the first report about G. duodenalis assemblages A and B from water samples investigations in Black Sea of Turkey.

  12. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  13. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS - PCBs AND DDTs IN FISH FROM DANUBE RIVER AND FROM BLACK SEA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Stancheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and DDT residues (DDTs can still be a problem for the aquatic environment and the human health. PCBs and DDTs were determined in three freshwater fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio, catfish (Silurus glanis, pike-perch (Sander lucioperca and two marine fish: shad (Alosa pontica pontica and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus. The freshwater fish samples were collected from the Danube River and from Black Sea, Bulgaria in 2010. The POPs were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of PCBs and DDTs in fish species from Danube River and compared the results to the levels in marine fish species from Black Sea. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, p,p’-DDT and its two main metabolites p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in investigated species, with the p,p’- DDE contributing to more than 67% to the total DDTs. In freshwater fish concentrations of DDTs were found from 19.2 to 30.3 ng/g ww and PCBs concentrations - from 6.2 to 12.6 ng/g ww. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were determined in shad. The levels of DDTs and PCBs were determined lower than those found in similar fish species from other aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  15. Geophysical Imprints of the Geodynamic Evolution of Moesia Following the Black Sea Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Genesis of the two types of the Moesia basement (the so called Walachian, and Dobrogean sectors) along with the complex fault system affecting its cover and basement are still debated issues. Besides, there are two other intriguing aspects raised by the seismicity map of Romania: the sub-crustal events in the bending zone of East Carpathians, and the crust seismicity of the eastern Moesian Plate (MoP). Both the intermediate-depth earthquakes within full intra-continental environment and the intense craton seismicity are unusual aspects, and their apparent association difficult to explain. The paper proposes an integrated geodynamic model of MoP able to justify its current tectonics and both the crustal events in front of Carpathians, and the intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Vrancea zone within the frame of a unique geodynamic process. It starts from the idea that tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the E MoP and the bending zone of East Carpathians has been strongly affected by the opening of the W Black Sea basin, and is currently maintained by active rifting in SW Arabian Plate. The model is supported by geophysical and geodetic evidence. Unlike some previous geology-based models assuming that Black Sea opened during a singular geodynamic event (northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean floor), the pattern of the gravity and geomagnetic field, along with off-shore seismics bring convincing evidence on the distinct timing of the W and E Black Sea basins opening. Fingerprints of the lithosphere expelled by the W Black Sea rifting in the NW inland may be seen in the distribution of compression (P) wave velocity. In-depth development of NW striking major faults (splitting MoP into numerous vertical compartments) is also well revealed by seismic tomography (e.g. Peceneaga-Camena Fault, as the limit between MoP and East European Plate (EEP), still separates two distinct P wave velocity domains at 150 km depth). A second major fault system was created by the

  16. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a

  17. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  18. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

  19. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of China's marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Yanju; WANG Xuchen; DAI Minhan; FENG Huan; LI Anchun; SONG Qian

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of black carbon (BC) and its correlation with total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH) in the surface sediments of China's marginal seas. BC content ranges from <0.10 to 2.45 mg/g dw (grams dry weight) in the sediments studied, and varied among the different coastal regions. The Bohai Bay sediments had the highest BC contents (average 2.18 mg/g dw),which comprises a significant fraction (27%-41%) of the total organic carbon (TOC) preserved in the sediments. In comparison, BC in the surface sediments of the North Yellow Sea, Jiaozhou Bay, East China Sea and the South China Sea is less abundant and accounted for an average of 6%, 8%, 14% and 5%,respectively, of the sedimentary organic carbon pool. The concentration of ΣPAH in the surface sediments ranges from 41 to 3 667 ng/g dw and showed large spatial variations among the sampling sites of different costal regions. The Bohai Bay has the highest ΣPAH values, ranging from 79 to 3 667 ng/g dw. This reflects the high anthropogenically contaminated nature of the sediments in the bay. BC is positively correlated to TOC but a strong correlation is not found between BC and ΣPAH in the surface sediments studied, suggesting that BC and PAHs preserved in the sediments are derived from different sources and controlled by different biogeochemical processes. Our study suggests that the abundance of BC preserved in the sediments could represent a significant sink pool of carbon cycling in China's marginal seas.

  20. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military pre

  1. Climatic aspects of the variability of extreme storm occurrence and intensity in the western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya

    2010-05-01

    The study considers potential changes in the storm occurrence and intensity over the western Black Sea through analysis of long term series of wind and wave conditions simulated with relatively high resolution. It is a result of coupling of atmospheric and wave models and spans period of more than 62 years (1948-2009). The wave hincast is driven with the global reanalysis data produced by ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR. The continuous dataset is reduced to a series of storms of considerable intensity and/or destructive potential through application of thresholds for filtration of weak seas. They are primarily based on storm impact on the coastal environment and principles for statistical representativeness. The climatic variability of occurrence and intensity of the selected extreme events is analyzed using different criteria such as number of stormy days, wind speed and wave height extremes. Particular consideration is paid to the mean wave energy per storm season and specific storm energy that are found to be more indicative for understanding of the storm pattern variability. Despite of the overall tendency for storminess decrease, there are no incontestable evidences corroborating a marked reduction of the storm intensity. While the total number of stormy hours diminishes, an increase of the mean wave energy is discernible. This is found to be caused by a change of the storm pattern: storms with short growth stage, energetic stage of full development and fast decay are more frequently observed. This storm type still provides significant energy input in the coastal zone and is able of producing considerable morphological impact, including damages. Such storms develop abruptly, therefore, timely prediction and mitigation of hazard effects become more complex to tackle with. Hence, little potential seems to exist for reducing the vulnerability to storms in the western Black Sea. That means the societies must begin to take such far-reaching implications into serious

  2. Optimising the vertical grid for numerical simulations of the Black Sea dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Pickering, J.; Luneva, M. V.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to analytical methods which deal with continuous functions, solutions obtained using numerical methods depend on the type of discretisation used in the model. It is known that not only different classes of discretisation (such as finite difference, finite element, finite volume etc.) result in different numerical outputs but also variations within the same class may have significant effect on the quality of simulation. When it comes to discretization in the vertical, examples include z- or terrain-following coordinate systems all of which have their advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to identify how sensitive modelling results are to changes in the vertical grid structure, under condition that all other parameters, both physical (e.g. initial temperature and salinity field and meteo forcing) and numerical ( e.g. time step, horizontal resolution, number of vertical layers) are kept the same. The simulations were carried out using the NEMO ocean model at 6 km resolution for the Black Sea which has both deep (more than 2 km) areas and an extensive (hundreds of kilometres) continental shelf. The shelf break, where the slope changes abruptly, is traditionally a difficult location for many types of models. The terrain-following coordinate systems (such as s- and sigma-) are prone the pressure gradient (PG) errors, while z-coordinate systems create a serrated edge near the bottom. Some improvements are provided by z-coordinates with partial steps; however this approach has its own limitations. In this study we compare 4 vertical coordinate system: z-, s-, hybrid (s- on top of z-), and advanced hybrid (modified s- on top of z-). The latter two are the new systems, not yet implemented in the standard NEMO code and developed specifically for this study. The hybrid system uses s-coordinates in the upper layer of the ocean, from the sea surface to the depth of the shelf break and z-coordinate below this level. Such configuration minimizes the PG

  3. Comparative study of the hydrochemical regime in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya Bays, northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyleva, A.; Chasovnikov, V.; Chjoo, V.; Menshikova, N.; Kuprikova, N.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this work was to study the hydrochemical regime in the coastal waters of the northeastern Black Sea. The observations were performed in influenced by significant anthropogenic stress Gelendzhik Bay and at the open coast region (Golubaya Bay). A sampling program has been initiated by the Southern Branch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, (SB SIO RAS) on a weekly basis at the shore line area of «Chernomorets» beach (Gelendzhik Bay) and from the head of pier in the Golubaya Bay. Studies were carried out during a period from January 2001 to December 2008. List of measured parameters includes following: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, alkalinity, phosphate, organic phosphorus, silicates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, urea, organic nitrogen, oil products. The Gelendzhik bay in its different parts is characterized with strong variability of concentrations of hydrochemical parameters. Above all, it relates to complex structure caused by wind impact. Parts of the bay filled with nearshore and sea waters are legibly differ from each other. The bay itself is rather isolated from the open sea, and its liability to man's impact leads to forming of next features of its seasonal variability of physical-chemical state: • On the base of Si/P and Si/N ratios analysis it was shown that the Gelendzhik Bay waters are significantly enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. • Unlike the Golubaya bay, phosphates are always present in the water of the Gelendzhik Bay and development of photosynthesis is not limited with nutrients. It may lead to processes of intensive eutrophication. • The oxygen saturation in the Gelendzhik Bay periodically descend lower than 80% during the summer period. That means, that even the Bay's surface layer formally corresponds to the hypoxic conditions that testify to the degradation of the ecosystem there. The conclusions obtained during our studies testify that the pollution from

  4. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  5. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Tsangaris; Vanessa, Moschino; Evangelia, Strogyloudi; Valentina, Coatu; Andreja, Ramšak; Rana, Abu Alhaija; Susana, Carvalho; Serena, Felline; Alisa, Kosyan; Yiota, Lazarou; Ioannis, Hatzianestis; Andra, Oros; Daniela, Tiganus

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  6. Preservation of black carbon in the shelf sediments of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations and carbon isotopic (14C, 13C) compositions of black carbon (BC) were measured for three sediment cores collected from the Changjiang River estuary and the shelf of the East China Sea. BC concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 mg/g (dry weight), and accounted for 5% to 26% of the sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) pool. Among the three sediment cores collected at each site, sediment from the Changjiang River estuary had relatively high BC contents compared with the sediments from the East China Sea shelf, suggesting that the Changjiang River discharge played an important role in the delivery of BC to the coastal region. Radiocarbon measurements indicate that the ages of BC are in the range of 6910 to 12250 years old B.P. (before present), that is in general, 3700 to 9000 years older than the 14C ages of TOC in the sediments. These variable radiocarbon ages suggest that the BC preserved in the sediments was derived from the products of both biomass fire and fossil fuel combustion, as well as from ancient rock weathering. Based on an isotopic mass balance model, we calculated that fossil fuel combustion contributed most (60%―80%) of the BC preserved in these sediments and varied with depth and locations. The deposition and burial of this "slow-cycling" BC in the sediments of the East China Sea shelf represent a significant pool of carbon sink and could greatly in-fluence carbon cycling in the region.

  7. Implementation of Black Sea numerical model based on NEMO and 3DVAR data assimilation scheme for operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Peneva, Elisaveta; Storto, Andrea; Rostislav, Kandilarov; Lecci, Rita; Yang, Chunxue; Coppini, Giovanni; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a new model implementation for the Black Sea, which uses data assimilation, towards operational forecasting, based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Madec et al., 2012). The Black Sea domain is resolved with 1/27°×1/36° horizontal resolution (~3 km) and 31 z-levels with partial steps based on the GEBCO bathymetry data (Grayek et al., 2010). The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using high resolution atmospheric forcing provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast (ECMWF). The initial condition is calculated from long-term climatological temperature and salinity 3D fields. Precipitation field over the basin has been computed from the climatological GPCP rainfall monthly data (Adler et al., 2003; Huffman et al., 2009), while the evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux. The climatological monthly mean runoff of the major rivers in the Black Sea is computed using the hydrological dataset provided by SESAME project (Ludvig et al., 2009). The exchange with Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus Straits is represented by a surface boundary condition taking into account the barotropic transport calculated to balance the fresh water fluxes on monthly bases (Stanev and Beckers, 1999, Peneva et al., 2001). A multi-annual run 2011-2015 has been completed in order to describe the main characteristics of the Black Sea circulation dynamics and thermohaline structure and the numerical results have been validated using in-situ (ARGO) and satellite (SST, SLA) data. The Black Sea model represents also the core of the new Black Sea Forecasting System, implemented at CMCC operationally since January 2016, which produces at daily frequency 10-day forecasts, 3-days analyses and 1-day simulation. Once a week, the system is run 15-day in the past in analysis mode to compute the new optimal initial condition for the forecast cycle. The assimilation is performed by a

  8. Sulfur speciation and sulfide oxidation in the water column of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, George W., III; Church, Thomas M.; Powell, David

    We have applied sulfur speciation techniques to understand the chemistry and cycling of sulfur in Black Sea waters. The only reduced dissolved inorganic sulfur species detected (above the low minimum detection limits of the voltammetric methods employed) in the water column was hydrogen sulfide. The maximum concentration of sulfide (423 μM) is similar to previous reports. Using a cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry (CSSWV) method for nanomolar levels of sulfide, we determined the precise boundary between the "free" hydrogen sulfide (sulfidic) zone and the upper (oxic/suboxic) water column at the two stations studied. This boundary has apparently moved up by about 50 m in the past 20 years. Our results help demonstrate three chemically distinct zones of water in the central basin of the Black Sea: (1) the oxic [0-65 m], (2) the anoxic/nonsulfidic [65-100 m] and (3) the sulfidic [>100 m]. Sulfide bound to metals ("complexed" sulfide) is observed in both the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic zones of the water column. This supports previous studies on metal sulfide forms. From the electrochemical data, it is possible to estimate the strength of the complexation of sulfide to metals (log K = 10 to 11). Thiosulfate and sulfite were below our minimum detectable limit (MDL) of 50 nM using CSSWV. Elemental sulfur (MDL 5 nM) was detected below the onset of the hydrogen sulfide zone (90-100 m) with a maximum of 30-60 nM near 120 m. The sulfur speciation results for the Black Sea are lower by one order of magnitude or more than other marine systems such as the Cariaco Trench and salt marshes. New HPLC techniques were applied to detect thiols at submicromolar levels. The presence of thiols (2-mercaptoethylamine, 2-mercaptoethanol, N-acetylcysteine and glutathione) is correlated with the remineralization of organic matter at the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic interface. Water samples collected from the upper 50 m of the sulfidic zone showed significant sulfide oxidation on

  9. Contributions to the knowledge of the Danube waters impact on the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Oaie, Gheorghe; Secrieru, Dan; Vasiliu, Dan; Begun, Tatiana; Caraus, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Rivers usually have a positive impact on marine areas where they discharge their waters, fertilizing them and supporting high biological productivity, the Danube River being a good example in this respect. Given the conditions of chaotic industrialization and the discharge into rivers of many chemicals, some of high toxicity, the eutrophication influence changed its beneficial nature, turning into a toxic polluting influence, with catastrophic effects on the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems, which is a situation well-known and in the area of the Danube mouths for the period 1970-1990. After 1990, under major political changes in socio-economic systems, the environmental pressures with impact on marine coastal ecosystems diminished; these pressures had been maintained by hydrological systems opening to the marine areas. What is the current situation of these pressures? What are the major characteristics of the organisms associations under the direct influence of the Danube? In this paper, the authors try to give some answers to these questions. In the framework of the lower Danube monitoring program, conducted by GeoEcoMar during 2009-2012, measurements were made and samples collected in more than 230 stations along the Romanian sector of the Danube River. The main aspects related to the ecological state of the River were: - Physico-chemical and biological (phytoplankton); - Sediment granulometry and inorganic chemistry - CaCO3, Fe2O3, TiO2, Zr, Ba, Rb, Zn, Ni, MnO, Cr, V, Co, Pb; - Ammonia, TOC, total cyanide, organochlorine pesticides in sediments; - Physico-chemical analyses of water samples. According to the results, the areas suspected of pollution from anthropogenic sources and also from other activities, could be outlined as follows: - The stretch between km 1072 (Danube entry to Romania) and km 1039 - downstream the mining sector Moldova Veche; - Sector between km 957-947, near the Iron Gates I dam; - Danube - Black Sea Canal (the NPP

  10. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protected areas around the coast. The numerical model WAVEWATCH III is in use for wind waves forecasts for the entire Black Sea with horizontal resolution of 1/8 degree (roughly 14 kilometers), which is sufficient for the open Sea, but not enough for a detailed coastal forecast. For the purposes of the coastal forecasts and early warnings in case of severe storms we decided to implement SWAN (Simulating the Waves Near Shore)- development of TU- DELFT. In this paper we will describe the brief details about the coastal sea state f...

  11. The timing of the Black Sea flood event: Insights from modeling of glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Samuel L.; Lau, Harriet C. P.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Latychev, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    We present a suite of gravitationally self-consistent predictions of sea-level change since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the vicinity of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits that combine signals associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and the flooding of the Black Sea. Our predictions are tuned to fit a relative sea level (RSL) record at the island of Samothrace in the north Aegean Sea and they include realistic 3-D variations in viscoelastic structure, including lateral variations in mantle viscosity and the elastic thickness of the lithosphere, as well as weak plate boundary zones. We demonstrate that 3-D Earth structure and the magnitude of the flood event (which depends on the pre-flood level of the lake) both have significant impact on the predicted RSL change at the location of the Bosphorus sill, and therefore on the inferred timing of the marine incursion. We summarize our results in a plot showing the predicted RSL change at the Bosphorus sill as a function of the timing of the flood event for different flood magnitudes up to 100 m. These results suggest, for example, that a flood event at 9 ka implies that the elevation of the sill was lowered through erosion by ∼14-21 m during, and after, the flood. In contrast, a flood event at 7 ka suggests erosion of ∼24-31 m at the sill since the flood. More generally, our results will be useful for future research aimed at constraining the details of this controversial, and widely debated geological event.

  12. Stratigraphy and Chronology of the Lake Sediments from Crimea as a Basis for Reconstructing the Black Sea Level Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolba, Vladimir; Subetto, D.A.; Kuznetsov, D.D.;

    2007-01-01

    Two long sediment sequences have been recovered from two lakes in Western Crimea (Lakes Saki and Dzharylgach) within a frame of the joint Danish-Russian-Ukrainian interdisciplinary project "Northern Black Sea in the 1st millennium BC: Human history and climate changes". A detailed examination...

  13. Impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on Black Sea hydrology: Insights from hydrogen isotopes analysis on biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Krijgsman, W.

    2013-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.96–5.33 Ma ago) was a dramatic oceanographic event, when evaporites kilometers thick precipitated in a desiccating Mediterranean basin, trapping more than 5% of the world's oceanic salt. Hydrological changes in the adjacent Black Sea and water exchange with the Medit

  14. Modeling the nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity in the Black Sea using a three-dimensional interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Nezlin, N.; Kostianoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    A six-compartment ecosystem model defined by a simple nitrogen cycle is coupled with a general circulation model in the Black Sea so as to examine the seasonal variability of the ecohydrodynamics. Model results show that the annual cycle of the biological productivity of the whole basin is character

  15. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  16. Trace element content in marine algae species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Verep, Bulent; Ogretmen, A Omur; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-01

    Trace element content of marine algae species collected from the Black Sea coasts were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave digestion. Trace element content in marine algae species were 1.70-17.1 microg/g for copper, 3.64-64.8 microg/g for zinc, 9.98-285 microg/g for manganese, 99-3,949 microg/g for iron, 0.50-11.6 microg/g for chromium, 0.27-36.2 microg/g for nickel, 11-694 microg/kg for selenium, 0.50-44.6 microg/kg for cadmium, 1.54-3,969 microg/kg for lead, 1.56-81.9 microg/kg for cobalt. While iron was the highest trace element concentration, cadmium was the lowest in samples. Most of the analyzed samples were edible. The samples are consumed for human diet in several countries.

  17. Trace elements in the organs and tissues of bivalves in the northwestern Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkevich, T.A.; Gorbyleva, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was made of the distribution of 16 trace elements (copper, manganese, iron, aluminum, zinc, barium, strontium, lead, tin, silver, vanadium, nickel, chromium, lithium, titanium and cobalt) in the organs and tissues of bivalves in the northwestern Black Sea and in the Sukhoy and Berezanskiy estuaries. These elements were selected because they are constituents of enzymes, vitamins and other metal-protein complexes, or activate enzymes, and are involved in redox reactions in the transfer of electrons and hydrogen. We investigated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and oysters (Ostrea edulis), analyzing the mantle, gills, liver, gonads, adductor muscles, foot and shell, and also in Mya the siphon and its outer epithelial layer, the cuticle. Similar data on Anodonta, a freshwater bivalve of the Dniester estuary, were used for comparison.

  18. Data Assimilation and Sensitivity of the Black Sea Model to Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    An adjoint based technique is applied to a Shallow Water Model in order to estimate influence of the model's parameters on the solution. Among parameters the bottom topography, initial conditions, boundary conditions on rigid boundaries, viscosity coefficients and the amplitude of the wind stress tension are considered. Their influence is analyzed from different points of view. Two configurations have been analyzed: an academic case of the model in a square box and a more realistic case simulating Black Sea currents. It is shown in both experiments that the boundary conditions near a rigid boundary influence the most the solution. This fact points out the necessity to identify optimal boundary approximation during a model development.

  19. Molecular insights into the taxonomy of Hypanis (Bivalvia, Cardiidae, Lymnocardiinae) in the Black Sea lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Luis; Popa, Oana; Iorgu, Elena; Kelemen, Beatrice; Murariu, Dumitru

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we used data from morphology and three DNA markers to assess the taxonomic status of the putative bivalve species Hypanis colorata and Hypanis angusticostata in a Black Sea lagoon, the Razelm Lake in Romania. The morphological data (the shape of shell ribs and the multivariate analysis of morphometric variance of three variables constructed as the ratios between the main dimensions of the shell) confirmed that the two analyzed species are distinct morphological entities. Three molecular markers, one from the nuclear genome (18S rRNA) and two from the mitochondrial genome (16S rRNA and COI), showed extremely reduced sequence divergence (0-0.1%) between the two putative species. Based on these results, we suggest that H. angusticostata and H. colorata are morphotypes of a single species.

  20. Participation in ICZM initiatives: critical aspects and lessons learnt from the Mediterranean and Black Sea experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, Stefano; Buono, Fabrizia; Tonino, Marco; Camuffo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Public participation is recognized as a necessary tool to ensure a successful implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) strategies and plans. This paper, based on the experiences carried out in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea within the EU FP7 project PEGASO, presents some critical aspects and lessons learnt regarding participation in ICZM projects. The research shows that data availability, the complexity of data interpretation, an inadequate legal and cultural framework and the difficulties in promoting integration of all the components of coastal management within short term projects are all elements that if not properly considered since the beginning of the participatory process may hinder public participation effectiveness. Moreover the definition of the spatial scale of coastal phenomenon as well as the discrepancy between the local scale of coastal governance and the complex multi-scale nature of coastal systems remain highly critical aspects to be addressed.

  1. Duct occurrence and characteristics for Bulgarian Black sea shore derived from ECMWF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkova, I.

    2015-12-01

    Non-standard propagation due to sharp gradients in tropospheric refraction is known to have significant impact on radar and communication systems working in microwave range. The formation of tropospheric ducts is the most severe deviation from the standard propagation conditions. The presented study reports results on the tropospheric ducts' occurrence and properties along the Bulgarian Black sea shore. The meteorology needed to reconstruct the refractivity profiles is derived from ECMWF current operational model, TL799L91, and refers to two-year period. Statistics of essential duct parameters for surface, surface-based and elevated ducts are reported for the summer months and overall duct statistics are given for the other seasons.

  2. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  3. Viral surveillance of cultured Rainbow Trout in the eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, H; Altuntas, C; Parlak, R

    2013-03-01

    To study the presence and spread of viral fish pathogens in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, 172 pooled samples (seven fish per pool) of Rainbow Trout fry from 28 hatcheries were examined from December 2006 to July 2007. Forty-three pools (seven broodfish per pool) of seminal and ovarian fluids from 182 female and 119 male brood Rainbow Trout were also sampled during spawning. Moreover, reproductive fluids (22 pools) of wild trout (Salmo trutta labrax, S. t. caspius, S. t. abanticus, and S. t. macrostigma), captured by electroshocking in the rivers in and around the region, were sampled. Triplicate groups of 40 or 80 Rainbow Trout fry was also challenged with two similar isolates to determine their virulence on trout fry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on the samples producing cytopathic effect on CHSE-214 cells. The positive results were confirmed with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Neither infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) nor viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was detected during the survey. Of the 28 hatcheries sampled in the Black Sea region, 15 from six provinces tested positive for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in trout fry. Unexpectedly, all reproductive fluids from both male and female cultured and wild broodstock tested negative for IPNV. Nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS region of IPNV showed that all isolates collected (n = 38) in the region and surrounding areas belonged to the genogroup III. The findings strongly suggest that IPNV is endemic in the fry of farmed Rainbow Trout within the region. Virus prevention measures should be taken to prevent in-farm spread of these highly contagious, low-virulence isolates.

  4. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  5. Time series analysis of recent (1 ky) sediments of the euxinic slope of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Oaie, G.; Preoteasa, F.

    2012-04-01

    To reconstruct the past history of the euxinic environment of the Black Sea, a 0.5 m core containing unconsolidated sediments was collected at a dept of 600 m on the slope of Continental Platform of the Black Sea. The vertical profiles of both Cs-137 and Pb-210, as radiometricaly measured, allowed us to calculate a sedimentation ratio of 0.49 ± 0.03 mm/y, thus giving to the entire stratigraphic column an age of about 1 ky. By means of a fourth generation Computer Tomograph we have obtained a high resolution tomographic image of a longitudinal section through entire core evidencing the presence of about 250 parallel laminae (1 to 2.5 mm thick) consisting of an alternation of coccolithic and argillaceous mud. After image digitization, we have obtained the corresponding 3550 equidistant points time series (TS). After detrending, TS was analyzed by means of the Blackman-Tukey correlogram and subsequently decomposed in wavelet functions. The resulted correlogram evidenced multiple maxima, the most important ones corresponding to 307, 125, 35, 18, 9 and 7 years (at p <0.001). At the same time, the Morlet wavelet evolutionary spectra showed the presence of a bundle of cycles whose age, estimated to be between A.D. 1600 and 1800, could indicate some significant changes of the European environment, the end of the Little Ice Age being one of the possible explanations. At the same time, the relative constancy of the laminae thickness along entire sedimentary column testifies to a long term stationarity of the euxinic environment during the last thousand years, in concordance with the experimental data regarding both Mo and U vertical profiles, two important proxies of the euxinic medium.

  6. Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline on seasonal and interannual time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. IVANOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a description of temporal variability of winter cooling conditions and estimation of effective cross-isopycnal mixing rates in the Black Sea. Data averaging versus salinity / sigma-t scale was used to filter effects of local dynamics. It is shown that traces of winter mixing events appear well preserved in the temperature-salinity structure, due to the peculiarities of the Black Sea where temperature often acts as a passive tracer with a smaller contribution to density as compared to salinity. Vertical distribution of the magnitudes of temperature oscillations indicates that the convection events have limited effects in modifying the structure of the middle and lower pycnocline on a seasonal time scale. However, long-term fluctuations are well recognised. The magnitudes of the seasonal and long-term temperature fluctuations are comparable only in the upper pycnocline. Three major cooling events can be distinguished from the record of the pycnocline temperature for the past 75 years. The intensive cooling occurred in the late 1920s - early 1930s, early 1950s and late 1980s - early 1990s. Partial renewal of the water of the cold intermediate layer core took place approximately once in two years. The period when convection causes erosion of the pycnocline lasts for only a week. It is shown that a lateral source of heat and salt exists for the upper pycnocline, where it is the cold intermediate water, and for the lower pycnocline, the layer below S@ 20.5, where this lateral source of salt and heat is maintained by disintegrating Bosphorus plume.

  7. Digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in the Turkish Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Öztürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (L., 1758, in the Turkish Black Sea coast for the first time. Fish were collected throughout a year period from local fishermen in Sinop. A total of 256 fish specimens were weighed and measured, subsequently examined for parasites using conventional methods under an Olympus microscope (BX53 equipped with a digital camera (DP50. The examination included gills, pharynx, body cavity and visceral organs (stomach, intestine, liver, swim bladder and gonads. Parasites recovered were fixed and preserved using methods commonly applied. A total of five species including adults of Prodistomum polonii (Molin 1879 Bray and Gibson 1990, Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819 Looss, 1907, Lasiotocus typicus (Nicoll, 1912 and metacercaria of Stephanostomum cesticillum (Molin, 1858 Looss, 1899 were identified. Each parasite species were counted, their prevalence (% and mean intensity values were determined according to Bush et al. (1997. Kruskal-Wallis test (Non-parametric ANOVA was performed to find out the significant differences in the mean intensity values of the parasite for two length classes of fish as well as for the seasons. All the statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 5%. The calculated overall infection prevalence (% and mean intensity values were 48.8% and 3.78±0.34, respectively. This data is the first on the digenean parasite fauna of the Atlantic horse mackerel collected from the Turkish Black Sea coast. Lasiotocus typicus and Stephanostomum cesticillum are new parasite records for Turkey.

  8. Climate-physics-chemistry-biology: connected changes in the Black Sea regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Silkin, Vladimir; Podymov, Oleg; Chasovnikov, Valery

    2016-04-01

    The ratio of nutrients in the water is a significant regulator of community structure. This control is very important, both in coastal waters that are exposed to river runoff and in the open Sea, where the development of the phytoplankton community depends on the intensity of the vertical exchange. This is valid also for the northeastern Black Sea. Since there are no big rivers in this region, vertical mixing becomes the main process that supplies nutrients from the nutrient-rich deep layers to the surface layer. Vertical mixing depends on winter cooling and is characterized by a cold intermediate layer (CIL) temperature. Since 1984, both the sea-surface and CIL temperatures have shown a tendency to increase, which leads to relatively weak winter mixing. The coldest winters during last two decades were observed in 2006 and 2012, when the CIL temperature decreased to 7.3oC and 6.8oC, respectively. According to the observed density dynamic, the maximum elevation of cold, high density water occurred in the second half of May. In 2012, the waters from the upper part of the CIL reached a depth of 20-30 m. All the other years were characterized by a weak winter mixing, with the CIL temperature varying from 7.8oC to 8.3oC, and CIL waters raised to the depths no shallow than 60 m. Elevation of CIL waters resulted in an increase in nutrient concentration in the surface layer from the end of March to the beginning of June, before the thermocline starts to form, with maxima in May. An increase in the nutrient concentrations is more pronounced for silicon and phosphorus and less for nitrogen. After a severe winter, the silicon concentration can reach 8 μM, whereas after warm ones, only 4 μM. For phosphorus, this amounts to 0.4 and 0.1 μM, respectively. This leads to decrease of N/P ratio below the Redfild theoretical value after a severe winter. It was found that variation in N/P ratio is the main regulator of phytoplankton community structure in the NE Black Sea. At low N

  9. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zibordi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC. The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities with those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized-water leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite derived and in situ data at the center-wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration (443–547 nm, or equivalent. Remarkable is the consistency among the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center-wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent center-wavelengths, suggesting difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  10. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  11. Analysis of prestorm situations in the Florida Straight and Golubaya Bay in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankov, A. G.; Marechek, S. V.; Milshin, A. A.; Novichikhin, E. P.; Shelobanova, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    We consider some peculiarities of the behavior of thermal and radio thermal (microwave radiation) characteristics of the atmosphere during prestorm situations in water areas monitored directly and remotely. The objects of research are (a) a region of the SMKF1 station (Sombrero Key) in the Florida Straight in August 2005 and (b) Golubaya Bay in the Black Sea (Gelendzhik, the territory of the Southern Branch of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences) in September 2010, several days before an intensive storm. Using meteorological and satellite microwave radiometric data, we have studied some common and specific features in the behavior of surface air temperature and humidity, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, total heat and water vapor content of the atmosphere, and microwave radiation characteristics of the "water surface-atmosphere" system during time periods preceding the approach of Hurricane Katrina to the region of SMKF1 and development of the sea storm near the Golubaya Bay. In both cases the effect of the accumulation of the latent heat of water vapor in the atmosphere was observed during the prestorm periods (of several days).

  12. STUDY REGARDING TO AGGRESSIONS ON THE ECOSYSTEM DANUBE DELTA – BLACK SEA AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  13. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  14. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  15. Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning System for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for Sea-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these systems for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning System has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.

  16. Release of hydrogen sulfide by asteroid impacts in Black Sea and risks for inland human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel

    2007-10-01

    The hydrogen sulfide rich waters of the Black Sea pose a potential danger for the surrounding land regions. The impact of an asteroid may cause a catastrophic poisonous gas release in the atmosphere. Some effects of this last phenomenon on the Eastern Black Sea coastal regions are evaluated in this article. Two simple models are proposed to describe the generation of the H(2)S cloud. The initial diameter of the cloud depends on asteroid size. The initial thickness of the cloud depends, in addition, on sea depth at impact location. The wind speed plays an important role in H(2)S cloud dynamics. At 10 m/s wind-speed the cloud margins may be seen at about 150 km from impact location in about 3.2 h. The maximum distance traveled by the hydrogen sulfide cloud increases by increasing the asteroid size and wind speed. The influence of the impact position on the distance traveled by hydrogen sulfide clouds is rather weak, as far as the seawater depth does not change significantly. Two values are considered when referring to the effect of hydrogen sulfide concentrations on humans: the lower concentration limit of 19.88 ppm (which corresponds to fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, irritability, poor memory, dizziness) and the upper concentration limit of 497 ppm (which corresponds to death after single exposures). The land surface area covered by the H(2)S cloud generated by a 1000 m size asteroid during the run-in ranges between about 6080 and 11,520 km(2). This may affect between 145,000 and 276,000 people. When a 250 m size asteroid is considered, the covered land surface area ranges between about 840 and 1,890 km(2) and between 20,000 and 45,000 people may be affected. In case of a 70 m size asteroid, the cloud covers up to 105 km(2) of land during the run-in. This may affect about 2500 people. These are moderate estimates. They do not include the urban population and may be 10 times underestimated for some particular wind directions. General recommendations to diminish

  17. Climatic variability of the sub-surface sea temperatures in the Aegean-Black Sea system and relation to meteorological forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoyiannis, H.; Papadopoulos, V.; Georgopoulos, D. [Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Attica (Greece); Kazmin, A.; Zatsepin, A. [P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Non-smoothed yearly temperature records with minimal statistical uncertainties are constructed for winter and summer of the period 1950-2000 in two areas in the Aegean Sea, for the sub-surface layer of 80-120 m, and two areas in the Black Sea, for the sub-surface layer of sigma-theta isopycnals between 14.5 and 15.4. The specific areas are selected mostly because of the dense hydrographic-data coverage they have during the period 1950-2000. Two trend regimes appear in both Seas: a period of decreasing sea temperatures from the early/mid 1960s to the early/mid 1990s and an apparent warming afterwards. Trends in sea temperatures correlate with trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and partly the East Atlantic West Russian (EAWR) indexes, but the signs of NAO and/or EAWR cannot sufficiently justify the winter-to-winter temperature changes in the entire study area. In examining the wind flows in the sea-level-pressure maps for characteristic winters in which local peaks in the sea-temperature records occur, we identify particular sea-level-pressure structures that are not accounted for by the typical North-Atlantic or East Atlantic-West Russia positive or negative dipoles. In addition, there are winters when the Siberian High induces local maxima in sea-temperatures in the study area. A spectral-coherence analysis of the unfiltered winter sea-temperature and the corresponding teleconnection NAO/EAWR records, shows that common spectral and coherence peaks exist at {proportional_to}5-6, {proportional_to}9-10 and {proportional_to}15-17 years. (orig.)

  18. Climatic variability of the sub-surface sea temperatures in the Aegean-Black Sea system and relation to meteorological forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoyiannis, H.; Papadopoulos, V.; Kazmin, A.; Zatsepin, A.; Georgopoulos, D.

    2012-09-01

    Non-smoothed yearly temperature records with minimal statistical uncertainties are constructed for winter and summer of the period 1950-2000 in two areas in the Aegean Sea, for the sub-surface layer of 80-120 m, and two areas in the Black Sea, for the sub-surface layer of sigma-theta isopycnals between 14.5 and 15.4. The specific areas are selected mostly because of the dense hydrographic-data coverage they have during the period 1950-2000. Two trend regimes appear in both Seas: a period of decreasing sea temperatures from the early/mid 1960s to the early/mid 1990s and an apparent warming afterwards. Trends in sea temperatures correlate with trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and partly the East Atlantic West Russian (EAWR) indexes, but the signs of NAO and/or EAWR cannot sufficiently justify the winter-to-winter temperature changes in the entire study area. In examining the wind flows in the sea-level-pressure maps for characteristic winters in which local peaks in the sea-temperature records occur, we identify particular sea-level-pressure structures that are not accounted for by the typical North-Atlantic or East Atlantic-West Russia positive or negative dipoles. In addition, there are winters when the Siberian High induces local maxima in sea-temperatures in the study area. A spectral-coherence analysis of the unfiltered winter sea-temperature and the corresponding teleconnection NAO/EAWR records, shows that common spectral and coherence peaks exist at ~5-6, ~9-10 and ~15-17 years.

  19. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-03-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the central Black Sea at the end of the 1980s when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The physical model is the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and the biogeochemical model describes the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores through 24 state variables including three groups of phytoplankton: diatoms, small phototrophic flagellates and dinoflagellates, two zooplankton groups: micro- and mesozooplankton, two groups of gelatinous zooplankton: the omnivorous and carnivorous forms, an explicit representation of the bacterial loop: bacteria, labile and semi-labile dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter. The model simulates oxygen, nitrogen, silicate and carbon cycling. In addition, an innovation of this model is that it explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer. Biogeochemical processes in anaerobic conditions have been represented using an approach similar to that used in the modeling of diagenetic processes in the sediments lumping together all the reduced substances in one state variable [Soetaert, K., Herman, P., 1996. A model of early diagenetic processes from the shelf to abyssal depths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 (6) 1019-1040]. In this way, processes in the upper oxygenated layer are fully coupled with anaerobic processes in the deep waters, allowing to perform longterm simulations. The mathematical modeling of phytoplankton and zooplankton dynamics, detritus and the microbial loop is based on the model developed by Van den Meersche et al. [Van den Meersche, K., Middelburg, J., Soetaert, K., van Rijswijk P.H.B., Heip, C., 2004. Carbon-nitrogen coupling and algal-bacterial interactions during an experimental bloom: Modeling a 13c tracer experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 49 (3), 862-878] and tested in the modeling of mesocosm

  20. Crust to Upper Mantle Echoes of the Black Sea Opening and Seismotectonic Consequences on the NW Inland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, L.

    2007-05-01

    The paper aims at revealing some tectonic and geodynamic imprints of the Black Sea opening mainly inferred from the potential fields analysis. DSS lines and seismic tomography are added in order to strengthen the interpretation and/or deepen the depth of investigation. Crust structure and dynamics (1) The presence of the oceanic crust in the central part of the basin is well reflected in the geomagnetic anomaly pattern. (2) Unlike some previous hypotheses postulating the existence of an unique rifting, up to date filtering techniques pointed out an unexpected pattern of the gravity and geomagnetic anomalies, trending almost perpendicular each-other within eastern and western basin, thus advocating for a distinct opening of the W and E Black Sea. (3) Correlation with the magnetostratigraphic scale revealed a geomagnetic reversal and seems to indicate a later opening of the eastern basin; off-shore seismics confirm the model by showing a slight overthrusting of the E Pontides over W Pontides. (4) It seems that the W Black Sea opening split the Moesian Plate into several slivers by creating/reactivating older faults trending north-westward. (5) Crust expelled by the Black Sea opening accommodated in various circumstances: (i) East Carpathians it met the inclined outer flank of the TTZ and came into an oblique subduction to which specific peculiarities of the South Harghita Mts. volcanism might be associated; (ii) South Carpathians, crustal slivers facing the vertical contact of the Intra-alpine sub-plate could not subduct, but went into a lithosphere buckling to which the lowest gravity low on the Romanian territory, located in front and not beneath the highest mountains in Romania, seems to be related; (iii) within the bending area of East Carpathians, where three tectonic plates met each other, the speed excess provided by the W Black Sea opening created an unstable triple junction. Upper mantle echoes Fingerprints of the Black Sea opening are well reflected in some

  1. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  2. Mo-Isotopes in the Oceans and a Case Study From the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Nagler, T. F.; Boettcher, M.; Kramers, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Because of an increasing number of Mo isotope fractionation data, the geochemical cycle of Mo especially in the recent oceans is now better understood. Data presented here were determined using a Nu instruments MC-ICPMS and double spike techniques (external reproducibility generally below 0.1 permil (2s.d.) on 98Mo/95Mo). Mo isotopes are homogenous in the oceans (+2.3 delta 98Mo/95Mo relative to JMC in-house standard) at present day resolution. All data are therefore given in delta notation relative to Mean Ocean water Mo (MOMO). Mo-Sources: Continental rocks, assumed to represent the riverrhine input, show a narrow range of Mo isotope compositions (-2.0 to -2.3 permil) close to the in-house standard solution. Oxic Mo-sinks: Pelagic sediments and recent Fe-Mn crust surfaces show lighter Mo isotope compositions (-2.7 to -3.2 permil). In addition, to depth profiles through thick sections of Fe-Mn crusts also yield uniform Mo isotope compositions (average of -2.9 and -3.2) over the last 60Ma implying a homogenous isotope composition in ocean water over this time period. This makes Mo different from other oceanic proxies since the large variations in environmental parameters seem to have not affected Mo. We explain the observed general offset of about 3 permil from ocean water with an equilibrium fractionation between major and minor Mo species in the water column, of which the latter are lighter and can be scavenged more efficiantly due to higher coordination numbers. Suboxic Mo-sinks: The balancing heavier Mo isotope composition with respect to the input can be found in recent suboxic sediments from open ocean basins, which display variable values but are all heavier than the input (-0.7 to -1.6 permil). The influence of Low-T hydrothermal activity on the Mo isotope budget in the oceans is still to be tested. Mo isotopes in the Black-Sea: Because of its limited water exchange with the open oceans, the high surface freshwater content (1/3) and its widespread bottom

  3. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  4. Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-04-01

    Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

  5. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  6. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  7. Survival of the fittest: phosphorus burial in the sulfidic deep Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by permanently anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. Studies of the mechanisms of P burial in such a setting can be used to improve our understanding of P cycling in modern coastal systems undergoing eutrophication and ancient oceans during periods of anoxia in Earth's past. Here, we present phosphorus and iron (Fe) pools as determined in surface sediments along a transect from oxic shallow waters to sulfidic deep waters in the northwestern Black Sea, using a combination of bulk chemical analyses and micro-scale X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS). We show that under oxic bottom water conditions, ferric iron oxides (Fe(III)ox) in surficial sediment efficiently scavenge dissolved phosphate from pore waters. Under these conditions, Fe(III)ox-bound P constitutes the main P pool at the sediment surface, but rapidly declines with depth in the sediment due to anoxic diagenesis. The transition from shallow (oxic) to deep (sulfidic) waters along the depth transect is reflected in a slight increase in the fraction of organic P. We also show evidence for authigenic calcium phosphate formation under sulfidic conditions at relatively low dissolved PO4 concentrations. Furthermore, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the presence of Fe(II)-Mn(II)-Mg-P minerals in sediments of the sulfidic deep basin. We hypothesize that these minerals are formed as a result of input of Fe(III)ox-P from shallower waters and subsequent transformation in either the water column or sediment. This finding suggests an unexpected strength of Fe-P shuttling from the shelf to the deep basin. While the presence of Fe-P species in such a highly sulfidic environment is remarkable, further analysis suggests that this P pool may not be quantitatively significant. In fact, our results indicate that some of the P that is interpreted as Fe-bound P based on chemical extraction may in fact be Ca-associated PO4 consisting of a combination of fish debris

  8. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  9. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  10. To the Issue of Gendarme Activities on the Territory of Black Sea Province During the First World War (1914–1917 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of first introduced into the scientific circulation documents of the State archive of the Krasnodar region covers the activities of the gendarmerie staff management in the Black Sea province during the First World War. The author comes to the conclusion that the activities of the gendarmerie were conducted professionally during the 1914-1917 years in the Black Sea province. The expulsion of the prominent representatives of the revolutionary movement from the border area, which was the Black Sea province, led to political stability in the region. Further the tasks of the gendarmerie included only the maintaining of order and the prevention of the penetration of anti-social element in the Black Sea province.

  11. Inorganic nutrients, sulfide and oxygen profiles from R/V KNORR in the Black Sea from 19880514 to 19880725 (NODC Accession 9400101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection contains inorganic nutrient chemistry, sulfide and oxygen data collected during cruises 2 through 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Oceanographic...

  12. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and ammonia profiles collected by bottle in the Black Sea from 5/5/1955 - 4/16/1989 (NODC Accession 0000131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the FIOLENT and other platforms in the Black Sea. Data were collected from 05 May 1955...

  13. Geothermal structure of the eastern Black Sea basin and the eastern Pontides orogenic belt: Implications for subduction polarity of Tethys oceanic lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiz Maden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical results of thermal modeling studies indicate that the lithosphere is cold and strong beneath the Black Sea basin. The thermal lithospheric thickness increases southward from the eastern Pontides orogenic belt (49.4 km to Black Sea basin (152.2 km. The Moho temperature increases from 367 °C in the trench to 978 °C in the arc region. The heat flow values for the Moho surface change between 16.4 mW m−2 in the Black Sea basin and 56.9 mW m−2 in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Along the southern Black Sea coast, the trench region has a relatively low geothermal potential with respect to the arc and back-arc region. The numerical studies support the existence of southward subduction beneath the Pontides during the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic.

  14. Mass evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and altimetry: accuracy assessment and solution calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2017-02-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE- and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range-acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality. We also present a differential correction strategy to calibrate the time series of mass change for each of the seas by establishing the strong linear relationship between differences in the forward modeled mass and the corresponding range-acceleration residuals between the two solutions. These calibrated time series of mass change are directly determined from the range-acceleration residuals, effectively providing regionally-tuned GRACE solutions without the need to form and invert normal equations. Finally, the calibrated GRACE time series are discussed and combined with the steric-corrected sea level anomalies to provide new measurements of the unmodeled steric variability for each of the seas over the span of the GRACE observation record. We apply ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to adaptively sort the mass and steric components of sea level anomalies into seasonal, non-seasonal, and long-term temporal scales.

  15. Methane budget of a large gas hydrate province offshore Georgia, Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeckel, M.; Reitz, A.; Klaucke, I. [Leibniz Inst. of Marine Sciences, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Methane is the most common hydrocarbon in marine sediments. As such, all seas and oceans have methane seepage that comprises the flow of gases and natural fluids from rocks and sediments through the seabed into the water column. The main effect of methane seepage on the biosphere is the support of cold seep communities by methane and the production of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is produced in the subsurface sediments by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) by a consortia of microbes and is then utilized by sulfide-oxidizing microbes. This paper reported on a study that investigated methane turnover in the surface sediments in the Batumi methane seep area in the Black Sea, offshore Georgia. The methane flux budget was determined by connecting the calculated methane sinks and sources to the gas bubble motion through the surface sediments. The calculation of methane sinks included benthic flux, AOM and hydrate formation, while the sources included the gas dissolution rate. Geochemical analyses revealed a microbial origin of the methane and a shallow fluid source. Although anaerobic methane oxidation rapidly consumed the SO4{sup 2-} within the top 5-20 cm, a large upward fluid advection was not observed in the porewater profiles. Therefore, it was determined that the Batumi seep area is dominated by methane gas seepage. 1-D transport-reaction modelling constrains the methane flux needed to support the observed SO4{sup 2-} flux as well as the rate of near-surface hydrate formation. The model results were in good agreement with the hydro-acoustic backscatter intensities observed at the bubble release sites using the sonar of a ROV. 52 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME GREEN AND RED MACROPHYTE ALGAE FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA LITTORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are a group of organisms, Thallophytes, containing specific bioactive compounds (i.e. brominated phenols, heterocyclic oxygen compounds, sterols, terpenes, polysaccharides. Their excessive growth has negative consequences on marine organisms; on the other hand, they have a crucial role in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture. In this paper were studied the main physical-chemical characteristics correlated with the biological specificity of three species of multicellular algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva rigida (green, Ceramium rubrum (red, frequently encountered along the Romanian Black Sea coast. Generally mixtures of thallophytes algae from the Black Sea were collected, processed and characterized. Density, pH, conductivity, anions, loss on drying, ash, total nitrogen, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids were determined. The results emphasized the possibility of using these marine resources as biofertilizer in agriculture.

  17. Sulina and Danube-Black Sea Channels: Competitors or Allies on Cargo Transport in South-Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The two river channels which connect the Black Sea to the inland Romanian area, have constituted since the beginning of their building two very important transport routes for the cargo and passenger traffic (Sulina that have connected Black Sea to the internal ports of Romania, thus representing ”transport highways” of the Romanian economy. The present study tries to present the chronological evolution of these two shipping routes, regarding their importance to the cargo traffic, as well as the financial policy imposed by the administration of these channels. We will present and analyze retrospectively the major elements regarding the administration of these channels, a comparative analysis of the role of these two channels in the river cargo transport, consequently trying to predict a future evolution of these two river communication routes.

  18. STRATEGY MAKING WITH QUANTIFIED SWOT APPROACH: A CASE ANALYSIS ON TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BLACK SEA REGION OF TURKEY Nermin Celik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Celik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand, service competitiveness requirements, and customer expectations in tourism sector in Turkey, satisfactorily solutions and development strategies are required for the ongoing problems to keep the business performance in desired level. Recent researches indicate that the popularity of Black Sea Region, located in the north side of Turkey, has been raised, however, the enterprises and infrastructural quality of service facilities are dramatically seemed to be insufficient. Hence, this paper proposes development strategies on tourism industry by utilizing the Quantified SWOT Analysis. The outcomes of this paper originally contribute strategic vision of Turkish tourism industry subsequently. The extension of this research can be performed to cover the collaborative research programs towards tourism sector under unique implementation plan of Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC.

  19. The Factors Affecting Information Technology Usage Behavior of Tax Office Employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yilmaz,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting information technology usage behavior of tax office employees in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. To accomplish this purpose, the data is gathered from 133 tax office employees who work in Black Sea Region of Turkey through a questionnaire that is formed with 5-point Likert-type scale. Research model is developed in the light of Theory of Reasoned Action, and a series of analyses is conducted. The predicted hypotheses are tested thought regression analyses. According to results, intention of tax office employees has the high predictive power on information technology usage. Additionally, attitude and subjective norms of tax office employees have an impact on their intention towards information technology usage. However, their attitude has the more predictive power than their subjective norms on their intentions towards information technology usage.

  20. Monitoring of Radionuclide Concentrations in Marine Algae from the Turkish Black Sea Coast and Bosphorus During the Period of 1984-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations were reviewed in macroalgae species were collected from Black Sea and Bosphorus stations in 1984 to 2001. The results showed that the Sinop region was more contaminated than the Sile region on the Black Sea coast of Turkey from the Chernobyl accident. The highest concentration of 137Cs radionuclide was found after Chernobil accident in C. linum as 34 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) during July 1986. The concentrations of the 137Cs activity in 1987 a...

  1. Factors influencing 14C concentrations of algal and archaeal lipids and their associated sea surface temperature proxies in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stephanie; Rethemeyer, Janet; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Wacker, Lukas; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the preservation and deposition history of organic molecules is crucial for the understanding of paleoenvironmental information contained in their abundance ratios such as Uk‧37 and TEX86 used as proxies for sea surface temperature (SST). Based on their relatively high refractivity, alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can survive postdepositional processes like lateral transport, potentially causing inferred SSTs to be misleading. Likewise, selective preservation of alkenones and GDGTs may cause biases of the SST proxies themselves and can lead to decoupling of both proxy records. Here we report compound-specific radiocarbon data of marine biomarkers including alkenones, GDGTs, and low molecular weight (LMW) n-fatty acids from Black Sea sediments deposited under different redox regimes to evaluate the potentially differential preservation of both biomarker classes and its effect on the SST indices Uk‧37 and TEX86. The decadal Δ14C values of alkenones, GDGTs, and LMW n-fatty acids indicate similar preservation under oxic, suboxic, and anoxic redox regimes and no contribution of pre-aged compounds, e.g., by lateral supply. Moreover, similar 14C concentrations of crenarchaeol, alkenones, and LMW n-fatty acids imply that the thaumarchaeotal GDGTs preserved in these sediments are produced in the euphotic zone rather than in subsurface/thermocline waters. However, we observe biomarker-based SSTs that strongly deviate (ΔSST up to 8.4 °C) from in situ measured mean annual SSTs in the Black Sea. This is not due to redox-dependent differential biomarker preservation as implied by their Δ14C values and spatial SST pattern. Since contributions from different sources can largely be excluded, the deviation of the Uk‧37 and TEX86 proxy-derived SSTs from in situ SSTs requires further study of phylogenetic and other yet unknown environmental controls on alkenone and GDGT lipid distributions in the Black Sea.

  2. Mapping cold seeps with high-resolution deep water multibeam echosounders in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintersteller, P.; dos Santos Ferreira, C.; Klaucke, I.; Ivanov, M.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    Cold seeps are locations at the seafloor where gas and/or fluids are emitting. In contrast to mud volcanoes, which distinctly change the seafloor morphology, cold seeps often lack significant relief. However, in comparison with surrounding sediments seep locations on the sea floor are often characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensity. This was documented during several investigations with deep towed side-scan sonar (SSS) systems in recent years. Authigenic carbonates, free gas and gas hydrates, as evidenced by ground truthing, are responsible for the high backscatter values. Last year's upgrade of the 1°x2° KONGSBERG deep water echosounder EM120 to EM122 on RV Meteor enhanced the system to almost 4 times the previous resolution due to multi-ping and high density signal processing. Based on the physics of sound propagation in the water column, multibeam echosounders (MBES) for deep water use relatively low frequencies of about 12-15 kHz. Apparently highly water-saturated sediments are penetrated by these signals and can cause artificial offsets in bottom detection in comparison to high-frequency echosounders. Nevertheless the effect of the slightly penetrating signal has a useful side effect on the backscatter. Investigations on several seep sites in the Black Sea, carried out with both EM122 and EM710 during Meteror cruise M84-2, resulted in maps of remarkable bathymetric resolution but also showed multibeam backscatter information of a 12 kHz signal to be an excellent tool to map seep-influenced seafloor areas. New seep locations have been mapped in regions of the western Turkish continental margin close to Eregli and of the eastern Turkish margin off Samsun. In both areas high backscatter patches were mapped with nearly comparable resolution as achieved by deep-tow SSS systems. At Eregli the new data is compared with data from a deep-towed EdgeTech SSS system recorded with a frequency of 75 kHz. At Samsun the results are compared with data from a MAK-1

  3. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  4. A new record of Ratan goby - Ponticola ratan (Nordmann, 1840 (Pisces: Gobiidae in the Black Sea, Romanian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 we managed to capture a specimen of ratan goby (Ponticola ratan in the Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea, near the locality of Sf. Gheorghe (Tulcea County. This is the 7-th signaling for this species in Romanian coastal waters. The previous 6 specimens were recorded in the period 1960-1993, between Mangalia (Constanţa County and Sulina (Tulcea County. The species was identified by means of meristic characters (number of scales on medial line, number of spiny and soft rays, and morphological particularities (cycloid scales on the nape area and pectoral fin joint. Also, the measurements made, confirmed that the ratio between the head length and total length, which was 33% (TL=8.70 cm vs. Head Length=2.61cm. Another morphological character, specific to this species, is the lower jaw, which exceeds in length the upper jaw. Being a Ponto-Caspian endemite, with low population along the Bulgarian and Romanian coastline, we considered it important to point out this new record. Noting that, being known the trend of sporadic migration of this species, would not be excluded that global warming causes a shift from its normal distribution area, from northern and northeastern (Black Sea to south-west. Therefore, future research may bring more notifications regarding this species in south-western area of the Black Sea

  5. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  6. Toxic and essential trace elemental contents in fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa

    2009-08-01

    Toxic and essential element content of ten different fish species from the Black Sea were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference materials (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The relative standard deviations were found to be lower than 10%. Toxic element content in fish samples were found 25-84 microg/kg for mercury, 0.11-0.32 microg/g for arsenic, 0.28-0.87 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.35 microg/g for cadmium, 1.14-3.60 microg/g for nickel. Trace element content in fish samples were found 36.2-145 microg/g for iron, 0.65-2.78 microg/g for copper, 2.76-9.10 microg/g for manganese, 38.8-93.4 microg/g for zinc, 0.19-0.85 microg/g for selenium, 0.63-1.74 microg/g for chromium. The levels of lead and cadmium in fish samples were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  7. Usage and the economic potential of the medicinal plants in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Hacisalihoglu, Sezgin

    2010-09-01

    Medically used plant species in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey was determined in this study. Totally 50 species within 24 families have been designated in 25 research points, using the face to face polling method with the herbs sellers and purchasers. 14 species of studied plants are endemic and pointed out as endangered species according to the IUCN list (The World Conservation Union). In which health problem the medicinal plants are used, their usage art, area and the used parts have been determined too. The research results show that 12.58% of the species are used in intestinal problems and 8.60% for diuretic. Evaluating from this point of view the region includes very rich species could be used in different health problems. The results shows that average annual income of the medically used plant selling companies is about 33,333$. Increasingly demands for the medically used plants have been raised the medically used plant companies about 60% in the last decade. The relevance of Ethnopharmacologically used plants is increasing in Turkey and in the World. Important is to meet the demand without endanger the rich plant species resources.

  8. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  9. The water clock of the Bronze Age (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa N; Nevsky, Mikhail Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the article presents the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted with the help of archaeological, physical and astronomical methods. The aim of the study was to analyze and interpret marks and drawings applied to the surface of the vessel of the Bronze Age (Srubna culture) found near the Staropetrovsky village (Donetsk region, Ukraine) near the border between the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The carried out calculations and measurements possible to prove that staropetrovsky vessel is the most ancient water clock, discovered on the territory of Europe, and have approximately the same age as the oldest known ancient Egyptian water clock. Such vessels - water clocks were needed for Srubna population to mark sundial, which had recently been discovered in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on the analysis of marks on the outside of the vessel, it was revealed that Staropetrovsky vessel is unique ancient complex device for measuring time and at the same time using a water clock, and with the help of a ...

  10. Analemmatic and Horizontal Sundials of the Bronze Age (Northern Black Sea Coast)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of unique plate with images of Srubna burial of tumuli group Popov Yar-2 (Ukraine) and plate of Srubna burial of tumulus field Tavriya-1 (Russia). A distinctive feature of the images is the orderliness and symmetry of the composition, as well as the location of elliptical cupped depressions. With the help of mathematical and astronomical methods we prove in this paper that the plates with the images are the ancient sundials. At the Popov Yar-2 plate located two sundials, which worked at the same time: the analemmatic sundial and the horizontal sundial with two gnomons and the linear scale. At the Tavriya-1 plate located analemmatic sundial. On the basis of the reconstruction of the linear parameters of the gnomon of both Popov Yar-2 plate sundials and given the scale value of horizontal sundial, in the article that the potential indirect impact protoscientific knowledge of ancient Egypt to the Srubna population in the Northern Black Sea coast. Srubna burial, plate, we...

  11. ANALYSIS OF HUNTING STRATEGY OF UPPER PALEOLITHIC IN THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plohenko B. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the studying of one of the most important aspects of learning of life-support and wildlife management systems of hunting of ancient inhabitants of the Northern Black Sea Coast. Such researches are one of the main directions in sphere of studying prehistory of humankind in our country and abroad. The main aim of the research was to create the hunting pattern and to learn the chronological changes, by studying same time materials of Kamennaya Balka II, Tretij Mys, Anetolka II and Amvrosievka. During this research, the complex analysis of faunistic remainders was conducted with the help of new methods, which were developed by Russian and foreign authors. This led to a number of new high-quality results. The article shows the meaning of data which can be learnt by studying faunistic remainders and importance of such type of sources. The continuation of such research can extend our conception of life of our ancient ancestors

  12. Sloping beach with wave breaking and moving shoreline on Romanian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, F. V.; Panaitescu, M.; Anton, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose of the work: wave breaking and wave run-up on a gently sloping plane beach from Romanian Black Sea Coast. That coast has a length of 244 km and an almost linear configuration with the exception of build-up areas. The paper concentrates on shoaling of regular waves and spilling type of wave breaking running with a simulation on software MIKE 21. Research and methodology: the paper contents the measurements for spilling and plunging type of breakers on a plane sloping beach with a slope of 1/45 starting in depth of 0.23 m to 0.46 m. A moving shoreline is included in the simulations. With respect to the parameters of the breaker model the standard values are applied. An explicit filter is introduced near the still water shoreline to remove short-wave instabilities and to dissipate the wave energy in the model. Results: the obtained values indicate the wave breaking and wave run-up processes, the spatial variation of a number of phase-averaged quantities and the shoreline motion converted intro a vertical and a horizontal displacement.

  13. The impact of climate variability on the production of Black Sea anchovy: a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraslan, Ceren; Fach, Bettina A.; Oguz, Temel I.; Salihoglu, Baris

    2010-05-01

    The influence of climate variability on anchovy eggs and larvae production and the interaction with gelatineous zooplankton in the Black Sea is studied with a one-dimensional, lower trophic level and anchovy bioenergetics model including parameterizations for a gelatineous predator. Stochastic climate variability in the form of fifty-year interannual temperature and nutrient entrainment rate variability is used to simulate how climate-mediated effects cascade across trophic levels and how the anchovy population production responds to such disturbances. Model results reveal a high correlation of egg production and recruitment success in response to changes in temperature and nutrient entrainment rates and complex and highly nonlinear interactions between anchovy and gelatineous populations. Moreover, it is indicated in the results that temperature variation has strong long-term effects on anchovy population production and its signal propagates through successive adult year classes. Although, temperature has a direct effect on anchovy egg and larvae production via influencing mortality rates, it indirectly influences anchovy production by modulating the mixed layer depth, which affects phytoplankton blooms and zooplankton availability, the major food source of anchovy.

  14. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  15. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Anna; Krzewińska, Maja; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Ehler, Edvard; Chyleński, Maciej; Łukasik, Sylwia; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Sinika, Vitaly; Piontek, Janusz; Ivanova, Svetlana; Dabert, Miroslawa; Götherström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians. PMID:28266657

  16. Eolianite and coquinite as evidence of MIS 6 and 5, NW Black Sea coast, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginal, Ahmet Evren; Kıyak, Nafiye Güneç; Selim, Hamit Haluk; Bozcu, Mustafa; Öztürk, Muhammed Zeynel; Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Demirci, Alper; Elmas, Elmas Kırcı; Öztürk, Tuğba; Çakır, Çağlar; Karabıyıkoğlu, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the implications of a lowstand carbonate eolianite and overlying transgressive sequence of coquinite at Şile on the Turkish Black Sea coast based on composition, depositional characteristics and optical age estimations. The cross-bedded eolianite is a mixed ooid quartz grainstone in composition, yielding a depositional age matching MIS 6. It formed at the backshore of the paleobeach with the supply of sediment the from the beach face and offering insights into the drift of mixed shallow marine carbonates and siliciclastics together with radial ooids by onshore winds from a subaerially exposed high- to low-energy ooid shoals and oolitic sand complexes which developed parallel to the shoreline on the shallow shelf margin. During this lowstand, a low-relief dune retaining a record of opposing paleowind directions than that of prevalent northeasterly winds of today appears to have been lithified to form dune rock (aeolinite) under drier conditions compared to the present. Coinciding with MIS 5e, shallow marine coquina beds resting unconformably on the eolianite indicate the occurrence of the Mediterranean transgression during the last interglacial, as confirmed by benthic foraminifera within the high-salinity tolerant coquina shells.

  17. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  18. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Diaconu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  19. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  20. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  1. Phytoplankton taxonomy based on CHEMTAX and microscopy in the northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker-Develi, Elif; Berthon, Jean-François; Canuti, Elisabetta; Slabakova, Natalya; Moncheva, Snejana; Shtereva, Galina; Dzhurova, Boryana

    2012-06-01

    Abundance and carbon biomass of different phytoplankton groups obtained by microscopy were compared with taxonomy derived from pigment measurements and CHEMTAX analysis of samples collected in June 2006 in the NW Black Sea. The diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus was dominant in terms of carbon biomass based on cell volume at inshore stations, while the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi was prevalent at offshore. Emiliania huxleyi reached bloom abundance of 3.3 × 106 cells L- 1. The chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration within phytoplankton groups as allocated by CHEMTAX was in agreement with microscopy derived carbon biomasses of the taxonomic groups diatoms, dinoflagellates and cryptophytes only. Carbon biomass of less abundant phytoplankton taxa (cyanophytes, euglenophytes and chlorophytes) did not correlate with group-specific chl a. It was not possible to detect E. huxleyi bloom by CHEMTAX analysis probably due to much higher biomass of other species containing 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin. Nutrient concentrations were generally high in the waters where diatom and dinoflagellates dominated the community but low in the area of E. huxleyi bloom. A good correlation between total carbon biomass of phytoplankton and chl a was found and the estimated C:chl a ratio of phytoplankton varied between 36 and 256 (in average 124 ± 50).

  2. Diagenetic alteration of iron and phosphorus records below the sulfate-methane-transition-zone in Black Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Kraal, Peter; Jilbert, Tom; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Black Sea are characterized by vast deposits of iron oxide-rich lake sediments below the current marine sediments. The lake sediments were deposited until ca. 9000 years ago when the former giant lake became connected to the Mediterranean Sea through post-glacial sea level rise. The subsequent downward diffusion of marine sulfate into the methane-bearing lake sediments has led to a multitude of diagenetic reactions in the sulfate-methane-transition zone (SMTZ), including anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate. While the cycles of sulfur, methane and iron in the SMTZ have been extensively studied (e.g. Jorgensen et al., 2004), relatively little is known about the diagenetic alterations of the sediment record occurring directly below the SMTZ. Here, we combine detailed geochemical analyses of the sediment and pore water with multicomponent diagenetic modeling to study the diagenetic alterations below the SMTZ at two sites in the Black Sea. We focus on the dynamics of iron and phosphorus and demonstrate that downward sulfidization leads to dissolution of Fe-oxide bound P, Fe-carbonate and vivianite in the lake sediments. Below the sulfidization front, downward diffusing phosphate is bound again in vivianite. Trends in total sediment P with depth are significantly altered highlighting that diagenesis may strongly overprint burial records of P below a lake-marine transition. We also demonstrate that cryptic sulfur cycling cannot explain the observed release of dissolved Fe below the SMTZ. Instead, we suggest that organoclastic Fe-oxide reduction and/or AOM coupled to the reduction of Fe-oxides are the key processes explaining the high concentrations of dissolved Fe at depth in the sediment. Reference Jørgensen, B. B., Böttcher, M. E., Lüschen, H., Neretin, L. N. and Volkov, I. I.: Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68(9), 2095-2118, 2004.

  3. Black carbon in deep-sea sediments from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Hyeong, K.; Yoo, C.

    2011-12-01

    Deep-sea sediment core is a good archive for understanding the land-ocean interactions via atmosphere, due to it is little influenced by fluvial and continental shelf processes. This study dealt with black carbon(BC) in a 328 cm-long piston core collected from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (16°12'N, 125°59'W), covering the last 15 Ma (Hyeong at al., 2004). BC is a common name of carbon continuum formed by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant materials. Though it may react with ozone and produce water-soluble organic carbon, BC has commonly refractory nature. Thus BC in preindustrial sediment can be a tracer of forest-fire events. BC is purely terrestrial in origin, and is transported to marine environments by atmospheric and fluvial processes. Therefore, distribution of BC in deep-sea sediments could be used to understand atmospheric circulation. Chemical oxidation was used to determine BC in this study following Lim and Cachier (1996). Concentration of BC varies from 0.010% to 0.233% of total sediments. Mass accumulation rate (MAR) of BC ranged between 0.077 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs and 47.49 mg/cm^21000 yrs. It is noted that MAR in sediments younger than 8 Ma (av. 9.0 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs) is higher than that in sediments older than 8 Ma (av. 3.2 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs). Stable carbon isotope value of BC increases with time from the low δ13C value near 13 Ma until it reaches the highest value near 4 Ma. Change of MAR seems to be related to the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at around 8 Ma in the study area (cf., Hyeong at al., 2004). Accordingly, higher BC content in sediment younger than 8 Ma seems to be accounted for by its derivation from the Northern Hemisphere compared to that from the Southern Hemisphere in older sediment. Increase of carbon isotope value with time seems to be related to expansion of C4 grassland. C4 grassland expansion might have been caused by change of atmosphreic cycle, which moved dry subtropical

  4. Uranium stable isotope fractionation in the Black Sea: Modern calibration of the 238U/235U paleo-redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, John M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Middag, Rob; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Reliable interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understanding of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, the world's largest anoxic basin. Paired measurements of 238U/235U and U concentration, supported by other redox parameters, were obtained for water column and sediment samples collected during the 2013 GA04N GEOTRACES expedition to the Black Sea. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV), resulting in up to 43% of U being removed from solution in euxinic bottom waters. Uranium reduction and removal is accompanied by a progressive shift in 238U/235U towards isotopically light values in the water column as heavier 238U is preferentially exported to sediments over lighter 235U. This gives rise to apparent isotope enrichment factors of ε = -0.63 ± 0.09‰ and ε = -0.84 ± 0.11‰ when U removal is modelled by Rayleigh and closed system equilibrium isotope fractionation, respectively. These ε values fall within the range determined for bacterial U reduction experiments, and together with a striking correlation between the distributions of U and H2S, implicate microbially-mediated U(VI)-U(IV) reduction as the primary mechanism controlling U isotopic shifts in the Black Sea. The 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the the 238U/235U of Black Sea bottom waters through the isotope enrichment factor of the U reduction reaction but the relationship between sedimentary and water column 238U/235U is complicated

  5. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets in the Black Sea : a biogeochemical model of the whole water column coupling the oxic and anoxic parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets are derived for the Black Sea water column from a coupled physical–biogeochemical model. The model is applied in the deep part of the sea and simulates processes over the whole water column including the anoxic layer that extends from similar, equals115 m

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Niemiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A high level of anthropopressure has been registered in Sevastopol region, connected with its strategic role as the main city in the region, but also due to Russian Black Sea Fleet stationing there for many years. A significant source of the Black Sea contamination in Sevastopol area is the industry located in this city, municipal waste and agriculture. Implementing measures aimed at protection of the Black Sea and the evolution of their results requires monitoring conducted in the regions with various levels of anthropopressure. The work was aimed at the assessment of copper and cadmium content in water and algae in selected bays of the Black Sea in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight Sevastopol bays (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Strieletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna and Sevastopolska and from the open sea in the vicinity of Fiolent. Algae (Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida were collected from the same places. Collected water was preserved on the sampling place and brought to the laboratory where its copper and cadmium concentrations were assessed. Collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, then homogenised and mineralised. Copper and cadmium content were determined in the mineralizates using ASA method with electrothermal atomisation. Cadmium concentration in water ranged from 0.13 to 1.74 µg Cd∙dm-3, and copper from 7.07 to 22.56 µg Cd∙dm-3. Considerable differences in the content of the analysed elements were registered in individual bays. The highest content was assessed in Galubaja and Sevastopolska bays, whereas the lowest one in the water collected in the open sea and in Pivdenna bay. Copper concentrations in the analysed algae fluctuated from 3.375 to 14.96 mg Cu∙kg-1 d.m. No differences were noted in this element content between the algae species. Cadmium content in the algae ranged from 0.133 to 1.133 mg Cd∙kg-1 d.m. Higher accumulation of cadmium

  7. Results of the Joint Project (NASU-TUBITAK) "The Thermal Structure of the Crust in the Black Sea Analysis of Magnetic and Heat Flow Data"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Dolmaz, M. Nuri; Kutas, Roman; Rusakov, Oleg; Oksum, Erdinc; Tutunsatar, H. Evrim; Hisarli, Z. Mumtaz; Okyar, Mahmut; Kalyoncuoglu, U. Yalcin; Legostaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The interest in the Black Sea crust is based on its key role in understanding the tectonic evolution of the middle Tethyan Realm and its hydrocarbon potential. There is still a need to obtain quantitative data for determining the thermal regime which is one of the most important energetic factors controlling the geodynamics of the lithosphere and intensity of oil and gas fields of the Black Sea. The Joint Project by the NASU and TUBITAK started in May 2011 comprises the Cuie Point Depth (CPD) determinations of the Black Sea and modeling thermal sources from heat flows. The CPD map of the Black Sea was constituted from spectral analysis of total field magnetic data. The isotherm of CPD of the Black Sea shows a distribution at a range of 22 and 36 km. Deepening of CPDs (ca. 30-36 km) are observed in the western and eastern Black Sea basins correspond with the thickest sediment areas. A NNW-SSE trending belt of shallow CPD zone (ca. 22-28 km) separates these two deep CPD basins correspond with the Mid-Black Sea Ridge. The other shallow CPDs are related to the thin sediment areas at the costal side of the Black Sea. Moreover, the cross-sections oriented in approx. north-south direction named as 18, 25 and 29 Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) were used to construct the geothermal models. The thermal regime of the crust was inferred from these profiles in the western, central and eastern parts of the Black Sea. The CPD of profile 18 changes from 22 to 28 km. The CPD isotherms show depths of 26-32 kms along the profile 25. The CPD along the profile 29 occurs at depths of 27-35 kms. The obtained CPD results along the profiles have been compared with results from the traditional geothermal studies based on heat flow determinations in the subsurface layer and model computations of temperature distribution. The isotherm of CPD from magnetic and heat flow data strongly evidences the efficiency of such an approach and the results of two methods are compatible with the anomalous areas

  8. Hydro-engineering and environmental problems in Poti Black Sea region and ways of their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana; Kodua, Manoni; Gagoshidze, Shalva

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation) Work is dedicated to the development of hydro-engineering and environmental protection measures in the Black Sea regions, the main Georgian port of Poti at the mouth of the Rioni, which will minimize the region geomorphological changes caused by the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, and will over a long period protect coastal areas of these regions from washouts and large scale silting processes. The research objects are: 1. Poti seashore, which has retreated for hundreds of meters, promoted with the existence of underwater canyon along the southern pier of the port; 2. The Rioni river watershed dam, the tail race of which in time was subjected to destruction and substantial washout. Currently the stability of the dam is endangered; 3. "City Canal" - the Rioni river old bed, which is greatly silted up and is virtually unable to perform its function - to feed Poti seashore with solid matter. The work for the hydrodynamics solutions using high-precision mathematical methods. In particular, for the establishment of coastal longshore migrations of sediment and deformations of the coastal zone is used finite element method, Crank-Nicolson scheme and method of upper relaxation in the calculation of wave propagation in the estuarine areas of the Rioni River uses direct and asymptotic (particularly WKB) Methods of mathematical analysis. The results obtained using these models will be put as a base of development of such engineering measures and design proposals which: a) will provide sustained increase of Poti coastal line on the basis of working out of exploitation regimes of the Rioni watershed hydro complex and as a result of performing additional engineering measures in "City Canal"; b) will thoroughly protect the Rioni watershed hydro complex dam tail-water from destruction and washouts. The packets of mathematical programs and analytical methods of calculation

  9. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    of erosion and coastal landslides. Among human activities that might have direct or indirect adverse impact on cultural heritage the main are coastal and underwater developments and infrastructures. These are building of coast- and shore-protection structures, roads, placing different types of pipeline (a recent case from Bulgaria is envisaged construction of gas pipeline "South Stream"). Other categories of anthropogenic impacts, such as coastal tourism and expansion of settlements, etc. are less negative factors, but locals and visitors can accidentally damage monuments, or in most of the cases by not being aware of the presence and importance of a archeological site. Finally, insufficient decision-making and management of coastal and underwater cultural heritage can also have potential adverse impact. Recommendations for mitigation and protection measures are also outlined in the end. This work is a part of the Project "Submarine Archaeological Heritage on the Western Black Sea Shelf - HERAS", financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria.

  10. Formation of methane fields in the Golubaya bay of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Study of formation of methane fields in water environments is essential for search of oil and gas in bottom sediments of the aquatories [Egorov et al., 2008]. Methane acts as a tracer of various biogeochemical processes in freshwater and marine waters as well. Moreover, in recent years estimation of methane emission is one of tasks of current climate research because of high contribution of methane in the greenhouse effect [Bazhin, 2000]. The Black Sea is the largest methane reservoir in the world [Lein, Ivanov, 2005]. The Golubaya Bay of the Black Sea acts as a peculiar model of formation and variability of methane fields in the marine environment. The main purpose of our study is to identify factors that influence the high methane saturation in the aerobic coastal waters. Data collection took place in the Golubaya and the Gelendzhikskaya bays and in the Ashamba River since 1999 to 2013. Water samples were analyzed by the head-space method with further gas chromatographic determination of methane concentrations [Bolshakov, Egorov, 1987]. Methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay waters exceeds the equilibrium with the atmosphere value 10-100 times. According to the simultaneous measurements of methane in two bays in different seasons, methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay is higher than in the Gelendzhikskaya Bay. The smaller bottom depth and accordingly the larger biological productivity in the Golubaya Bay may be the reason of it. Microbial production of methane in aerobic waters of the bay is associated with zone of zooplankton concentration and products of its vital activity [Lein, Ivanov, 2009]. It is known that formation of methane is intense in periodically flooded soils where anaerobic conditions are formed. That causes development of methanogenic bacteria [Alekseev et al., 1978]. Distribution of methane in marine and river waters illustrates that the river runoff and groundwater supply are some of the sources of high methane saturation in the Golubaya Bay

  11. Palaeoecology and geoarchaeology of the Varna Lake, northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana FILIPOVA-MARINOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal lakes are rich sources of biostratigraphic information that is very useful in palaeoecological reconstructions of climate changes and human impact on the natural vegetation. This information is of great importance for the archaeological descriptions of submerged praehistorical settlements found in the northern Bulgarian Black sea area. There are 4 archaeological sites in this area that have been palynologically studied for the last 30 years: the Durankulak Lake, the Shabla-Ezeretz Lake system, the Lake Bolata, as well as the Varna-Beloslav Lake system. Because of the lack of AMS radiocarbon dates for these sites, it was not possible to correlate adequately all palaeoenvironmental results with the available archaeological chronology.Aimed to receive additional information on the Holocene vegetation dynamics and lake level changes, as well as on the anthropogenic impact during the Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age, the high-resolution spore-pollen analysis of AMS dated laminated sediments from a new Core 3 – Varna Lake was combined with analyses of dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, and other non-pollen palynomorphs.The location of the core is close to several sites of submerged praehistorical settlements and the Varna Late Eneolithic (Chalcolithic Necropolis, which is famous with the oldest hand-made gold treasure in the Worlds, and permits the palaeoenvironmental correlations of obtained results with available archaeological and geochronological data. The core is 995 cm long, but its palynologically investigated length is 870 cm. It contains dark grey clay and laminated sediments (varves. Seven samples of sediments were submitted for radiocarbon dating to the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS Facility of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI. The dates have been calibrated using the program CALIB version 6.1.0 of using the IntCal09 curve. An Age Model for the sedimentation rate was created by the

  12. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  13. Results of many-year subsatellite measurements of current fine structure in northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Krayushkin, Evgeny; Kalashnikova, Nina

    Results of subsatellite measurements of coastal currents in the shelf zone of northeastern Black Sea are presented. The measurements have been performed every year since 2006 in June and September-October months near the Gelendzhik Bay. The main instruments used are Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and CTD probes. Ground and ship measurements were conducted simultaneously with satellite imaging in microwave (ASAR Envisat, ERS-2, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X), visible and infrared (OLI Landsat-8, ETM+ Landsat-7, TM Landsat-5, MODIS Terra/Aqua, AVHRR NOAA) ranges. The investigations performed revealed spatial, depth and temporal variability of current direction and velocity in the shelf zone. Multiple instances of counter-currents opposing to the Ring Current were registered. In our view, they are associated with a passage of small-scale anticyclonic eddies across the region of interest. The 3D structure of the eddies in the upper quasi-uniform layer was analyzed based on ADCP data. The use of high resolution (3 m) SAR data in combination with ADCP measurements at the resolution of 0.5 m allowed us to detect a number of internal wave trains. Form ADCP and thermistors records, their amplitudes were estimated to reach 5-8 m. Joint analysis of satellite SAR and subsatellite data gave an assessment of their typical wavelength at 90-100 m. Generation mechanisms of these internal waves are suggested. Another phenomenon of interest observed in the region of the measurements is surface manifestations of ring waves near localized natural and anthropogenic generation sources. Such ring waves are most frequently found in the anchor area for ships, whose oscillations can be the source of their generation. The work was in part supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects #14-05-00520-а, and 13-07-12017-ofi_m). SAR data from RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X were obtained under SOAR RADARSAT-2/TerraSAR-X Project #5074.

  14. Quantification of microbial communities in subsurface marine sediments of the Black Sea and off Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eSchippers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-rich subsurface marine sediments were taken by gravity coring up to a depth of 10 meters below seafloor at six stations from the anoxic Black Sea and the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia during the research cruises R/V Meteor 72/5 and 76/1, respectively. The quantitative microbial community composition at various sediment depths was analyzed using total cell counting, CARD-FISH and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. Total cell counts decreased with depths from 109 – 1010 cells /mL at the sediment surface to 107 – 109 cells /mL below one meter depth. Based on CARD-FISH and Q-PCR analysis overall similar proportions of Bacteria and Archaea were determined. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was successfully revealed by Q-PCR. Crenarchaeota and the bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi were as highly abundant as Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Less abundant but detectable in most of the samples in high gene copy numbers were Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae (off Namibia as well as the functional genes cbbL encoding for the large subunit of Rubisco, the functional genes dsrA and aprA of sulfate-reducers and the gene mcrA of methanogens. Overall the high organic carbon content of the sediments goes along with high cell counts and high gene copy numbers, as well as an equal abundance of Bacteria and Archaea.

  15. Trophic structure of the fouling community in Odessa Bay (Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Varigin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trophic structure of the coastal fouling community of Odessa Bay (Black Sea, which was composed of 10 species of macrophytes, 57 invertebrate species and 4 species of fish, was determined. The basic trophic relationship between organisms composing the community is shown. A minimization of interspecific trophic competition within the community is noted. The main sources of food material entering the fouling community were determined. We show that a significant proportion of food in the form of detritus, dissolved organic matter and small planktonic organisms enters the community from the water column. Filtration and pumping activity of sestonophage-organisms, particularly mussels, helps to attract food material to the community. Primary producers of the community are macrophytes and microphytes, which develop on account of their photosynthetic activity and ensure the provision of food to herbivores. The trophic group of detritophages consumes different fractions of the detritus which accumulates in the byssus threads of bivalve molluscs. In this context, mussel druses act as sediment traps, collecting detritus. Numerous polyphages, which are essentially omnivores and do not usually lack food material, were noted in the community. A small group of carnivorous invertebrates, whose representatives actively attack small animals, was identified. The abundance of these species in the community was about 1%, and their biomass less than 0.6%. Fish living in macrophyte weeds are the consumers in the community. We determined that the highest relative abundance (over 36% in the fouling community was reached by sestonophages and polyphages. We found that the undisputed leader in the relative biomass (over 97% in the fouling community ofOdessaBaywas the sestonophages (mainly composed of mussels. We determined that the trophic structure index of the community was 0.94, which confirms the significant dominance in biomass of bivalves over other species in

  16. A.V. Vereshchagin’s Work «Travel Notes on the Black Sea Okrug» as a Historical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes and analyses the source data on the history of the Black Sea Coast of the North-Western Caucasus after the Caucasian War, found in the work by A.V. Vereshchagin, issued in 1874, namely the statistics of population size, including ethnicity and confession, criticism of the findings by the commission, examining the Black Sea Region, historical and ethnographical data, concerning the remained mountain dwellers and their households, characteristics of migrants’ households and their problems analysis, description and criticism of the adopted system of the state-owned lands acquisition and sale and its implementation, data on the day-labour prices, review of the sea traffic prospects and the state of the road network in the region, analysis of the Black Sea Region state and commercial development, etc

  17. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  18. Feeding ecology of black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, 1758 from the Romanian Black Sea (Agigea – Eforie Nord area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mihaela Arteni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the variations in the feeding ecology of the black scorpionfish(Scorpaena porcus. The index of relative importance indicated opportunistic feeding on macrobenthic fauna.The fish fed mainly on bivalves, fishes, amphipods and isopods. There were differences in diet compositionduring the years, seasons and sexes. Scorpaena porcus exhibited a generalistic feeding strategy with arelative broad niche width.

  19. Oceanographic and meteorological data from meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas from 1897 to 2012 (NODC Accession 0117429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from May 1897 to December 2012 in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were...

  20. Oceanographic and meteorological data from various meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net taken from several Russian vessels in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas from 18 April, 1952 to 7 December, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0117731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from 18 April 1952 to 7 December 2012 in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas. Various vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Data collection...

  1. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, alkalinity, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate profiles from bottle and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Black Sea from 1890-06-27 to 2005-08-06 (NODC Accession 0119566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from June 1890 to August 2005 in the Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were used to collect data...

  2. Determining change of bathymetry with GPR method in Ordu-Giresun, a sea-filled airport in the Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Ordu-Giresun (OGU) is a newly-constructed airport, the first sea-filled airport in Turkey and in Europe, and the second airport in the world after Osaca-Japan. The airport is between Gulyalı district in Ordu city and Piraziz district in Giresun city in Black Sea -Turkey. A protection breakwater has been constructed by filling a rock approximately 7.435-m long and with an average height of 5.5 m. Then, the Black Sea has been filled until 1 m over the sea level, approximately the area is 1.770.000 m2 wide and includes a runway, aprons and taxiway covered by breakwater. The runway has a 1-m thickness, 3-km length and 45-m width, PCN84 strength, and stone mastic asphalt surface. The aprons has a 240 x 110 m length and PCN110 strength, the taxiway is 250 x 24 m wide. The airport was started to be constructed in July 2011 and it began to serve on 22th May 2015. The aim of this study was to determine the depth of the rock-filled layer and the amount of sinking of the bathymetry which has been determined before filling processing. In addition, before bathymetry determination, unconsolidated sediments had been removed from the bottom of the sea. There were four drilling points to control the sinking of the bathymetry. Therefore, six suitable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiles were measured, crossing these points with runway and aprons, using 250-MHz and 100-MHz shielded antennas. Starting points of the profiles were in the middle of the runway to merge between depth and thickness changing of the filled layer and bathymetry along the profiles. Surface topography changing was measured spaced 1 m apart with 1 cm sensitivity on each profile. At the same time, similarly the topography changing, bathymetry coordinates was re-arranged along the each profile. Topography corrections were applied to the processed radargrams and then the bottom boundary lines of the rock-filled layer were determined. The maximum height was 3.5 m according to the sea level, which was on the

  3. Selected heavy metals and selenium in the blood of black sea turtle (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Réndon-Maldonado, J G; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizales-Román, A; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Leal-Acosta, M L; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn) and selenium (Se) was analyzed in blood collected from 12 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) captured in Canal del Infiernillo, Punta Chueca, Mexico. The most abundant metals were Zn (63.58 μg g(-1)) and Se (7.66 μg g(-1)), and Cd was the lower (0.99 μg g(-1)). The sequential concentrations of trace metals were Zn > Se > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cd. In conclusion, this information is important as a baseline when using blood as tissue analysis of heavy metals; however, these levels could represent recent exposure in foraging grounds of black turtles in the Sea of Cortez.

  4. Modeling the response of top-down control exerted by gelatinous carnivores on the Black Sea pelagic food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2001-03-01

    Recent changes in structure and functioning of the interior Black Sea ecosystem are studied by a series of simulations using a one-dimensional, vertically resolved, coupled physical-biochemical model. The simulations are intended to provide a better understanding of how the pelagic food web structure responds to increasing grazing pressure by gelatinous carnivores (medusae Aurelia aurita and ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi) during the past 2 decades. The model is first shown to represent typical eutrophic ecosystem conditions of the late 1970s and early 1980s. This simulation reproduces reasonably well the observed planktonic food web structure at a particular location of the Black Sea for which a year-long data set is available from 1978. Additional simulations are performed to explore the role of the Mnemiopsis-dominated ecosystem in the late 1980s. They are also validated by extended observations from specific years. The results indicate that the population outbreaks of the gelatinous species, either Aurelia or Mnemiopsis, reduce mesozooplankton grazing and lead to increased phytoplankton blooms as observed throughout the 1980s and 1990s in the Black Sea. The peaks of phytoplankton, mesozooplankton, Noctiluca, and gelatinous predator biomass distributions march sequentially as a result of prey-predator interactions. The late winter diatom bloom and a subsequent increase in mesozooplankton stocks are robust features common to all simulations. The autotrophs and heterotrophs, however, have different responses during the rest of the year, depending on the nature of grazing pressure exerted by the gelatinous predators. In the presence of Mnemiopsis, phytoplankton have additional distinct and pronounced bloom episodes during the spring and summer seasons. These events appear with a 2 month time shift in the ecosystem prior to introduction of Mnemiopsis.

  5. Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Bottcher, ME; Luschen, H.

    2004-01-01

    to isotopically heavy pyrite in a sediment open to diffusion. These results have general implications for the marine sulfur cycle and for the interpretation of sulfur isotopic data in modern sediments and in sedimentary rocks throughout earth's history. Copyright (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd......The main terminal processes of organic matter mineralization in anoxic Black Sea sediments underlying the sulfidic water column are sulfate reduction in the upper 2-4 m and methanogenesis below the sulfate zone. The modern marine deposits comprise a ca. 1-m-deep layer of coccolith ooze...... and underlying sapropel, below which sea water ions penetrate deep down into the limnic Pleistocene deposits from >9000 years BP. Sulfate reduction rates have a subsurface maximum at the SO42--CH4 transition where H2S reaches 4 maximum concentration. Because of an excess of reactive iron in the deep limnic...

  6. Hydrocarbons in waters and bottom sediments of coastal areas in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the content and composition of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface layer of water and bottom sediments are presented. The data were compared to the distribution of the total organic carbon, particulate matter, lipids, and chlorophyll in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya bays, as well as in the Greater Sochi area. The intense transformation processes of organic compounds within the water mass and water-bottom interface have resulted in the prevalence of natural components in the alkane composition of the bottom sediments in the areas of the Black Sea considered. The riverine and marine water mixing zone acts as a geochemical barrier preventing the supply of the bulk of river-transferred pollutants to the open sea areas.

  7. Size Distribution and Chemical Characteristic of Aerosols in Northwestern Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Fatma; Keles, Melek; Halif Ngagine, Soulemane

    2016-04-01

    Size segregated PM samples were collected at the city center of Bolu, which is northwestern part of the Black Sea region of Turkey between 2015 and 2016. A cascade impactor was used for the collection of weekly PM samples on pre-fired quartz filters in eight different size ranges (9.0-10.0 μm, 5.8-9.0 μm, 4.7-5.8 μm, 3.3-4.7 μm, 2.1-3.3 μm, 1.1-2.1 μm, 0.65-1.1 μm, 0.43-0.65 μm). The collected samples were divided in three parts and each part was analyzed with different analytical technique. The first part of the filter was analyzed in terms of major ions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+). A large suit of metals from Li to U were determined in the second fraction of the filter by means of ICPMS. Lastly, the third part of the filter was analyzed in terms of EC and OC. The preliminary results indicated that the PM mass depicted bimodal distribution and the average concentration of PM10 was about 100 μg/m3for a five week period. Both EC and OC showed bi-modal distribution while these two parameters were more enriched on smaller particles. The average concentrations of EC and OC in PM1 were determined as 4.1 and 40.6 μg/m3, respectively, indicating the secondary organic aerosol formation in Bolu ambient air. Among the major ions, SO42- and NH4+ depicted unimodal distribution having significantly higher concentrations in fine particles (< 1 μm) while the rest of the ions present bimodal distribution. Mass closure analysis will be applied to the generated data set and sources will be evaluated by applying PMF. This project was supported financially by Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TÜBİTAK) with a project number 114Y429.

  8. Anatomy of methane-derived carbonate concretions and associated microbial communities in Black Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitner, J.; Peckmann, J.; Reimer, A.; Schumann, G.; Blumenberg, M.; Thiel, V.

    2003-04-01

    Methane seeps on the northwestern shelf and slope of the Black Sea were investigated during the GHOSTDABS expedition with RV "Professor Logachev" and the research submersible "Jago" in July/August 2001. Seep areas close to the Dniepr Canyon are sites of intense carbonate formation. In anoxic waters, at depths between 200 and 400m, we found different modes of carbonate precipitation, such as cavernous chimney-like buildups projecting up to 4 m into the anoxic water column (Michaelis et al., Science 297, 813-815) and, lenticular concretions abundantly forming within the sediment. Isotope analyses of the concretionary Mg-calcite yielded δ13C values as low as -31 ppm PDB, suggesting that the carbonate predominantly derives from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The concretions are surrounded by grey, pink, or orange colored microbial mats. These mats apparently mediate the formation of ca. 100 μm sized aggregates of fibrous calcite that fuse together to form the concretions. Surrounding sediment and concretional carbonates are clearly distinguishable by a strong UV-epifluorescence induced by large amounts of organic matter enclosed in the calcite aggregates. The conspicious angular arrangement of the crystallites appears to be controlled by the spatial organization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization, TEM, and field emission electron microscopy reveal that the microbial mats harbour numerous types of microorganisms. Prominent members are large colonies of sulfate reducing bacteria (DSS 658 probe, Desulfosarcina group), surrounded by sheeted, rod-shaped archaea (ANME-1 probe, Methanosaeta group) and further ones. Three different types of AOM consortia are distinguishable. The metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria apparently accounts for the observed, significant enrichment of the concretions in framboidal Fe-sulfides. In organic extracts from mat samples and concretional carbonate, we found distinctive, isoprene

  9. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, Nevzat [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Cevik, Ugur [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Kara, Ayhan [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 40}K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) and internal hazard index (H{sub in}) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Ra{sub eq} values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg{sup -1} by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h{sup -1} and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y{sup -1}, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y{sup -1}), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  10. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  11. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Tkemura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  12. Seasonal variation of meat yield and nutritional composition of sea snail (Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 captured from Eastern Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Koral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in meat yield, nutritional and fatty acid composition depending on seasons of sea snail (Rapana venosa captured commercially in the Eastern Black Sea Region were investigated. The samples were collected from total twelve stations in Giresun, Trabzon, Rize and Artvin by scuba and free diving. Sea snail length and weight ranged from 52.85 to 74.27 mm, and from 66.71 to 78.97 g. Meat yields (% in summer and autumn were higher than spring and winter. Average meat yields were determined as 19.50 %. Amounts of dry matter, crude ash, crude protein and crude fat percent in biochemical parameters were changed depending on seasons and stations, minimum - maximum values of the seasons were found as 23.87-25.36 %, 2.23-2.35 %, 15.36-17.16 %, 0.46-0.73 %, respectively. The lowest and highest seasonal average ratio of palmitic (C16:0 and stearic (C18:0 acids in saturated fatty acids (SFA were determined in summer and winter, respectively. There were no statistical differences (p>0.05 among seasonal changes in total saturated fatty acid (SFA values. Total monounsaturated fatty acid (ΣMUFA values ranged from 30.45 mg/100g to 54.84 mg/100g, and values in summer and spring had statistically significant difference (p<0.05 from other seasonal values. The highest value among fatty acid groups was found in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA as 119.05 mg/100g. Arachidonic (C20:4n6, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3 acids had highest values in PUFA. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA values in summer and autumn were statistically different (p<0.05 from other seasonal values. While total EPA+DHA values were between 27.40 and 93.42 mg/100 g, Σn6/Σn3 ratio was found as 1.10 and 0.90. In conclusion, it was determined that nutritional composition of sea snail in Eastern Black Sea Region was affected by differences between station and seasonal changes.

  13. Investigation Of The Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Along The Bulgarian Coast Of The Black Sea By Reconstructions Of Historical Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Bogatchev, Andrey; Tsenova, Boryana

    2015-01-01

    Information about the hydro-meteorological parameters during the extreme sea storms is of significant importance for the sustainable development in the context of flood risk for the coastal areas. Usually there is a lack of sufficiently long history of instrumental measurements of the extreme winds, waves and storm surges. Simulation of historical storms is an important tool to evaluate the potential coastal hazards. In the absence of measured data hindcasts can satisfy the need for historical data. The wave and storm-surge regional numerical simulations have been carried out for the ten most severe storms over the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea from the period 1972-2012. The ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalysis of wind at 10 m and mean sea level pressure have been downscaled with a high resolution atmospheric model ALADIN to the horizontal and time scales suitable for precise evaluation of hydro-meteorological parameters during the storms. The downscaled fields of wind and sea level pressure have been used as...

  14. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Kuiran; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2004-12-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  15. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingke; LI Kuiran; HUANG Bingxin; CHEN Xiaolin

    2004-01-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream (Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  16. Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

    1993-06-01

    An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1∶2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

  17. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  18. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  19. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  20. Contribution of remote sensing data to oil spills monitoring. A pilot study in the Black and Azov Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, T.

    Oil pollution belongs to the most widespread man-caused emergency situations considerably harming natural ecosystems and different types of economic activity fishing tourism and other About 50 of oil pollution of the World Ocean is on transportation where 75 is on the ordinary process of transportation related to the illicit vessel discharges such as ballasts water tank washings flowing of engine-room and other But this type of pollution can be considerably decreased due to the effective monitoring and penalty system For monitoring of marine pollution the state inspections as a rule use marine or aviation facilities which are quite expensive limited by a day light and weather conditions and cover only a territorial waters The satellites SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar images instead can be used for studding the large equatorials and does not depend on cloud coverage season and daytime Oil discharged in the water damps gravity-capillary waves and changes the slope angle Thus oil spills could be viewed on the SAR images as black spots on an unpolluted sea surface However one of the problems in odder to create an operational integrated space-based monitoring system is an absence of various pilot researches to develop methodological principles for the unified algorithm of monitoring on international level To contribute to this need a pilot research on Oil Spills Monitoring in the Black and Azov Seas was conducted by SSPC Pryroda with a support of European Space Agency under the ERUNET project within the framework of

  1. Developmental abnormalities and neurotoxicological effects of CuO NPs on the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula by embryotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Catanese, Eva; Vitale, Valeria; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Barreca, Davide; Brunelli, Elvira; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    The embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was evaluated in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula embryos, by using 24-well plates. Fertilized eggs were exposed to five doses of CuO NPs ranging from 0.07 to 20 ppb, until pluteus stage. CuO NPs suspensions in artificial seawater formed agglomerates of 80-200 nm size, and copper uptake was 2.5-fold up in larvae exposed to high NP concentrations in respect to control. Developmental delay and morphological alteration, including skeletal abnormalities, were observed, as well as impairment in cholinergic and serotonergic nervous systems. These findings suggest the potential of CuO NPs to interfere with the normal neurotransmission pathways, thus affecting larval morphogenesis. Overall, the embryotoxicity tests are effective for evaluation of nanoparticle effects on the health of aquatic biota. Furthermore, as the black sea urchin A. lixula demonstrated to be vulnerable to NP exposure, it may be a valid bioindicator in marine biomonitoring and ecotoxicological programmes.

  2. Black Sea mud volcanoes and their relation to the search for methane gas hydrates and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnyukov, Evgeny; Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    As of today, the number of known offshore mud volcanoes in the Black Sea is 68. The areas possessing the greatest abundance include the northern part of the Black Sea (Sorokin trough, Tuapsinskaya trough, Shatskiy arch) and the Kerch downfold (the area south of the Kerch peninsula). An intensive study of mud volcanoes has been performed in the course of on-shore and off-shore expeditions carried out by Ukrainian scientists since 1990. They brought to light new geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the properties of mud volcanoes by (1) high resolution hydro-acoustic, seismic-acoustic, and gravity methods, (2) geothermal observations of the thermal regime of the water and uppermost sediments, (3) gravity core sampling of bottom deposits, (4) dredges and buckets, and (5) study of these samples by lithological, geochemical, paleontological, and biological methods. Methane gas hydrates have been recovered in about 28 localities largely associated with mud volcanoes below 600-700 m water depth, which suggests their close genetic relationships. Age of the sediments hosting methane gas hydrates as well as their lithological properties (e.g., grain-size) vary significantly. Relatively coarse-grained sediments make better hydrate reservoirs than fine-grained sediments. The area of the Black Sea suitable for gas hydrate formation is estimated at 288,100 km2, representing about 68% of the total Black Sea, or almost 91% of the deep-water basin; the volume of gas hydrates has been set at 4.8 km3 corresponding to 0.1-11012 m3 of free methane. A peculiar morphological structure of the sea bottom - conical hills (anticlinals) with low geostatic pressure and subsidence in their central part - provide a target in the search for underwater mud volcanoes. Our data show that such structures are formed by mud breccia and rock debris that are brought to the surface by methane flows, which escape along tectonic ruptures from the deep part of the lithosphere located beneath a

  3. Biogeochemical and physical controls on concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and plankton of the Mediterranean and Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Ojeda, MaríA. José; Valle, MaríA. Carmen; Castro-JiméNez, Javier; Wollgast, Jan; Ghiani, Michela; Hanke, Georg; Zaldivar, José Manuel

    2011-12-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to atmospheric and riverine inputs of organic pollutants. They include regions of different physical and trophic characteristics, which allow the studying of the controls on pollutant occurrence and fate under different conditions in terms of particles, plankton biomass, interactions with the atmosphere, biodegradation, and their dependence on the pollutant physical chemical properties. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured in samples of seawater (dissolved and particulate phases) and plankton during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of dissolved PAHs were higher in the south-western Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean than in the Western Mediterranean, reflecting different pollutant loads, trophic conditions and cycling. Particle and plankton phase PAH concentrations were higher when lower concentrations of suspended particles and biomass occurred, with apparent differences due to the PAH physical chemical properties. The surface PAH particle phase concentrations decreased when the total suspended particles (TSP) increased for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds, consistent with controls due to particle settling depletion of water column compounds and dilution. Conversely, PAH concentrations in plankton decreased at higher biomass only for the low MW PAHs, suggesting that biodegradative processes in the water column are a major driver of their occurrence in the photic zone. The results presented here are the most extensive data set available for the Mediterranean Sea and provide clear evidence of the important physical and biological controls on PAH occurrence and cycling in oceanic regions.

  4. Falia strategică Marea Neagră – Marea Baltică (The strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe VĂDUVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a moment when it seemed that the East-West dimension of the ontology of Euro-Asian space was beginning to emerge out of its traditional conflicting character and do something in order to bridge the gaps. This would have been excellent, since Western Europe has finance and technology, while Asia is rich in resources. The civilizations to be found on the largest geophysical platform of the Earth are not contradictory and conflicting; they are just different, by area, culture, and interests. Many of the truths that sounded like dogmata or things which were well known and had become chronic were ignored both by the triumphalist and the pessimist analysts. Whatever had happened seemed to be water under the bridge. The Summit of the Eastern Partnership in Vilnius, in the autumn of 2013, showed, however, the real face of things. The undercurrents were revealed, frustrations became evident, the strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge was reactivated and, consequently, the forces, the means, the plans and the resources were re-positioned. The war started again. Actually, it had never stopped because the war between the East and the West is unfortunately a continuous one. Like a road without beginning, without end, and with no exit.

  5. Mineralogy of Holocene Sediments from the Southwestern Black Sea Shelf (Turkey) in Relation to Provenance, Sea-level and Current Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emel BAYHAN; Mustafa ERG(I)N; Abidin TEMEL; Seref KESK(I)N

    2005-01-01

    Grain size and mineral composition of core sediments were used to investigate influences of various terrestrial and marine conditions,which have prevailed on the southwestern Black Sea shelf during the Holocene.Siliciclastic mud with small amounts of sand and gravel from nearby coastal hinterland is the principal sediment type,whereas sediments deposited near the shelf edge and the (I)stanbul Strait and off the Duru Lake (a paleo-river mouth)constitued large quantities of sand and gravel of both biogenic and terrigenic origin.Variable amounts of aragonite,1 nm-micas,quartz,feldspars,calcite and dolomite constitute the dominant non-clay minerals in bulk sediments.The clay mineral assemblage in the < 2 μm fraction is made up of smectite,illite,kaolinite and chlorite.Aragonite and calcite are mainly derived from benthic accumulations,whereas feldspars (mainly plagioclase) and smectite reflect magmaticvolcanic provenance and the distribution of 1 nm-micas and chlorite correlate with nearby metamorphic sources onland.Nevertheless,grain size and mineral distribution generally indicate a combination of effects of wind and wave climate,longshore and offshore cyclonic currents,changing sea-level stands and nearby source rock and morphological conditions.It is also suggested that at least part of clay minerals could be derived from the northwesterly Danube River input.

  6. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  7. Magnetostratigraphy and radio-isotope dating of upper Miocene-lower Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Black Sea Basin (Taman Peninsula, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Iosifidi, A.G.; Khramov, A.N.; Krijgsman, W.; Kuiper, K.; Langereis, C.G.; Popov, V.V.; Stoica, M.; Tomsha, V.A.; Yudin, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new chronology for the upper Miocene to Pliocene deposits of the Black Sea basin based on highresolution magnetostratigraphic data coupled with 40Ar/39Ar dating from the 475 m long Zheleznyi Rog section on the Taman Peninsula (Russia). This section comprises the stratigraphic interval o

  8. Modeling the nitrogen fluxes in the Black Sea using a 3D coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical model: transport versus biogeochemical processes, exchanges across the shelf break and comparison of the shelf and deep sea ecodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Beckers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 6-compartment biogeochemical model of nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity has been coupled with a 3D general circulation model in an enclosed environment (the Black Sea) so as to quantify and compare, on a seasonal and annual scale, the typical internal biogeochemical functioning of the she

  9. Biomarker and 16S rDNA evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane and related carbonate precipitation in deep-sea mud volcanoes of the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Muyzer, G.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baas, M.; Weering, T.C.E. van; Ivanov, M.K.; Poludetkina, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many mud volcanoes were recently discovered in the euxinic bottom waters of the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea). Three of them, i.e., NIOZ, Odessa, and Kazakov, were selected for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Four methane-related carbonate crusts covered with microbial mats, and sediments (

  10. Investigations on struggling with Ricania simulans (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae an important pest of the Eastern Black Sea Coastlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Göktürk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricania simulans has been causing damage in agricultural areas in the Eastern Black Sea coastline since 2006. Due to the lack of studies on struggling against this harmful species, it continues to spread day after another. In this study, which was carried out in Kemalpaşa region of Hopa town in Artvin province of Turkey in 2013-2014, the mature Ricania simulans population density was aimed to be decreased using light traps and sticky traps in agricultural areas in 2013-2014. The results of statistical analysis conducted based on the numbers of captured Ricania simulans in each trap, it was found that there were significant differences between light traps and sticky traps. Light traps captured more mature individual than sticky traps. As a result, we suggest that light traps can be used as important tools in the fight against R. simulans

  11. Seasonal anomalies of water salinity in the Gelendzhik region of the Black Sea according to shipborne monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podymov, O. I.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents results of analyzing the data on the variability of salinity in the upper layer of the coastal zone (including the seasonal thermocline) of the Black Sea during the 2010-2013 warm seasons (April-November). The data for the analysis were obtained from the regularly conducted CTD probing the by R/V Ashamba on a cross section abeam the Golubaya Bay (Gelendzhik). The relationship between salinity anomalies, coastal precipitation, and wind forcing is analyzed. It is shown that the contribution of thermal stratification to the density stratification in the seasonal thermocline is almost always greater than the contribution of salinity stratification, and the ratio of the former to the latter increases from April to November.

  12. Revisiting the Issue of Far-Left Political Parties in 1907–1909 (through the Example of Black Sea Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the activity of far-left organizations across Black Sea Governorate in 1907–1909. During this period, the bodies of internal affairs detected in the region a subversive activity of SR Maximalists, Communist Anarchists, and other terrorist groups. The activity of these destructive forces would come down to the physical liquidation of government officials, representatives of right parties, as well as extortion of money from merchants. The author comes to the conclusion that in Novorossiysk the two-year period following the end of the First Russian Revolution saw the party organizations of Social Democrats, Socialist Revolutionaries, Maximalists, Anarchists, etc., to virtually degrade and take on forms of organized criminal groups.

  13. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations.

  14. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  15. BLACK SEA REGION AND RIGHT FLANK OF THE CAUCASUS LINE WITHIN FRAMEWORK OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL ACTIVITY OF E.A. GOLOVIN IN THE CAUCASUS (1838-1842

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kondusov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an attempt is made to characterise the military, administrative and political activity of General E.A. Golovin in the Black Sea Region and at the Right Flank of the Caucasus Line during the period of his administration of the region in 1838–1842. In the North-Western Caucasus E.A. Golovin had to solve several important issues one of which was fight against mountain dwellers’ raids against the Black Sea Border Line and Caucasus Line.The Black Sea Cossack Host was strengthened. They defeated the Circassians’ attacks more successfully, which is confirmed with the battle on January 23, 1842. On that day the Black Sea Cossacks under the command of lieutenant colonel Yaroshenko battered the group of mountain dwellers consisting of several thousands of people which was trying to attack the Vasyurinskiy Kuren Settlement. In the years of his administration of the Caucasus E.A. Golovin paid a lot of attention to improving the defensive capacity of villages of the Black Sea and Caucasus Line Cossack Hosts and provided for the Cossacks’ wealth. At the same time he had to coordinate the offensive actions from Kuban which the general did not support. However, within the framework of the existing bureaucratic system of military administration all he could do was play at the established rules and obey the ambitious borders chiefs. Peaceful initiatives had few chances under such circumstances. The author comes to the conclusion that E.A. Golovin assisted improvement of defence of the Russian borders, supported the flexible approach to solution of the Circassian issue, but peaceful initiatives had few chances owing to the existing military bureaucratic institutions and political framework.

  16. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  17. Distribution and preservation of black carbon in the East China Sea sediments: Perspectives on carbon cycling at continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    We determined the concentrations and radiocarbon (14C) compositions of black carbon (BC) in the sediments of the East China Sea (ECS). The BC concentrations, which were in the range of 0.30-1.52 mg/g, accounted for 12-65% of the total organic carbon (TOC). The distribution of BC in ECS sediments was controlled by factors such as grain size, distance from the coast, and deposition rate. Radiocarbon measurements of BC yielded ages of 6350-10,440 years before present (BP), suggesting that the percentage of BC derived from biomass combustion was in the range of 29-48%. The BC burial flux in sediments of the ECS was estimated to be ∼1.39×106 t/yr, which was similar to burial fluxes reported for shelf sediments in other areas. However, the magnitude of the total BC sink was far greater than that of any other shelf regions studied to date, indicating the global importance of BC accumulation in the ECS, and the magnitude of BC input from large rivers (e.g., the Changjiang). The riverine delivery of BC to the ECS (73%) was far greater than that of atmospheric flux (27%). Further study of the BC cycle and the interactions of BC with other organic compounds in marginal seas was required to better understand the role of BC in the global carbon cycle.

  18. Advances of Fine Resolution SSTs for Small Ocean Basins: Evaluation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-07

    daily temporal resolution much colder than those over the sea. For example, clima - with improved transitions in time and space across cloud- tological...SST differences and mean biases for each zero in comparison to the finest resolution PATHF clima - climatology are calculated with respect to the inter

  19. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea biogeochemical subprovinces and synthetic ocean indicators using mesoscale oceanographic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel;

    2014-01-01

    (2002-2010) of a variety of both "classical'' (i.e., sea surface temperature, surface chlorophyll-a, and bathymetry) and "mesoscale'' (i.e., eddy kinetic energy, finite-size Lyapunov exponents, and surface frontal gradients) ocean features that we use to characterize the surface ocean variability. We...

  20. Seasonal variation of black carbon over the South China Sea and in various continental locations in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is an important atmospheric constitute as an air pollutant and as a climate forcer. To our knowledge, field measurements of BC have not been reported over the South China Sea. Observation of light absorption coefficients (σabs and BC concentrations by Aethalometer were conducted on Yongxing Island in the South China Sea and at five continental sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, South China during the South China Sea monsoon period (rainy season, 16 May–20 June 2008 and the northeast monsoon period (dry season, 12 December 2008–8 January 2009. At the oceanic site, the daily average BC concentrations vary from 0.28 to 2.14 μg m−3 and seasonal variations of BC were small (0.67 in dry season and 0.54 μg m−3 in rainy season. Similarly, little seasonal difference was found at a background site in PRD (2.88 in dry season and 2.62 μg m−3 in rainy season. At PRD urban sites, the daily average concentration of BC ranges from 1.56 to 37.9 μg m−3, higher in the dry season (12.6 μg m−3 and lower in the rainy season (6.4 μg m−3. The observed average σabs values in rainy vs. dry seasons are 119 vs. 62 Mm−1 at the PRD urban sites, 29 vs. 26 Mm−1 at the PRD background site, and 8.4 vs. 7.2 Mm−1 at the marine site. A bi-peak pattern in diurnal BC variation was observed at all sites while this pattern is the most prominent at the urban sites. The first peak appears in the early morning rush hour and the second peak in early evening, with the evening peak more pronounced in dry season.

  1. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Stegniy, Borys; Rula, Oleksandr; Shutchenko, Pavlo

    2012-12-01

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September 2010 to September 2011, a wild bird surveillance study was conducted in these regions to identify avian influenza viruses. Biological samples consisting of cloacal and tracheal swabs and fecal samples were collected from wild birds of different ecological groups, including waterfowl and sea- and land-based birds, in places of mass bird accumulations in Sivash Bay and the Utlyuksky and Molochniy estuaries. The sampling covered the following wild bird biological cycles: autumn migration, wintering, spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons. A total of 3634 samples were collected from 66 different species of birds. During the autumn migration, 19 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 14 of which were identified as low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus subtypes H1N?, H3N8, H5N2, H7N?, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N8. From the wintering samples, 45 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 36 of which were identified as LPAI virus subtypes H1N1, H1N? H1N2, H4N?, H6N1, H7N3, H7N6, H7N7, H8N2, H9N2, H10N7, H10N4, H11N2, H12N2, and H15N7. Only three viruses were isolated during the spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons (serotypes H6, H13, and H16). The HA and NA genes were sequenced from the isolated H5 and N1 viruses, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecological connections between the Azov and Black Sea regions and Europe. The LPAI viruses were isolated mostly from mallard ducks, but also from shellducks, shovelers, teals, and white-fronted geese. The rest of the 14 hemagglutinating viruses isolated were identified as different serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-1, APMV-4, APMV-6, and APMV-7). This information furthers our understanding

  2. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  3. Linking benthic biodiversity and environmental conditions at the sea floor combining statistical and mechanistic modeling. Case study on the Black Sea's northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drion, Roxanne; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2014-05-01

    The preservation of the health and biodiversity of benthic ecosystems is a crucial priority in order to achieve the Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine waters. The multiple pressures acting on the ocean, and in particular, on the coastal zone may prevent the maintenance of biodiversity either directly (e.g. trawling, dredging) or indirectly by modifying environmental conditions at the sea floor (e.g. eutrophication, pollution, acidification, warming). The management of the GES of the benthos in a changing environment and the definition of management strategies (e.g. nutrient reduction) that would preserve GES require tools able to predict the modifications of environmental conditions and to link these modifications to the status of the benthic system. Coupled biogeochemical-circulation models provide a large amount of information on physical (e.g. currents, salinity, temperature, shear stress) and biochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen, inorganic nutrients, sinking detritus) but cannot provide an information on species richness. We propose to link these aspects by applying canonical ordination techniques (e.g. Redundancy Analysis, CoInertia Analysis) on a large data set on macrobenthos collected on the Black Sea's north-western shelf with in-situ sediment data (e.g. granulometry, carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, CaCO3 content) and bottom conditions (e.g. shear stress, level of oxygen stress, flux of organic matter to the sediments) provided by a three dimensional model. Beyond taxonomic description, the analysis is performed on the functional composition of the macrobenthos: A trait-based approach is used to assess the functional composition of the macrobenthos by associating the considered species to a list of biological, ecological and behavioral traits. This approach allows to appraise how local conditions determine the functional and taxonomical diversity and provides a mean to evaluate the impact of habitat alteration on the ecological role of

  4. The first observations of oocyte diameters for the pipefish from the southern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRKAN, Şule; Taylan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syngnathid specimens sample between July 2001˗May 2002 was examined about measurements of oocyte diameter in the coastal waters of Sinop peninsula, southern Back Sea. The specimens of Syngnathid fishes (Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle, Syngnathus variegatus, Syngnathus tenuirostris, Nerophis ophidion) catched with using hand dredge from the vegetated coastal area. According to results, the mean of hydrated oocyte diameter was calculated as, respectively: Syngnathus acus: 1.96 mm, ...

  5. Advantages of Fine Resolution SSTs for Small Ocean Basins: Evaluation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    slope determined over 1993–2001 (0.008C/month) were extrapolated over the Pathfinder interval, the warm bias of MODAS clima - tology relative to...temperatures over land are typically much colder than those over the sea. For example, clima - tological mean of PATHF SST is >6C in the easternmost part of...well. In particular, annual mean SST bias for a given SST product is almost zero in comparison to the finest resolution PATHF clima - tology. RMS SST

  6. Development of a WebGIS-based monitoring and environmental protection and preservation system for the Black Sea: The ECO-Satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2013-04-01

    The ECO-Satellite project has been approved in the frame of the Joint Operational Program "Black Sea Basin 2007-2013" and it is co-financed by the European Union through the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance and National Funds. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the protection and preservation of the water system of the Black Sea, with its main emphasis given to river deltas and protected coastal regions at the seaside. More specifically, it focuses on the creation of an environmental monitoring system targeting the marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea, thus strengthening the development of common research among the involved partners and increasing the intraregional knowledge for the corresponding coastal zones. This integrated multi-level system is based on the technological assets provided by satellite Earth observation data and Geo-Informatics innovative tools and facilities, as well as on the development of a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. Furthermore, a Web-GIS system is under development aiming in principle to support environmental decision and policy making by monitoring the state of marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea and managing all the aforementioned data sources and derived research results. The system is designed in a way that is easily expandable and adaptable for environmental management in local, regional national and trans-national level and as such it will increase the capacity of decision makers who are related to Black Sea environmental policy. Therefore, it is expected that administrative authorities, scientifically related institutes and environmental protection bodies in all eligible areas will show interest in the results and applications of the information system, since the ECO-Satellite project could serve as a support tool for the

  7. Black-legged kittiwakes as indicators of environmental change in the North Sea: Evidence from long-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, S.; Frederiksen, M.; Daunt, F.; Scott, B. E.; Harris, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Top predators, particularly seabirds, have repeatedly been suggested as indicators of marine ecosystem status. One region currently under pressure from human fisheries and climate change is the North Sea. Standardized seabird monitoring data have been collected on the Isle of May, an important seabird colony in the northwestern North Sea, over the last 10-20 years. Over this period oceanographic conditions have varied markedly, and between 1990 and 1999 a major industrial fishery for sandlance ( Ammodytes marinus), the main prey of most seabird species, was prosecuted nearby. Sandlance fishing grounds close to seabird colonies down the east coast of the UK were closed in 2000 in an attempt to improve foraging opportunities for breeding seabirds, particularly black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla). Initially this closure seemed to be beneficial for kittiwakes with breeding success recovering to pre-fishery levels. However, despite the ban continuing, kittiwakes and many other seabird species in the North Sea suffered severe breeding failures in 2004. In this paper, we test the predictive power of four previously established correlations between kittiwake breeding success and climatic/trophic variables to explain the observed breeding success at the Isle of May in 2004. During the breeding season, kittiwakes at this colony switch from feeding on 1+ group to 0 group sandlance, and results up until 2003 indicated that availability of both age classes had a positive effect on kittiwake breeding success. The low breeding success of kittiwakes in 2004 was consistent with the late appearance and small body size of 0 group sandlance, but at odds with the two variables likely to operate via 1 group availability (lagged winter sea surface temperature and larval sandlance cohort strength in 2003). The reason for the discrepancy is currently unknown, but analysis of 1 group sandlance body composition indicated that lipid content in 2004 was extremely low, and thus fish

  8. Fossil DNA Stratigraphy revealed Multiple Sources of Alkenones in the Holocene Black Sea at the Strain Level: Implications for UK37 Paleothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, M. J.; Saenz, J. P.; Trowbridge, N.; Eglinton, T.

    2007-12-01

    The fossil distribution of long-chain alkenones is now a widely accepted tool to reconstruct past sea surface temperatures (SST) (i.e. UK37-index). In most studies, the UK37 index is calibrated for the main source of alkenones, the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Besides temperature, additional factors such as salinity, growth conditions, or different or multiple biological sources seem to influence the level of unsaturation of alkenones and the reliability of the UK37-inferred SST. The Black Sea is an interesting setting to study such factors since unreliable SST were reconstructed from the Holocene sapropel with high concentrations of an unusual "Black Sea" alkenone (C36:2 ethyl ketone) whereas calcium-bearing microfossils (coccoliths) of haptophytes are lacking. To identify Holocene sources for alkenones in the Black Sea at the unprecedented strain-level and to refine paleoenvironmental conditions, we searched for multiple fossil genetic signatures of haptophytes. This revealed that the slow increase in salinity as a result of post-glacial introduction of Mediterranean waters in the paleo lacustrine Black Sea, caused a succession between alkenone-biosynthesizing haptophytes from Isochrysis spp. (which do not produce coccoliths), to a mixture of Isochrysis and E huxleyi strains, then only E. huxleyi strains, and when the salinity reached a threshold of 18 per mille at 3000 years BP, the fossilized calcium-bearing E. huxleyi strain was introduced. At least 11 E. huxleyi strains were identified and the first non-fossilizing strains already colonized the Black Sea 4000 years before the fossilized calcium-bearing strain appeared. Most E. huxleyi strains were likely sources of C36:2 eK but the presence of one fossil "phylotype" coincided with the highest levels of this unusual alkenone ( more than 80 percent of the total alkenone content) and unreliable past SST (varying between 5 and 30 degrees C; 7500-5500 years BP). C36:2 eK was not biosynthesized by

  9. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  10. On the interpretation of millennium-scale level variations of the Black Sea during the first quarter of the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Introduction. During the first quarter of the Holocene, the Black Sea (BS) experienced large changes: amid the gradually rising water surface, Black Sea level (BSL) fluctuations occurred. We calculated based on records (e.g., Balabanov, 2007) that the standard deviation is ˜3.5 ÷ 5 m. Their typical duration was ˜1000 years. Time of occurrence of positive and negative anomalies of the BS is different in different reconstructions. The source of these discrepancies could be tectonically induced vertical motions. Before ˜7 ka BP the BSL was higher than the level of the World Ocean. The rising BS spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosphorus (Chepalyga, 2007). It is clear that if the water discharge were quite large, the long-term BSL anomalies could not be. This study focuses on the quantification of this concept. Methodology. I use the equation of the water balance of the BS in term of the annual averaged level anomalies. Time scales of the BSL fluctuations were determined based on the BS basin morphology and averaged volumes of rivers runoff and water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill. The short-term (1-2 year) contribution (like random white noise) to level changes are due to variations of river runoff and precipitation mines evaporation. From this perspective, the water balance equation is represented as a stochastic Langevin equation (Kislov, 2015). In another case, the BSL anomaly could be destructed due to relation "BSL anomaly - value of water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill" which acts as a negative feedback. Results. To quantify the parameters, I use the present day information about hydrological regime of the BS. It should not lead to serious errors, because the first and last quarters of the Holocene exhibit similarity in their hydroclimatic regimes (Panin, Matlakhova, 2014). As well, the paleohydrological data about dynamics of the Dnieper River runoff was used (Swetc, 1978). It was found that the time scale of the BSL fluctuations due to water discharge

  11. Reply to Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Atike; Meriç, Engin; Avşar, Niyazi

    2012-06-01

    In their discussion of our 2011 paper dealing with possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the "late" Quaternary, based on data from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) essentially reject the idea of any links whatsoever, be they between the Marmara Sea and the lakes İznik and Sapanca, or further to the Black Sea via the valley of the Sakarya River. The evidence they provide in support of their view, however, is essentially circumstantial, in part conjectural, and also inconclusive considering the findings in favour of linkage between the Marmara Sea and the lakes at the very least, while the proposed connection with the Sakarya River valley remains speculative because of the lack of unambiguous data. On the other hand, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) do raise valid points of concern which deserve careful future investigation, the most important being the possibility of sample contamination from dumped marine sediment used for construction purposes along some parts of the shore of Lake İznik. We agree that a concerted multidisciplinary effort is required to address the many unresolved issues in connection with the potential waterways proposed by us and others before us.

  12. Assessment of height variations by GPS at Mediterranean and Black Sea coast tide gauges from the SELF projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Zerbini, S.; Baker, T.; Bürki, B.; Galanis, J.; Garate, J.; Georgiev, I.; Kahle, H.-G.; Kotzev, V.; Lobazov, V.; Marson, I.; Negusini, M.; Richter, B.; Veis, G.; Yuzefovich, P.

    2002-09-01

    In the framework of the European Union SEa Level Fluctuations (SELF) I and the SELF II Projects designed to study sea level variations around the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the Global Positioning System (GPS) technique was adopted to measure the ongoing crustal movements at tide gauge stations. Tide gauges measure sea-level variations with respect to a ground benchmark. In order to determine true sea-level variations of a few millimeters per year, it is necessary to estimate the ground vertical movement to a high degree of accuracy. Countries involved in the projects were Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria and Russia. In the period from 1993 to 1998 repeated observations at more than 28 tide gauges and at a number of reference and intermediate stations were conducted. GPS measurements were complemented by Water Vapor Radiometers (WVR) at selected sites. Individual campaigns were evaluated and analyzed and showed height variations in the millimeter-centimeter range. All data were processed following common standards using the Bernese Software in a unified analysis to generate a combined solution. Based on the normal equations of all of the campaigns, a combined solution for the SELF Projects sites was generated. In the analysis of multi-technique anchor sites to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRF97, it is shown that vertical rates of different techniques may be of different sign with respect to each other and also with respect to the ITRF97 combination. Vertical rates are not reliable in general and even the restriction to the use of long the long-time series sites KOSG, ONSA, WTZR, MADR, GRAZ and MATE did not ensure significant and unique vertical rates. Nevertheless, they had to be used for the reference frame definition. The results of repeated gravity observations and the continuous GPS observations at Porto Corsini and Medicina were compared to the epoch-wise GPS campaigns and revealed that the vertical rates are in conformance with each

  13. Ligophorus llewellyni n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the redlip mullet Liza haematocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel) introduced into the Black Sea from the Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Gerasev, Pavel I; Pron'kina, Nataliya V

    2007-05-01

    Ligophorus llewellyni n. sp. (Ancyrocephalidae: Ligophorus Euzet & Suriano, 1977) is described from the gills of Liza haematocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel) introduced into the Black Sea from the Far East. Ligophorus llewellyni is closely related to L. pilengas Sarabeev & Balbuena, 2004, which parasitises the same host species. The two species differ in the morphology of the accessory piece of the copulatory organ and in some of the characters of the haptoral hard-parts. The morphometric variability of L. llewellyni and in its morphologically most similar congeners from the Black Sea is studied. Correlations between 30 morphometric characters of the haptoral hard-parts and the significance of each for species differentiation are examined. It is suggested that only 22 characters are useful as diagnostic criteria permitting the differentiation of morphologically similar species of Ligophorus.

  14. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime.

  15. HEAVY METALS IN EDIBLE TISSUES OF BENTHIC ORGANISMS FROM SAMSUN COASTS, SOUTH BLACK SEA, TURKEY AND THEIR POTENTIAL RISK TO HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Levent BAT; Arıcı, Elif; Sezgin, Murat; Şahin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aim to determine the concentrationsof copper,cobalt, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel and iron in the edible tissuesof Liocarcinusdepurator (decapoda), Rapanavenosa (gastropoda) and Mytilusgalloprovincilais (mollusca) collected from Samsun coasts of the Black Sea,Turkey in 2010. These biomonitor species are major food sources of benthicecosystem. Exposing to heavy metals at higher concentrations might be toxic todemersal fish species and also humans. The concentrat...

  16. Determination of Some Agronomıcal Characteristics of Local Flint Corn (Zea mays L. indurata) Genotypes in The Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 84 flint corn (Zea mays L. indurata) genotypes were used. Twelwe agronomical characteristics of 84 flint local corn genotypes were examined. Local corn genotypes were collected from 12 cities in the Black Sea Region in 2008 and field and laboratuary studies were completed in 2009. Variance analysis showed that there were high variations in most of the agronomical characteristics. At this study, plant height, ear height, stalk diameter, number of leaf per plant, ear length, ear ...

  17. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  18. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  19. Geostatistical Analysis of Winter Rainfall for 2013 in Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey (comparison of the past status and future projections)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Beyza

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important climatic factor for environmental studies. Several methods (Thiessen polygon, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Kriging etc.) have been used by researchers for spatial interpolation of rainfall data. Kriging is a geostatistical method which is based on spatial correlation between neighbouring observations to predict attribute values at unsampled locations. The study area, Eastern Black Sea Basin is one of the highest rainfall accumulations in Turkey according to the measured station data (1942 - 2011). Eastern Black Sea Basin is the only basin in Turkey with an increase amount of winter (October, November, December) rainfall for 2013 in comparison to the long term mean and previous year winter rainfall. Regarding to the future projections (Ustaoglu, 2011), this basin has one of the strongest increasing trend according to the A2 scenario analysis obtained from RegCM3 regional climate model during the ten years periods (2011 - 2100). In this study, 2013 winter rainfall in the basin is highlighted and compared with the past and future rainfall conditions of the basin. Keywords: Geostatistical Analysis, Winter Rainfall, Eastern Black Sea Basin

  20. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  1. Spring diet and feeding strategy of the European sprat Sprattus sprattus (L., 1758 from the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the spring diet composition and feeding strategy of the European sprat, Sprattus sprattus. Diet composition of European sprat was investigated for the first time in the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. Examined of the 115 specimens (6 - 9.1 cm total length of stomach, 12 (10.4% had emty. Diet analysis was described based on gravimetric percentages (W%, frequency of abundance (N%, frequency of occurrence (%F and relative importance index (IRI%. Feeding strategy was analyzed and graphically (Costello represented, considering the frequency of abundance (N% and frequency of occurrence (%F indexes and grouping prey into higher taxonomic categories. Twenty species were identified, belonging to four prey groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca and Chaetognatha. Finally copepods proved to be the most important food item considering the above-cited indexes. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. At least seven copepod species were identified, where Calanus euxinus appeared all round with %IRI≥50. Also results of feeding strategy analyses revealed a trophic specialization toward a single prey.

  2. Rebuilding Socio-Economic Cooperation in South East Europe and the Black Sea for Restarting European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris Zarotiadis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In our paper “Feraios Revised: Inter-Regional Trans-National Socioeconomic Cooperation in South and Eastern Europe”, published in International Relations and Diplomacy Journal (December 2014, we analyzed the prospects of an inter-regional cross-national cooperation (in economic, social and political patterns in South and Eastern Europe through the structural reorganization of the existing institutions (local, national or cross-national in the area and we expressed the need for the reintroduction of Rigas Feraios’ perspective of socioeconomic and ultimately of political integration in this region. The present paper is an attempt to explain the reasons why working on the regional socioeconomic cooperation and integration constitutes a necessary condition before going into a wider amalgamation. Contemporary systemic, global crisis brought out internal and transnational aberrations and the fact of the asymmetrical financial integration of the EU countries. The Union consists of a multilevel system were social conflicts, different rates of economic development and various demographic dynamics dominate. The increasing territorial inequalities in the enlarged Europe and the “suspended step” of a monetary unification might establish the need to revert to regional socioeconomic cooperation, on the basis of the existing cultural, economic and historical bonds, like those of South-East Europe and the Black Sea, for restarting European integration and succeed inter-union stability and prosperity.

  3. Determination of copper pollution and associated ecological risk in coastal sediments of southeastern Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseker, Koray; Eruz, Coskun; Cılız, Sadi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the natural and anthropogenic copper (Cu) pollution in coastal sediments near the city Trabzon which exhibits an increasing population and industrial activity in the Southeastern Black Sea Region, were investigated spatially and temporally. The sediment along the coast of Trabzon is influenced by three rivers called Degirmendere, Yanbolu and Solakli resulting in a spatial separation. The highest Cu sediment concentration was measured in the section influenced by Solakli (88.07 μg g(-1)) and the lowest at the sites affected by Yanbolu (56.86 μg g(-1)). Also a strong temporal trend was observed displaying the highest Cu concentration in autumn (107.06 μg g(-1)) and the lowest in spring (52.06 μg g(-1)). Based upon the results of this study and; according to the Sediment Quality Guideline, Cu is the major contributor to toxicity in the coastal zones of all regions.

  4. Periodical Press as a Means to Study Rear Area Activities in the First World War (Black Sea Province Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Black Sea Province rear activity in the First World War. The article is based on the data of local and regional periodical press, such as: «Chernomorsky Kray», «Sochinsky Listok», «Chernomorskoe Poberezh’e», «Chernomorsky Listok Voyny», etc. Among the rear area activities, we can name charity for the wounded, entertainment at military hospitals, foundation of Mercy Sisters schools and Red Cross regional offices. Attention is also attached to the interaction with state institutions in charge of hospital work and the attitude of the royal family towards hospital care. Red Cross activities in the First World War are also significant. The conclusion states that cooperation between centre and outskirts in terms of help for the wounded was close in the First World War. Almost all of the work, concerning the establishment of regional (province hospitals was charity-funded. Outskirts attempted to model the supreme authority behavior, concerning this question and as a result the care for war victims had become the duty of the whole Russian community.

  5. THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS FIRMS’ INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRM PERFORMANCE: A CENTRAL BLACK SEA REGION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ALTINDAG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of business firms carrying on business in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey on the performance of these firms. Especially how it affected SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises was analyzed. When particularly considering the effects of business that have SME quality on economy of Turkey, such kind of researches are noticed to have a basis in recent years. The research depended upon the data obtained from enterprises through original qualified questionnaire. The questionnaire question forms were scaled benefiting from the studies in the literature based upon international activities and business performance measurement. For all variables, the scales in the literature were taken and included into research questionnaire. The questionnaires were performed to SMEs and large-scale enterprises. In the research factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis were included as analysis methods. According to the obtained results, it was determined that international activities had a positive effect on the performance of enterprises. The results were interpreted, and various suggestions were offered to academicians, and administrators.

  6. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Gijsbert Cornelis Van Baak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975. At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  7. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975). At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite) as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  8. Abundance and Summer Distribution of a Local Stock of Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea, Delphinidae, in Coastal Waters near Sudak (Ukraine, Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladilina E. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first assessment of abundance of a local population of bottlenose dolphins in the Black Sea (near the Sudak coast in 2011–2012 has been conducted: the results of a mark-recapture study of photo identified animals were complemented by a vessel line transect survey. The overall abundance of a population was estimated at between 621 ± 198 and 715 ± 267 animals (Chapman and Petersen estimates, and the majority of members of the population were recorded in the surveyed area. The summer range covered the area of a few hundred square kilometers, similar to migrating coastal stocks in other world regions. The greatest density of distribution was observed in August in sea 45–60 m deep; in addition, frequent approaches to the coastline are usual for dolphins of this stock. These trends in distribution may be partly explained by distribution of prey. Interaction with sprat trawling fisheries can be a factor shaping the local population structure. Coastal waters of Sudak and adjoining sea areas are an important habitat for bottlenose dolphins in the northern Black Sea, significant for their conservation.

  9. Home Bodies and Wanderers: Sympatric Lineages of the Deep-Sea Black Coral Leiopathes glaberrima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannise V Ruiz-Ramos

    Full Text Available Colonial corals occur in a wide range of marine benthic habitats from the shallows to the deep ocean, often defining the structure of their local community. The black coral Leiopathes glaberrima is a long-lived foundation species occurring on carbonate outcrops in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Multiple color morphs of L. glaberrima grow sympatrically in the region. Morphological, mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers supported the hypothesis that color morphs constituted a single biological species and that colonies, regardless of color, were somewhat genetically differentiated east and west of the Mississippi Canyon. Ten microsatellite loci were used to determine finer-scale population genetic structure and reproductive characteristics. Gene flow was disrupted between and within two nearby (distance = 36.4 km hardground sites and two sympatric microsatellite lineages, which might constitute cryptic species, were recovered. Lineage one was outbred and found in all sampled locations (N = 5 across 765.6 km in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Lineage two was inbred, reproducing predominantly by fragmentation, and restricted to sites around Viosca Knoll. In these sites the lineages and the color phenotypes occurred in different microhabitats, and models of maximum entropy suggested that depth and slope influence the distribution of the color phenotypes within the Vioska Knolls. We conclude that L. glaberrima is phenotypically plastic with a mixed reproductive strategy in the Northern GoM. Such strategy might enable this long-lived species to balance local recruitment with occasional long-distance dispersal to colonize new sites in an environment where habitat is limited.

  10. Histological evaluation of the healing properties of Dead Sea black mud on full-thickness excision cutaneous wounds in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-al-Basal, Mariam A

    2012-04-01

    Dead Sea (DS) mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. Previous studies confirmed their efficacy in treating the more frequent skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the wound healing potential of natural and compounded skin-care product (facial mask) of DS black mud in BALB/c mice. Two full-thickness excision round wounds were created on the dorsum region of mouse. Each wound of mice test group were treated topically with 50 microL of 0.1% natural or compounded DS black mud or 50 microL of 0.2% nitrofurazone once a day for 2 consecutive days and the mice control group were left untreated. Healing was assessed by measuring the granulation tissue weight and percentage of wound contraction at day 3, 7, 14 and 21 after wounding. In addition to period of epithelialization and histological evaluation of the regenerated wound area at day 7 and 14 after wounding. Results revealed that DS black mud accelerate wound healing process by enhancing granulation, wound contraction, epithelialization, angiogenesis and collagen deposition. This may be due to high content of minerals and trace elements that possibly act as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant with enhancement effect on cell proliferation, migration and fibroblast cellular activity. However, the healing property of DS black mud compounded in skin-care product was greater than that of natural black mud, when compared to reference drug, nitrofurazone.

  11. Drowning and near-drowning: experience of a university hospital in the Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Ahmet; Duran, Latif; Paksu, Sule; Akdemir, Hızır Ufuk; Paksu, Muhammet Şükrü; Katı, Celal; Başol, Nurşah; Yılman, Metehan; Özsevik, Sevinç Nursev; Murat, Naci

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of patients who applied to the Emergency Department (ED) due to submersion injury; to recognize the risk factors, complications, causes of death, and the educational needs of families and caregivers about unsafe environments for submersion; and to develop preventive strategies. All patients were analyzed retrospectively according to demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings, association between clinical variables and submersion injuries, and patient outcomes. Fifty-five patients with submersion injury were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 10.9 ± 4.7 years. The most common Szpilman clinical scores were Grade 1 (24 patients, 43.8%), Grade 2 (15 patients, 27.3%), and Grade 5 (10 patients, 18.2%). The common location of the submersion injuries included the sea (74.5%), pool (18.4%), bathtub (7.3%), river (3.6%), and lake (3.6%). A limited swimming ability or exhaustion and suffocation (49.1%) due to unknown reasons were the most common causes of submersion injury among all patients. Most complications were due to aspiration pneumonia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Thirty-nine patients (70.9%) were followed in the ED, while 16 patients (29.1%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU); 11 patients (20.0%) died. All of the risk factors of drowning should be taken into account when designing preventive measures and family education. In addition, all pediatricians should be trained periodically about the complications of submersion and the treatment strategies, particularly in coastal cities and areas where drownings occur frequently.

  12. Luminescence Dating of Marine Terrace Sediments Between Trabzon and Rize, Eastern Black Sea Basin: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softa, Mustafa; Spencer, Joel Q. G.; Emre, Tahir; Sözbilir, Hasan; Turan, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary marine terraces in the coastal region of Pontides in Northeastern Turkey are valuable archives of past sea level change. Until recently, dates of raised marine terraces undeciphered in the coastal region between Trabzon and Rize because of chronologic limitations. In this paper was to determine ages of the terrace deposits by applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating methods using single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) techniques on quartz minerals from extracted marine terraces. Several samples were collected from three orders of Quaternary marine terraces which are reproducible at all sampling location in between cities of Trabzon and Rize, Turkey, coastal of Eastern Pontides, at the front of the thrust system. The terrace deposits mainly consist of clays, silts, sands and gravels. The sediments in these deposits are mainly derived from basaltic, andesitic, and limestone geology, and have elipsoid, square and flat shapes. The terrace deposits have heights ranging from 1 to 17 meters and increases in height and thickness from west to east. Initial OSL results from 1 mm and 3 mm quartz aliquots demonstrate good luminescence characteristics. Preliminary equivalent dose analysis results ranging from 17.6 Gy to 79.6 Gy have been calculated using the Central Age Model (CAM) and Minimum Age Model (MAM). According to ages obtained from three separate terrace is ~8 ka, ~42 ka and ~78 ka, respectively. Results of marine terrace sediments indicate this region has three sedimentation periods and coastal region of Pontides has been remarkably tectonically active since latest Pleistocene to earlier Holocene. This study will present preliminary OSL dating results obtained from samples of Quaternary marine terrace formation. Keywords: optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, single grain, marine terraces, Eastern Pontides.

  13. Into the Deep Black Sea: The Icefin Modular AUV for Ice-Covered Ocean Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, M. R.; Schmidt, B. E.; West, M. E.; Walker, C. C.; Buffo, J.; Spears, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Icefin autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was designed to enable long-range oceanographic exploration of physical and biological ocean environments in ice-covered regions. The vehicle is capable of surveying under-ice geometry, ice and ice-ocean interface properties, as well as water column conditions beneath the ice interface. It was developed with both cryospheric and planetary-analog exploration in mind. The first Icefin prototype was successfully operated in Antarctica in Austral summer 2014. The vehicle was deployed through a borehole in the McMurdo Ice Shelf near Black Island and successfully collected sonar, imaging, video and water column data down to 450 m depth. Icefin was developed using a modular design. Each module is designed to perform specific tasks, dependent on the mission objective. Vehicle control and data systems can be stably developed, and power modules added or subtracted for mission flexibility. Multiple sensor bays can be developed in parallel to serve multiple science objectives. This design enables the vehicle to have greater depth capability as well as improved operational simplicity compared to larger vehicles with equivalent capabilities. As opposed to those vehicles that require greater logistics and associated costs, Icefin can be deployed through boreholes drilled in the ice. Thus, Icefin satisfies the demands of achieving sub-ice missions while maintaining a small form factor and easy deployment necessary for repeated, low-logistical impact field programs. The current Icefin prototype is 10.5 inches in diameter by 10 feet long and weighs 240 pounds. It is comprised of two thruster modules with hovering capabilities, an oceanographic sensing module, main control module and a forward-sensing module for obstacle avoidance. The oceanographic sensing module is fitted with a side scan sonar (SSS), CT sensor, altimetry profiler and Doplar Velocity Log (DVL) with current profiling. Icefin is depth-rated to 1500 m and is equipped with

  14. Numerical simulation of inter-annual variations in the properties of the upper mixed layer in the Black Sea over the last 34 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy I.; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei G.; Akivis, Tatiana M.; Zanacchi, Marcus; Stanichny, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly land-locked basin where a combination of salt and heat budgets results in a unique thermohaline water mass structure. An important feature of the Black Sea is that oxygen is dissolved and rich sea life made possible only in the upper water levels. This is due to a strong pycnocline which cannot be mixed even by strong winds or winter convection (Shapiro, 2008). The upper mixed layer (UML) with a nearly uniform temperature profile and a very sharp seasonal thermocline at its lower boundary develops during the summer season (Sur & Ilyin, 1997). The deepening of the UML has an important effect on the supply of nutrients into the euphotic upper layer from the underlying nutrient-rich water mass. The temperature of the UML at any given location is dependent on the surface heat flux, horizontal advection of heat, the depth and the rate of deepening of the UML. In this study we use a 3D ocean circulation model, NEMO-SHELF (O'Dea et al, 2012) to simulate the parameters of the UML in the Black Sea over the last 34 years. The model has horizontal resolution of 1/12×1/16 degrees and 33 layers in the vertical. The vertical discretization uses a hybrid enveloped s-z grid developed in Shapiro et al. (2012). The model is spun up from climatology (Suvorov et al., 2004); it is forced by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2 (Brodeau et al., 2010, Meinvielle et al., 2013) and river discharges from 8 major rivers are included. For each year the model is run from 1st January and the data for the period April to October are used for analysis. The sea surface temperature produced by the model is compared with satellite data ( Modis-Aqua, 2013) to show a good agreement. The model simulations are validated against in-situ observations (BSERP-3, 2004; Piotukh et al., 2011). The analysis is performed for the deep basin where the depth of the sea is greater than 1000m. It clearly shows the inter-annual variations of both the SST and the depth of UML. The depth of UML is

  15. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2015-01-01

    A molecular survey was undertaken in the Black Sea region of Turkey to determine the presence of Theileria and Babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. A total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 310 pools tested, 46 (14.83%) were found to be infected with Theileria or Babesia species, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.27% (CI 1.67-2.99). The MLE of the infection rates were calculated as 0.691% (CI 0.171-1.78) in Haemaphysalis parva, 1.47% (CI 0.081-6.37) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.84% (CI 0.101-7.87) in Ixodes ricinus, 2.86% (CI 1.68-4.48) in Rhipicephalus turanicus, 5.57% (CI 0.941-16.3) in Hyalomma marginatum, and 6.2% (CI 4.02-9.02) in Rhipicephalus bursa. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia microti. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, five pools displayed mixed infections with T. ovis and B. ovis. This study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of B. microti in ticks in Turkey.

  16. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  17. Modeling the nitrogen fluxes in the Black Sea using a 3D coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical model: transport versus biogeochemical processes, exchanges across the shelf break and comparison of the shelf and deep sea ecodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Beckers

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 6-compartment biogeochemical model of nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity has been coupled with a 3D general circulation model in an enclosed environment (the Black Sea so as to quantify and compare, on a seasonal and annual scale, the typical internal biogeochemical functioning of the shelf and of the deep sea as well as to estimate the nitrogen and water exchanges at the shelf break. Model results indicate that the annual nitrogen net export to the deep sea roughly corresponds to the annual load of nitrogen discharged by the rivers on the shelf. The model estimated vertically integrated gross annual primary production is 130 g C m-2yr-1 for the whole basin, 220 g C m-2yr-1 for the shelf and 40 g C m-2yr-1 for the central basin. In agreement with sediment trap observations, model results indicate a rapid and efficient recycling of particulate organic matter in the sub-oxic portion of the water column (60-80m of the open sea. More than 95% of the PON produced in the euphotic layer is recycled in the upper 100m of the water column, 87% in the upper 80 m and 67% in the euphotic layer. The model estimates the annual export of POC towards the anoxic layer to 4 1010mol yr-1. This POC is definitely lost for the system and represents 2% of the annual primary production of the open sea.

  18. Distribution and species identification in the crustacean isopod genus Dynamene Leach, 1814 along the North East Atlantic-Black Sea axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Pedro E.; Queiroga, Henrique; Costa, Filipe O.; Holdich, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sphaeromatid isopods, such as Dynamene, are common and abundant members of the invertebrate fauna of littoral and shallow sublittoral substrates. Six species of Dynamene occur in the northern hemisphere. Only two species exist outside this range, in Australia. The distribution of the various species in the NE Atlantic-Black Sea axis has been controversial due to the difficulty in the identification of the different species. This has led to inaccurate records of their distribution, ultimately generating uncertain or faulty assessments on the biodiversity of these habitats. An update and a clarification about the distribution of this genus is therefore in order. In this study, we describe the distribution of Dynamene species in the light of new records from the NE Atlantic Ocean and its associated islands, and the Mediterranean, Black and Red Seas, and from re-examination of museum and several authors’ personal collections. Based on these observations, we extend the northern and southern limits of Dynamene bidentata (Adams); the western and southern limits of Dynamene magnitorata Holdich; the northern, eastern and western limits of Dynamene edwardsi (Lucas); and the eastern and western limits of Dynamene bifida Torelli. The range of Dynamene tubicauda Holdich is extended, but is still only known from the eastern Mediterranean. We also clarify the synonymy of Dynamene torelliae Holdich with Dynamene bicolor (Rathke), and the occurrence of Dynamene bicolor in the Black Sea. New distribution maps of the six Dynamene species are presented. Illustrated keys to the adult males and females of the northern hemisphere species are provided. PMID:27917055

  19. Distribution and species identification in the crustacean isopod genus Dynamene Leach, 1814 along the North East Atlantic-Black Sea axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro E. Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeromatid isopods, such as Dynamene, are common and abundant members of the invertebrate fauna of littoral and shallow sublittoral substrates. Six species of Dynamene occur in the northern hemisphere. Only two species exist outside this range, in Australia. The distribution of the various species in the NE Atlantic-Black Sea axis has been controversial due to the difficulty in the identification of the different species. This has led to inaccurate records of their distribution, ultimately generating uncertain or faulty assessments on the biodiversity of these habitats. An update and a clarification about the distribution of this genus is therefore in order. In this study, we describe the distribution of Dynamene species in the light of new records from the NE Atlantic Ocean and its associated islands, and the Mediterranean, Black and Red Seas, and from re-examination of museum and several authors’ personal collections. Based on these observations, we extend the northern and southern limits of D. bidentata (Adams; the western and southern limits of D. magnitorata Holdich; the northern, eastern and western limits of D. edwardsi (Lucas; and the eastern and western limits of D. bifida Torelli. The range of Dynamene tubicauda Holdich is extended, but is still only known from the eastern Mediterranean. We also clarify the synonymy of D. torelliae Holdich with D. bicolor (Rathke, and the occurrence of D. bicolor in the Black Sea. New distribution maps of the six Dynamene species are presented. Illustrated keys to the adult males and females of the northern hemisphere species are provided.

  20. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hacer Saglam; Ertug Düzgünes

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods:Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL) was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results:The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  1. Physiology and phylogeny of green sulfur bacteria forming a monospecific phototrophic assemblage at a depth of 100 meters in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Ann K; Glaeser, Jens; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Overmann, Jörg

    2005-12-01

    The biomass, phylogenetic composition, and photoautotrophic metabolism of green sulfur bacteria in the Black Sea was assessed in situ and in laboratory enrichments. In the center of the western basin, bacteriochlorophyll e (BChl e) was detected between depths of 90 and 120 m and reached maxima of 54 and 68 ng liter(-1). High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed a dominance of farnesyl esters and the presence of four unusual geranyl ester homologs of BChl e. Only traces of BChl e (8 ng liter(-1)) were found at the northwestern slope of the Black Sea basin, where the chemocline was positioned at a significantly greater depth of 140 m. Stable carbon isotope fractionation values of farnesol indicated an autotrophic growth mode of the green sulfur bacteria. For the first time, light intensities in the Black Sea chemocline were determined employing an integrating quantum meter, which yielded maximum values between 0.0022 and 0.00075 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) at the top of the green sulfur bacterial layer around solar noon in December. These values represent by far the lowest values reported for any habitat of photosynthetic organisms. Only one 16S rRNA gene sequence type was detected in the chemocline using PCR primers specific for green sulfur bacteria. This previously unknown phylotype groups with the marine cluster of the Chlorobiaceae and was successfully enriched in a mineral medium containing sulfide, dithionite, and freshly prepared yeast extract. Under precisely controlled laboratory conditions, the enriched green sulfur bacterium proved to be capable of exploiting light intensities as low as 0.015 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) for photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation. Calculated in situ doubling times of the green sulfur bacterium range between 3.1 and 26 years depending on the season, and anoxygenic photosynthesis contributes only 0.002 to 0.01% to total sulfide oxidation in the chemocline. The stable population of green sulfur bacteria in the Black Sea

  2. Rural Communities on the Outskirts of the Russian Empire amid the First Russian Revolution (through the Example of Villages within the Black Sea Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on archive materials, analyzes the conduct of rural communities in the epicenters of uprisings during the First Russian Revolution. The author notes that during the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907 peasants in rural communities, as, for instance, those within the Black Sea Governorate’s Sochi Okrug, were in point of fact left to themselves. Having found themselves alone with members of the social-democratic party, the rural communities had to decide: whether to buy into revolutionary propaganda or sabotage anti-government activity.

  3. Determining the Reference Ephemeroptera Communities in the Eastern Part of the Black Sea Region for the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkmen Gencer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine the reference sites and their reference Ephemeroptera communities according to the Water Framework Directive methods in the Eastern Part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey between 2008-2011. From the area, twentyfour collecting sites were chosen. There were thirty Ephemeroptera species identified, belonging to seven families and eleven genres. Cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities was applied. Reference habitat conditions of the studied sites and their reference Ephemeroptera communities were determined by combining both ecological and statistical results. As a result, sixteen sites had reference habitat conditions and their reference Ephemeroptera species were identified.

  4. [Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of invasive group A streptococci identified in eastern Black Sea region of Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Topkaya, Aynur E; Balıkcı, Ahmet; Aydın, Faruk

    2011-07-01

    Frequency of invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infections is increasing worldwide in recent 20 years. Serotypes responsible for these clinical manifestations and their antibiotic susceptibilities should be known in order to establish preventive measures and initiate appropriate treatment. This study was aimed to determine the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities and inducible clindamycin resistance among invasive GAS isolated between 2006-2009 period. A total of 22 GAS strains isolated from clinical samples [sterile body fluids (peritoneal, pleural, pericardial, joint and cerebrospinal fluids), blood, tissue biopsy] of the patients (14 male, 8 female; age range: 3-82 years, median age: 59) who admitted to Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Farabi Hospital located in Trabzon province (Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey), between March 2006 and March 2009 were included in the study. GAS serotypes were determined by the investigation of serum opacity factors (SOF), T proteins and M proteins. SOF production was investigated by microplate method using human serum and SOF types were determined by SOF-inhibition test using specific antisera. T protein types were detected by agglutination method using polyvalent anti-T sera, and M serotypes were detected by capillary precipitation method using M antisera. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disk-diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. SOF were positive in 9 (41%) samples. Use of T antiserum yielded T (n= 8) and U (n= 7) types and M antiserum M1 (n= 4) and M2 (n= 3) types. The overall antibiotic susceptibility rate of the isolates was 68% (15/22) and overall resistance rate was 32% (7/22). All of the GAS strains were found susceptible to benzylpenicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, levofloxacine and linezolid, however 9 (41%) were intermediate susceptible to tetracycline and 1 (4.5%) was intermediate susceptible to erythromycin. Four (18%) strains were found resistant to

  5. Assessment of metal pollution associated with an alteration area: Old Gümüşhane, NE Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Alaaddin

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential environmental risks associated with the Kirkpavli (Old Gümüşhane in northern Turkey) alteration area by quantifying pollution in soil. The Kirkpavli (Old Gümüşhane) alteration area is situated at the south of the deposit with the same name of gold-silver-bearing lead, zinc, and copper in the southern part of the Black Sea Tectonic Unit (Eastern Pontides). In this study, 28 soil samples acquired from the alteration area were analyzed for contents of some main elements including lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As). Contents of the elements in the area were determined, and high values were obtained such as 1,171 mg/kg for As, 12.4 mg/kg for Cd, 77.3 mg/kg for Co, 341 mg/kg for Cu, 1,172 mg/kg for Mn, 51.9 mg/kg for Ni, 3,725 mg/kg for Pb, and 880 mg/kg for Zn. Soil contamination was appraised on the basis of Geoaccumulation Index (I geo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Index, and Integrated Pollution Index. The calculated results of I geo, EF, and PI of the elements can be shown in descending order of parameters as As > Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu > Co > Mn. The parameters for some of these elements indicated extremely high contamination (I geo > 5), extremely high enrichment (EF > 40), and high pollution (PI > 3). High I geo, EF, and PI values of As, Pb, and Cd in the soil samples mean that soil pollution is typically associated with alteration area. Considering its location and the results of this study, the Kirkpavli alteration area is a significant source of pollution and may have ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, groundwater, and aquatic ecosystems in the region.

  6. Relationship of Broodstock Weight and Hatching Yield of III. Generation (F3 Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Baki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, this was the aimed to determine the reproduction and hatching yields in different weight groups in hatchery origin rootstocks (F3 Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814. In this study, the female fishes which produced from natural rootstock were used average weight 1437±134.6 g (Group I 2737±210.2 g (Group II and 3785±162.3 g (Group III. After the stripping process; according to the groups, were determined respectively eggs absolute fecundity (number of eggs/broodfish is average 2353±205, 5361±506, 6603±491, relative fecundity (number of eggs/kg is average1687±166, 1968±194, 1744±114. The egg diameter (mm 4.89±0.16, 5.28±0.07, 5.31±0.06 egg weight (mg 77±6, 90±4, 96±3 groups I., II. and III. respectively was calculated. The fertilization ratio (% 95.49±1.23, 96.49±1.14, 98.39±0.52, browse rate (% 79.97±5.36, 84.20±5.23, 94.70±1.50, has been identified. The output rate (% 60.57±7.86, 67.66±6.42, 84.83±3.09, the hatchery efficiency (% 58.14±7.95, 69.77±6.25, 83.51±3.29 was found. relative fecundity average value 168±160, 1968±194, 1744±114.The existence of relationship among the weight of the brood-stock, absolute fecundity (0.0198, 0.0012, 0.3499, and relative egg fecundity (0.3415, 0.0494, 0.00 was tested by regression analysis and consequently the difference between groups were significant. This was determined that between fish weight and absolute fecundity relationship is weak directly proportional for each group, between fish weight and relative fecundity is weak inversely proportional in Group I and II, the Group III is weak for directly proportional.

  7. The teaching staff of the public education system in the period of the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907 years (on the materials of the Black Sea province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival documents examines the role of teaching staff of educational institutions of the Black Sea province during the First Russian revolution. The attention is paid to the participation of students of senior classes in the revolutionary movement. Among the materials are the archival documents of central and regional archives, namely the state archive of the Russian Federation, Russian state military historical archive, the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai, the center for documentation of contemporary history of Krasnodar Krai and the archive department of historical museum of city-resort Sochi. The authors come to the conclusion that on the territory of the Black Sea province, the activities of significant part of the teaching staff were aimed at destabilization of the political situation, contributing to the overthrow of the existing government. Rather than to protect the high schools students from the influence of political propaganda and to return students to the classrooms, some teachers have contributed to reverse the process, encouraging the study of the political programs of the parties and the desire to participate in the revolutionary movement. As a result, the schoolchildren, minors with unsettled teenage psychology participated in various revolutionary actions, which could lead to the tragic consequences.

  8. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  9. Development of a Web-based GIS monitoring and environmental assessment system for the Black Sea: application in the Danube Delta area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziavos, Ilias N; Alexandridis, Thomas K; Aleksandrov, Borys; Andrianopoulos, Agamemnon; Doukas, Ioannis D; Grigoras, Ion; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N; Papadopoulou, Ioanna D; Savvaidis, Paraskevas; Stergioudis, Argyrios; Teodorof, Liliana; Vergos, Georgios S; Vorobyova, Lyudmila; Zalidis, Georgios C

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the development of a Web-based GIS system for the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea is presented. The integrated multilevel system is based on the combination of terrestrial and satellite Earth observation data through the technological assets provided by innovative information tools and facilities. The key component of the system is a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. The collection procedure of current and historical data along with the methods employed for their processing in three test areas of the current study are extensively discussed, and special attention is given to the overall design and structure of the developed geodatabase. Furthermore, the information system includes a decision support component (DSC) which allows assessment and effective management of a wide range of heterogeneous data and environmental parameters within an appropriately designed and well-tested methodology. The DSC provides simplified and straightforward results based on a classification procedure, thus contributing to a monitoring system not only for experts but for auxiliary staff as well. The examples of the system's functionality that are presented highlight its usability as well as the assistance that is provided to the decision maker. The given examples emphasize on the Danube Delta area; however, the information layers of the integrated system can be expanded in the future to cover other regions, thus contributing to the development of an environmental monitoring system for the entire Black Sea.

  10. High prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroiditis in adolescents after elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastemir, Mehmet; Emral, Rifat; Erdogan, Gurbuz; Gullu, Sevim

    2006-12-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of iodine intake on the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction, autoimmunity, and goiter in two regions with different iodine status after two years of iodization in Turkey. In total 1733 adolescent subjects were enrolled into the study (993 from an iodine-sufficient area--the Eastern Black Sea Region (group 1) and 740 from an iodine-deficient area--Middle Anatolia (group 2)). We measured free thyroxine (FT(4)), thyrotropin (TSH), antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin antibodies (Anti-Tg), and urinary iodine (UI), and examined the thyroid gland by ultrasound. Median urinary iodine excretion was found to be significantly different in group 1 and group 2 (139 micro/l vs 61micro/l, p 0.05). The percentage of anti-Tg positive subjects was found to be 17.6% in group 1 and 6.4% in group 2; that of anti-TPO positive subjects was 4.3% in group 1 and 1.5% in group 2. The prevalence of antithyroid antibody (anti-Tg and/or anti-TPO) positivity was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (18.52% vs 6.62%; p iodine supplementation in Turkey has resulted in the elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region, and this has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid dysfunction.

  11. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region.

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  13. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  14. Temporal variability of the microbial food web (viruses to ciliates under the influence of the Black Sea Water inflow (N. Aegean, E. Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GIANNAKOUROU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Τhe entire pelagic microbial food web was studied during the winter-spring period in the frontal area of the North Aegean Sea. Abundance of viruses, heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, auto- and hetero-trophic flagellates, and ciliates, as well as bacterial production, were measured at three stations (MD1, MD2, MD3 situated along a N-S transect between the area directly influenced by the inflowing Black Sea water and the area covered by the Levantine water. Samples were collected in December 2009, and January, March, April, and May 2011. Station MD1 exhibited the highest values of abundance and integrated biomass of all microbial groups and bacterial production during all months, and MD3 the lowest. Bacteria dominated the total integrated biomass at all stations and months, followed by cyanobacteria, auto-, hetero-trophic flagellates and ciliates. On a temporal scale, the microbial food web was less important in March as all microbial parameters at all stations showed the lowest values. After the phytoplankton bloom in March, the heterotrophic part of the microbial food web (mainly strongly increased, though the intensity of the phenomenon was diminished from North to South. Pico-sized plankton was found to be heterotrophic whereas nanoplankton was autotrophic. It seems that the influence of the Black Sea water on station MD1, permanent throughout the study period of early winter to late spring, was reflected in all microbial populations studied, and produced a more productive pelagic food web system, with potential consequences for the upper trophic levels.

  15. Mixing in the Black Sea detected from the temporal and spatial variability of oxygen and sulfide - Argo float observations and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, E. V.; He, Y.; Staneva, J.; Yakushev, E.

    2014-10-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the upper ocean hydrochemistry in the Black Sea is analysed using data originating from profiling floats with oxygen sensors and carried out with a coupled three-dimensional circulation-biogeochemical model including 24 biochemical state variables. Major focus is on the dynamics of suboxic zone which is the interface separating oxygenated and anoxic waters. The scatter of oxygen data seen when plotted in density coordinates is larger than those for temperature, salinity and passive tracers. This scatter is indicative of vigorous biogeochemical reactions in the suboxic zone, which acts as a boundary layer or internal sink for oxygen. This internal sink affects the mixing patterns of oxygen compared to the ones of conservative tracers. Two different regimes of ventilation of pycnocline were clearly identified: a gyre-dominated (cyclonic) regime in winter and a coastal boundary layer (anticyclonic eddy)-dominated regime in summer. These contrasting states are characterized by very different pathways of oxygen intrusions along the isopycnals and vertical oxygen conveyor belt organized in multiple-layered cells formed in each gyre. The contribution of the three-dimensional modelling to the understanding of the Black Sea hydro-chemistry, and in particular the coast-to-open-sea mixing, is also demonstrated. Evidence is given that the formation of oxic waters and of cold intermediate waters, although triggered by the same physical process, each follow a different evolution. The difference in the depths of the temperature minimum and the oxygen maximum indicates that the variability of oxygen is not only just a response to physical forcing and changes in the surface conditions, but undergoes its own evolution.

  16. Acid-labile sulfides in shallow marine bottom sediments: A review of the impact on ecosystems in the Azov Sea, the NE Black Sea shelf and NW Adriatic lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Zakuskina, O. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Acid-labile sulfides (LS) increase in bottom sediments at sites in the Azov Sea, at the NE Black Sea shelf and in the coastal lagoons of NW Adriatic Sea experiencing direct impacts of anthropogenic pollution. Fresh anthropogenic organic matter stimulates the bacterial sulfate reduction and here the rate of the LS production overcomes their loss during the oxidation and pyritization. This results in the expansion of reduced sediment layer up to the bottom surface. The LS concentration in the reduced sediments varies between 300 and 2000 mg S l -1 of wet silt depending on the size of pollution loading and on the rate of sedimentation. In the oxidized sediments away from the direct pollution impact, the LS concentration did not exceed 100-150 mg S l -1. Being a strong cytochrome toxin, the LS adversely affect the coastal ecosystems. The concentrations over 600 mg S l -1 result in quasi total benthic mortality whereas >300-400 mg S l -1 depletes the benthic faunal abundance and taxonomic diversity. Accumulation of the LS in sediments also induces nocturnal hypoxia and stimulates domination of toxic cyanobacteria in the pelagic phytocenoses.

  17. Climatic controls on biophysical interactions in the Black Sea under present day conditions and a potential future (A1B) climate scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannaby, Heather; Fach, Bettina A.; Arkin, Sinan S.; Salihoglu, Baris

    2015-01-01

    A dynamical downscaling approach has been applied to investigate climatic controls on biophysical interactions and lower trophic level dynamics in the Black Sea. Simulations were performed under present day conditions (1980-1999) and a potential future (2080-2099) climate scenario, based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario. Simulations project a 3.7 °C increase in SST, a 25% increase in the stability of the seasonal thermocline and a 37 day increase in the duration of seasonal stratification. Increased winter temperatures inhibited the formation of Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) waters resulting in near complete erosion of the CIL, with implications for the ventilation of intermediate water masses and the subduction of riverine nutrients. A 4% increase in nitrate availability within the upper 30 m of the water column reflected an increase in the retention time of river water within the surface mixed-layer. Changes in thermohaline structure, combined with a 27% reduction in positive wind stress curl, forced a distinct change in the structure of the basin-scale circulation. The predominantly cyclonic circulation characteristic of contemporary conditions was reversed within the southern and eastern regions of the basin, where under A1B climatic conditions, anticyclonic circulation prevailed. The change in circulation structure significantly altered the horizontal advection and dispersion of high nutrient river waters originating on the NW self. Net primary production increased by 5% on average, with much spatial variability in the response, linked to advective processes. Phytoplankton biomass also increased by 5% and the higher nutrient environment of the future scenario caused a shift in species composition in favour of larger phytoplankton. No significant change in zooplankton biomass was projected. These results constitute one of many possible future scenarios for the Black Sea, being dependent on the modelling

  18. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species.

  19. Bio- and Petroleum Geochemistry of Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic): From Fluid Sources to Microbial Methane Oxidation and Carbonate Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    The Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic) are both mud volcano (MV) provinces characterized by the presence of gas hydrates, methane-related carbonates, and chemosynthetic biota but possess differences in geological history, tectonics, composition of sedimentary cover, an

  20. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC152 2012-2013 Accountability...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements an accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black...

  1. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  2. In Defense of the Southern Borders of Russia and Allied Countries (the Russian Foreign Military Bases on the Black Sea-Caspian Arc of Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Afanasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available December 25, 2014, President Vladimir Putin approved a new version of the military doctrine of the Russian Federation, which reflects manifested threat to Russia and its allies because the situation in Ukraine, especially in its south-east, in the Donets Basin; the events in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan; issues of interaction and cooperation with Abkhazia, South Ossetia, with the CSTO member countries, the BRICS. An important role in the strengthening of the southern borders of the security operate military bases and facilities of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, located in Transnistria, the Caucasus, Syria and Central Asia. Characteristics of these bases and their value in the Black Sea-Caspian arc of tension given in this article.

  3. THE BEGINNING OF ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE LANDS OF THE BLACK SEA COSSACK ARMY IN THE LATE XVIII AND EARLY XIX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. GOROZHANINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of one of hot topics studying of spiritual culture of the Cossacks is. In work one of the low-studied of the questions connected with the organization of church management in Chernomoriya is considered. Long time researchers bypassed this problem, focusing attention to the post-reform period, as a result the church history of Kuban during the pre-reform period has generated few matters of argument. In work an attempt to light a row from them is made. For the first time on the basis of the source study analysis the reasons of disagreements among researchers in determination of number of temples at the Black Sea Cossacks in are considered to XVIII centuries In article the major factors which have exerted impact on rates of church construction are allocated, local specifics of the organization of church management are designated. The special place is allocated to reconstruction of milestone events in church history of Kuban of the end XVIII centuries – the beginnings of the XIX centuries, the list of the first Cossack huts in which in 1799 is provided. Church service was conducted. In this article the important role of the famous figures of the Black Sea Cossack army in church construction is shown. Works of the wax judge A.A. Golovaty in a church field are lit, the contribution of army archpriests R. Porokhni and K.V. Rossinsky in forming of local clergy is shown, and the attention to its specifics is also specificity.

  4. Grapes from the geographical areas of the Black Sea: Agroclimatic growing conditions and evaluation of stable isotopes compositions in scientific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The report considers the agroclimatic conditions in the Black Sea districts of cultivation and processing of grapes - the Black Sea Lowland, the Crimean Peninsula and the South-west coastal areas of the Greater Caucasus. The IRMS/SIRA techniques - Flash combustion (FC-IRMS/SIRA & Isotopic equilibration (EQ-IRMS/SIRA - were first applied for the evaluation of carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios in the components of grapes from the Crimean Peninsula. The 13C/12C ratios were studied by the FC-IRMS/SIRA in carbohydrates and organic acids in authentic samples of 8 grape varieties from the 2015 harvest. The EQ-IRMS/SIRA was applied to measure the 18O/16O ratios in intracellular water of grapes. The measured δ13CVPDB value ranges from − 25.01 to − 21.01‰ (for carbohydrates, and from − 25.09 to − 21.30‰ (for organic acids. To evaluate the extent of biological isotope fractionation the 18O/16O ratios were measured in ground water and water of atmospheric precipitates from the Crimean Peninsula. Compared to ground (δ18OVSMOW from − 10.85 to − 8.14‰ and atmospheric (average δ18OVSMOW− 2.85‰ waters, the intracellular water of Crimean grape varieties is found to be enriched with 18O isotope. The δ18OVSMOW value of the grape intracellular water varies from 2.34 to 5.29‰ according to agroclimatic conditions of the season in 2015.

  5. Black disease (Terpios hoshinota): a probable cause for the rapid coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Liu, Guo Hui; Yan, Hong Qiang; Zhang, Hui Ling

    2012-07-01

    The northern reef of Yongxing Island, the largest reef island of the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, was in good condition with significant cover of scleractinian corals until 2002. Surveys in 2008 and 2010, however, found that coral coverage had declined rapidly and severely, implying that catastrophic coral mortality occurred during the past 8 years. A blackish mat was observed covering live and dead corals in both 2008 and 2010 that was identified as an encrusting sponge, Terpios hoshinota, by special surface morphology and spicule structure. In addition, spicule residues were found on the surface of long-dead corals, indicating a previous invasion of T. hosinota. T. hoshinota is referred to as the "black disease" because it rapidly overgrows and kills corals. Our evidence indicates that outbreaks of black disease are at least partially responsible for the massive coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island over the past 8 years, although human activities and heat-related coral bleaching cannot be discounted as minor causes for this coral decline.

  6. [Variation in mitochondrial DNA in Far Eastern mullet pilengas, Liza haematocheilus Temminck and Schlegel, acclimatized in the Azov-Black Sea basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenkova, E A; Gordeeva, N V; Omel'chenko, V T; Makhotkin, M A; Dudkin, S I

    2007-09-01

    This study continues the investigation of genetic variation in the populations of native and acclimatized in the Azov-Black Sea basin pilengas from the Sea of Japan. The previous comparison based on allozyme analysis was supplemented by analysis of restriction polymorphism of a mitochondrial DNA fragment containing the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. Five out of fifteen endonucleases tested detected polymorphic sites. In the samples of native and acclimatized pilengas, five common haplotypes were found; ten and three "population-specific" haplotypes were detected in the Far Eastern and the Azov populations, respectively. The differences in haplotype distributions between these populations were highly significant (P < 0.001). The mtDNA variation was lower in the Azov than in the Far Eastern population (haplotype diversity mu respectively 6.35 +/- 0.27 and 9.14 +/- 0.55), which is in good agreement with the decrease in the number of polymorphic loci and the mean number of alleles per locus, found earlier for allozyme markers in this population. The reasons for these differences in the acclimatized population are discussed.

  7. Novel archaeal macrocyclic diether core membrane lipids in a methane-derived carbonate crust from a mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Stadnitskaia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A methane-derived carbonate crust was collected from the recently discovered NIOZ mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea during the 11th Training-through-Research cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev. Among several specific bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids present in this crust, two novel macrocyclic diphytanyl glycerol diethers, containing one or two cyclopentane rings, were detected. Their structures were tentatively identified based on the interpretation of mass spectra, comparison with previously reported mass spectral data, and a hydrogenation experiment. This macrocyclic type of archaeal core membrane diether lipid has so far been identified only in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent methanogen Methanococcus jannaschii. Here, we provide the first evidence that these macrocyclic diethers can also contain internal cyclopentane rings. The molecular structure of the novel diethers resembles that of dibiphytanyl tetraethers in which biphytane chains, containing one and two pentacyclic rings, also occur. Such tetraethers were abundant in the crust. Compound-specific isotope measurements revealed δ13C values of –104 to –111‰ for these new archaeal lipids, indicating that they are derived from methanotrophic archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia, which subsequently induce authigenic carbonate formation.

  8. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  9. Sulfate reduction in Black Sea sediments: in situ and laboratory radiotracer measurements from the shelf to 2000m depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, A.; Riess, W.; Wenzhoefer, F.;

    2001-01-01

    sediments showed that the present results tend to be higher in shelf sediments and lower in the deep-sea than most other data. Based on the present water column H2S inventory and the H2S flux out of the sediment, the calculated turnover time of H2S below the chemocline is 2100 years. (C) 2001 Elsevier...

  10. Lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) consuming swimming crabs: An important link in the food web of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Henriette; Schwemmer, Philipp; Ehrich, Siegfried; Garthe, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Swimming crabs (Liocarcinus spp.) are one of the most common brachyuran species in the North Sea, and their abundance has substantially increased over the last century. Seabirds such as lesser black-backed gulls (LBBG) commonly feed mainly on higher-trophic-level organisms such as fish. However, intensive use of swimming crabs by LBBGs in the eastern North Sea has been noted over several years. Our investigation of this aspect of the food web by examining food remains from breeding LBBGs showed that swimming crabs accounted for more than half of the nutrition of LBBGs. Gulls selected larger individuals than expected, based on sizes of free-living swimming crabs. A long-term data set (2002-2006) shows that gulls took swimming crabs mainly in the early morning and late evening, suggesting that they might migrate vertically in the water column. Moreover, it shows that although swimming crabs occurred at considerable distances from the shore, LBBGs took this prey item exclusively from near the shore where it was most abundant. This suggests the existence of a possible energy threshold above which gulls experience a net energy loss, if they have to travel too far from their colony, where the abundance of swimming crabs is lower and the energy intake might thus not compensate for the long-distance flights. Swimming-crab abundance did not appear to be the primary factor influencing overall gull distribution. A simple bioenergetic model showed that the 22,000 individual LBBGs in the most important breeding colony in the south-eastern North Sea consumed approximately 35 million swimming crabs annually (i.e. 1590 swimming crabs per individual gull) during the breeding period. However, considering the high numbers of swimming crabs in the south-eastern North Sea (demonstrated by bottom-trawl surveys in 2005 and 2007) LBBGs are unlikely to exert top-down control on this prey. Conversely, a bottom-up effect is more likely, potentially enabling further increases in LBBG

  11. Phenology and drivers of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the open Black Sea: The application of Sverdrup's hypothesis and its refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Alexander S.; Chasovnikov, Valeriy K.; Kubryakov, Arseny A.; Stanichny, Sergey V.

    2017-02-01

    The phenology of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Black Sea was investigated on the basis of the satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration (Chl) for the recent 18-year period. Data for the 8-day Chl were analysed, together with changes in the nutrient concentration, sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind velocity and duration. Based on Sverdrup's Critical Depth hypothesis and its recent refinements, the Pulsing-Bloom hypothesis was proposed for the highly stratified waters of the Black Sea. This hypothesis relates the biological response to physical forcing and chemical fluxes to the photic zone and predicts the pulsing growth of phytoplankton and different patterns of phytoplankton changes in the upper layer in winter-spring during cold and regular years. The hypothesis was supported by Chl dynamics and several Chl peaks were observed during winter-spring. Normally, the highest Chl occurred in winter and a spring peak was absent, whereas in cold years, a relatively low Chl in winter was followed by a spring bloom. These events were observed only in 15% of cases and the magnitude of the bloom was associated with the intensity of winter convection that was revealed by the negative inter-annual correlation between the March Chl and the February SST. In contrast, the February Chl was positively correlated with the SST. The proposed hypothesis provides an explanation of this phenomenon on the basis of an alternation between the low-turbulence and deep-mixing regimes. This mechanism was confirmed by the positive relationships between Chl and the duration of light wind during the current period and strong wind in the previous period. Inorganic nitrogen was depleted disproportionately during the winter-spring, whereas the phosphate concentration remained relatively high. Following a cold winter, the highest phosphate concentration and extremely low nitrogen-to-phosphorus molar ratios (2) were observed in the upper 25-m

  12. The influence of the meteorological forcing data on the reconstructions of historical storms in the Black Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2013-01-01

    The present article is a study of the applicability of different sources of meteorological forcing for the coastal wave and storm surge models, which provide the operational marine forecasts for the coastal early warning systems (EWS) and are used for reconstructions of historical storms. The reconstruction of historical storms is one of the approaches to the natural coastal hazard vulnerability assessment. We evaluate the importance of the input meteorological information for the mentioned types of coastal models. For two well documented historical storms, that caused significant damages along the Bulgarian coast we simulate the significant wave heights and sea level change, using SWAN wave model and a storm surge model. The wind and mean sea level pressure fields, which are used in the present study, are extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of the European Center for Medium range Forecasts (ECMWF) and from the output of the high resolution limited area numerical weather prediction model ALADIN. The ove...

  13. Concurrent and opposed environmental trends during the last glacial cycle between the Carpathian Basin and the Black Sea coast: evidence from high resolution enviromagnetic loess records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Obreht, Igor; Bösken, Janina; Marković, Slobodan B.; Eckmeier, Eileen; Fischer, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Danube Basin near to the Black Sea (Urluia quarry, Dobrogea, Romania). In order to investigate the potential of Danubian loess in recording millennial-scale palaeoclimate variability, a 22 m deep drill-core from the Titel loess plateau and a more than 15 metres thick LPSS from the Urluia quarry were contiguously sampled. Both sides provide improved insight into past climate evolution of the regions down to MIS 6. The presentation will focus on the down-core/down-section variability of χ and χfd as environmental proxy parameters. Based on these mineral magnetic proxies we can already draw the following conclusions: 1) The dust accumulation rates in both regions were relatively constant over the past c. 130 kyrs, even during full interglacial conditions. 2) In the studied sections, the pedo-complex S1 represents ± the Eemian and not the entire MIS 5, as previously assumed. 3) There are a lot of similarities between the mineral magnetic records of the Titel-Plateau (Vojvodina, South Carpathian Basin) and the Urluia quarry (Dobrogea, Lower Danube Basin) and also between these records and those from the Chinese Loess Plateau, but also fundamental differences. 4) During the early glacial (end of MIS5) we find no evidence for soil formation in the South Carpathian Basin whereas in the Dobrogea near to the Black Sea coast embryonic soils developed. On the contrary, during the younger part of MIS 3 (≤ 40 ka) near to the Black Sea coast soil humidity sharply decreased towards the LGM whereas in the South Carpathian Basin the mineral magnetic proxies indicate a relative maximum in pedogenesis/soil humidity. Sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and palaeomagnetic investigations are in progress. They will provide further high quality data sets leading to an improved understanding of the Late Pleistocene environmental evolution in the Danube Basin.

  14. Measures of Allometric Growth of Black-lip Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758 Red Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaya M. Taha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of regression analyses to explain the relationship between various biometric characters of pearl oyster P. margaritifera are found to be most suitable. It can be used to asses this pearl oyster which have been extensively exploited in Red Sea. Pinctada margaritifera is more wide spread among the Pinctada species, occurring across the Indian and Pacific Oceans and in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Coastal survey was done during the period from March 2005 to April 2007 covering area more than 600 km of the proper coast of Red Sea, Egypt. Collection of P. margaritifera was done using snorkeling and SCUBA diving in the studied area. The most abundant sites inhabited with the present studied species were divided into two parts, the Northern part which includes areas from Eash El-Malaha to the NIOF marine station near Hurghada city and the Southern area from Shalatein to Wadi El-Hour area. The Northern population of P. margaritifera consisted of larger shell sizes and weights than the Southern area. This was attributed to type of natural food and water quality. The relationship between the shell length and other shell dimensions is generally positive and linear, which indicates isometric growth pattern in the shell of P. margaritifera population of studied area. The length-weight relationship showed a strong positive correlation in a curvilinear pattern with isometric growth form. The results of the condition index indicated that larger values were achieved during summer months and it was expected to be related to the changes in gonad condition more than to the somatic growth of the animal. Seasonal variations in condition index also reflects the importance of seasonal changes in the metabolic activities of the species under study.

  15. Distribution and Composition of Thiotrophic Mats in the Hypoxic Zone of the Black Sea (150–170 m Water Depth, Crimea Margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Gerdhard L.; Lichtschlag, Anna; Struck, Ulrich; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    At the Black Sea chemocline, oxygen- and sulfide-rich waters meet and form a niche for thiotrophic pelagic bacteria. Here we investigated an area of the Northwestern Black Sea off Crimea close to the shelf break, where the chemocline reaches the seafloor at around 150–170 m water depth, to assess whether thiotrophic bacteria are favored in this zone. Seafloor video transects were carried out with the submersible JAGO covering 20 km2 on the region between 110 and 200 m depth. Around the chemocline we observed irregular seafloor depressions, covered with whitish mats of large filamentous bacteria. These comprised 25–55% of the seafloor, forming a belt of 3 km width around the chemocline. Cores from the mats obtained with JAGO showed higher accumulations of organic matter under the mats compared to mat-free sediments. The mat-forming bacteria were related to Beggiatoa-like large filamentous sulfur bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequences from the mat, and visual characteristics. The microbial community under the mats was significantly different from the surrounding sediments and enriched with taxa affiliated with polymer degrading, fermenting and sulfate reducing microorganisms. Under the mats, higher organic matter accumulation, as well as higher remineralization and radiotracer-based sulfate reduction rates were measured compared to outside the mat. Mat-covered and mat-free sediments showed similar degradability of the bulk organic matter pool, suggesting that the higher sulfide fluxes and subsequent development of the thiotrophic mats in the patches are consequences of the accumulation of organic matter rather than its qualitative composition. Our observations suggest that the key factors for the distribution of thiotrophic mat-forming communities near to the Crimean shelf break are hypoxic conditions that (i) repress grazers, (ii) enhance the accumulation and degradation of labile organic matter by sulfate-reducers, and (iii) favor thiotrophic filamentous bacteria

  16. Distribution and Composition of Thiotrophic Mats in the Hypoxic Zone of the Black Sea (150-170 m Water Depth, Crimea Margin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Gerdhard L; Lichtschlag, Anna; Struck, Ulrich; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    At the Black Sea chemocline, oxygen- and sulfide-rich waters meet and form a niche for thiotrophic pelagic bacteria. Here we investigated an area of the Northwestern Black Sea off Crimea close to the shelf break, where the chemocline reaches the seafloor at around 150-170 m water depth, to assess whether thiotrophic bacteria are favored in this zone. Seafloor video transects were carried out with the submersible JAGO covering 20 km(2) on the region between 110 and 200 m depth. Around the chemocline we observed irregular seafloor depressions, covered with whitish mats of large filamentous bacteria. These comprised 25-55% of the seafloor, forming a belt of 3 km width around the chemocline. Cores from the mats obtained with JAGO showed higher accumulations of organic matter under the mats compared to mat-free sediments. The mat-forming bacteria were related to Beggiatoa-like large filamentous sulfur bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequences from the mat, and visual characteristics. The microbial community under the mats was significantly different from the surrounding sediments and enriched with taxa affiliated with polymer degrading, fermenting and sulfate reducing microorganisms. Under the mats, higher organic matter accumulation, as well as higher remineralization and radiotracer-based sulfate reduction rates were measured compared to outside the mat. Mat-covered and mat-free sediments showed similar degradability of the bulk organic matter pool, suggesting that the higher sulfide fluxes and subsequent development of the thiotrophic mats in the patches are consequences of the accumulation of organic matter rather than its qualitative composition. Our observations suggest that the key factors for the distribution of thiotrophic mat-forming communities near to the Crimean shelf break are hypoxic conditions that (i) repress grazers, (ii) enhance the accumulation and degradation of labile organic matter by sulfate-reducers, and (iii) favor thiotrophic filamentous bacteria

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MARTHA L. BLACK in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-06-01 to 2012-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0144337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144337 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MARTHA L. BLACK in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  18. A STUDY ON THE HENDIADYOINS IN THE EASTERN BLACK-SEA REGION DIALECTS / ORTA VE DOĞU KARADENIZ AĞIZLARINDA GÖRÜLEN IKILEMELER ÜZERINE BIR DEĞERLENDIRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ercan ALKAYA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hendiadyoins of the dialects of the Central andEastern Black-Sea Region such as Ordu, Giresun, Rize and Trabzon whichcan be observed as non-literary usages are dealt with. The hendiadyoins takenfrom the dialect studies on the afore-mentioned dialects and from theDerleme Sözlüğü are assessed in respect with their origins, structures andmeanings.

  19. High-resolution metal gradients measured by in situ DGT/DET deployment in Black Sea sediments using an autonomous benthic lander RID G-2489-2010 RID A-4901-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fones, GR; Davison, W.; Holby, O.;

    2001-01-01

    . The newly developed deployment system is described, and based on these first results, its strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Deployments were made in the Western Black Sea in shelf sediments overlain by well-oxygenated water at a water depth of 77 m. Maxima of the redox-sensitive metals at 4 and 8 cm...... elements by several millimeters. Detection of this functional discrimination between Fe and Mn as regulators of trace metals would not have been possible using more conventional sampling procedures....

  20. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  1. Tree species diversity and its relationship to stand parameters and geomorphology features in the eastern Black Sea region forests of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Ramazan; Gul, Altay Ugur; Merganic, Jan; Merganicova, Katarina

    2008-05-01

    We studied the effects of stand parameters (crown closure, basal area, stand volume, age, mean stand diameter number of trees, and heterogeneity index) and geomorphology features (elevation, aspect and slope) on tree species diversity in an example of untreated natural mixed forest stands in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Tree species diversity and basal area heterogeneity in forest ecosystems are quantified using the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices. The relationship between tree species diversity basal area heterogeneity stand parameters and geomorphology features are examined using regression analysis. Our work revealed that the relationship between tree species diversity and stand parameters is loose with a correlation coefficient between 0.02 and 0.70. The correlation of basal area heterogeneity with stand parameters fluctuated between 0.004 and 0.77 (R2). According to our results, stands with higher tree species diversity are characterised by higher mean stand diameter number of diameter classes, basal area and lower homogeneity index value. Considering the effect of geomorphology features on tree species or basal area heterogeneity we found that all investigated relationships are loose with R tree species diversity and aspect. Future work is required to verify the detected trends in behaviour of tree species diversity if it is to estimate from the usual forest stand parameters and topography characteristics.

  2. Ship-borne Observations of Atmospheric Black Carbon Aerosol Particles over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Pacific Ocean during September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, F.; Miyakawa, T.; Takashima, H.; Komazaki, Y.; Kanaya, Y.; PAN, X.; Inoue, J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol particles using a highly sensitive online single particle soot photometer were performed on-board the R/V Mirai during a cruise across the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean (31 August-9 October 2014). The measured rBC mass concentrations over the Arctic Ocean in the latitudinal region > 70°N were in the range 0-66 ng/m3 for 1-min averages, with an overall mean value of 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3. Single-particle-based observations enabled the measurement of such low rBC mass concentrations. The effects of long-range transport from continents to the Arctic Ocean were limited during the observed period, suggesting that such low rBC concentration levels would prevail over the Arctic Ocean. An analysis of rBC mixing states showed that particles with a non-shell/core structure made a significant contribution to the rBC particles detected over the Arctic Ocean.

  3. Shipborne observations of atmospheric black carbon aerosol particles over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Pacific Ocean during September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Fumikazu; Miyakawa, Takuma; Takashima, Hisahiro; Komazaki, Yuichi; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Inoue, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol particles using a highly sensitive online single particle soot photometer were performed on board the R/V Mirai during a cruise across the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Pacific Ocean (31 August to 9 October 2014). The measured rBC mass concentrations over the Arctic Ocean in the latitudinal region > 70°N were in the range 0-66 ng/m3 for 1 min averages, with an overall mean value of 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3. Single-particle-based observations enabled the measurement of such low rBC mass concentrations. The effects of long-range transport from continents to the Arctic Ocean were limited during the observed period, which suggests that the low rBC concentration levels would prevail over the Arctic Ocean. An analysis of rBC mixing states showed that particles with a nonshell/noncore structure made a significant contribution to the rBC particles detected over the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Preparation of polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates from the liver oil of dogfish (Squalus acanthias from the Black Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanova, K.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the liver oil from the Black Sea dogfish Squalus acanthias, as well as its seasonal variations were determined. A scheme for concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the dogfish liver oil by urea complexation was proposed. From 360g of free fatty acids a 48g concentrate was obtained, containing 7,8% C20:4, 16,4% C20:5. 9,2% C22:5 and 49,7% C22:6.

    Se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de hígado de cazón (Squalus acanthias del Mar Negro, así como sus variaciones estacionales. Se propone un esquema para la concentración de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de aceite de hígado de cazón mediante complexión de urea. A partir de 360g de ácidos grasos libres se obtuvo un concentrado de 48g, que contenía 7,8% C20:4, 16,4% C20:5, 9,2% C22:5 y 49,7% C22:6.

  5. Effects of environmental factors on growth and mortality of raft cultivated mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. cultivated in lantern nets in Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yesim Celik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-year old rope grown mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. were held in three experimental lantern nets in raft system outside of Sinop Harbour. Mortality and growth were monitored from May 2005 to May 2006. Water temperature, salinity, transparency and food availability (total particulate matter, particulate organic matter, particulate inorgnic matter and Chlorophyll-a were also determined. The monthly specific growth rate (SGR% ranged 1.50-5.72% with a mean of 2.59±0.30%. Shell length increment was found as 13.67 mm and reached to 51.20±0.50 mm. The live weight increment was found 7.91 g, and mussels reached to 12.61±0.39 g. Meat yield ranged from 17.51 to 24.25% with a mean of 21.12±0.63%. Cumulative mortality was higher in winter than spring and summer. Monthly mortality was found maximum with 5.2% in October. This study is the first known experiment to collect data on effect of environmental factors on mussel growth and natural mortality in lantern nets and raft system in the Black Sea.

  6. Assessing future scenarios for health care waste management using a multi-criteria decision analysis tool: A case study in the Turkish West Black Sea Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplak, Nesli

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the best possible health care waste management option in the West Black Sea Region by taking into account economic, social, environmental, and technical aspects in the concept of multi-criteria decision analysis. In the scope of this research, three different health care waste management scenarios that consist of different technology alternatives were developed and compared using a decision-making computer software, called Right Choice, by identifying various criteria, measuring them, and ranking their relative importance from the point of key stakeholders. The results of the study show that the decentralized autoclave technology option coupled with the disposal through land-filling with energy recovery has potential to be an optimum option for health care waste management system, and an efficient health care waste segregation scheme should be given more attention by the authorities in the region. Furthermore, the discussion of the results points out multidisciplinary approach and the equilibrium between social, environmental, economic, and technical criteria. The methodology used in this research was developed in order to enable the decision makers to gain an increased perception of a decision problem. In general, the results and remarks of this study can be used as a basis of future planning and anticipation of needs for investment in the area of health care waste management in the region and also in developing countries that are dealing with the similar waste management problems.

  7. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in surface waters of the Black Sea coastal area evaluated by HF-PLM and DGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaveykova, Vera I; Karadjova, Irina B; Karadjov, Metody; Tsalev, Dimiter L

    2009-03-15

    Trace metal speciation in seawater from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast was studied in situ by hollow fiber permeation liquid membrane (HF-PLM) and by diffusion gradients in thin-film gels (DGT). The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb determined by HF-PLM were lower than those measured by DGT, in agreement with their analytical windows, e.g., free metal ions provided by the HF-PLM and dynamic (mobile and labile) species by the DGT. The obtained suite of data was further used to evaluate the bioavailability of these metals to the microorganisms, which was then compared with experimental results of metal uptake to green microalga Chlorella salina. Uptake fluxes of the Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb to C. salina, were predicted from the measured HF-PLM concentrations and laboratory experimentation in artificial seawater, in agreement with theoretical considerations. The HF-PLM and DGT appear to be promising analytical techniques for speciation and bioavailability studies in complex environmental media and allow improved understanding of the role of different chemical species in metal bioavailability (and impact) in seawaters.

  8. Predicted eelgrass response to sea level rise and its availability to foraging Black Brant in Pacific coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Frank J.; Gilkerson, Whelan; Black, Jeffrey M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Managers need to predict how animals will respond to habitat redistributions caused by climate change. Our objective was to model the effects of sea level rise on total eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat area and on the amount of that area that is accessible to Brant geese (Branta bernicla), specialist grazers of eelgrass. Digital elevation models were developed for seven estuaries from Alaska, Washington, California (USA), and Mexico. Scenarios of future total eelgrass area were derived from combinations of estuarine specific sediment and tectonic rates (i.e., bottom change rate) with three rates of eustatic sea level rise (ESLR). Percentages of total eelgrass areas that were accessible to foraging Brant were determined for December when the birds overwinter at more southerly sites and in April as they move north to sites where they build body stores on their way to nesting areas in Alaska. The modeling showed that accessible eelgrass area could be lower than total area due to how daytime low-tide height, eelgrass shoot length, and the upper elevation of eelgrass determined Brant-reaching depth. Projections of future eelgrass area indicated that present-day ESLR (2.8 mm/yr) and bottom change rates should sustain the current pattern of estuarine use by Brant except in Morro Bay, where use should decrease because eelgrass is being ejected from this estuary by a positive bottom change rate. Higher ESLR rates (6.3 and 12.7 mm/yr) should result in less Brant use of estuaries at the northern and southern ends of the flyway, particularly during the winter, but more use of mid-latitude estuaries. The capacity of mid-latitude estuaries to function as Brant feeding refugia, or for these estuaries and Izembek Lagoon to provide drift rather than attached leaves, is eventually limited by the decrease in total eelgrass area, which is a result of a light extinction affect on the eelgrass, or the habitat being pushed out of the estuary by positive tectonic rates. Management

  9. Black cloud and transport of anthropogenic pollution across the Mediterranean Sea over Nile Delta region in Egypt during Fall season

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Prasad, A. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Nile River Delta is the most populous region of Egypt with major agricultural and industrial activities. The region suffers from intense episodes of natural and anthropogenic pollution especially during Spring (March-April-May), Summer (June-July-August), Fall (September-October-November), and Winter (December-January-February) seasons. Previous studies found that the summer season shows long range transport of pollutants from Europe which is widely accepted. Recent studies attribute the local biomass burning in open fields to be the major culprit behind increased levels of pollution over major cities of the Delta region (such as Cairo) especially during the Fall season. Such episodes result in dense fog and haze which is locally known as "Black Cloud". We have analyzed multiple satellite datasets such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) higher resolution aerosol parameters, vertical profiles from AIRS (meteorological and other parameters), Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model, and ground collected data (AOD, PM10, SO2 and NO2) to study the cause of Fall-time pollution over the Delta region. We show that the major episodes of pollution, even during Fall season, is attributed to the inter-continental transport of pollution especially across the Mediterranean. The back-trajectories from HYSPLIT model and satellite data clearly show the source of the plume visible in the MODIS data. We have computed month-to-month mean of the back-trajectories during Fall season (2004-2009) and classified the back trajectories using available ground data to identify major sources of pollution during Fall. The vertical profile of the atmosphere from AIRS shows arrival of plume from northern regions affecting the air quality over all the major cities of the Delta region. Similar analysis can be applied to major population centers in the Indo-Gangetic region in

  10. Intense ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline due to vertical turbulent exchange in the Rim Current area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskii, Alexander G.; Zatsepin, Andrey G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents new observational data, which indicate that deep ventilation events in the aerobic zone extending across the upper part of the permanent pycnocline may occur sporadically in the Rim Current area, even during relatively warm seasons, when the seasonal thermocline is still notable. The strongest observed event of this type occurred on November 2014 off the continental shelf break near Gelendzhik Bay. Vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen were accurately measured using an SBE 52-MP Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) probe equipped with a fast-response SBE 43F oxygen sensor mounted on a moored Aqualog automatic mobile profiler. The analysis of the profiling data from October 6 through December 16, 2014, from depths between 35 m and 215 m revealed an anomaly on November 6-7. The dissolved oxygen exceeded the background levels by more than 0.2 ml/l (8.9 μM) at the 14.9-15.7 kg/m3 isopycnals in the pycnocline and reached approximately 1 ml/l (44.66 μM) for short periods. The peak absolute value of the dissolved oxygen reached an exceptionally high value of approximately 0.3 ml/l (13.4 μM) at the 15.9 kg/m3 isopycnal. The ventilation event increased the temperature by 0.2 °C at depths of 120-160 m. The simultaneous observations of both the thermohaline stratification and the ocean currents suggest that the ventilation event was associated with the sinking of pycnocline waters in the near-bottom Ekman layer along the continental slope and intense vertical turbulent exchange in the Rim Current area near the continental slope. The ventilation of the pycnocline when the overlaying upper ocean is stably stratified sharply differs from the convection reaching the Cold Intermediate Layer during extensive cooling of the sea surface. Indications of such ventilation events were also found in the Aqualog mooring data archive from 2012.

  11. Hydroacoustic methodology for detection, localization, and quantification of gas bubbles rising from the seafloor at gas seeps from the eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolovska, Aneta; Sahling, Heiko; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Detailed acoustic investigation of bubble streams rising from the seafloor were conducted during R/V Meteor cruise M72/3a at a deep submarine hydrocarbon seep environment. The area is located offshore Georgia (eastern part of the Black Sea) at a water depth between 840 m and 870 m. The sediment echosounder Parasound DS-3/P70 was used for detecting bubbles in the water column that causes strong backscatter in the echographs ("flares"). Employing the swath echsounder Kongsberg EM710 flares in the water column were mapped along the entire swath width of approximately 1000 m at high spatial resolution. The exact location of the flares could be extracted manually. Subsequently, the horizontally looking sonar Kongsberg digital telemetry MS1000 mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was utilized to quantify the flux of bubbles. A model was developed that is based on the principle of finding the "acoustic mass" in order to quantify the bubble flux at various seeps. The acoustic approach from the backscatter data of the ROV sonar resulted in bubble fluxes in the range of 0.01 to 5.5 L/min (corresponding to 0.037 to 20.5 mol CH4/min) at in situ conditions (˜850 m water depth, ˜9°C). Independent flux estimations using a funnel-shaped device showed that the acoustic model consistently produced lower values but the offset is less than 12%. Furthermore, the deviation decreased with increasing flux rates. A field of bubble streams was scanned three times from different directions in order to reveal the reproducibility of the method. Flux estimations yielded consistent fluxes of about 2 l/min (7.4 mol CH4/min) with variations of less than 10%. Although gas emissions have been found at many sites at the seafloor in a range of geological settings, the amount of escaping gas is still largely unknown. With this study presenting a novel method of quantifying bubble fluxes employing a horizontally looking sonar system, it is intended to contribute to the global effort of better

  12. Regional intensity-duration-frequency analysis in the Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, by using L-moments and regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiaei, Farhad; Kankal, Murat; Anilan, Tugce; Yuksek, Omer

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of rainfall frequency is an important step in hydrology and water resources engineering. However, a lack of measuring stations, short duration of statistical periods, and unreliable outliers are among the most important problems when designing hydrology projects. In this study, regional rainfall analysis based on L-moments was used to overcome these problems in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (EBSB) of Turkey. The L-moments technique was applied at all stages of the regional analysis, including determining homogeneous regions, in addition to fitting and estimating parameters from appropriate distribution functions in each homogeneous region. We studied annual maximum rainfall height values of various durations (5 min to 24 h) from seven rain gauge stations located in the EBSB in Turkey, which have gauging periods of 39 to 70 years. Homogeneity of the region was evaluated by using L-moments. The goodness-of-fit criterion for each distribution was defined as the ZDIST statistics, depending on various distributions, including generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), and generalized Pareto (GPA). GLO and GEV determined the best distributions for short (5 to 30 min) and long (1 to 24 h) period data, respectively. Based on the distribution functions, the governing equations were extracted for calculation of intensities of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years return periods (T). Subsequently, the T values for different rainfall intensities were estimated using data quantifying maximum amount of rainfall at different times. Using these T values, duration, altitude, latitude, and longitude values were used as independent variables in a regression model of the data. The determination coefficient (R 2) value indicated that the model yields suitable results for the regional relationship of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF), which is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures in small and

  13. Determining the Similarities between Stations using the Haplotypes of the Species Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789 from the Romanian Black Sea Infralittoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir-Cosmin DAVID

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789 represents one of the marine mollusk species found on the Romanian Black Sea soft bottom infralittoral. This species had been investigated in the past by morphological methods. Some problems concerning its biological, ecological and even behavioral aspects have remained unresolved. At the moment, molecular technique studies allow the completion of these gaps. In the present article we are aiming to identify this species by molecular methods and to perform a statistical analysis of the obtained data in order to determine the distribution of this species’ haplotypes on the littoral. With the aid of the Nucleospin® Tissue kits, through the PCR technique, the extraction and amplification of DNA has been performed to obtain the necessary data. The obtained sequences have been compared to the sequences from databases such as National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI to establish similarities. After the identification of the similar sequences, we have interpreted their distribution in different stations using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. A number of 12 haplotypes which belong to 32 individuals from 5 stations have been identified. Using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient the identified haplotypes show different degrees of concordance with the standard haplotypes of this species. A significant statistical similarity appears in 81.14% out of the total 493 compared haplotype pairs. Out of these, 18% present perfect similarity, 76.25% good and 5.75% acceptable. The stations are similar regarding haplotypes, with some exceptions that are commented in the paper, similarities established by calculating the Kendall rank correlation coefficient.

  14. Contribution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis to Palaeo-Oceanic Organic Carbon Sink Fluxes in Early Cambrian Upper Yangtze Shallow Sea:Evidence from Black Shale Record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunyu Wu; Tingshan Zhang; Yang Yang; Yuchuan Sun; Daoxian Yuan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The extensive transgression that occurred on the Yangtze Plate in Early Cambrian led to a massive organic carbon pool in the Niutitang Formation. A black shale core section from 3 251.08 to 3 436.08 m beneath the Earth’s surface was studied to estimate the contribution of oxygenic photosyn-thesis to organic carbon sink fluxes in Early Cambrian Upper Yangtze shallow sea. Results indicate that the oxygenic photosynthesis played the most important role in carbon fixation in Early Cambrian. Or-ganic carbon sink was mainly contributed by photosynthetic microorganisms, e.g., cyanobacteria, algae and archaea. The Niutitang Formation was formed in a deep anoxic marine shelf sedimentary envi-ronment at a sedimentation rate of ~0.09±0.03 mm/yr. The initial TOC abundance in Niutitang shale ranged from 0.18%to 7.09%, with an average of 2.15%. In accordance with the sedimentation rate and initial TOC abundance, organic carbon sink fluxes were calculated and found to range from 0.21 to 8.10×103 kg/km2·yr-1, especially the organic carbon sink fluxes in depth between 3 385 and 3 470 m range from 3.80 to 8.10×103 kg/km2·yr-1, with an average of~6.03×103 kg/km2·yr-1, which is much high-er than that of contemporary marine sediments. The organic carbon sink fluxes of Niutitang shale are equal to 0.56 to 21.61×103 kg/km2·yr-1 net oxygen emitted into the Early Cambrian ocean and atmos-phere, this emitted oxygen may have significantly promoted the oxygen level of the Earth’s surface and diversification of metazoans.

  15. Population dynamics ofPhilocheras trispinosus (Crangonidae) with abundance of other caridean shrimps (Crustacea:Decapoda) caught by beam trawl in the Southern Black Sea, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabri Bilgin; Necla Ylmaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine growth and reproduction biology ofPhilocheras trispinosus (P. trispinosus) with abundance of other caridean shrimps caught by beam trawl in the Southern Black Sea. Methods: Samplings were carried out monthly with a beam trawl of 2 m length and 15 mm cod-end mesh size between December 2012 and November 2013. All individuals were sampled between 1 and 40+ m water depth from 146 hauls. Results:A total of 550P. trispinosus, 618Palaemon adspersus, 12Palaemon serratus, 11Philocheras fasciatus and 10Crangon crangon were sampled during the study period. The crangonid shrimps started appearing during the winter and spring and the number of individuals increased to reach their highest value in mid-winter and mid-spring. The seasonal von Bertalanffy growth parameters forP. trispinosus were estimated asL∞ = 29.3 mm total length,K = 0.860/year,t0 = –0.900 year,C = 0.180, andts= 0.010. The start of the slow growth period was at the beginning of July (WP = 0.510). Ovigerous females appeared in the sampling area between January and April. Size at sexual maturity was estimated as 25.69 mm total length. Conclusions: The results supported the distribution and abundance of caridean shrimp species from the study area and the population dynamics of the most abundant shrimp species,P. trispinosus. The current study can be answered as baseline data prior to management strategies to ensure sustainable conservation of the shrimp species.

  16. Ecological estimation of the possible variants new Ukrainian shipping way between the Danube and the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinsky, N.

    2007-05-01

    The better way or optimal variant means economic advisability of organization and using the way and the same time minimization of anthropogenic press. The first problem's factor is - all kinds' variants cross the area of the Danube Biosphere Reserve. The next factor is - all kinds of variants need dredging works in the sea shallow water so called bar's zone for marine entrance channel. As for natural factors there are also two. The first one is a long term delta evolution and the second is the process of water discharge redistribution. If the human influence to the first factor is still limited the second factor's influence can be unlimited - it is easy to do by jetty or dams construction. At present there are nine possible variants of the DWW: Variant 1. It is an artificial canal built as an ameliorative at 80-s between the Danube and Sasik liman. It provokes the water discharge redistribution up on 16.6% from the Danube run off (from the total Q=3000 m3/c for 54 km), hydrological regime in Ukrainian delta and ecological conditions will be sharply worsened. This project supposed a giant dredging works. Variant 2. The Project of engineer P.S. Chekhovich (1904). The length of the canal is 10 km. (The problems are: it is an artificial canal, needs the bridge, cross the wetlands area, redistribute water discharge from the Danube). Variant 3. Solomonov branch - Zhebryany bay modern Project by engineer V.P. Zizak (2000), The problems are: it is an artificial canal also, but with locks, needs the bridge, to cross the wetlands area, the water discharge redistribution from the Danube up on 2.27% (from the total Q=3000 m3/c for 54 km). The length of the canal is 9 km. Two last variants have orientation from Solomonov arm to Zhebriany bay. The other variants of DWW linked with Ochakovsky and Starostambulsky arms systems. Ochakosky system is dying off system from geological point of view. There are two arms which can be examined for DWW - Prorva arm and Potapovo arm. Besides

  17. AN EVALUATION ABOUT THE IDIOMS OF THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION DIALECTS / ORTA VE DOĞU KARADENIZ AĞIZLARINDA GÖRÜLEN DEYIMLER ÜZERINE BIR DEĞERLENDIRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Kaan YALÇIN (M.A.H.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Idioms play an important role in the vocabulary of a language interms of the briskness, fluency and the richness that they add to theexpressions. In this study, the non-literary idioms of Ordu, Giresun, Rize andTrabzon dialects of the Central and Eastern Black-Sea Region Dialects aredealt with. The idioms which are taken from the texts of the dialect-studieson the afore-mentioned regional dialects and from Derleme Sözlüğü areevaluated with respect to origion, structure, meaning and syntax.

  18. Study of settlement distribution pattern in the Kolkheti lowland (Black Sea coast of Georgia) starting from early Bronze Age - natural and human influence and adaptation to landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Akhvlediani, Dimitri; Navrozashvili, Levan; Sukhishvili, Lasha; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Laermans, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    During the past decades the question of a changing environment/nature became crucial. Actually we are trying to understand its nature or to predict future changes and their possible effects represent the main goals of many interdisciplinary studies. Therefore, the study of paleoenvironmental changes delivers key information for a better understanding of the whole process and especially the influence of these changes on human society. The selected research topic is dictated by the fact that the Colchis lowland played an important role in the history of old societies (countries and empires). Especially the interaction between developing human societies under the pressure of a changing environment are most interesting in this context. The Kolkheti valley and the Black Sea shore represent a region involved in many global historical events, starting from the Myth of Argonauts and followed by the ancient greek colonization, the Kingdom of Pontus ending at the Roman and Byzantine empires. River Phasis (present Rioni) was an important segment in trade way between the Mediterranean and India and the East in general. In addition it is the area of the "lost or vanished" city of Phasis, an ancient and early medieval city, founded in the 7th or 6th century BC as a colony of the Milesian Greeks at the mouth of the river Phasis, near the modern-day seaport Poti. Considering the local history of Georgia, this is the area of formation of the Kolkhys (Colchis) culture in late bronze-early iron periods, forming Colchis and later on the Lazika kingdoms. It is important to note that the archaeology and geomorphology of the seashore of Georgia is rather scarcely studied (mainly in the 1970s during soviet era). It is quite clear that the history of the region will not be deciphered without the reconstruction of the paleo and historical environment. The study based on an ongoing collaboration between the University of Cologne and the Ilia State University. Actually, geomorphological and

  19. Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    according to UNU-EHS methodology: 'exposure' and 'vulnerability', consisting of 'susceptibility', 'coping capacity' and 'adaptive capacity'. Relevant indicators for each block were selected and verified by statistical methods. The authors estimated the share of people potentially exposed to flooding with the help of geographic information system. The authors, using the technique of World Risk Index (2011), calculated sub-indices for each block, and made the maps. Areas with the highest socio-economic risks were identified on the Azov and the Black sea coast: Slavyansky, Krymsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Temryuksky and Primorsko-Akhtarsky municipal districts. On the third stage, the main purpose was to integrate and use both approaches in evaluation of socio-economic risks on micro-geographical level for different categories of the population and different industries (agriculture, utilities, etc.), using 'field' data. Field study was conducted in Slavyansky municipal district of Krasnodar region and included opinion polls, special interviews with businessmen and authorities, collection of municipal statistics and data from companies, etc. Vulnerability maps, speed evacuation maps, maps of possible locations of warning systems and maps of high insurance risks were developed. Proposals for improvement of legislation for coastal zones were prepared. The conducted research has shown the importance of both social ('vulnerability'), and economic ('damage') components of risk assessment. Using the previously discussed methods individually does not bring desired results because of deficiencies of Russian statistics. It is essential for accurate risk assessment to use an 'ensemble' of methods (statistical, field observations, etc.) on micro geographic level. The work has a practical importance for improving safety of local communities.

  20. Modelling the Danube-influenced North-western Continental Shelf of the Black Sea. II: Ecosystem Response to Changes in Nutrient Delivery by the Danube River after its Damming in 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, C.; Staneva, J.; van Eeckhout, D.; Beckers, J.-M.; Stanev, E.

    2002-03-01

    The ecological model BIOGEN, describing the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon cycling throughout aggregated chemical and biological compartments of the planktonic and benthic marine systems, has been implemented in the north-western Black Sea to assess the response of this coastal ecosystem to eutrophication by the Danube River. The trophic resolution of BIOGEN was chosen to simulate the major ecological changes reported in this coastal area since the 1960s. Particular attention was paid to establishing the link between quantitative and qualitative changes in nutrients, phytoplankton composition and food-web structures. The BIOGEN numerical code structure includes 34 state variables assembled in five interactive modules describing the dynamics of (1) phytoplankton composed of three distinct groups, each with a different trophic fate (diatoms, nanophytoflagellates, non-silicified opportunistic species); (2) meso- and microzooplankton; (3) trophic dead-end gelatinous organisms composed of three distinct groups (the omnivorous Noctiluca and the carnivores Aurelia and the alien Mnemiopsis ), and organic matter degradation and associated nutrient regeneration processes by (4) planktonic and (5) benthic bacteria. The capability of the BIOGEN model to simulate the recent ecosystem changes reported for the Black Sea was demonstrated by running the model for the period 1985-1995. The BIOGEN code was implemented in an aggregated and simplified representation of the north-western Black Sea hydrodynamics. The numerical frame consisted of coupling a 0-D BIOGEN box model subjected to the Danube with a 1-D BIOGEN representing the open-sea boundary conditions. Model results clearly showed that the eutrophication-related problems of the north-western Black Sea were not only driven by the quantity of nutrients discharged by the Danube, but that the balance between them was also important. BIOGEN simulations clearly demonstrated that phosphate, rather than silicate, was the

  1. 黑鲷幼鱼赖氨酸需求量的研究%Study on Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Black Sea Bream(Sparus macrocephalus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永正; 周凡; 邵庆均; 许梓荣

    2009-01-01

    选用初体重(9.13±0.09)g的黑鲷(Sparus macrocephalus)幼鱼360尾随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾,分别投饲赖氨酸水平实测值为2.08%、2.52%、2.88%、3.25%、3.68%和4.05%的等氮等能日粮.试验期为8周,观察日粮赖氨酸对黑鲷生长性能,体组成以及消化能力的影响,并确定其适宜的赖氨酸需求量.结果表明,当饲料中的赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,黑鲷的增重率和特定生长率随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而升高(P0.05).饲料赖氨酸水平从2.08%上升到3.25%,蛋白质沉积率有显著提高(P0.05).肝脏总必需氨基酸和赖氨酸含量随着饲料赖氨酸水平升高而增加,但是在赖氨酸添加水平最高组这两个指标均有所降低(P0.05).赖氨酸含量为3.25%时,干物质和蛋白质的表观消化率最高,而脂肪消化率的最高值出现在3.68%赖氨酸的饲料组.试验结果还表明,黑鲷幼鱼胃、前肠和中肠的蛋白酶活性变化趋势基本一致.随着饲料中赖氨酸水平的增加而升高(P0.05).使用曲线模型,根据试验黑鲷幼鱼的增重率同饲料中赖氨酸水平的相关性得出其赖氨酸需要量为3.28%,占饲料蛋白质的8.63%.%An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lysine on growth performance, body com-position, digestive ability and determine the quantitative lysine requirement of juvenile black sea bream (Sparus macrocepha-lus). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial body weight of (9.13 ± 0.09) g were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each and 20 fish in each replicate. Six treatments were fed with 6 iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets contai-ning 6 levels of lysine (2.08%, 2.52%, 2.88%, 3.25%, 3.68% and 4.05%). The results showed that, weight gain ratio (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with the level of dietary lysine increased to 3.25% from 2.08% (P0.05). The protein efficiency ratio (PER) increased significantly

  2. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  3. [Content of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Young-of-the-Year of Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax from Two Spatial Groups for Different Duration of Starvation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, D S; Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V

    2015-01-01

    The content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is determined in fish-farm juveniles of Black Sea trout 5.5 months old, from the bottom and pelagic spatial groups differing in the probability of future selection of the resident or anadromous life strategies, respectively. Differences in the concentration of the aforementioned hormones are found in young-of-the-year corresponding to those in the migratory and resident forms of yearlings of trout. In the juveniles from the pelagic group at the age 0+, the level of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone is higher than in specimens from the bottom group. Prolonged starvation results in a higher content of triiodthyronine, thyroxine, and testosterone in the blood of juveniles from both spatial groups. The concentration of estradiol-17β increases in pelagic specimens and decreases in bottom specimens.

  4. Compositional change of granitoids from Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey) at ca. 84 Ma: Response to slab rollback of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Eyuboglu, Yener; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rızaoǧlu, Tamer; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Xu, Li-Juan

    2016-04-01

    intense magmatism represented by Group II samples along the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt was linked with the enhanced melting of the juvenile lower crust due to the upwelling of hot asthenosphere material in an extensional regime. In such a case, the enhanced incorporation of basement-derived melts induced by the extensive melting of the juvenile lower crust would result in the changes of magmatic compositions from Group I to Group II. Considering the southward decrease in zircon eHf(t) documented by the Cretaceous granitoids from the northern part of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, we tentatively suggest that the Group I and II samples may be associated with the southward subduction and subsequent slab rollback of the Black Sea seafloor, respectively. However, we address that such slab rollback hypothesis remains to be verified by future work using the information from the spatial and temporal migration of the Cretaceous magmatism and the origin of coeval mafic rocks. References Bektaş, O., Şen, C., Atici, Y., Köprübaşi, N., 1999. Migration of the Upper Cretaceous subduction-related volcanism towards the back-arc basin of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc (NE Turkey). Geological Journal 34, 95-106. Bektaş, O., Capkinoglu, S., Akdag, K., 2001. Successive extensional tectonic regimes during the Mesozoic as evidenced by neptunian dikes in the Pontide Magmatic Arc, Northeast Turkey. International Geology Review 43, 840-849. Eyuboglu, Y., Dudas, F.O., Santosh, M., Xiao, Y., Yi, K., Chatterjee, N., Wu, F.Y., Bektaş, O., 2015. Where are the remnants of a Jurassic ocean in the eastern Mediterranean region? Gondwana Research in press, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2015.08.017.

  5. Cs-137 geochronology, epithermal neutron activation analysis, and principal component analysis of heavy metals pollution of the Black Sea anoxic continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C.; Oaie, G.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic Cs-137 Gamma-ray Spectroscopy assay (GrSA) performed at the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - Bucharest (Romania) in correlation with Epithermal Neutrons Activation Analysis (ENAA) performed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches - Dubna (Russia) were used to investigate a 50 cm core containing unconsolidated sediments collected at a depth of 600 m off Romanian town of Constantza, located in the anoxic zone of the Black Sea Continental Shelf. A digital radiography showed the presence of about 265 distinct laminae, 1 to 3 mm thick, a fact attesting a stationary sedimentary process, completely free of bioturbation. After being radiographed, the core was sliced into 45 segments whose thickness gradually increased from 0.5 to 5 cm, such that the minimum thickness corresponded to the upper part of the core. From each segment two aliquots of about 0.5 g and 50 g were extracted for subsequent ENAA and Cs-137 GrSA. The Cs-137 vertical profile evidenced two maxima, one of them was very sharp and localized at a depth of 1 cm and the other very broad, almost undistinguished at about 8 cm depth, the first one being attributed to 1986 Chernobyl accident. Based on these date, we have estimated a sedimentation ratio of about 0.5 mm/year, value taken as reference for further assessment of recent pollution history. By means of ENAA we have determined the vertical content of five presumed pollutants, e.i. Zn, As, Br, Sn and Sb and of Sc, as natural, nonpolluting element. In the first case, all five elements presented a more or less similar vertical profile consisting of an almost exponential decrease for the first 10 cm below sediment surface followed by a plateau until the core base, i.e. 50 cm below surface, dependency better described by the equation: c(z) = c0 [1+k exp (-z/Z)] (1) where: where c(z) represents the concentration vertical profile; z represents depth (in absolute value); c0 represents the plateau

  6. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  7. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  8. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  9. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  10. Investigation of surfactant protein-D and interleukin-6 levels in patients with blunt chest trauma with multiple rib fractures and pulmonary contusions: a cross-sectional study in Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Aysel; Turut, Hasan; Acipayam, Ahmet; Kirbas, Aynur; Yuce, Suleyman; Cumhur Cure, Medine; Cure, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiple rib fractures (RFs) and pulmonary contusions (PCs), with resulting systemic lung inflammation, are the most common injuries caused by blunt chest trauma (BCT) in motor vehicle accidents. This study examined levels of the inflammation marker interleukin (IL)-6 and those of the acute-phase reactant surfactant protein (SP)-D in patients with BCT. Design Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Setting Single-centre, tertiary care hospital in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Participants The study included 60 patients with BCT who were hospitalised in our thoracic surgery department. Parameters measures The SP-D and IL-6 serum levels of patients with RFs (two or more RFs) (n=30) and patients with PCs (n=30) were measured after 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days, and compared with those of age-matched and gender-matched healthy participants. Results The 6-hour serum SP-D levels of the RFs (p=0.017) and PCs (plung injury. The levels of the systemic inflammation marker IL-6 and those of the acute-phase reactant SP-D were elevated in the present study. The SP-D level may be used as a marker in the follow-up of BCT-related complications. PMID:27733410

  11. The formation of the religious infrastructure of cities of Kuban and Black Sea region in the context of the development of cross-cultural dialogue (the middle of XIX – beginning of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey L. Dudarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problems of development of inter-confessional dialogue in the context of the multiethnic composition of the population of cities of Kuban and black sea region of the late XIX – early XX century are. Studied organization and the specifics of the religious life of Russians, Armenians, Germans, Poles, Tatars, Jews and representatives of other ethnic communities of the cities of the region. Shows the process of development in the urbanized environment of intense cross-cultural interfaith communication, which are developed on the basis of mutual respect and close cooperation. Analyzed constructive models of interaction and cooperation of representatives of different faiths. Studied confessional structure of the population the most important urban centers of the region and shows the construction of the temples. The authors conclude that the efforts of state and local authorities, despite the declared supremacy of Orthodoxy, actually was maintained and defended religious pluralism, allow the development of the variety of national cultures.

  12. Sea surface temperature anomalies along the Black Sea Region coast of Turkey (1971-2010 periodTürkiye’nin Karadeniz Bölgesi kıyısı boyunca deniz suyu yüzey sıcaklığı anomalileri (1971-2010 dönemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Güçlü

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is finding an answer to a question how the development and change of sea surface temperature (SST anomalies were at the Black Sea Region in Turkey between 1971 and 2010. For that purpose, SST data of Amasra, Inebolu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun and Hopa stations were used. Air temperature is meteorological element having a clearest effect on annual and seasonal SST anomalies. Also in winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP and in spring North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP are noticeably influential.In the study area, SST anomalies showed important annual and seasonal variations. It is designated that annual average SST anomaly showed asymmetric diffusion from its values average variation aspect in all stations, form standard variation aspect it showed symmetrical in Hopa and in the others it showed asymmetric diffusion. In 1971-2010 generally SST anomalies showed decrease in Ordu and Hopa, however, it showed an increasing tendency in the other stations. The values of anomaly showed decrease in Black Sea coasts between Sinop and Hopa in spring and summer, they showed an increasing tendency in the whole Black Sea coast zone in winter and autumn. SST and the anomaly values generally showed decrease in Black Sea coasts in 1971-2000, they showed increase between 2001 and 2010. The lowest anomaly values were designated in the period 1981-2000 and the highest anomaly values were generally designated in the period 2001-2010. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı Türkiye’nin Karadeniz Bölgesi kıyılarında deniz suyu yüzey sıcaklığı (DSYS anomalilerinin 1971-2010 dönemindeki gelişiminin ve değişiminin nasıl olduğu sorusuna cevap bulunmasıdır Bu amaçla Amasra, İnebolu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun ve Hopa meteoroloji istasyonlarının DSYS verileri kullanılmıştır. Buna göre DSYS anomalileri üzerinde yıllık ve mevsimlik olarak en belirgin etkiyi oluşturan meteorolojik unsur hava s

  13. 东海内陆架表层沉积物中黑碳的分布及来源%Distribution and Source of Black Carbon in the Surface Sediments of the Inner Continental Shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亮; 张国森; 吴莹; 张经

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the contents of black carbon(BC) in the surface sediments of the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea,focusing on the distribution,influence factors and source of BC in different areas.In addition,the BC contents were compared with those in suspended particulate matter(SPM) derived from Xuliujing in the Yangtze River estuary.The results showed that the average BC content in SPM of Xuliujing was 1.68±0.51 mg/g,and the content in the dry season was higher than that in the flood season,which is related with seasonal change of combustion.The distribution of BC in the surface sediments of the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea was characterized by regional difference.The BC contents in nearshore varied over a narrow range and were negatively related with size,and lower than those in SPM of Xuliujing,which showed that BC came from river input and was dominated by soot in this area,and partial small-sized BC was not completely deposited.The BC contents in the east of 123°E were extensively high and positively correlated with size,indicating that BC was dominated by graphitic black carbon.Moreover,the BC/TOC values range from 0.11 to 0.55 in the sediments,so we should not ignore the difference in distribution and species from one area to another,when investigating the carbon cycle in this area.%对东海内陆架表层沉积物中黑碳含量进行了分析,探讨了黑碳在东海内陆架不同区域的分布特征、影响因素及来源,并与长江口徐六径悬浮颗粒物中的黑碳进行了对比。结果显示,长江口徐六径悬浮颗粒物中黑碳的含量平均为1.68±0.51mg/g,且枯季浓度要高于洪季,这反映了燃烧活动的季节变化。黑碳在东海内陆架表层沉积物的分布具有明显的区域特征,近岸区域沉积物中的黑碳含量接近,且与粒径成负相关,并低于徐六径悬浮颗粒物中黑碳的含量,说明来自长江输入的黑碳主要以烟炱为主,并且

  14. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  15. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  16. The Relationships Between Diameter Stump Height (d0.30) and Diameter Breast Height (d1.30) for Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) in West Black Sea RegionThe Relationships Between Diameter Stump Height (d0.30) and Diameter Breast Height (d1.30) for Scotc

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENYURT, Muammer

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is proposed to determine the relationship between the diameter at stump height (d0.3) and diameter breast height (d1.30) for Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) in West Black Sea Region including Kastamonu, Bolu and Ankara forest regional offices. For this purpose, 101 temporary sample plots were obtained and 1111 tree measurements for stump height (d0.3) and diameter breast height (d1.3) were carried out. The different regression models were selected and compared to some ...

  17. First recording of the non-native species Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 in the Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. SHIGANOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new alien species Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 was recorded in the Aegean Sea. It is most likely that this species spread on the currents from the Black Sea. Beroe ovata is also alien to the Black Sea, where it was introduced in ballast waters from the Atlantic coastal area of the northern America. The species is established in the Black Sea and has decreased the population of another invaderMnemiopsis leidyi, which has favoured the recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem.We compare a new 1 species with the native species fam. Beroidae from the Mediterranean and predict its role in the ecosystem of the Aegean Sea using the Black Sea experience.

  18. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    spectrum of characteristics in our synthetic database, although no large surge has been recorded historically as only one moderate storm passed by the area. Tampa black swans are identified as those that move northward parallel to the west Florida coast with high intensities and resonant with the Florida-shelf edge waves to generate extreme surges up to 10 m in Tampa Bay. The Arabian Sea area has sea surface temperatures warm enough to support the development of severe TCs, but TC development has been limited by low humidity and high wind shear, and only one recorded TC (super cyclonic storm Gonu in 2007) moved close to the Persian Gulf, making landfall in Oman and Iran. Our analysis shows that black swan TCs can originate within the Persian Gulf and make landfall with high intensities in populous places; extreme surges over 9 m for Abu Dubai and Doha and over 7 m for Dubai are possible. Darwin experienced immense devastation from Cyclone Tracy of 1974, but the damage was mainly due to the strong winds (the surge was only about 1.6 m). Our analysis includes extremely intense black swan TCs that make landfall just south of Darwin, generating surges above 10 m; these results may prompt the city to reconsider its TC risk. We are currently analyzing the join probability of the extreme wind and surge of these black swan TCs to more clearly assess their full damage potentials.

  19. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    December, on the eve of the Russia-Belarus energy transit dispute, Royal Dutch Shell, along with Japanese partners Mitsui and Mitsubishi, under...enjoyed the tour of one of the prominent winery and the chances to enjoy excellent cuisine . | 139 Symposium attendees listen to a briefing on...theme of the conference, the entertainment included cultural performances by local dancers and the chance to enjoy the local cuisine . Th e

  20. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  1. Recent sea surface temperature trends and future scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea:

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We analyse recent Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and their response to global change using 1/4-degree gridded advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) daily SST data, 1982-2012. These data indicate significant annual warming (from 0.24°C decade-1 west of the Strait of Gibraltar to 0.51°C decade-1 over the Black Sea) and significant spatial variation in annual average SST (from 15ºC over the Black Sea to 21°C over the Levantine sub-basin). Ensemble mean scenarios indicat...

  2. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  3. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  4. Dissonant Black Droplets and Black Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are "detuned" when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  5. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  6. Distribution, morphology and triggers of submarine mass wasting in the Sea of Marmara

    OpenAIRE

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Grall, Celine; Henry, Pierre; Ozeren, M. S.; Cagatay, M. Namik; Sengor, A.m.c.; Gasperini, Luca; Mercier De Lepinay, Marion; Geli, L

    2012-01-01

    An overview is given of mass wasting features along the slopes of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, based on new data and previously published information. The Sea of Marmara is characterized by active tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault and by eustatic sea level changes controlling the connections both to the Mediterranean and Black Sea (i.e. lacustrine and marine conditions during sea-level low and high stands, respectively). High resolution bathymetric data, subsurface echo-sounder and sei...

  7. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  8. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  9. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  10. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  12. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  13. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  14. Characterization and beneficiation of the Egyptian black shale for possible extraction of organic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Rahiem F.H.; Hassan M.S.; Selim K.A.; Abdel-Khalek N.A

    2014-01-01

    The present paper focuses on obtaining concentrate enriched with organic matter that could be suitable for a retorting process from black shale; this is black shale from the Safaga area on the Red Sea Coast. X-ray diffraction and optical polarising microscope are used in evaluating black shale minerals. Attrition scrubbing and flotation were conducted for enrichment of organic matter in the black shale sample. Mineralogical studies revealed that black shale samples contain bituminous calcareous clay stone, quartz, apatite and pyrite. Rabah mine black shale contains 28% organic matter. The results of the different separation techniques indicate that attrition and flotation techniques successively enriched the organic matter in the black shale. The organic matter could be enriched in the black shale and obtained a concen-trate with 59%assaying and 85%recovery.

  15. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  16. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  17. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  18. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  19. Quantitative analysis of Paratethys sea level change during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vara, Alba; Meijer, Paul; van Baak, Christiaan; Marzocchi, Alice; Grothe, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    At the time of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., the Pontian stage of the Paratethys), the Paratethys sea level dropped also. Evidence found in the sedimentary record of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea has been interpreted to indicate that a sea level fall occurred between 5.6 and 5.5 Ma. Estimates for the magnitude of the fall range between tens of meters to more than 1500 m. The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative insight into the sensitivity of the water level of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the hydrologic budget, for the case that the Paratethys is disconnected from the Mediterranean. Using a Late Miocene bathymetry based on a palaeographic map by Popov et al. (2004) we quantify the fall in sea level, the mean salinity, and the time to reach equilibrium for a wide range of negative hydrologic budgets. By combining our results with (i) estimates derived from a recent global Late Miocene climate simulation and (ii) reconstructed basin salinities, we are able to rule out a drop in sea level of the order of 1000 m in the Caspian Sea during this time period. In the Black Sea, however, such a large sea level fall cannot be fully discarded.

  20. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  1. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  2. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  3. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  4. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  5. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  6. Recent sea surface temperature trends and future scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaltout

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse recent Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures (SSTs and their response to global change using 1/4-degree gridded advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR daily SST data, 1982–2012. These data indicate significant annual warming (from 0.24 °C decade−1 west of the Strait of Gibraltar to 0.51 °C decade−1 over the Black Sea and significant spatial variation in annual average SST (from 15 °C over the Black Sea to 21 °C over the Levantine sub-basin. Ensemble mean scenarios indicate that the study area SST may experience significant warming, peaking at 2.6 °C century−1 in the Representative Concentration Pathways 85 (RCP85 scenario.

  7. Recent sea surface temperature trends and future scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaltout

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse recent Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures (SSTs and their response to global change using 1/4-degree gridded advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR daily SST data, 1982-2012. These data indicate significant annual warming (from 0.24°C decade-1 west of the Strait of Gibraltar to 0.51°C decade-1 over the Black Sea and significant spatial variation in annual average SST (from 15ºC over the Black Sea to 21°C over the Levantine sub-basin. Ensemble mean scenarios indicate that the study area SST may experience significant warming, peaking at 2.6°C century-1 in the Representative Concentration Pathways 85 (RCP85 scenario.

  8. Data from investigation on seismic Sea waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from 1000 to 1500 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis from 1000 to 1500 A.D. in the Eastern Mediterranean
    Sea between 31-44 N and 18-36 E excluding the Black Sea
    and the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea is the object of the
    present paper.

  9. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  10. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  12. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  13. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  14. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  15. Black holes matter

    <