WorldWideScience

Sample records for black sea

  1. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  2. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  3. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  4. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  5. Messinian events in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G C; Radionova, Eleanora P.; Golovina, Larisa A.; Raffi, Isabella; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Past hydrological interactions between the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea are poorly resolved due to complications in establishing a high-resolution time frame for the Black Sea. We present a new greigite-based magnetostratigraphic age model for the Mio-Pliocene deposits of DSDP Hole 380/380A,

  6. PECULIARITIES OF CONTAMINATION OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Biliavskiy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  Article is devoted to meaningfulness estimation of some factors in forming ecological conditions in regions of the Black Sea. Comparative estimation of anthropogenic contamination degree of sea regions environment considered. The regions the most unhappy in ecological attitude are defined, that allows to mark first and foremost arrangements on improvement of ecological situation of the Black Sea.

  7. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  8. 75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule... emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial fishing quota... year. Extending the increase to the 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings (TAL) will prevent...

  9. 75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension... Federal Register a temporary rule to extend the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass... recreational harvest limit (RHL) based on the increased 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings (TAL...

  10. 75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule AGENCY: National... implementing increases to the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial fishing quota, recreational... fax to the attention of the Sustainable Fisheries Division. Include ``Comments on 2010 Black Sea Bass...

  11. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  12. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  13. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  14. Rn 222 in the Black Sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzova, A.P.; Batrakov, G.F.; Eremeev, V.N.; Zemlyanoj, A.D.; Ivanova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of Rn 222 concentration measurements in the Black Sea waters obtained in the summer of 1986 during the expedition of the Akademik Vernadskij research ship are presented. It is ascertained that the intensity of vertical turbulent exchange produces the main effect on Rn 222 distribution in the sea surface waters. The vertical distribution in a 200 m layer is characterized by the growth of concentration with depth, which is caused by the presence of Ra 226 increased concentration region, that coincides with the boundary layer between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide

  15. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  16. Cesium and strontium in Black Sea macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonova, Tzvetana; Tosheva, Zornitza

    2014-03-01

    The trace level of metals and particularly radioactive ones should be monitored to evaluate the transfer along the trophic chain, assess the risk for biota and can be used for global changes assessment. Plants respond rapidly to all changes in the ecosystem conditions and are widely used as indicators and predictors for changes in hydrology and geology. In this work we represent our successful development and applications of a methodology for monitoring of stable and radioactive strontium and cesium in marine biota (Black Sea algae's). In case of radioactive release they are of high interest. We use ED-XRF, gamma spectrometers and LSC instrumentation and only 0.25 g sample. Obtained results are compared with those of other authors in same regions. The novelty is the connection between the radioactive isotopes and their stable elements in algae in time and space scale. All our samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  18. Reactive iron in Black Sea Sediments: implications for iron cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of reactive iron in sediments of the northwestern shelf, the shelf edge and the abyssal part of the Black Sea has been studied. In the euxinic Black Sea, iron sulfides (pyrite and iron monosulfide) are formed in the upper part of the anoxic water column and sink to the deep-sea

  19. Sea level pressure climatology in black sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, to achieve a comprehensive view of pressure conditions in the Black Sea region, sea level pressure data in Reanalysis II database in National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR were used. The data temporal resolution is daily and the spatial resolution is 2.5×2.5 degrees of arc. The investigated framework covers the areas between -30-70 degrees east longitude and 20-70 degrees north latitude and has dimensions equal 41×21 pixels consisting of 861 pixels. The studied period of time is 33-year (1979 to 2012 and includes 12419 days and 861 spatial pixels. Therefore, sea level pressure data matrix is 12419×861, which has 12419 temporal pixels and 861 spatial ones. In other words, the arrangement of the data is S-shaped. The rows of the matrix represent time while columns represent space. At the end, using the cluster analysis, six sea level pressure circulation patterns based on the spatial - temporal features were obtained: Red Sea trough is fall pattern; Iraq trough is spring pattern; Persian Gulf trough is transitional pattern; Persian Gulf deep trough is summer pattern; Caucasian high pressure is fall - winter pattern and the Caucasian Strong high pressure is winter pattern. In most of these patterns, intensive allobaric conditions can be observed in the troughs and ridges.

  20. Gelationous Organism (Macrozooplankton in the Black Sea and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye BİRİNCİ ÖZDEMİR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important problem as ecological, invasion of the marine systems by the gelatinous organism that distributed natural balance. Black Sea ecosystem has been changed critical level by the some causes such as marine pollution, eutrophication, climate change, overfishing, invasive gelatinous organisms. Effect in the ecosystem of gelatinous organisms occurred especially with collapsed of Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus stock and fishery production. In the study, gelatinous organism species, important for Black sea, and its effects in the Black sea ecosystem were presented.

  1. European Security in the Wider Black Sea Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinga, Aurelian

    2007-01-01

    ...; these tactics are jeopardizing the international security environment. This project examines geopolitical, geo-economical, and geostrategic tendencies, vulnerabilities, risks, and threats in the wider Black Sea area...

  2. New tool for the Black Sea environmental safety: BlackSea Track Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, A. I.; Korotayev, G. K.; Thoorens, F.-X.; Liungman, O.; Ambjorn, C.

    2012-04-01

    Huge increases in the volume of oil being transported across the Black Sea have greatly increased the risk of oil pollution. Remote sensing data show that the majority of oil spills occur along major shipping routes, suggesting that shipping, rather than land-based oil installations have been the principal cause of concern. However, a single large spill from ships, platforms or land-based oil installations could severely impact biota and the economies of all coastal countries and could produce significant damage of the Black Sea ecosystem and fishing. Also, due to the semi-enclosed character of the basin, oil spill will definitely pollute coast of the basin suffering great losses to the recreation industry and potentially to the human health. Fighting oil pollution in the Black Sea is a great challenge. The challenge is likely to become even greater in the future as maritime traffic is expected to increase over the next few years, making offences and accidents more likely. The risks of shipwrecks and catastrophic oil spill necessitate the use of the modern technologies to effectively protect the marine environment. In turn, such technologies require high-quality products of operational oceanography. Recently such products are the products of the MyOcean project. The development of the Black Sea operational oceanography made it possible to transfer of cost-efficient technologies to the region to create a new tool against oil pollution and for life-saving in case of a shipwreck. The Black Sea Track Web (BSTW) system of accidental oil spill evolution forecast in the Black Sea has been created in the framework of MONINFO project. The system is based on the Seatrack Web (STW) model developing by the consortium of the Baltic Sea countries. It is adapted to the configuration of the Black Sea observing system and is implemented to the regional contingency plans. The BSTW system consists of three parts: - forcing in the form of forecasted stratification, sea currents and

  3. Determination of wave energy potential of black sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingölbali, Bilal; Akpınar, Adem; van Vledder, G.P.; Lynett, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess wave energy potential and its long-term spatial and temporal characteristics in the Black Sea within the TUBITAK research project (Akpınar et al., 2015). With this purpose, a wave model (SWAN model version 41.01 driven by the CFSR winds) over the entire Black Sea was

  4. Geochemistry of uranium in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Bogushlavskij, S.G.; Babinets, A.E.; Solov'eva, L.V.; Kirchanova, A.I.; Kir'yanov, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    According to the results of expedition investigations on the base of SCOICH program (''Acade''Mmician Vernadsky'' and ichael Lomonosov'' shiptrips) main geometrical peculiarities of uranium distribution in deep water of the Black Sea including benthic and silt waters are studied. Sampling have been made from the surface layer across the whole width of the water and from benthic sediments (silt water). Uranium in samples has been determined by the adsorption-colorimetric method. Nonuniform uranium distribution (depending on water dynamics) over the basin area and across the whole width of water is established. Most of uranium is contained in the 0-500 m layer and in the eastern part of the sea. Uranium content decreases in depth, it is higher in the benthic water layer. It is shown that uranium decrease in a hydrogen-sulphide sea zone is conditioned by its reduction due to formation of more adsorption-active forms and effective sedimentation. Causes of differences in uranium content in silt waters have been found. High uranium concentrations in silt waters are confined to active sulphate reduction characterized by elevated values of pHsub(#betta#), alkalinity, Eh. In weak suphate reduction zones (pHsub(#betta#), Alsub(k) value decrease) in silt waters uranium content is lower as a result of sorption-active forms formation and their transition into the solid phase of sediments

  5. Environmental pollution of the Black Sea: A search for answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, V.; Osvath, I.; Froehlich, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea region governments have initiated a regional approach to the management and protection of the marine environment supported by research at national and international levels. Environmental problems in the Black Sea are serious. The Sea's shallow, mixed surface waters receive river discharges which are heavily loaded with nutrients containing nitrogen and phosphorus and contaminated with industrial and mining wastes. In addition, coastal industries appear to discharge wastes directly into the sea with little or no treatment. Thus the water quality of the life-supporting surface layer has seriously deteriorated. Eutrophication (an enrichment in nutrients) presently prevails in many parts of the Black Sea. It has dramatically changed the marine food chain, thus contributing to the demise of the Black Sea fishery and, especially in the northwestern region, to its diminished amenity value. Other factors also are at work, including changes in the hydrological balance, overfishing, and chemical pollution. Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, riparian countries further identified radioactive pollution as having a high priority. This article looks at major aspects of the state of the Black Sea's environment, and outlines the potential of, and first results derived from, the use of isotope tracers in Black Sea studies. It further discusses IAEA initiatives to join concerted international actions directed towards rehabilitation of the Black Sea environment. 1 fig., 3 tabs, 2 maps

  6. Species composition of Black Sea marine planktonic copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubanova, A.; Altukhov, D.; Stefanova, K.; Arashkevich, E.; Kamburska, L.; Prusova, I.; Svetlichny, L.; Timofte, F.; Uysal, Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the changes in the marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea species' list from the beginning of taxonomic research to the present day. The study was based on the SESAME biological database, unpublished data, literature and data obtained during the course of the SESAME project. Comparisons were made with the Guidebook for Marine Fauna of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, which revealed changes both in the taxonomic status of some species and in the structure of the copepod community. The taxonomic status of two species (Acartia clausi small form and Centropages kroyeri pontica) and the nomenclature of two species (Oihona minuta and Calanus helgolandicus) have been changed. Three native species (Acartia margalefi, Oithona nana, and Paracartia latisetosa) have disappeared. Two non-indigenous copepods (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) became established in the Black Sea ecosystem in the 1970s and 2000s, respectively. The success of their establishment was determined by biological features of the species and vulnerability of the native copepod community to invasions. It is highly probable that both species were introduced to the Black Sea by vessel ballast water. The hypothesis of "mediterranization" of the Black Sea fauna does not appear to hold true for zooplankton. Numerous claims of alien copepod species in the Black Sea remain largely unverified due to insufficient information. Data on newly discovered species of the Acartia genus are not authenticated. An updated list of marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea is hereby presented.

  7. HYDROOPTICS FOR ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTYNOV, Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method for environmental monitoring of the Black Sea basin. The main indicator of environmental changes of water masses authors considers the variation of their transparency. In the currently used method for measuring the transparency of water environment based on definition ZW – depth visibility of white standard disc diameter of 300 millimeters, called the white disс, which falls into the aquatic environment from the deck of a surface ship. This method for measuring the transparency has significant drawbacks, among them – the ability to determine the transparency of the water only in the surface layer, dependent on weather conditions and the low accuracy of the measurement ZW value. To eliminate these drawbacks the authors propose another method of measuring the transparency of water environment based on the use of laser technologies.

  8. Marine fishes in the Black Sea: recent conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. YANKOVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A revised checklist of the fish fauna of the Black Sea is reported. This paper is the first attempt to present an actual Check List of the fishes in the Black Sea according to the data available in the Black Sea countries, as well as their current conservation status, enlisted in IUCN. The total number of the Black Sea fish species is 189. Concerning the conservation status only two species (1.06 % are extinct (Acipenser nudiventris and A. sturio, 3.70 % are critically endangered, 16.40 % are vulnerable, 1.06% are endangered, for 10.58 % there is a lack of data, 26.46% has been classified in the category “Least concern”, 2.65 % are “Near threatened” and 38. 10% are “Not evaluated”.

  9. Recent Extreme Marine Events at Southern Coast of Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kirezci, Cagil; Baykal, Cuneyt; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Erol, Onur; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The utilization at the coastal areas of Black Sea basin has increased in the recent years with the projects such as large commercial ports, international transportation hubs, gas and petrol pipelines, touristic and recreational infrastructures both along surrounding shoreline. Although Black Sea is a closed basin, extreme storms and storm surges have also been observed with an increasing frequency in the recent years. Among those events, February 1999, March 2013 and September 2014 storms impacted Southern coast of Black sea have clearly shown that the increasing economic value at the coastal areas caused the increasing cost of damages and loss of property by natural hazards. The storm occurred on February 19-20, 1999 is one of the most destructive storm in the last decades. The 1999 event (1999 Southern Black sea storm) caused destruction at all harbors and coastal protection structures along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The complete damage of the breakwater of Giresun Harbor and damage on the harbor structures and cargo handling equipment were the major impacts of the 1999 Southern Black sea storm. Similar coastal impact have also been observed during the September 24, 2014 storm at 500m East of Giresun harbor. Although there are considerable number of destructive storms observed at southern coast of Black sea recently, data on these events are limited and vastly scattered. In this study the list of recent extreme marine events at South coast of the Black sea compiled and related data such as wind speed, wave height, period, and type of damages are cataloged. Particular attention is focused on the 1999 and 2014 storm events. The meteorological and morphological characteristics which may be considered as the reasons of the generation and coastal amplification of these storms are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is partly supported by Turkish Russian Joint Research Grant Program by TUBITAK (Turkey) and RFBR (Russia), and TUBITAK 213M534 Research Project.

  10. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-y...

  11. Tectonic evolution of the Black Sea orogene belt and the history of opening of the Black Sea basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesuemezsoy, S. (Istanbul Univ. (Turkey))

    1988-08-01

    The Black Sea basin is surrounded by successive orogenic belts of Hercynian, Cimmerian, and Alpine ages. The Rhodope, Thracian, western Pontian, and Transcaucasian (RTPT) blocks of Precambrian age were involved by the circum-Black Sea orogene belts. The Hercynian orogene was documented in the Balkanide, Great Caucasian, Kriastide, southern Pontian, and Transcaucasian belts. The Cimmerian orogene extended north and south of the Black Sea. The southern Cimmerian orogene was represented by the circum-Rhodope and East Thracian-Strandja-Kuere belts. The northern Cimmerian orogene belt extended along the Dobruca-Crimean and southern slope belts. Following the demise of the Black Sea Cimmerian basin, the northernmost oceanic branch extending from Nish-Trajan through the present Black Sea to the intra-Transcaucasian basin, was opened within the Hercynian and Cimmerian consolidated terrain in the Late Jurassic. The other oceanic branch, extending from Izmir-Ankara through circum Kirsehir to various basins, was opened within the Paleotethyan collision belt, considered to be eastern extension of the Pindus basin. The Nish-Trajan sector of the northernmost basin was closed in the middle Cretaceous, and the Moesian platform re-fused to the Getic-Serbo-Macedonian-Rhodope belt. The easternmost extension of the intra-Transcaucasian basin disappeared in the Late Cretaceous. Consequently, the northernmost oceanic branch was reduced to the present Black Sea basin.

  12. Introduction: The Black Sea as region and horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Caroline; Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning...... of backs. We then discuss the Black Sea in the context of maritime ethnography and the study of ports, “hero cities”, pipelines, and political crises. The following sections consider Smith's notion of the “territorialization of memory” in relation to histories of exile and the more recent interactions...

  13. The performance of the Black Sea Commission as a collaborative governance regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoyan, Emma; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Toonen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is often claimed that the Black Sea is one of the most degraded seas in the world. Management to rehabilitate the Black Sea requires cooperation between the coastal countries to be successful. However, regional cooperation in the Black Sea is poorly coordinated and lack concrete outcomes. This

  14. Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bilyay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the extreme waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing extreme waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between –0.01 and –0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1–4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the extreme waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hsrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f–9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f–4, –5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5–70 for the extreme wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, extreme waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that extreme waves appear within a group of high waves.

  15. Predicting foraging hotspots for Yelkouan Shearwater in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortega, María; İsfendiyaroğlu, Süreyya

    2017-07-01

    The Yelkouan shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan) is a vulnerable species endemic to the Mediterranean Region, but there is little information of its ecology particularly when at sea. In this study, we assessed the habitat use by Yelkouan shearwater in the Black Sea during the breeding (March-July) and non-breeding (August-February) periods of 2013, using boat-based surveys and shore-based counts. We created a species distribution model (SDM) based on the environmental variables that most accurately reflected the oceanographic habitat of this species in order to delineate foraging hotspots. Our habitat modelling analyses suggest that Yelkouan shearwaters respond to complex bio-physical coupling, as evidenced by their association with oceanographic variables. Foraging Yelkouan shearwaters mainly occurred on the western Black Sea continental shelf, indicating that Yelkouan shearwaters were foraging in shallow, cold and coastal waters. In the non-breeding period, Yelkouan Shearwater occurred beyond the Black Sea continental shelf, a wide pelagic extension of sea, indicating that shearwaters foraged in deep, warm and pelagic waters. These results are consistent with earlier studies, which identified the Black Sea as an important congregation site for Mediterranean Yelkouan shearwater populations outside the breeding season. This study demonstrates how the integration of boat-based survey data, shore-based counts and modelling can provide a wider understanding of the linkage between marine ecosystems that is mediated by marine megafauna such as pelagic seabirds.

  16. Black Sea outflow response to Holocene meltwater events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrle, Jens O; Bollmann, Jörg; Gebühr, Christina; Schulz, Hartmut; Sheward, Rosie M; Giesenberg, Annika

    2018-03-06

    During the Holocene, North American ice sheet collapse and rapid sea-level rise reconnected the Black Sea with the global ocean. Rapid meltwater releases into the North Atlantic and associated climate change arguably slowed the pace of Neolithisation across southeastern Europe, originally hypothesized as a catastrophic flooding that fueled culturally-widespread deluge myths. However, we currently lack an independent record linking the timing of meltwater events, sea-level rise and environmental change with the timing of Neolithisation in southeastern Europe. Here, we present a sea surface salinity record from the Northern Aegean Sea indicative of two meltwater events at ~8.4 and ~7.6 kiloyears that can be directly linked to rapid declines in the establishment of Neolithic sites in southeast Europe. The meltwater events point to an increased outflow of low salinity water from the Black Sea driven by rapid sea level rise >1.4 m following freshwater outbursts from Lake Agassiz and the final decay of the Laurentide ice sheet. Our results shed new light on the link between catastrophic sea-level rise and the Neolithisation of southeastern Europe, and present a historical example of how coastal populations could have been impacted by future rapid sea-level rise.

  17. 77 FR 76950 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2012 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Specifications; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder allocations...

  18. Storm surges in the Western Black Sea. Operational forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MUNGOV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the storm surges in the Black Sea is lower than that in other regions of the World Ocean but they cause significant damages as the magnitude of the sea level set-up is up to 7-8 times greater than that of other sea level variations. New methods and systems for storm surge forecasting and studying their statistical characteristics are absolutely necessary for the purposes of the coastal zone management. The operational forecasting storm surge model of Meteo-France was adopted for the Black Sea in accordance with the bilateral agreement between Meteo-France and NINMH. The model was verified using tide-gauge observations for the strongest storms observed along the Bulgarian coast over the last 10 years.

  19. Reducing future nutrient inputs to the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna Petrivna; Kroeze, Carolien; Kopilevych, Volodymyr Abramovych; Voytenko, Larysa Vladyslavivna

    2014-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of dissolved inorganic (DIN, DIP) and organic (DON, DOP) nitrogen and phosphorus to the Black Sea causing coastal eutrophication. The aim of this study is to explore future trends in river export of these nutrients to the sea through a sensitivity analysis. We used the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to this end. We calculated that between 2000 and 2050 nutrient inputs to the Black Sea may increase or decrease, depending on the assumed environmental management. We analyzed the effects of agricultural and sewage management on nutrient inputs to the sea in 2050 relative to two Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) scenarios, Global Orchestration (GO) and Adaptive Mosaic (AM). In these baselines, total N and P inputs to the Black Sea decrease between 2000 and 2050, but not for all rivers and nutrient forms. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce nutrient inputs to the sea further between 2000 and 2050 in particular for dissolved inorganic N and P and for many river basins, but not for all. For scenarios assuming combined agricultural and sewage management dissolved inorganic N and P inputs to the Black Sea are reduced by up to two-thirds between 2000 and 2050 and dissolved organic N and P inputs by one-third. River export of DIN is mainly affected by agricultural management and that of DIP by sewage management. On the other hand, in scenarios assuming increased fertilizer use for, for instance bioenergy crops, nutrient inputs to the sea increase. An increase in DIP inputs by southern rivers seems difficult to avoid because of the increasing number of people connected to sewage systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mityagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment.

  1. Western Black Sea region-tectonics, evolution and petroleum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Western Black Sea region comprises parts of:East European platform, Scythian paltform, North Dobrogea orogen, Moesian paltform, Balkan orogen, Eastern Srednogorie, Strandzha orogen, Karkinit basin, West Black Sea basin, Bourgas basin and Thrace basin. The West Black Sea basin consists of two western branches; northern one-Histria sub-basin (in Romania) and southern one-Kamchia sub-basin (in Bulgaria).The eastern Mosian platform is fringed to North by North Dobrogea rift (Seghedi,2001) and to South by Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan rift zone (ESBRZ). These two rift basins were inverted into orogenic belts. Eastwards to the Western Black Sea basin only a broad transitional zone with complex structure can be outlined. To West the Moesian platforms surrounded by south Carpathian-Balkan thrust-fold belt. Both rift basins restricted the Eastern Moesian platform to north and south, are superimposed on the Hercynian sutures.The North Dobrogea rift basin-on the suture between the south-western edge of East Europen platform and Moesian block, and the ESBRZ-on the suture between Moesian block and peri-Gondwana derived Thracian block. The South Moesian platform margin was repeatedly affected by Mesozoic rifting cycles in the Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan zone (ESBZ), interrupted and followed by compressional events,causing strong platform margin shortening and ultimately its overprinting by the alpine orogen.

  2. Chemical composition of Eastern Black Sea aerosol--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcılar, Ilker; Zararsız, Abdullah; Kalaycı, Yakup; Doğan, Güray; Tuncel, Gürdal

    2014-08-01

    Trace element composition of atmospheric particles collected at a high altitude site on the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey was investigated to understand atmospheric transport of pollutants to this semi-closed basin. Aerosol samples were collected at a timber-storage area, which is operated by the General Directorate of Forestry. The site is situated at a rural area and is approximately 50 km to the Black Sea coast and 200 km to the Georgia border of Turkey. Coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) aerosol samples were collected between 2011 and 2013 using a "stacked filter unit". Collected samples were shipped to the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, where Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ba, Pb were measured by Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Comparison of measured concentrations of elements with corresponding data generated at other parts of Turkey demonstrated that concentrations of pollution derived elements are higher at Eastern Black Sea than their corresponding concentrations measured at other parts of Turkey, which is attributed to frequent transport of pollutants from north wind sector. Positive matric factorization revealed four factors including three anthropogenic and a crustal factor. Southeastern parts of Turkey, Georgia and Black Sea coast of Ukraine were identified as source regions affecting composition of particles at our site, using trajectory statistics, namely "potential source contribution function" (PSCF). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissolved rare earth elements in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Landing, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earths in the deep anoxic Black Sea are about one order of magnitude higher than in normal open ocean waters. From a minimum at the suboxic-anoxic interface at about 107 m depth, concentrations increase strongly to a maximum at about 300–400 m depth. Concentrations of Ce range

  4. Geopolitical Interests in the Black Sea / Caspian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    than 97,000 tons can‘t move into the Black Sea. The dissension with US which has lobbied for a revision of the Montreux Convention, 26 appeared...turkey-russiarelations.ppt (accessed November 11, 2010). 46 47 See the Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits, Montreux , July 20, 1936

  5. European Security in the Wider Black Sea Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinga, Aurelian

    2007-01-01

    .... foreign policy and a new approach to the wider Black Sea security environment. After a decade of decline due to its energy policies, the Russian Federation has recovered and is trying to regain its position as the World's second greatest power...

  6. Radioactive Contamination of the North-western Black Sea Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S. B.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Egorov, V. N.; Martin, J. M.; Korotkov, A. A.; Stokozov, N. A.

    2002-03-01

    The paper deals with the input and deposition of the man-made radionuclides 137Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am introduced to the north-western Black Sea, over the last few decades, as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl nuclear accident. One approach taken was to retrieve the deposition records of these radionuclides in the sediments. The deposition chronology was compared with monitoring data of the post-Chernobyl input of 137Cs to the NW Black Sea sediments from the Danube River. The partitioning of 137 Cs between suspended matter and water was traced along the salinity gradient in the Danube mixing zone. In sediments deposited in the vicinity of the Danube delta and the Dniepr estuary, the activity of Chernobyl 137Cs had reached its maximum 5 and 10 years after the accident, respectively. The activity ratio of 137Cs to 239+240Pu and 241 Am revealed a higher mobility of 137Cs in the Danube River basin compared to plutonium and americium. The percentage of particulate 137Cs and its distribution coefficient vs salinity have allowed the estimation of sedimentary scavenging and desorption of caesium in the Danube mixing zone. Comparison of the post-Chernobyl 137Cs input from the Danube to the 137Cs inventory in the adjacent Black Sea sediments showed that more than 70% of this radionuclide was deposited in the Danube-Black Sea mixing zone.

  7. Operational numerical wind-wave model for the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KORTCHEVA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the discrete spectral shallow water wave model named VAGBUHL1 is presented. This model is used for real-time Black Sea state forecasting. The model was verified against satellite ERS-2 altimeter wave height data.

  8. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Preliminary 2013 Quota Adjustments; 2013... the 2013 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, as well as the 2014 summer flounder and... necessary to comply with regulations implementing the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery...

  9. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule Correction and Extension AGENCY... recreational black sea bass fishery in the Federal waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 3 to 200... implemented with no end date, and to extend the prohibition on recreational fishing for black sea bass in the...

  10. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit has been exceeded. No one may fish for or possess black sea bass in Federal waters for the remainder of...

  11. Rethinking the Black Sea: Between the Trans-Atlantic and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1991, Ukraine holds about 30% of the northern shore of the Black Sea, Georgia controls roughly 12% of the maritime littoral (including the separatist territories) while Russia owns about 13% of the Black Sea shores. Turkey and Ukraine hold the biggest share of the Black Sea shore. Generally speaking, during the two ...

  12. Variational data assimilation system "INM RAS - Black Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agoshkov, Valery; Assovskiy, Maksim; Giniatulin, Sergey; Zakharova, Natalia; Kuimov, Grigory; Fomin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for Data Assimilation Procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The problems discussed above are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for Personal Computers (PC). Special problems and questions arise while effective ICS versions for PC are being developed. These problems and questions can be solved with applying modern methods of numerical mathematics and by solving "parallelism problem" using OpenMP technology and special linear algebra packages. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the work the following problems and questions are discussed: practical problems that can be studied by ICS; parallelism problems and their solutions with applying of OpenMP technology and the linear algebra packages used in ICS "INM - Black Sea"; Interface of ICS. The results of ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" testing are presented. Efficiency of technologies and methods applied are discussed. The work was supported by RFBR, grants No. 13-01-00753, 13-05-00715 and by The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, project 8291, project 11.519.11.1005 References: [1] V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 5-31 [2] E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 [3] V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V

  13. Black Sea thermohaline properties: Long‐term trends and variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stips, A.; Garcia‐Gorriz, E.; Macias Moy, D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The current knowledge about spatial and temporal dynamics of the Black Sea's thermohaline structure is incomplete because of missing data and sparse distribution of existing measurements in space and time. This study presents 56 year continuous simulations of the Black Sea's hydrodynamics using the 3D General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM), without incorporating any relaxation toward climatological or observational data fields. This property of the model allows us to estimate independent temporal trends, in addition to resolving the spatial structure. The simulations suggest that the intermediate layer temperature is characterized by a weak positive trend (warming), whereas the surface temperature does not show a clear linear trend. Different salinity trends have been established at the surface (negative), upper (weaker negative) and main halocline (positive). Three distinct dynamic periods are identified (1960–1970, 1970–1995, 1995–2015), which exhibit pronounced changes in the Black Sea's thermohaline properties and basin circulation. Strengthening of the main cyclonic circulation, accompanied by intensification of the mesoscale anticyclonic eddy formation is found. Both events strongly affect the sea surface salinity but contribute in opposing directions. Specifically, strong composite large‐scale circulation leads to an increase in sea surface salinity, while enhanced formation of mesoscale anticyclones decreases it. Salinity evolution with time is thus the result of the competition of these two opposing yet interdependent processes. PMID:28989833

  14. Black Sea thermohaline properties: Long-term trends and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinova, S; Stips, A; Garcia-Gorriz, E; Macias Moy, D

    2017-07-01

    The current knowledge about spatial and temporal dynamics of the Black Sea's thermohaline structure is incomplete because of missing data and sparse distribution of existing measurements in space and time. This study presents 56 year continuous simulations of the Black Sea's hydrodynamics using the 3D General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM), without incorporating any relaxation toward climatological or observational data fields. This property of the model allows us to estimate independent temporal trends, in addition to resolving the spatial structure. The simulations suggest that the intermediate layer temperature is characterized by a weak positive trend (warming), whereas the surface temperature does not show a clear linear trend. Different salinity trends have been established at the surface (negative), upper (weaker negative) and main halocline (positive). Three distinct dynamic periods are identified (1960-1970, 1970-1995, 1995-2015), which exhibit pronounced changes in the Black Sea's thermohaline properties and basin circulation. Strengthening of the main cyclonic circulation, accompanied by intensification of the mesoscale anticyclonic eddy formation is found. Both events strongly affect the sea surface salinity but contribute in opposing directions. Specifically, strong composite large-scale circulation leads to an increase in sea surface salinity, while enhanced formation of mesoscale anticyclones decreases it. Salinity evolution with time is thus the result of the competition of these two opposing yet interdependent processes.

  15. Sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Weber, A.; Zopfi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35...... the process was very sluggish with turnover times of methane within the sulfate-methane transition zone of 20 yr or more. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea...... oxidation accounted for 7-11% of the total sulfate reduction in slope and deep-sea sediments. Although this methane-driven sulfate reduction shaped the entire sulfate gradient, it was only equivalent to the sulfate reduction in the uppermost 1.5 cm of surface sediment. Methane oxidation was complete, yet...

  16. On the Bioeconomic potential of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian

    2015-04-01

    The paper is a plea for the need to engage in more intensive researches on the Black Sea region bioeconomy so that they should keep pace with the researches taking place in other European seas. Bioeconomy offers Europe a unique opportunity to address complex inter-connected challenges, while achieving economic growth. Bioeconomy refers to the set of economic activities relating to the invention, development, production and use of biological products and processes. According to the European Commission, bioeconomy can be found in societal challenge category entitled "Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research, and the Bioeconomy" (http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/h2020/index_en.htm); a transition is needed towards an optimal and renewable use of biological resources and towards sustainable primary production and processing systems. The author makes a brief overview of the European preoccupations concerning scientific research into bioeconomy and, equally, presents Romanian thinking in the field, launched several decades ago, but never applied and developed in practice. In 1933 Dr. Gr. Antipa, former outstanding student of Ernst Haeckel at Jena, expounded his conception of general biology and the biological structure of the Black Sea introducing the concepts of "biosociology" and "bioeconomy", drawing conclusions on the natural mechanism of fish production in this sea and specifying the determining factors in functioning. Antipa notes the lack of uniformity of the living conditions in the Black Sea and draws conclusions based on indices and faunal aspects found in different areas and at different depths: 1. The Black Sea, to an even greater extent than the Baltic Sea, with which it has some similarity both of them having a continuous surface and homogeneous appearance, is divided into more zones or biotypes, bounded horizontally and vertically - i.e. depending on areas and depths - each with distinct and well

  17. Chandler wobble excitation by catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boschi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that during the late Quaternary glaciation the Black Sea formed an isolated inland lake (Ross et al., 1970. New geological data and the recognition of sudden population movements away from the Black Sea coasts suggest that the basin was rapidly flooded through the Bosphorus sill 7150 years bp, causing a sea level rise of ~ 135 m in a few years (Ryan et al., 1997. As shown here, such a catastrophic redistribution of mass has significantly altered the amplitude of the Chandler wobble, the free motion of the pole of rotation around the main inertia axis of the Earth (Lambeck, 1980. We also estimate that during the flooding the pole of rotation was diverted from its secular path and shifted by ~ 30 m, at a rate of several meters per year. These rotational variations are found to be orders of magnitude larger than those produced by other short-term geophysical processes, such as earthquakes seismic moment release (O'Connell and Dziewonski, 1979; Chao et al.,1996, anthropogenic water impoundment (Chao, 1995, and tectonic mass movements (Alfonsi and Spada, 1998. The Black Sea flooding may thus be responsible for the most drastic change in the rotational parameters of the Earth in the recent history of our planet.

  18. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p Black Sea is a hotspot for microplastic pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coccolithophore assemblage response to Black Sea Water inflow into the North Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Malinverno, E.; Lagaria, A.; Mara, P.; Archontikis, O.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to presents the species composition of living coccolithophore communities in the NE Aegean Sea, investigating their spatial and temporal variations along a north-south transect in the area receiving the inflowing surface Black Sea Water (BSW) over the deeper Levantine Water (LW) layer. Coccolithophores in the area were relatively diverse and a total of 95 species over 3 sampling periods studied were recognized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two coccolithophore Groups (I, IIa, IIb, IIc) with different ecological preferences. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species of Group I, whereas Syracosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp. and holococcolithophores were prevailing in the highly diversified Group II assemblages. Biometric analysis conducted on E. huxleyi coccoliths from Aegean water column and Black Sea sediment trap samples, indicated that during autumn, NE Aegean specimens in samples under BSW influence were featured by unimodal distribution concerning the coccolith relative tube width, with values similar to those provided by the Black Sea specimens. In early spring, coccoliths in the stations with increased BSW influx displayed a bimodal pattern of relative tube width with smaller values found mostly in the surface layers, while the distribution became again unimodal and dominated by larger values within the deeper LW layers. In the summer period, the typical LW holococcolithophore species (Group II) presented low cell numbers in the surface layer (Black Sea early summer bloom conditions, E. huxleyi was almost absent in the NE Aegean during the summer sampling period.

  20. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2013-2014 Summer Flounder, 2013- 2014 Scup, and 2013 Black Sea Bass... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2013 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass...-Aside Program. The implementing regulations for the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery...

  1. Toxicity of copper on marine organisms from the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Bat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of copper on Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758 (C. crangon and Syngnathus acus (Linnaeus, 1758 (S. acus from Black Sea. Methods: The acute toxicity of copper in water with clean sediment to C. crangon and S. acus from Sinop Peninsula of the Black Sea was evaluated by static 10-day and 21-day bioassays. Results: Mortality of both organisms increased with increase in concentrations of copper. The results showed that S. acus was more sensitive to copper than C. crangon. Conclusions: In the present study, both C. crangon and S. acus have been shown to be a suitable test species to assess heavy metal toxicity using static 21-day and 10-day bioassays.

  2. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  3. Microbial Manganese and Sulfate Reduction in Black Sea Shelf Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Thamdrup, Bo; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Amann, Rudolf

    2000-01-01

    The microbial ecology of anaerobic carbon oxidation processes was investigated in Black Sea shelf sediments from mid-shelf with well-oxygenated bottom water to the oxic-anoxic chemocline at the shelf-break. At all stations, organic carbon (Corg) oxidation rates were rapidly attenuated with depth in anoxically incubated sediment. Dissimilatory Mn reduction was the most important terminal electron-accepting process in the active surface layer to a depth of ∼1 cm, while SO42− reduction accounted...

  4. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  5. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  6. THE ECONOMY AND ENERGY OF THE BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Floriana Popescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea region has proved to be an emerging hub for Europe’s security and has experienced several changes and a great development at the beginning of the twenty-first century. This process is currently carried out, and has important implications for European security in a broader definition of the term - to achieve traditional military security, but also tackling other challenges at the address soft security issues, such as organized crime. Located at the crossroads of three regions of paramount importance - Europe, Middle East and Central Asia – the Black Sea region is a major transit area for energy and at the same time, an important source of asymmetric risks and outbreaks of conflicts. Therefore, analysing this region from an economical point of view, but not forgetting the energy security implications for this area, represents the main focus of this article, along with underlining the importance of various actors in the region and their actions’ impact on the future development of the Black Sea territory and surroundings.

  7. The Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries at Risk from Overexploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C.; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  8. Gas hydrates of the Black sea sediment section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, Y.A.; Kruglyakova, R.P.; Kruglyakova, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : This article shows how gas formation and its genesis in the Black sea sediments forms two types of gas hydrates. The first is diagenetic, formed from biochemical methane. The second type is thermogenic, formed from the thermogenic gases and represented not only by methane, but also by its light homologues, like ethane and propane. The most favourable area for formation of the gas hydrates of the first type in the Black sea is the foot of the continental slope and areas of underwater cones of paleorivers drift-over. Gas hydrates of the second type are accumulated in the areas of underwater mud volcanoes. In accordance with the results of seismic and seismoacoustic studies in deposited thickness of the Black sea the specific anomalies of the BSR and VAMP's types are revealed that associate with the foot of gas hydrate deposits. Two gas hydrates are distinguished according to sources of gas supply and genesis : type 1 - diagenetic, type 2 - thermogenic. When some critique is reached the gas hydrate trap breaks and volcanic eruption occurs. Thus, occurrence of underwater volcanism may testify the presence of deposits.

  9. Black Sea challenges; Les enjeux de la Mer Noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, J.F. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2008-03-15

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  10. Oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, D.; Oezsoy, E.; Salihoglu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The stable isotopes 18 O and 2 H, together with the transient tracer 3 H can be used to identify origins and characteristics of distinct water masses in the Black Sea, and in its smaller neighbour, the Marmara Sea, connected between them and to the Mediterranean Sea through the Straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles, respectively. Exchange through the system and the water mass formation and evolution are characterised, based on the isotope measurements. Spatial coverage including the shelf and deep regions, with improved accuracy and reduced noise provide-definitive assessments of pycnocline and deep mixing in the system. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Reconstructing the trophic history of the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunev, Oleg; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    In the last 50 years the Black Sea has undergone large changes driven by increasing anthropogenic pressures. We estimated the integrated annual primary production (APP) for different shelf regions during the early eutrophication phase (1963-1976) using chlorophyll a and winter nitrate concentrations as proxy observations of primary production to describe its seasonal variation. For comparison, APP was estimated during the period when eutrophication peaked (1985-1992). In the early eutrophication period APP was estimated at 64-89 g C m-2 yr-1 for most part of the shelf, except the shelf part influenced by the Danube River (the shallow waters off the Romanian and Bulgarian coasts) where APP was ∼126 g C m-2 yr-1. In these two different shelf parts, APP increased to 138-190 and 266-318 g C m-2 yr-1 during the peak eutrophication period. These spatial differences are attributed to the large nutrient inputs from the Danube River. The APP estimates provide new insight into the eutrophication history of the Black Sea shelf, documenting stronger signs of eutrophiction than observed in other enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea. Since the peak eutrophication period APP is estimated to have decreased by approximately 15-20%.

  12. Oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsoy, E.; Salihoglu, I.; Rank, D.

    1999-01-01

    The stable isotopes oxygen-18 18 O and deuterium 2 H, as well as tritium 3 H transient tracer were used to study pycnocline and deep mixing, to identify water masses in the Marmara and Black Seas, and to characterise exchange through the Turkish Straits System. (author)

  13. Freshwater lake to salt-water sea causing widespread hydrate dissociation in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboulot, Vincent; Ker, Stephan; Sultan, Nabil; Thomas, Yannick; Marsset, Bruno; Scalabrin, Carla; Ruffine, Livio; Boulart, Cédric; Ion, Gabriel

    2018-01-09

    Gas hydrates, a solid established by water and gas molecules, are widespread along the continental margins of the world. Their dynamics have mainly been regarded through the lens of temperature-pressure conditions. A fluctuation in one of these parameters may cause destabilization of gas hydrate-bearing sediments below the seafloor with implications in ocean acidification and eventually in global warming. Here we show throughout an example of the Black Sea, the world's most isolated sea, evidence that extensive gas hydrate dissociation may occur in the future due to recent salinity changes of the sea water. Recent and forthcoming salt diffusion within the sediment will destabilize gas hydrates by reducing the extension and thickness of their thermodynamic stability zone in a region covering at least 2800 square kilometers which focus seepages at the observed sites. We suspect this process to occur in other world regions (e.g., Caspian Sea, Sea of Marmara).

  14. Rare earth element exchange through the Bosporus : The Black Sea as a net source of REEs to the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; German, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Bosporus is the only source of seawater to the Black Sea and helps to maintain the basin-wide salinity gradient that caused the Black Sea to become the largest permanently anoxic basin in the world, some 3000 years ago. Concentrations of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) in each of the three

  15. Evaluation of the contamination level of sea bottom sediments on the Crimean coast of the Black and Azov Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhonova Elena

    2016-12-01

    At the most stations in the Azov Sea the content of HM exceeded values obtained in the Black Sea. Now (2016 in the open Crimean coast bottom sediments of the Black Sea have properties typical for marine sediments of the studied area. There is an upward trend in the content of chloroform-extracted substances in the Black Sea region, but the sediments are not contaminated with oil products. Taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of marine sediments, it can be stated that the condition the studied area as a whole is safe.

  16. Simulations of The Extreme Precipitation Event Enhanced by Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly over the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakan Doǧan, Onur; Önol, Barış

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul Technical University, Aeronautics and Astronautics Faculty, Meteorological Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey In this study, we examined the extreme precipitation case over the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey by using regional climate model, RegCM4. The flood caused by excessive rain in August 26, 2010 killed 12 people and the landslides in Rize province have damaged many buildings. The station based two days total precipitation exceeds 200 mm. One of the usual suspects for this extreme event is positive anomaly of sea surface temperature (SST) over the Black Sea where the significant warming trend is clear in the last three decades. In August 2010, the monthly mean SST is higher than 3 °C with respect to the period of 1981-2010. We designed three sensitivity simulations with RegCM4 to define the effects of the Black Sea as a moisture source. The simulation domain with 10-km horizontal resolution covers all the countries bordering the Black Sea and simulation period is defined for entire August 2010. It is also noted that the spatial variability of the precipitation produced by the reference simulation (Sim-0) is consistent with the TRMM data. In terms of analysis of the sensitivity to SST, we forced the simulations by subtracting 1 °C (Sim-1), 2 °C (Sim-2) and 3 °C (Sim-3) from the ERA-Interim 6-hourly SST data (considering only the Black Sea). The sensitivity simulations indicate that daily total precipitation for all these simulations gradually decreased based on the reference simulation (Sim-0). 3-hourly maximum precipitation rates for Sim-0, Sim-1, Sim-2 and Sim-3 are 32, 25, 13 and 10.5 mm respectively over the hotspot region. Despite the fact that the simulations signal points out the same direction, degradation of the precipitation intensity does not indicate the same magnitude for all simulations. It is revealed that 2 °C (Sim-2) threshold is critical for SST sensitivity. We also calculated the humidity differences from the simulation and these

  17. Controls of Multiple Stressors on the Black Sea Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Oguz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea is one of the most severely degraded and exploited large marine ecosystems in the world. For the last 50 years after the depletion of large predatory fish stocks, anchovy (with the partial contribution of sprat has been acting as the main top predator species and experienced a major stock collapse at the end of 1990s. After the collapse, eastern part of the southern Black Sea became the only region sustaining relatively high anchovy catch (400,000 tons whereas the total catch within the rest of the sea was reduced to nearly its one-third. The lack of recovery of different fish stocks under a slow ecosystem rehabilitation may be attributed, on the one hand, to inappropriate management measures and the lack of harmonized fishery policy among the riparian countries. On the other hand, impacts of multiple stressors (eutrophication, alien species invasions, natural climatic variations on the food web may contribute to resilience of the system toward its recovery. The overfishing/recovery problem therefore cannot be isolated from rehabilitation efforts devoted to the long-term chronic degradation of the food web structure, and alternative fishery-related management measures must be adopted as a part of a comprehensive ecosystem-based management strategy. The present study provides a data-driven ecosystem assessment, underlines the key environmental issues and threats, and points to the critical importance of holistic approach to resolve the fishery-ecosystem interactions. It also stresses the transboundary nature of the problem.

  18. Accumulating ability of Black Sea fishes as for natural radioelement Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    The first determination of the natural radioisotope 210 Po concentration in the Black Sea fishes of different species collected in the coast zone and Sevastopol bays during May-June 1999 is presented. Accumulative ability depends on the fish species by increasing from bottom and demersal to pelagic ones. The highest 210 Po concentrations were determinate in the Black Sea anchovy and sprat. The role of viscera and liver in the 210 Po accumulation by Black Sea fishes is shown

  19. New Strategies for the Waste Management in the Black Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen GASPAROTTI; Alina RAILEANU; Eugen RUSU

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposed herewith presents some new strategies for the waste management in the Black Sea basin by designing an integrated system for pollution prevention. The ecosystem of the Black Sea is strongly affected by pollution discharges coming from various sources and among them the marine accidents present the highest environmental risks. From this perspective, in order to reduce the pollution and protect the environment in the Black Sea region, to implement adequate strategies that woul...

  20. Sound-scattering layers of the Black Sea based on ADCP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. N.; Lemeshko, E. M.; Fedorov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses the results of expeditions to the northwestern part of the Black Sea carried out in 2004-2008. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) with an operating frequency of 150 and 300 kHz were used as the echo sounders. The characteristic scales of the spatial variability of sound scattering in the Black Sea were determined; the revealed peculiarities are interpreted. The characteristics of a deep soundscattering layer in the Black Sea are given.

  1. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder allocations... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications published on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81498). An...

  2. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black..., and black sea bass fisheries and provides notice of three projects that may be requesting Exempted...-Aside (RSA) program. The implementing regulations for the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass...

  3. Black Sea Mixed Layer Sensitivity to Various Wind and Thermal Forcing Products on Climatological Time Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kara, A. B; Jurlburt, Harley; Wallcraft, Alan; Bourassa, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This study describes atmospheric forcing parameters constructed from different global climatologies, applied to the Black Sea, and investigates the sensitivity of HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM...

  4. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...

  5. Differences In Skull Size Of Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea, In The Sea Of Azov And The Black Sea: Evidence For Different Morphotypes And Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldin P. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two porpoise stocks in the northern Black Sea: the north-western (Odessa Gulf and northeastern (Crimean and Caucasian waters; in addition, another stock is in the Sea of Azov. The Azov porpoises are distinct in their body size and biology. This research was conducted on the skulls of stranded sexually mature porpoises from the north-eastern Black Sea, north-western Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. In the north-eastern Black Sea samples, both present-day and old-time, the sexual dimorphism of the skull size was not significant, whereas in the Sea of Azov the females were significantly larger than males. The Azov skulls were strongly different from those from the Black Sea: they were larger, proportionally wider and had the wider rostra; also, there was no significant chronological variation within the Black Sea. The Azov and Black Sea samples were classified with the 100 % success with four variables. The northwestern Black Sea skulls were somewhat intermediate in their characteristics between the Azov and northeastern Black Sea samples, but they were classify ed together with other Black Sea specimens. The difference between the Azov and Black Sea skulls was greater than between many North Atlantic populations, despite the extreme geographical proximity of the two stocks. The low variation within the Black Sea supports the earlier conclusions on the lack of genetic variation: all the Black Sea stocks are expected to be genetically similar sub-populations, whereas the Azov and Marmara stocks possibly represent the genetically distant populations. The porpoises from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov equally show the traits which characterize the subspecies Phocoena phocoena relicta, but the Black Sea porpoises appear to be more paedomorphic in terms of ontogenetic trajectories.

  6. Bioecology of tulip trees at the Ajara Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tskhoidze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L. andLiriodendron chinense(Hemsl. Sarg. grow well along the Batumi coastline, develop, bloom, produce fruit, give natural revival. There they already have blooming and fruiting self-seeds. Chinese tulip poplar sometimes reaches here bigger sizes than in natural habitat. It resists winter temperatures very well. Both species can be jointly used along the Caucasian Black Sea coast as ornamental trees because there are the most favorable conditions for their vegetation. Due the great resistance American tulip trees can grow along the coastline as well as inland of Ajara.

  7. Trace and major element compositions of Black Sea aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, D.; Oelmez, I.; Tosun, S.; Tuncel, G.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), ion chromatography (IC) and visible spectrometry (VIS) were used to determine the composition of atmospheric aerosols, collected at a rural site in the Western Black Sea Coast of Turkey. A total of 354 daily aerosol samples were analyzed for 46 trace and major elements and ions. Sample preparation, quality control procedures, instrumental operating conditions for INAA and source apportionment work is presented. (author)

  8. Present level of contaminants in the Romanian Black Sea sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.; Apas, M.; Cociasu, A.; Cuingioglu, E.; Patrascu, V.; Pecheanu, I.; Piescu, V.; Popa, L.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of environmental quality in the Romanian Black Sea sector is being constantly made by the Romanian Marine Research Institute (RMRI) within the National Integrated Monitoring System. The contamination of the marine environment is expressed by considering four chemical and a biological parameter: nutrients (N-NO 2 , N-NO 3 , N-NH 4 , P-PO 4 , organic P, Si-SiO 4 ), heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb), artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs), total hydrocarbons, parasite and saprophyte fungi in sediments, sea water and/or biota. Present levels of contaminants are discussed as to their historical evolution during the last few years or decades. Inorganic N and P concentrations still exceed three to five times those before eutrophication started to intensify in the early '70s. Practical uses of results by national and regional authorities are discussed. (author)

  9. Antimicrobial properties of Dead Sea black mineral mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Zeev; Henis, Yigal; Alon, Yaacov; Orlov, Elina; Sørensen, Ketil B; Oren, Aharon

    2006-05-01

    The unique, black, hypersaline mud mined from the Dead Sea shores is extensively used in mud packs, masks, and topical body and facial treatments in spas surrounding the lake, and in cosmetic preparations marketed worldwide, but little is known about its antimicrobiological properties. We performed detailed microbial and chemical analysis of Dead Sea mineral mud compounded in dermatological and cosmetic preparations. Using conventional bacteriological media (with or without salt augmentation), we found surprisingly low numbers of colony-forming microorganisms in the mud. The highest counts (up to 20,000 colonies per gram, mostly consisting of endospore-forming bacteria) were obtained on sheep blood agar. Test microorganisms (i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans) rapidly lost their viability when added to the mud. Zones of growth inhibition were observed around discs of Dead Sea mud placed on agar plates inoculated with Candida or with Propionibacterium, but not with Staphylococcus or Escherichia. The effect was also found when the mud was sterilized by gamma irradiation. Using (35)S-labeled sulfate as a tracer, bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction could be demonstrated at a low rate (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm(3).d). The antibacterial properties of Dead Sea mud are probably owing to chemical and/or physical phenomena. Possible modes of antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties are discussed.

  10. Post-Miocene Tectonics from Black Sea to Mediterrenean Sea along Central Anatolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, B.; Özsayın, E.; Çiner, A.

    2012-04-01

    The existences of the gross structures are crucial elements in the understanding of the Neogene evolution of the Anatolia. The structures, from north to south, are fairly documented extensional Black Sea coast structures, "N vergent tectonics" in Black Sea region, the cross cutting scar/shear zone -North Anatolian Fault- , S verging tectonics in central Anatolian overthrust belt (Cretaceous ophiolitic mélange belt), extensional Tuzgölü basin, basins like Cilicia, Mut situated to the back of the Cyprian arc and Cyprus locked subduction and accretionary tectonics (locked by approaching and colliding of the Eratosthenes and Hecatacus "seamount" obstacles). The closure of the northern Neotethys during post-Late Eocene- pre-Miocene end with the collision of the squeezed "Anatolian Block" from south with the Eurasian Continent. Consequently the linkage of the central Anatolian basins is lost with the Seas (Paratethys) in north by the evolution of Black Sea Mountains. However, the subduction in southern Neotethys continued with a complex array due to oblique subduction between "Anatolian Block" and downgoing African-Arabian plates. The growth of the accretionary wedge along southeast Anatolia resulted in retreat of the Miocene Seas towards Basra Bay (Iraq) and collision of the southeast Anatolian belt operated to the end of late Miocene where the marine realm in eastern Mediterrenean Sea continues. The rifting - sea-floor spreading in Red Sea, propagating of Dead Sea Transform to the north and oblique subduction in southern Tethys Ocean during different times in Miocene-Pliocene manifested a various different tectonic mechanism stories in the evolution of the Neogene basin in Anatolia. Consequently progressive closure of the Tethys Oceans resulted in the development Central Anatolian and Eastern Anatolian Plateaus. The growth of the Plateaus, in other words, the progressive shortening from north to south during Late Miocene, ended with the escape of the Anatolian Block

  11. Sea level changes along the Turkish coasts of the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ALPAR

    2000-06-01

    On the average, there is a pronounced sea-level difference (55 cm along the Turkish Straits System. However, the slope is nonlinear, being much steeper in the Strait of Istanbul. This barotrophic pressure difference is one of the most important factors causing the two-layer flow through the system. The topography and hydrodynamics of the straits, the dominant wind systems and their seasonal variations make this flow more complicated. For secular sea level changes, a rise of 3.2 mm/a was computed for Karsiyaka (1935-71 and a steady trend (-0.4 mm /a has been observed for annual sea levels at Antalya (1935-77. The decreasing trend (-6.9 mm/a at Samsun is contrary to the secular rising trend of the Black Sea probably because of its rather short monitoring period (1963-77.

  12. INVESTIGATON OF SEA LEVEL CHANGE ALONG THE BLACK SEA COAST FROM TIDE GAUGE AND SATELLITE ALTIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Avsar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on sea level changes along the Black Sea coast. For this purpose, at same observation period the linear trends and the components of seasonal variations of sea level change are estimated at 12 tide gauge sites (Amasra, Igneada, Trabzon-II, Sinop, Sile, Poti, Batumi, Sevastopol, Tuapse, Varna, Bourgas, and Constantza located along the Black Sea coast and available altimetric grid points closest to the tide gauge locations. The consistency of the results derived from both observations are investigated and interpreted. Furthermore, in order to compare the trends at the same location, it is interpolated from the trends obtained at the altimetric grid points in the defined neighbouring area with a diameter of 0.125° using a weighted average interpolation algorithm at each tide gauge site. For some tide gauges such as Sevastopol, Varna, and Bourgas, it is very likely that the trend estimates are not reliable because the time-spans overlapping the altimeter period are too short. At Sile, the long-term change for the time series of both data types do not give statistically significant linear rates. However, when the sites have long-term records, a general agreement between the satellite altimetry and tide gauge time series is observed at Poti (~20 years and Tuapse (~18 years. On the other hand, the difference of annual phase between satellite altimetry and tide gauge results is from 1.32° to 71.48°.

  13. Effects of methane outgassing on the Black Sea atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kourtidis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane in air and seawater was measured in the Eastern Black Sea during the 10–18 December 1999 BIGBLACK project cruise. The measurements allowed for the calculation of supersaturation ratios and methane fluxes across the air-sea interface. CH4 mixing ratios in air were generally in the 1.8–2.0 ppmv range, while surface (4 m depth seawater concentrations varied from 4 to 93 ppmv. Above active seep areas, the water was supersaturated to around 500% with respect to the overlying atmosphere. Accordingly, flux densities varied greatly and were up to 3300 umol m−2 day−1. In the Sevastopol harbour, supersaturations up to around 3000%, similar to those at the Danube Delta, were observed, while in the Istanbul harbour supersaturations could not be determined because the very high values of water concentrations led to detector saturation. Simple modelling shows that the observed fluxes do not have any substantial impact on the methane content of the Black Sea atmosphere, as they would only raise its concentrations by less than 50 ppt. On the other hand, calculations performed as part of the CRIMEA project show that mud volcano eruptions could episodically raise the methane concentrations well above their regional background for several tens of kilometres downwind. These calculations, which also apply to mud volcano eruptions elsewhere on the globe, indicate that the spatial extend and the magnitude of the atmospheric perturbation is such that its observation might lie within the capabilities of existing satellite instrumentation such as SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT.

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the Black Sea in 1970–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs are major causes of eutrophication in the coastal waters of the Black Sea. The objective of this study is to analyze the past and future trends in river export of nitrogen and phosphorus to the coastal waters of the Black Sea and to assess the

  15. Topography of the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Black Sea Basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starostenkp, V.; Buryanov, V.; Makarenko, I.; Rusakov, O.M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Nikishin, A.M.; Georgiev, G.; Gerasimov, M.; Dimitriu, R.; Legostaeva, O.V.; Pchelarov, V.; Sava, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    A map of Moho depth for the Black Sea and its immediate surroundings has been inferred from 3-D gravity modelling, and crustal structure has been clarified. Beneath the basin centre, the thickness of the crystalline layer is similar to that of the oceanic crust. In the Western and Eastern Black Sea

  16. Alexandrium in the Black Sea — identity, ecology and PSP toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alexandrium cf. tamarense was recorded for the first time along the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea in July 2001. Since then, it has been observed annually between May and October. A maximum density of Alexandrium spp. of 9 000 cells l–1 was recorded during August 2004. Examination of the Black Sea ...

  17. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ∼14...

  18. Managing Rapana in the Black Sea: stakeholder workshops on both sides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Knudsen, S.; Todorova, V.; Gündüz Hosgör, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rapana venosa is a non-indigenous invasive predator on bivalves in the Black Sea. A Rapana fishery has developed in the Black Sea since the 1980s, primarily in Turkey and Bulgaria. The Rapana fishery provides a complex management problem with three groups of objectives: 1. Good economic status; 2.

  19. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily i...

  20. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  1. Occurrence of Acartia tonsa Dana in the Black Sea. Was it introduced from the Mediterranean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GUBANOVA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It was reported for the first time that Acartia tonsa was present in the Black Sea as early as in 1976. A.tonsa was found in the Mediterranean Sea in 1985. So, this copepod was initially introduced to the Black Sea and did not invade here from the Mediterranean. Probably A.tonsa was transferred to the Black Sea with ship's ballast water from some other region of the World Ocean. Differences in seasonal dynamics and size structure of A.clausi and A.tonsa in the Bay of Sevastopol in 1976 are discussed.

  2. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTEMENTS FLOWS IN BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU-MARCEL JOIA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time when the world’s economy is in a constantly change. Foreign direct investments flows are in actual economy one of the most dynamic and prospective part of the world’s economy being in a continuous globalization. These international financial flows determine the traders who take part at the world’s economy to know to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field. We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the foreign direct investments flows in Black Sea Economic Cooperation. This study is based on UNCTAD reports and on an econometrical model which gives us the possibility to create different analysis concerning FDI flow in this cooperation. So we defined a simple regression model, in which the dependent variable is represented by Nominal and real GDP, total and per capita, variable explicated by FDI flows, using as method the Least Squared, including 19 observations. Through this paper, we tried to illustrate the relation between the FDI flows and the economic growth rate in the past years inRomania, member of Black Sea Economic region. In line with a general upward trend in FDI to Central and Eastern Europe, inward FDI to the Russian Federation held steady between 1998 and 2001, at an annual average of $2.8 billion. In Black Sea Economic region, Russian average is the biggest one, Russia being a leader country in warding FDI. The Russian Federation is by far the leading investor country in the region, accounting for more than 75% of its annual outflows. Inward and outward direct investments flows in Russia have reached in 2009 an amount of $38,722 billion. In Romania, following years of stagnation at very low levels, 1991 to 1997, FDI flows reached $1.1 billion in 2002. Inflows to Bulgaria peaked at $1 billion in 2000; the surge is largely due to flows from developed countries. Inward and outward direct investments flows in

  3. The Minor Rivers of Black Sea North-Western Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyukaeva, Alevtina

    2017-04-01

    The generalisations and conclusions have been done based on the expeditional monitoring of minor rivers of the Russian Federation Black Sea Coast for summer-autumn mean water in 2011-2015. The length of coastal line under monitoring was 300 km with 78 rivers with length no longer, then 50 km. The monitoring task was to establish the natural background of river effluent for the region under study. The observation parameters are physical measures (temperature, pH, Eh), solution (salts) and suspension forms of effluent (feculence, suspension chemical composition). 1. The tendency to decrease minor river water temperature at isthmus correspondent to movement from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. The causes are the growing length of the rivers and steepness of the relief along the Black Sea Caucasus. 2. The dependence between the size of coagulated suspension and water temperature is established. Moreover the intensive mix is not able to compensate the negative influence of the low temperature. 3. The value of hydrogen index, mineralization and specific electric conductivity for minor river are growing from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. 4. By the main ionic composition of the minor rivers of Black Sea north-eastern coast can be classified as hydrocarbonate. The main characteristic (marker) of colt composition for the region is the sensible concentrations of potassium and sodium. 5. The amount of suspension substance in the river water and its feculence changes between 50 mg/dm3 дo 280 mg/dm3. In particle size distribution composition of river suspensions the politic fractions (up to 70%) are prevailed, sand and silt fractions are presented less (25%). 6. Suspension form content of microelements depends on general amount of suspension in river water. The suspension form migration is significant for lead, cobalt, tin and silver. Other metals "prefer" the solution forms and can be arranged approximately in the following: vanadium

  4. Megafloods in Marginal Basins: New Data from the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.; Mart, Y.; McHugh, C. M.; Vachtman, D.; Cagatay, N. M.; Kadir, E. K.; Ryan, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    One of Jim Kennett's long-standing scientific interests has been the study of abrupt events ranging from destabilization of the gas hydrate reservoir, to volcanism, to megafloods. In appreciation to his contribution to the study of catastrophes in paleoceanography, we present new data on the Holocene reconnection of the Black Sea basin to the ocean, resulting from a July 2005 survey aboard the R/V Mediterranean Explorer of the EcoOcean Foundation. The survey included tightly-spaced Chirp subbottom profiling on the outer shelf northwest of the Bosporus outlet (Istanbul Bogazi), combined with precisely targeted gravity coring. Subbottom horizons are calibrated by radiocarbon and optical luminescence ages on cores. Chirp profiles reveal channels and ridges nearly transversal to the bathymetric contours. Ridges have grown on a seaward-dipping erosion surface that truncates the top of older prograding clinoforms. The ridges are up 12 m in height and have an asymmetrical cross-section, gentler on the west and steeper on the east. Sediment drifting is apparent on the gentler side. In the interiors of the ridges we found highly reflective mounds that are rooted directly on the erosion surface. The mounds organize in both elongated and circular to oval features. Shell-bearing marine mud drapes the mounds. Between the ridges and mounds the drape rests directly on the erosion surface that can be traced seaward to beyond -120 m. High abundance of exceptionally large shells of Mytilus sp. at the base of the drape suggests that bedforms were seeded by a colonization of mollusks building bioherms right on top of the erosion surface beginning at the time of the Mediterranean connection. The Black Sea lacustrine stage experienced an evaporative drawdown below its outlet and has only tracked the global sea level rise since 8.4 ky bp. The saltwater megaflood from the Mediterranean led to dramatic morphologic reorganization of the shelf sea-floor close to the Bosporus and exceptional

  5. Numerical modeling of dispersion of pollutant in the coastal zone of the Western Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.; Mungov, G.; Kortchev, G.

    1999-01-01

    During the last years in NIMH numerical models were used for forecasting the sea state in the Western Black Sea. The recent developments in this field include a numerical model for computation the dispersion of pollutants in the coastal zone first of all the adaptation of the operational oil-spill model of Meteo-France for the hydrological conditions of the Black Sea and under verification is numerical model for transportation of radionuclides as specific conservative tracers

  6. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... fishing seasons caused negative social and economic impacts as too many black sea bass entered the market... many black sea bass flooding the market simultaneously creates market gluts which can affect overall... many black sea bass flooding the market simultaneously gluts markets, which can affect the overall...

  7. The tourism among the Riparian Black Sea countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Petcu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The industry of tourism and travelling is nowadays the most dynamic field worldwide, thus being the most important job generator. From an economic point of view, tourism is also a main source of recovery of the national economies of those countries that have important tourist resources and exploit them accordingly. Its action develops on more plans, starting with stimulating economic development to improving social structure, with the superior capitalization of resources to the improvement of life conditions. This work aims at the implementation of the multi-dimensional analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis, relative distances method to establish Romanian’s place among the countries with harbour to the Black Sea, on the basis of the tourism indicators.

  8. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem. The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  9. Past and recent trends in the western Black Sea storminess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Valchev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Storms are one of the most important phenomena producing coastal hazards and endangering human life and activities. In recent decades storm climate has become a subject of increased public awareness and knowledge of this issue can help the society to meet future challenges related to extreme storm manifestation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to assess trends in past and recent storminess in the western Black Sea. The analysis of storm climate is based on a continuous hindcast dataset covering a substantial historical time-span of 63 yr (1948–2010. It was used to create a storm population and to estimate properties describing storminess (proxies. This was done by introduction of criteria allowing separation of events with low probability of occurrence and at the same time keeping the information on their pattern, i.e. properties of storm phases. Eleven storminess proxies were analysed and the most indicative appeared to be storm duration; integral, mean and specific storm wave energy; and wind velocity and direction, which were obtained for each storm season.

    While experiencing significant variability on a quasi-decadal scale, no significant upward or downward trends in storminess were detected. For almost all proxies, an increasing trend until the 1980s or the 1990s and a return to average or even calm conditions in the late 2000s are traceable. On this background, a steady although not significant increase of wind velocity was detected. Results also indicate an alteration of storm pattern, manifested as shortening of storm duration due to a shift of the prevailing direction of storm forcing winds to the north. Nevertheless, incident wave energy in the storms' most intense phase remains significant. The obtained results are discussed with regard to the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the hydrometeorological pattern of the Black Sea region as a part of the European-Atlantic area, in particular with respect to the

  10. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  11. EMODnet Black Sea Checkpoint First Data Adequacy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Manzella, Giuseppe; Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Buga, Luminita; Kallos, George; Zodiatis, George; Stylianou, Stavros; Blanc, Frederique; Cesarini, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the first Data Adequacy Report (DAR) of the EMODnet Black Sea Checkpoint project is to assess the basin scale monitoring systems on the basis of input data sets for 11 prescribed Challenges. The first step in this process involved the definition of a "Data Adequacy Framework", which was derived from the ISO 9004:2009 standards. Data Adequacy is essentially defined as the fitness for use of the monitoring data required by the Challenges. The CheckPoint adequacy relates to both the requirements as well as the needs of the Challenges and was developed considering the ISO 9001 Quality Management System. The quality assessment is subdivided into two major "territories": "appropriateness" and "availability". In the first DAR only the "availability" indicators are explored and analyzed. The second step in the analysis is to set up a metadatabase containing standardized information about the input datasets potentially usable by the Challenges to generate their products. The metadatabase is at the back-end of an INSPIRE Web and GIS platform, known as Sextant, and uses the SeaDataNet common vocabulary to identify the categories of characteristics needed by the Challenges and to analyze the statistics of indicators. The DAR contains the first assessment of the Black Sea monitoring system on the basis of the analysis of the availability indicators across all Challenges for the 452 input data sets and the 40 characteristic categories. The 8 availability indicators are classified based upon a three value range color system: "red" meaning "not adequate", "yellow" "partly adequate" and "green" "fully adequate". The analysis shows that for most of the indicators half are "not adequate" and the other half are "adequate". The single most negative score is for the "INSPIRE catalogue service" indicator, which is generally not adequate. Furthermore, the "Pricing" indicator is split in half between "not well documented pricing policy" and "open and free data policy". In

  12. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the globalocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Sea of Marmara, a transit point for waters from theMediterranean Sea. In addition, expansive phytoplankton blooms

  13. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity, but its biogeographic range has contracted since the 1950s. Most recently, the species disappeared from the Black Sea in the late 1980s and has not yet recovered. Reasons for the Black Sea disappearance, and the species-wide range contraction, are unclear. However bluefin tuna formerly foraged and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations that the population must have (had) in order to reproduce successfully in the specific hydrographic (estuarine) conditions of the Black Sea. By comparing hydrographic conditions in spawning areas of the three species of bluefin tunas, and applying a mechanistic model of egg buoyancy and sinking rate, we show that reproduction in the Black Sea must have required specific adaptations of egg buoyancy, fertilisation and development for reproductive success. Such adaptations by local populations of marine fish species spawning in estuarine areas are common as is evident from a meta-analysis of egg buoyancy data from 16 species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur fastest if any remaining locally adapted individuals are allowed to survive, and by conservation and recovery of depleted Mediterranean populations which could through time re

  14. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R MacKenzie

    Full Text Available The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae, used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity, but its biogeographic range has contracted since the 1950s. Most recently, the species disappeared from the Black Sea in the late 1980s and has not yet recovered. Reasons for the Black Sea disappearance, and the species-wide range contraction, are unclear. However bluefin tuna formerly foraged and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations that the population must have (had in order to reproduce successfully in the specific hydrographic (estuarine conditions of the Black Sea. By comparing hydrographic conditions in spawning areas of the three species of bluefin tunas, and applying a mechanistic model of egg buoyancy and sinking rate, we show that reproduction in the Black Sea must have required specific adaptations of egg buoyancy, fertilisation and development for reproductive success. Such adaptations by local populations of marine fish species spawning in estuarine areas are common as is evident from a meta-analysis of egg buoyancy data from 16 species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur fastest if any remaining locally adapted individuals are allowed to survive, and by conservation and recovery of depleted Mediterranean populations which could

  15. Spawning of Bluefin Tuna in the Black Sea: Historical Evidence, Environmental Constraints and Population Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity, but its biogeographic range has contracted since the 1950s. Most recently, the species disappeared from the Black Sea in the late 1980s and has not yet recovered. Reasons for the Black Sea disappearance, and the species-wide range contraction, are unclear. However bluefin tuna formerly foraged and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations that the population must have (had) in order to reproduce successfully in the specific hydrographic (estuarine) conditions of the Black Sea. By comparing hydrographic conditions in spawning areas of the three species of bluefin tunas, and applying a mechanistic model of egg buoyancy and sinking rate, we show that reproduction in the Black Sea must have required specific adaptations of egg buoyancy, fertilisation and development for reproductive success. Such adaptations by local populations of marine fish species spawning in estuarine areas are common as is evident from a meta-analysis of egg buoyancy data from 16 species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur fastest if any remaining locally adapted individuals are allowed to survive, and by conservation and recovery of depleted Mediterranean populations which could through time re

  16. Late Miocene evolution of the Black Sea: insights from palynology and strontium isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Arjen; van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    During the late Miocene, the connection(s) between the Mediterranean Basin and the Atlantic Ocean deteriorated, which ultimately culminated in thick evaporite deposits and a water level drop in the Mediterranean Basin during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97 - 5.33 Ma). It has been claimed that Black Sea, in response to the MSC, also desiccated but these claims have been proven incorrectly. Here we present palynological (dinoflagellate cysts and pollen) and strontium isotope ratios from two Black Sea records: the Zheleznyi Rog outcrop section and Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 380A. Organic walled cyst-producing dinoflagellates are highly sensitive to even small changes in surface waters and strontium isotope ratios are excellent recorders of changing connectivity. Our records provide therefore more insights in the sensitivity of the Black Sea to Messinian Salinity Crisis and the general evolution of the late Miocene Black Sea.

  17. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  18. A model technical cooperation project on the marine radioactivity assessment in the Black Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, B. G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.; Koese, A.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Guengoer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region is a wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project coded as RER/2/003 implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001.This multidisciplinay project was designed in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey)- to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies. The IAEA assisted laboratories in the region by providing expert services, training, equipment and materials (Goektepe et al., 1998; Osvath et al., 1997-2000)

  19. The European Eel Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Anguillidae. Native or Alien in the Black Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos I. Apostolou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STEFC of EU suggested the Black Sea region should be excluded from the list of natural areas, where the European eel (Anguilla anguilla is distributed. The basic conception of this idea was that the eels caught in the Black Sea region represent escaped specimens from fish farming in some Danubian countries. This article illustrates an effort to be given an indirect answer on the question if Black Sea is the end of natural distribution of European eel. The species is present but never been abundant in the region and do not represent an object of commercial fishing.

  20. Seasonal seafloor oxygen dynamics on the Romanian Black Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jana; Balan, Sorin; van Beusekom, Justus E.; Naderipour, Celine; Secrieru, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The Black Sea suffers from the combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate forcing. As a result, its broad and shallow western shelf in particular has a history of ecosystem collapse during the 1970s to the mid-1990s, which followed a slow recovery since the late 1990s due to reduction in anthropogenic pressures. Because of eutrophication, increased oxygen consumption caused recurrent widespread seasonal seafloor hypoxia in a system that is already naturally prone to decrease in bottom water oxygen during summer. On the shelf, reduced bottom water ventilation is a strong natural driver for seafloor hypoxia, due to strong seasonal thermohaline stratification as a result of freshwater inflow from the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dniepro. To understand the present seasonal dynamics of seafloor oxygen on the Romanian shelf, a seafloor mooring was deployed in 2010 and 2016 during summer and autumn, for three and six months, respectively. The mooring, consisting of an Aanderaa SEAGUARD sensor package attached to an acoustic release, was deployed in 30 m water depth in the Portita region - north of Constanta and south of the Danube River Mouths. The in-situ time series of seafloor oxygen, temperature, turbidity, salinity, and current velocities and directions, combined with CTD profiles, benthic oxygen consumption rates based on ex-situ incubations of sediment cores, and pelagic oxygen respiration rates provide a set of information that allows biological and hydrophysical controls on seafloor oxygen to be identified. We observed the built-up of the thermohaline stratification during late spring and early summer, accompanied by steady decrease in bottom water oxygen. Superimposed settling of particles to the seafloor eventually led to the formation of seafloor hypoxia in late summer. Anticyclonic currents resemble diurnal tidal cycles, albeit low in magnitude. The effects of a strong rainstorm and a Danube flood event in late September

  1. Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebakina, L.G.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90 Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90 Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

  2. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown.

  3. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  4. MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA REGION IN THE ENERGY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyacheslavovich Ishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the state of international cooperation is analysed in the field of energy in Black Sea besseyne. Problems and prospects of development of power communications, their influence, are examined on the level of international stability.

  5. Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region ministerial meeting. Opening statement, Monaco, 5 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Opening Statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the Ministerial Meeting on Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region, held in Monaco, on 5 October 1998. The Director General emphasized the contribution of the IAEA, mainly through its Technical Co-operation Programme, in strengthening the international co-operation in marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region

  6. LIPIDS OF BLACK SEA ALGAE: UNVEILING THEIR POTENTIAL FOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND COSMETIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Veselina Panayotova; Albena Merzdhanova; Diana A. Dobreva; Magdalen Zlatanov; Lubomir Makedonski

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bulgarian Black Sea coast is rich in algae, regarding biomass and algal biodiversity. The red algae Gelidium crinale (Rhodophyta) and brown algae Cystoseira barbata (Phaeophytes) are among the most abundant species along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Yet information about their lipid composition is limited. Purpose: Present study was conducted to investigate biologically active substances in two underexplored seaweed lipids. Total lipids, total phospholipids, fat soluble vita...

  7. A Projection on the Black Sea’s 21st Century Security Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Black Sea, on the pretext of maintaining the 1936 Montreux Convention, which gives Turkey a naval monopoly and privilege.23 In addition to being a...fervent adherent of the Montreux Convention of 1936, Turkey has initiated and participated in three major initiatives to reflect its decisiveness on...in the Black Sea area, will continue to observe the Montreux Convention, and acknowledges OBSH and BLACKSEAFOR as confidence-building measures in the

  8. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  9. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Sliekers, A. Olav; Lavik, Gaute; Schmid, Markus; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Strous, Marc; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2003-04-01

    The availability of fixed inorganic nitrogen (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) limits primary productivity in many oceanic regions. The conversion of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria (denitrification) is believed to be the only important sink for fixed inorganic nitrogen in the ocean. Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N2 in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors. Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, 15N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific `ladderane' membrane lipids indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed by anammox bacteria below the oxic zone. This is the first time that anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. The widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine settings indicates that anammox might be important in the oceanic nitrogen cycle.

  10. Numerical analysis of the Black Sea energy budget in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyshev, S. G.; Dymova, O. A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper analyzes the results of the annual-averaged and seasonal-averaged variability of the Black Sea energetics in 2011. Energetic features were computed by equations describing the change rate of the kinetic and potential energy. They corresponded precisely to the finite-difference equations of the ocean model developed in the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A numerical experiment was run with a horizontal resolution of 1.6 km and took into account the real atmospheric forcing SKIRON for 2011. It was discovered that on average over the year the most significant components of the integral energy budget were the wind work, the dissipation due to friction, and the change of potential energy due to vertical diffusion. Seasonal variability of energy fluxes was determined by the contribution from wind and dissipation due to friction in the autumn-winter period. As a result, the vertical mixing processes enhanced and the RIM Current got stronger. In the spring and summer seasons the main energy processes were the buoyancy work and vertical turbulent diffusion due to increase in the vertical density gradient.

  11. Mono-, Di-, or Trimorphism in Black Sea Ammonia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbach, Alexander V.; Bassler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    For the genus Ammonia, the size of proloculi was considered one of the valuable taxonomic landmarks, although it may split in first alternating generations. We analysed 140 living (stained) tests of Ammonia sp. from the outer shelf of the Black Sea, collected from 5 stations on a depth gradient (138 to 206 m water depth). Samples were treated by standard technologies, such as live staining, wet sieving, volume detection, counts, and measures by light microscopy. The size of the proloculi was detected, extended by biometric characterisations of 11 measures, 5 qualitative characters, and 4 numerical ratios. Surprisingly, the multitude of test parameters allows the definition of either one highly variable taxon, or several species, or either di- or trimorphism, exclusively resulting from the definition of 'decisive' or 'neglectable' parameters, or parameter subsets. We followed the general taxonomic definition for the species of the genera, and applied, discussed and rejected published criteria considered as taxonomically important. Surprisingly, in result none of the species described hitherto fully correlates with the morphological roundup observed. It is a new species. This conclusion mainly results from the balance of all morphologies, and not from the selection of an ultimate subset.

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Southern Black Sea Shelf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkıs, Nuray; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut S

    2012-02-01

    In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents and some aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were analysed in coastal sediments of hot points collected from along the Southern Black Sea Shelf. Surface sediment (0-2 cm) samples were collected from the locations using a Van Veen type grab sampler in September 2008 during a cruise on the Pollution Monitoring R/V ARAR. All sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guide-lines (UNEP 1991). Samples were analysed using a UV-fluorescence spec-trophotometry (UNEP/IOC/IAEA 1992) and gas chromatog- raphy (GC) via a Hewlett-Packard HP6890N series with a selective detector (GC-MSD) after hexane/ dichloromethane extraction. The ratio C(17)/C(18) varied between 2.2 and 2.9 for the surface sediments of TRK 34Y (Samsun), TRK46 (Giresun), and TRK55 (Rize), respectively. These results showed higher marine organic matter accumulation. However, pyrolytic PAHs were found predominant in these areas. In contrast, petrogenic contributions were found at Stations TRK1 (İğneada), TRK13 (Zonguldak), TRK53 (Trabzon) and TRK61 (Hopa). TPH contents of surface sediments varied between 0.29 and 363 μg g(-1) (dry wt) throughout the shelf. The lowest values were measured at Stations TRK1 (İğneada) and TRK 19 (Bartın), whereas the highest values were found at Stations TRK13 (Zonguldak) and TRK 53 (Trabzon).

  13. Methane in the Sevastopol coastal area, Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, Lyudmila V.; Egorov, Viktor N.; Malakhova, Tatiana V.; Gulin, Sergey B.; Artemov, Yury G.

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of dissolved methane in seawater and bottom sediments, as well as of methane emanating from gas seeps were measured at 18 stations including several small bays in the Sevastopol coastal area (Black Sea) during 2007-2008. Methane concentrations in surface waters ranged from 10 to 2,970 nmol l-1, and correlated well with values recorded for sediments. Methane concentrations in the water column were influenced by water depth, as well as by air and water temperatures. In the spring and summer of 2008, in situ CH4 saturation relative to air was in the range of 970-71,900%. Maximum saturation was in summer. CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere from the Sevastopol coastal area were estimated to vary from 190 to 1,550 μmol m-2 day-1. Gas bubbles escaping from the seepages contained about 57 vol% methane. Radiocarbon dating of the methane revealed an age not exceeding 150 years, implying a biogenic origin.

  14. Fishing capacity of the southeastern Black Sea anchovy fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Espino, D.; García-del-Hoyo, J. J.; Metreveli, M.; Bilashvili, K.

    2014-07-01

    Georgian, Turkish and Ukrainian vessels have exploited the southeastern Black Sea anchovy fish stock in the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) of Georgia since 1999. This exploitation has resulted in a significant decrease of the anchovy fish stock. The availability of reliable and accurate measures of the capacity and overcapacity of the fleet provides policymakers with useful tools to avoid rent dissipation of fishermen and/or the overexploitation of anchovy stocks. This paper is aimed at measuring the fishing capacity and the structural excess of fishing capacity over sustainable levels (overcapacity) of this fleet in the period 2005-2009. Two data envelopment analysis linear mathematical programs were run to attain the desired measures. This paper concludes that fishing capacity was 142.37 mT in the 2008-2009 season and that it increased since the implementation of a new management framework in 2006. This paper also concludes that there was a considerable overcapacity of the fleet in 2009, given that the measured fishing capacity exceeded almost 2 times the Total Allowable Catch set by policymakers, and the technical efficiency of the fleet was very low. These results suggest the necessity of international cooperative rights-based fisheries management to guarantee bio-economic sustainability.

  15. Acoustic Investigations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Formations, Offshore Southwestern Black Sea*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; Ozel, O.; Atgin, O.; Sinayuc, C.; Merey, S.; Parlaktuna, M.; Cifci, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Black Sea is a large intercontinental back-arc basin with relatively high sedimentation rate. The basin was formed as two different sub-basins divided by Mid-Black Sea Ridge. The ridge is completely buried today and the Black Sea became a single basin in the early Miocene that is currently anoxic. Recent acoustic investigations in the Black Sea indicate potential for gas hydrate formation and gas venting. A total of 2500 km multichannel seismic, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected during three different expeditions in 2010 and 2012 along the southwestern margin of the Black Sea. Box core sediment samples were collected for gas cromatography analysis. Wide spread BSRs and multiple BSRs are observed in the seismic profiles and may be categorized into two different types: cross-cutting BSRs (transecting sedimentary strata) and amplitude BSRs (enhanced reflections). Both types mimic the seabed reflection with polarity reversal. Some undulations of the BSR are observed along seismic profiles probably caused by local pressure and/or temperature changes. Shallow gas sources and chimney vents are clearly indicated by bright reflection anomalies in the seismic data. Gas cromatography results indicate the presence of methane and various components of heavy hydrocarbons, including Hexane. These observations suggest that the gas forming hydrate in the southwestern Black Sea may originate from deeper thermogenic hydrocarbon sources. * This study is supported by 2214-A programme of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK).

  16. A 6,000-year sedimentary molecular record of chemocline excursions in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Hayes, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin; it is also a contemporary analogue of the environment in which carbonaceous shales and petroleum source beds formed. Recently, Repeta et al. reported that anoxygenic photosynthesis may be an important component of carbon cycling in the present Black

  17. Black sea urchins evaluate predation risk using chemical signals from a predator and injured con- and heterospecific prey

    OpenAIRE

    Morishita, Vanessa Rimoli [UNESP; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The traits related to foraging and eating are crucial to our understanding of food webs. The use of signals to detect predators has strong relevance for prey survival. The black sea urchin Echinometra lucunter cohabits with the green sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus and a generalist echinivorous predator, the cushion sea star Oreaster reticulatus. Because black sea urchins evolved under the same predation pressure as green sea urchins and, consequently, were exposed to the same sensory cues, ...

  18. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  19. Chlorophyll Diagenesis in the Water Column and Sediments of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    in accumulation rates of Black Sea sediments inferred from Records of Laminae and 2 10Pb. Paleoceanography 7, 215-227. Czeczuga B. (1964) Quantitative...Sea sediments inferred from Records of Laminae and 2 10 Pb. Paleoceanography 7, 215-227. Degens E. T., Michaelis W., Garrasi C., Mopper K., Kempe S

  20. On Multidisciplinary Investigations of Dangerous Natural Phenomena in the Azov–Black Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belokopytov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain results of investigating dangerous phenomena and potential natural disasters in the Azov–Black Sea basin are represented. The decrease of storm activity in the Black Sea observed in the end of the XX century is due to diminution of total amount and intensity of the passing cyclones. According to long-term tendencies of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic Oscillation atmosphere indices, future increase of the storm amount in the Black Sea would be expected. The effective sources of storm surges in the Sea of Azov are the atmospheric cyclones spreading with the 20–40 km/h velocity. The decrease of a cyclone movement velocity results in a storm surge intensification in the Gulf of Taganrog and increase of the flooded area in the Don delta. When the Don discharge becomes lower than the threshold value ~1600 m3/s, the wind surge exerts a blocking impact upon the river water that promotes the sea level rise in the branches and the delta lowland. The highest potential tsunami hazard for the Black Sea northern coast is represented by the earthquake epicenters located in the Crimea – Caucasus seismic zone. Noticeable sea level oscillations can arise in some locations of the Crimea Southern Coast as a result of the trapped waves propagating to the northwest, north and northeast from the seismic centers nearby the southern coast of the sea.

  1. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  2. Obesity Prevelance in West Black Sea Region: The Melen Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aydın

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the West Black Sea region of Turkey and to display the associated chronic diseases, especially Diabetes Mellitus (DM in this population.Material and Method: We evaluated 2222 (1418 female, 804 male, mean age: 50 participants in Yigilca. The medical histories were recorded and physical examinations were done in all participants. Body weight categories were defined according to the body mass index (BMI as follows: BMI 94 cm in males and >90 cm in females were accepted as the cut-off points for abdominal obesity. Results: The mean BMI of the participants was 30.6 in females and 27.5 in males. According to BMI, obesity prevalence was 53.1% in females and 26.9% in males. The mean obesity prevalence was 43.5% in general. Abdominal obesity prevalence was 63% in females, 46% in males and 57% in all participants. Obesity prevalence increased with age in both sexes. Especially 3/4 (75% of females and 1/3 (33% of males aged 50-59 years were obese. Postmenopausal females had very high (64% obesity prevalence but the rate was %43 in premenopausal women. While DM prevalence was 12.6% according to patient history, DM prevalence increased to 18.8% by adding patients with fasting glucose >126 mg/dl.Discussion: Obesity, especially abdominal obesity and DM prevalence was found to be at exaggerated rates in both sexes being highest in postmenopausal females. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 52-7

  3. Microbial Manganese and Sulfate Reduction in Black Sea Shelf Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Amann, Rudolf

    2000-01-01

    The microbial ecology of anaerobic carbon oxidation processes was investigated in Black Sea shelf sediments from mid-shelf with well-oxygenated bottom water to the oxic-anoxic chemocline at the shelf-break. At all stations, organic carbon (Corg) oxidation rates were rapidly attenuated with depth in anoxically incubated sediment. Dissimilatory Mn reduction was the most important terminal electron-accepting process in the active surface layer to a depth of ∼1 cm, while SO42− reduction accounted for the entire Corg oxidation below. Manganese reduction was supported by moderately high Mn oxide concentrations. A contribution from microbial Fe reduction could not be discerned, and the process was not stimulated by addition of ferrihydrite. Manganese reduction resulted in carbonate precipitation, which complicated the quantification of Corg oxidation rates. The relative contribution of Mn reduction to Corg oxidation in the anaerobic incubations was 25 to 73% at the stations with oxic bottom water. In situ, where Mn reduction must compete with oxygen respiration, the contribution of the process will vary in response to fluctuations in bottom water oxygen concentrations. Total bacterial numbers as well as the detection frequency of bacteria with fluorescent in situ hybridization scaled to the mineralization rates. Most-probable-number enumerations yielded up to 105 cells of acetate-oxidizing Mn-reducing bacteria (MnRB) cm−3, while counts of Fe reducers were MnRB. At the third station, a clone type affiliated with Pelobacter was also observed. Our results delineate a niche for dissimilatory Mn-reducing bacteria in sediments with Mn oxide concentrations greater than ∼10 μmol cm−3 and indicate that bacteria that are specialized in Mn reduction, rather than known Mn and Fe reducers, are important in this niche. PMID:10877783

  4. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  5. Organic matter along longitudinal and vertical gradients in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David; Konovalov, Sergey; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.; Waniek, Joanna J.

    2017-11-01

    We studied organic matter in the central Black Sea and its northeastern and northwestern shelf break within three weeks in November 2013 to test the hypothesis that in situ production could explain lateral and vertical variability in its composition and distribution. The wide spatial coverage over a short period of time achieved during this study revealed longitudinal variability in organic matter characteristics reflecting productivity at the Black Sea surface. Particulate organic matter was dominantly autochthonous in the central Black Sea. Allochthonous influence of river discharge was only traced on the northwestern shelf by high concentrations but low freshness of particulate organic matter. Compared to the NW shelf break and central Black Sea, primary production was high near the NE shelf break, likely fueled by input from the Azov Sea. Vertical patterns were similar throughout the deep Black Sea and appeared to also be governed by in situ processes rather than reflect variability in the surface water. As concentrations of organic matter decreased with depth, its elemental and isotopic composition indicated chemoautotrophic production at the oxic-anoxic interface and organic matter degradation in the benthic boundary layer. Though profiles of dissolved organic carbon indicated a minor source in anoxic deep water, likely linked to chemosynthesis and reflux from sediments, a negative deviation of concentrations from a conservative mixing line between two endmembers suggested net removal of labile dissolved organic carbon.

  6. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Gulina, L.V.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Duka, M.S.; Moseichenko, I.N.; Rodina, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40 K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40 K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40 K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40 K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  7. Heavy metal concentrations in marine algae from the Turkish Coast of the, Black Sea, during 1979-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan; Balkis, Çigdem Kirbasoglu and Nuray

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThe heavy metal concentrations in different algae species were reviewed after collection from Black Sea and Bosphorus stations from 1979 to 2001. The results showed that the Turkish Black Sea coast and Bosphoms region faced heavy metal pollution. However, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb levels were found to be below lower limit detection in all tested Black Sea algae species collected in 1998 and 1999. On the other hand, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn concentrations increased at the eastern Black Sea statio...

  8. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents. In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December. Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October. In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December. Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  9. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  10. Organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers in the open Mediterranean and Black Seas atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Pizarro, Mariana; Dachs, Jordi

    2014-03-18

    The presence of organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers has been confirmed for the first time in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected during two West-East oceanographic cruises across the Mediterranean and in the southwest Black Sea. This comprehensive assessment of baseline concentrations of aerosol phase OPEs, spatial distribution, and related deposition fluxes reveals levels ranging from 0.4 to 6.0 ng m(-3) for the ∑14OPEs and a lack of significant differences among sub-basins. Levels measured across the Mediterranean Sea and in the Black Sea are in the upper range or higher than those from previous reports for the marine atmosphere, presumably due to proximity to sources. From 13 to 260 tons of OPEs are estimated to be annually loaded to the Mediterranean Sea open waters from the atmosphere. Tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) was the most abundant compound over the atmosphere of all the Mediterranean and Black Sea sub-basins, and therefore the chemical reaching surface waters at a higher extent by dry deposition. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of phosphorus due to OPE deposition is a significant fraction of known atmospheric inputs of new organic phosphorus (P), suggesting the relevant role that anthropogenic organic pollutants could play in the P cycle.

  11. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  12. Multi-decadal storminess fluctuations of Black Sea due to North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey; Saprykina, Yana; Grigorieva, Victoria; Aydoǧan, Berna; Aydoǧan, Burak

    2017-04-01

    Storminess variability is of key importance for many marine applications, naval and coastal engineering. Studying the evolution of this phenomenon along with large scale atmospheric patterns and being able to predict them is crucial for in the context of rising sea level due to climate change what make the low-lying coasts in the Black Sea to become increasingly vulnerable to marine hazards. The aim of this work is to clarify the trends, statistics and reasons of variations of storminess in dependence of such climatic characteristic as NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation Index). The analysis of Black Sea storminess activity was performed on the base of visual wave observations (Voluntary Observing Ship or VOS) for the period 1970-2011. Annual means and maximum heights of wind-driven seas and swell waves averaging over whole Black Sea area were investigated separately. The both wind-driven seas and swell demonstrate the decreasing in heights about 10% the same as their periods for the chosen time frame. Parametric spectral analysis was performed. The periods of wave height fluctuations for wind-driven seas and swell were shown to coincide with each other and with periods of low frequency fluctuation of NOA: 14 and 4 year respectively. Correlation coefficients of wave height and NOA were 0.3 for swell and 0.4 for wind-driven sea. Nonlinear regularities of NAO fluctuations were investigated using wavelet and spavlet (spectra of modules of wavelet coefficients) analyses. Their influence on variability of storminess in Black Sea is discussed. The reported study was funded by RFBR (project No. 16-55-76002 ERA_a) and by TUBITAK (project No. 116M061) in frame of BS STEMA project.

  13. Economic Development of the Black Sea Riparian Countries during 2004-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Bosneagu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is politically divided between the European Union, countries aspiring to join the EU and the Russian Federation. From an economic perspective, the area has a huge potential for development and is “claimed” by the same political actors. In 1992, BSEC (Black Sea Economic Cooperation was formed and it includes, along with the six riparian countries, eight countries in order to meet their economic power in order to achieve regional development. In the period 2004-2012 the economy Black Sea countries experienced strongly fluctuated, which was strongly connected to the global economy, the inflow of capital in the region and the influence of the global economic crisis.

  14. Copper, zinc, molybdenum and uranium distribution in bottom sediments of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Sovga, E.E.; Solov'eva, L.B.; Oguslavskij, P.G.; Babinets, A.E.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk)

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of bottom sediments of the Black Sea by four expeditions aboard scientific ships ''Academician Vernadsky'', ''Michael Lomonosov'', ''Academician Vavilov'' in 1972-1978, are presented. 70 columns of bottom sediments are studied, about 200 samples are analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mo and U using chemical methods with photometric ending. Charts of Cu, Zn, Mo and U distribution in modern, ancient Black Sea and neoeuxenic sediments of the basin are prepared. Preferable uranium concentration in modern sediments, copper and molybdenum - in sapropelic muds of ancient Black Sea sediments and zinc - in neoeuxenic layers, is shown. Uranium geochemical behaviour is determined by physico-chemical regime of the basin, the presence of restoring situation which promotes the formation of uranium sorption-active forms in the upper layer of modern sediments. Neither sapropelite (organic matter), nor the peculiarities of lithological composition of sediments affect uranium behaviour

  15. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: berrenazli@yahoo.com; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, V.N. [Giresun University, Department of Chemistry, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Dalgic, G. [Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Bozaci, R. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  16. Concurrent Activity of Anammox and Denitrifying Bacteria in the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Kirkpatrick; John B. Kirkpatrick; Clara A. Fuchsman; Evgeniy eYakushev; James T. Staley; James W. Murray

    2012-01-01

    After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox) in the Black Sea in 2003, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss was questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating Black Sea nitrite reductase (nirS) mRNA transcripts at a single location was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the lower s...

  17. A comparative study on the sterol composition of some brown algae from the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMEON SIMEONOV POPOV

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of the brown algae Stilophora rhizodes (Turner J. Agardh, Punctaria latifolia Grev. and Punctaria plantaginea (Roth. Grev. from the Black Sea was investigated. Fifteen sterols were identified in the sterol fractions. The main ones were cholesterol and 24-methylenecholesterol. Characteristic for brown algae, fucosterol was present in low concentrations. The results obtained were compared with recent data for the sterol composition of other Black Sea brown algae. Some conclusions concerning the evolutionary position of brown algae are made.

  18. Tourism-Environment Impact Relationship on the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Cristina Stanciu

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify the key features which may intervene in the tourist developmenton the Romanian Black Sea Coast perceived as limits, constraints and bottlenecks on the basis ofwhich tourism management decisions have to be taken. In this respect, the study will take intoconsideration the concept of tourism carrying capacity, meaning the maximum acceptable level oftourist development in an area and intend to stress out the main steps to implement this instrumentto be used in the analysis of tourist potential but also as a policy tool in a strategy of touristdevelopment for the Romanian Black Sea coast.

  19. Vertical land motion along the Black Sea coast from satellite altimetry, tide gauges and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Nevin B.; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, S. Hakan; Gurbuz, Gokhan

    2017-12-01

    Tide gauge records comprise of relative sea level change and vertical land motion, while satellite altimetry provides absolute sea level change in the Earth's center fixed frame. Accordingly, the difference of both observations can be used to estimate geocentric vertical land motion along the coasts. In this paper, the vertical land motion rates are investigated at 13 tide gauge sites along the Black Sea coast by analyzing differences between Tide Gauge (TG) and Satellite Altimetry (SA) observations. Furthermore, the estimated vertical motion rates are compared with those from nearby the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. The results show general consistence with the present geodynamics in the Black Sea coastal region. For example, our estimates support the general subsidence at Bourgas and Varna.

  20. Azov Cossack Host on the Territory of the Black Sea Coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of using teams of Azov Cossack troops on the territory of the Black sea coastline. Among the materials are the archive documents, extracted from the archival department of Sochi administration (Sochi city, Russian Federation, the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar city, Russian Federation, as well as the modern and pre-revolutionary studies on the history of the Caucasian war and Cossack troops. The study used the historical-situational method, which allowed considering the history of the Azov Cossack troops on the territory of the Black sea coastline in the context of the period under review, namely the Caucasian war, in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. In conclusion, the authors stated that the Azov Cossacks played a prominent role in the conquest of the mountain communities of the Black sea coast of the Caucasus. This was evident in two award banners received by the Cossacks, including the sea service on the Black sea coastline.

  1. Contemporary radioecological state of the North-western Black Sea and the problems of environment conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, N.N.; Mirzoyeva, N.Yu.; Gulin, S.B.; Milchakova, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Contamination of the ecosystem components by the radioactive isotopes 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239, 240 Pu. • The maps of the temporal–spatial change in distribution of isotopes are submitted. • Zones with an increased ability to accumulate these radioactive pollutants were revealed. • Estimations of the flows of elimination of the radionuclides into the bottom sediments were carried out. • Assessment of dose rates formed by 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu for Black Sea hydrobionts was obtained. - Abstract: Review is devoted to the analysis of a radioecological situation in the North-western Black Sea and concerns the levels of contamination of the components of an ecosystem by the main artificial radioactive isotopes ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu). The long-term accumulation trends of these radionuclides were analyzed in components of the Black Sea ecosystem after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Zones that have an increased ability to accumulate these radioisotopes were revealed. The assessment of irradiation dose rates formed by 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in Black Sea hydrobionts was obtained. The strategy for biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources should include monitoring of the radioecological state of the marine ecosystems, and the formation of a complex of biogeochemical criteria for assessment of an ecological situation in the sea. This approach is important for marine protected areas, since it allows the formation of a basis for scientific and practical function

  2. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XC152 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass... accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of...

  3. A success story of regional projects implemented for the management of marine environment. Turkish experience related to the black sea and the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Karakelle, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project was initiated in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interests. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed through various convention and declarations. Socio-economically, fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity-monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from the Turkish monitoring work consist of the routine sampling of seawater, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. The success of the Black Sea regional project has given rise to a new regional project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Region' based on the request of the member countries, which will be initiated in 2005 by the IAEA. The initial phase the project, its objectives and the schedule will be summarized. Key words: marine radioactivity, environmental management, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, regional cooperation

  4. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. An assessment of the wind re-analyses in the modelling of an extreme sea state in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Adem; Ponce de León, S.

    2016-03-01

    This study aims at an assessment of wind re-analyses for modelling storms in the Black Sea. A wind-wave modelling system (Simulating WAve Nearshore, SWAN) is applied to the Black Sea basin and calibrated with buoy data for three recent re-analysis wind sources, namely the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) during an extreme wave condition that occurred in the north eastern part of the Black Sea. The SWAN model simulations are carried out for default and tuning settings for deep water source terms, especially whitecapping. Performances of the best model configurations based on calibration with buoy data are discussed using data from the JASON2, TOPEX-Poseidon, ENVISAT and GFO satellites. The SWAN model calibration shows that the best configuration is obtained with Janssen and Komen formulations with whitecapping coefficient (Cds) equal to 1.8e-5 for wave generation by wind and whitecapping dissipation using ERA-Interim. In addition, from the collocated SWAN results against the satellite records, the best configuration is determined to be the SWAN using the CFSR winds. Numerical results, thus show that the accuracy of a wave forecast will depend on the quality of the wind field and the ability of the SWAN model to simulate the waves under extreme wind conditions in fetch limited wave conditions.

  6. Multi-sensor satellite survey of natural oil slicks in the southeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityagina, Marina I.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Results of satellite observations of the Southeastern Black Sea are presented. Our work is aimed to the development and enhancement of satellite remote sensing technics for monitoring of sea surface oil pollution caused by the natural seepages of hydrocarbons from the seabed. We showed that multi-sensor approach to the satellite remote sensing survey contributes to a more comprehensive interpretation of the data and helps in developing a better understanding of the sea surface film pollution pattern. By using high-resolution satellite data, we were able to get a clear picture of a spatial and temporal variability of surface oil films and to show that their geographical distribution correlates with geographical locations of natural hydrocarbon seeps in this region. We used SAR for the precise estimation of the actual seafloor source location. We investigated the effect of surface winds and currents on transport, spreading, evolution, and persistence of oil slicks on the sea surface. We further demonstrated the importance of the effects of dynamic and circulation processes and natural factors (current meandering, vortical activity, and wind patterns) on the trajectory and fate of the released oil. We put together detailed maps of the sea surface oil pollution caused by natural hydrocarbons showings from the sea bottom in the south-eastern of the Black Sea and outlined the regions of the heaviest pollution.

  7. Interannual variability of anticyclone activity and temperature extremes in the Black sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, O. Yu; Voskresenskaya, E. N.

    2018-01-01

    Manifestations of North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) during its negative and positive phases and during different El Niño (EN) types in the anticyclone parameters and air temperature extreme thresholds in the Black sea region are studied. It is estimated quantitative characteristics of anticyclone frequency anomalies and temperature extremes associated with the NAO phases and the EN types.

  8. Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Eda N; Tonay, Arda M; Dede, Ayhan; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Öztürk, Bayram

    2013-04-01

    Beach debris abundance was estimated from surveys on 10 beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Debris was collected from 20 m long transects during four different seasons; sorted and categorized by type, usage and origin. Litter density varied from 0.085 to 5.058 items m(-2). Debris was mainly composed of unidentifiable small size (2-7 cm) plastic pieces and beverage-related litter such as bottles and bottle caps. About half of the labeled litter was of foreign origin, including 25 different countries, 23% of which are in the Black Sea region. The south-western Black Sea Coast seems to receive foreign litter from two main sources: land-based debris from the neighboring countries and seaborne debris due to international shipping. Standardized methodology and indicators need to be designated all over the Black Sea basin in order to quantify and qualify coastal litter pollution, monitor compliance with MARPOL and develop regionally effective mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  10. Recent Research in Black Sea Region on Assessment in Education (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipia, Ekaterine

    2016-01-01

    This article is written to inform educational community particularly in the respect of new tendencies in educational assessment and present a clear-cut picture of the recent studies conducted in the Black Sea Region. The review paper refers to the following countries: Georgia, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine. It stresses the prevalent approach detected…

  11. Circum Black sea phylogeography of Barbus freshwater fishes: divergence in the Pontic glacial refugium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlík, Petr; Bogutskaya, N. G.; Ekmekci, F. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2004), s. 87-95 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : Black Sea flood * coalescent simulation * gene genealogy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.375, year: 2004

  12. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants in River Waters Discharging into the Black Sea along the Ukrainian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major rivers of Ukraine, including the Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug and Danube, discharge approximately 8500 m3/s of freshwater into the northern and western portions of the Black Sea. As one of the largest countries in Europe, Ukraine also has one of the largest human po...

  13. Diversity and distribution of Planctomycetes and related bacteria in the suboxic zone of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, John; Oakley, Brian; Fuchsman, Clara; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Staley, James T; Murray, James W

    2006-04-01

    Samples from six depths of the Black Sea's suboxic zone were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene sequence information. A gradient in phylotype diversity was found. The distributions of known anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, many unknown Planctomycetes, and other phylotypes were examined in relation to the local nutrient and redox conditions.

  14. Diversity and Distribution of Planctomycetes and Related Bacteria in the Suboxic Zone of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, John; Oakley, Brian; Fuchsman, Clara; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Staley, James T.; Murray, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from six depths of the Black Sea's suboxic zone were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene sequence information. A gradient in phylotype diversity was found. The distributions of known anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, many unknown Planctomycetes, and other phylotypes were examined in relation to the local nutrient and redox conditions.

  15. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  16. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  17. PS-InSAR Monitoring of Landslide Activity in the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, E.; Mikhailov, V.; Smolyaninova, E.; Dmitriev, P.; Golubev, V.; Timoshkina, E.; Hooper, A.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The landslide activity in the area of Bolshoy Sochi (Big Sochi) situated at the Black Sea coast of the Great Caucasus has been studied using the StaMPS PS-InSAR method. We incorporated three sets of radar images from the satellites with different wavelengths ALOS, Envisat and Terra-SAR-X from both

  18. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  19. Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Seroprevalence in Black Sea Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... we are in the fight against Hepatitis B Infection; Trends in Hepatitis B virus seroprevalence in Black Sea Region of ... [2] Hepatitis B may cause hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, or both in infected ..... Heathcote J. Effect of alpha-interferon treatment in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic ...

  20. Recovery or decline of the Black Sea: A societal choice revealed by socio-ecological modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langmead, O.; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Mee, L.; Friedrich, J.; Gilbert, A.J.; Gormoiu, M.-T.; Jackson, E. L.; Knudsen, S.; Minicheva, G.; Todorova, V.

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades anthropogenic activities have dramatically impacted the Black Sea ecosystem. High levels of riverine nutrient input during the 1970s and 1980s caused eutrophic conditions including intense algal blooms resulting in hypoxia and the subsequent collapse of benthic habitats on the

  1. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  2. Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, W.; Seifert, R.; Nauhaus, K.

    2002-01-01

    Massive microbial mats covering up to 4-meter-high carbonate buildups prosper at methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea shelf. Strong (13)C depletions indicate an incorporation of methane carbon into carbonates, bulk biomass, and specific lipids. The mats mainly consist of d...

  3. A model for early diagenetic processes in sediments of the continental shelf of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model for early diagenetic processes in the sediments of the north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea is presented. The north-western shelf area is influenced by nutrient, organic matter and reactive iron inputs from major rivers such as the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester. Low

  4. Fe-Binding Dissolved Organic Ligands in the Oxic and Suboxic Waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Bown, J.; Margolin, A.R.; Laan, P.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the oxygen-rich layer of the Black Sea, above the permanent halocline, the Fe and nitrate concentrations are low where fluorescence is relatively high, indicating uptake by phytoplankton. In this study we used ligand exchange adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-aCSV), using

  5. Evidence of intensified biogenic silica recycling in the Black Sea after 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Erik Askov; Adjou, Mohamed; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The Black Sea has been subject to increased levels of nitrogen and phosphorus loading and a decrease in silicate input after around 1970. Changes in phytoplankton community composition from diatoms to non-diatom groups have been attributed to the decrease in silicate. However, a discrepancy betwe...

  6. Black Sea ecology. Pollution research in Turkey of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan

    2000-01-01

    Scientific research is leading to answers that can help protect the Black Sea marine environment. Through projects supported by the IAEA and other cooperative channels, countries in the Black Sea region are applying their expertise and capabilities to expand scientific knowledge of chemical and radioactive pollution. Turkey stands among the countries engaged in studies of the Black Sea, for a number of reasons related to environmental, economic, and health issues. Our scientific knowledge of pollution problems in the marine environment promises to expand in years ahead. Advances in the integration of biokinetic, ecotoxicology and risk analysis with environmental monitoring studies could make it possible to eventually determine the sensitivity to pollutants of human populations and marine organisms. Such integrated studies are being conducted by the Radioecology Laboratory of Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) in Turkey. The Laboratory has gained considerable experience over the years, including through its collaboration since 1970 with the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. Agency technical cooperation projects and research programmes additionally have benefited the laboratory. This article highlights selected Turkish studies of the Black Sea related to both radioactive and chemical pollution

  7. Influence of the sea bottom relief on the Cystoseira communities of the North Caucasian coast of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, U. V.

    2009-10-01

    We studied the characteristics of the Cystoseira ( Cystoseira barbata C. Ag, Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory) community at the North Caucasian coast of the Black Sea under the conditions of the pronounced sea-bottom relief, namely, ridge- and steplike benches. It is shown that a number of parameters of the composition and community structure (the species richness, the diversity indices, the biomass, the dominance pattern, and the epiphyte: basephyte ratio) are influenced more strongly by the sea bottom relief than by the depth. Presumably, this may be due to the variation of the integrated water velocity over different relief elements. The major dominants are shown to have different ecologies: C. barbata inhabits hollows, where the wave effect is minor, while C. crinita prefers to inhabit the ridge tops, i.e., the biotopes with increased hydrodynamic activity.

  8. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  9. STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SPECIES Mytilus galloprovincialis OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  10. The Morpho-Acoustic Structure of Sakarya Canyon, Southwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasıf, Aslıhan; Dondurur, Derman

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Black Sea outlet of Sakarya River in the western Black Sea continental margin is analyzed using a total of 1400 km multichannel seismics, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric datasets. Three scientific cruises between 2012 and 2016 have been conducted in the area to map and reveal the morphological structure of the Sakarya Canyon along the southwestern Black Sea margin. The Western Black Sea Turkey coastal area is also home to many active canyons. These canyons extend from deep shallow shelf areas of about 100 m to deep water depths of 1800-2000 m. The largest and most active of the Western Black Sea canyons is the Sakarya Canyon, which is located at the exit of the Sakarya River. Research on submarine canyons are important for military submarine operations, positioning of marine engineering structures and understanding the sedimentology, ecological and oceanographic functions of canyons. The canyon systems observed on continental slopes lead to the most convenient sedimentary transportation from the shelf platform. The dataset from study area was analyzed to identify the acoustic structure of Sakarya Canyon, the morphology of which is not widely known. Bathymetric data shows that the canyon consists of two separate canyon heads in the shallow continental shelf to the south, both of which coalesce at 867 m water depth. This meandering canyon then deepens along the continental slope towards to north. Another wide canyon from west, named as Kefken Canyon, then conjoins this main canyon at approximately 1000 m water depths to form the deeper structure of the modern Sakarya Canyon. In the distal parts, canyon gets wider and wider, and its thalweg becomes significantly flat eroded by the present day activity of small scale turbidity channels. Multichannel seismic data indicate that the Sakarya Canyon was formed by the activity of hyperphycnal flows and also clearly show the extensive sediment erosion along the canyon.

  11. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  12. Evolution of the plankton paleome in the Black Sea from the Deglacial to Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J L; Orsi, William D; Balkema, Cherel; Quince, Christopher; Harris, Keith; Sylva, Sean P; Filipova-Marinova, Mariana; Giosan, Liviu

    2013-05-21

    The complex interplay of climate shifts over Eurasia and global sea level changes modulates freshwater and saltwater inputs to the Black Sea. The dynamics of the hydrologic changes from the Late Glacial into the Holocene remain a matter of debate, and information on how these changes affected the ecology of the Black Sea is sparse. Here we used Roche 454 next-generation pyrosequencing of sedimentary 18S rRNA genes to reconstruct the plankton community structure in the Black Sea over the last ca. 11,400 y. We found that 150 of 2,710 species showed a statistically significant response to four environmental stages. Freshwater chlorophytes were the best indicator species for lacustrine conditions (>9.0 ka B.P.), although the copresence of previously unidentified marine taxa indicated that the Black Sea might have been influenced to some extent by the Marmara Sea since at least 9.6 ka calendar (cal) B.P. Dinoflagellates, cercozoa, eustigmatophytes, and haptophytes responded most dramatically to the gradual increase in salinity after the latest marine reconnection and during the warm and moist mid-Holocene climatic optimum. According to paired analysis of deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) isotope ratios in fossil alkenones, salinity increased rapidly with the onset of the dry Subboreal after ~5.2 ka B.P., leading to an increase in marine fungi and the first occurrence of marine copepods. A gradual succession of dinoflagellates, diatoms, and chrysophytes occurred during the refreshening after ~2.5 ka cal B.P. with the onset of the cool and wet Subatlantic climate and recent anthropogenic perturbations.

  13. Internal waves in the Black Sea: satellite observations and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Mityagina, Marina I.; Serebryany, Andrey N.; Sabinin, Konstantin D.; Kalashnikova, Nina A.; Krayushkin, Evgeny V.; Khymchenko, Ielizaveta

    2014-10-01

    Satellite radar (SAR) and visible band data from Envisat ASAR, ERS-2 SAR, Lansat-5,7,8 sensors were used to investigate internal waves (IWs) in the Black Sea. The three main areas of the Black Sea where surface manifestations of internal waves (SMIWs) were mostly observed are: the Danube Delta, Crimea Peninsula and the northeastern region near Novorossiysk. The main goal of our investigation was to define the mechanisms of IW generation in the non-tidal sea. In the first area, IWs are observed rather often due to surface intrusions of fresh waters of the Danube River. In contrast to usual soliton-like IW trains caused by river plumes, soliton trains near the Danuba Delta propagate in different directions and often subject to nonlinear interactions. The interrelation between location and orientation of IW trains and fresh water fronts is discussed. In the area off Crimea, in our opinion, IWs are generated mainly by upwelling relaxation and interaction between internal inertial waves and bottom topography features. SMIW in the northeastern part of the Black Sea are scarce, though IWs are regularly revealed by in-situ measurements. Field measurements were conducted in the northeastern part of the Black Sea from a small boat and from scientific sea platform near Crimea employing CTD probes, thermistor chain and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). ADCP measurements allowed us to detect a number of IW trains. Their amplitudes were estimated to reach 5-8 m. Joint analysis of satellite SAR and subsatellite data gave an assessment of their typical wavelength at 90-100 m.

  14. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an integrated analysis of exchanges of water, salt and heat between the north-western Black Sea shelf and the deep basin. Three contributing physical mechanisms are quantified, namely: Ekman drift, transport by mesoscale eddies at the edge of the NW Black Sea shelf and non-local cascading assisted by the rim current and mesoscale eddies. The semi-enclosed nature of the Black Sea together with its unique combination of an extensive shelf area in the North West and the deep central part make it sensitive to natural variations of fluxes, including the fluxes between the biologically productive shelf and predominantly anoxic deep sea. Exchanges between the shelf and deep sea play an important role in forming the balance of waters, nutrients and pollution within the coastal areas, and hence the level of human-induced eutrophication of coastal waters (MSFD Descriptor 5). In this study we analyse physical mechanisms and quantify shelf-deep sea exchange processes in the Black Sea sector using the NEMO ocean circulation model. The model is configured and optimized taking into account specific features of the Black Sea, and validated against in-situ and satellite observations. The study uses NEMO-BLS24 numerical model which is based on the NEMO codebase v3.2.1 with amendments introduced by the UK Met Office. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/24×1/24° and a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical coordinate system with a total of 33 layers. The horizontal viscosity/diffusivity operator is rotated to reduce the contamination of vertical diffusion/viscosity by large values of their horizontal counterparts. The bathymetry is processed from ETOPO5 and capped to 1550m. Atmospheric forcing for the period 1989-2012 is given by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2. For comparison, the NCEP atmospheric forcing also used for 2005. The climatological runoff from 8 major rivers is included. We run the model individually for 24 calendar years without data assimilation. For

  15. Natural Isotopic Fractionation of 238U/235U in the Water Column of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, S. J.; Brennecka, G.; Anbar, A. D.; Colman, A. S.

    2009-12-01

    The natural fractionation of long-lived uranium isotopes (238U, 235U) is being explored as a paleoredox proxy. While uranium behaves conservatively in oxic seawater, it is readily removed to sediments under reducing conditions. Measurements of δ238/235U in black shales and marine sediments deposited under sulfidic conditions suggest that uranium removed in such environments is isotopically heavy. However, this fractionation process has not been directly demonstrated in a present-day marine environment, nor is the specific mechanism of fractionation known. The euxinic water column of the Black Sea provides an ideal laboratory for studying uranium isotope fractionation. Uranium in Black Sea sediments is 0.35-0.84‰ heavy in δ238/235U relative to open ocean seawater (Weyer et al. 2008). We therefore expect that dissolved uranium in the Black Sea water column should be correspondingly light. Furthermore, direct measurements of δ238/235U versus depth could be used in combination with sediment δ238/235U to infer the dominant locations of U removal and constrain specific mechanisms of fractionation. Here we present the first δ238/235U depth profile from the water column of the Black Sea. The measurements were made on a Neptune MC-ICP-MS, using a 236U-233U double spike to correct for instrumental mass bias, following preconcentration and purification with UTEVA resin. With this method, we are able to measure δ238/235U with a 2σ precision of 0.07‰ on 100 ng samples. Our results show that δ238/235U decreases monotonically with depth (Fig. 1). At the surface, δ238/235U values are similar to those in the open ocean. At 2000m, δ238/235U is 0.28‰ lighter than open ocean seawater, while uranium concentrations are depleted by ~44% relative to conservative mixing. As expected, δ238/235U in the water column is always lighter than the underlying sediments, confirming that 238U is preferentially removed to marine sediments under sulfidic conditions. Fig 1. (left) Depth

  16. Comparative bioavailability of radionuclides in macroalgae from Black sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, Tz.; Christoskova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide and heavy metal content is measured by gamma spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in the commonest species of the Black Sea red, brown, and green macroalgae, sampled in the period 1996 - 2002. Radionuclide content was measured in ten different macrophytic algae species (five green: Cladophora vagabunda, Ulva rigida, Enteromorpha intestinal, Chaetomorpha gracilis, Bryopsis plumosa; two brown: Cystoseira crinita and Cystoseira barbata; three red: Ceramium rubrum, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis) from eleven sampling locations for eight consecutive years. The measured concentrations of artificial and natural gamma emitters in algae depend on the alga species. The obtained range for 137 Cs in algae is 1.2 - 26 Bq/kg. The average values for the natural nuclides are 238 U - 13 Bq/kg; 232 Th - 6 Bq/kg and for 226 Ra - 8 Bq/kg. The measured natural nuclides in the species Bryopsis plumosa are with two orders of magnitude higher than other species at the same location. Significant differences in Cs-137 concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions at same locations, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. Cs-137 content in collected sea algae follows the descending order: Ceramium rubrum , Cladophora vagabunda, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira crinita, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis, Chaetomorpha gracilis. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the accumulation degree is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. Higher levels are obtained in the northern part of the Black Sea basin due to current circulation originating from the outflow of the rivers Danube, Dnyepr and Dnester, also at the south part of the Black sea coast. It is concluded that the general dispersion of Cs-137 results from the water circulation regime

  17. Satellite data for systematic validation of wave model results in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    The Black Sea is with regard to the availability of traditional in situ wave measurements recorded by usual waverider buoys a data sparse semi-enclosed sea. The only possibility for systematic validations of wave model results in such a regional area is the use of satellite data. In the frame of the COPERNICUS Marine Evolution System for the Black Sea that requires wave predictions, the third-generation spectral wave model WAM is used. The operational system is demonstrated based on four years' systematic comparisons with satellite data. The aim of this investigation was to answer two questions. Is the wave model able to provide a reliable description of the wave conditions in the Black Sea and are the satellite measurements suitable for validation purposes on such a regional scale ? Detailed comparisons between measured data and computed model results for the Black Sea including yearly statistics have been done for about 300 satellite overflights per year. The results discussed the different verification schemes needed to review the forecasting skills of the operational system. The good agreement between measured and modeled data supports the expectation that the wave model provides reasonable results and that the satellite data is of good quality and offer an appropriate validation alternative to buoy measurements. This is the required step towards further use of those satellite data for assimilation into the wave fields to improve the wave predictions. Additional support for the good quality of the wave predictions is provided by comparisons between ADCP measurements that are available for a short time period in February 2012 and the corresponding model results at a location near the Bulgarian coast in the western Black Sea. Sensitivity tests with different wave model options and different driving wind fields have been done which identify the appropriate model configuration that provides the best wave predictions. In addition to the comparisons between measured

  18. Sub-inertial oscillations in the Black Sea generated by the semidiurnal tidal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanova, A. N.; Bagaev, A. V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zalesny, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    The Black Sea shelf is a region of intense manifestation of various dynamical processes. Under the influence of different natural forces, eddy-wave phenomena develop here, which influence the general circulation of sea waters, biological productivity, and the condition of the engineering structures. Modern numerical models allow us to simulate and analyze the processes of the joint dynamics of marine circulation and large-scale waves. In this work, we study the spatiotemporal spectral characteristics of the sea level and velocity fluctuations formed due to atmospheric forcing and tidal potential. The hydrophysical fields are calculated using the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS), σ model based on primitive equations. We use the CORE data as atmospheric forcing at the sea surface; the tidal potential is described by the semidiurnal lunar constituent M2. Analyzing the simulation results makes it possible to emphasize that accounting for the semidiurnal tidal potential not only improves the accuracy of the sea-level calculation at coastal stations, but also generates subinertial baroclinic oscillations previously found in the Black Sea from the data of in situ observations.

  19. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ERNST KRENKEL, MUSSON and other platforms in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from 1978-02-11 to 1979-12-20 (NODC Accession 9000266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Station data in this accession was collected in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea as part of the International Council for the Exploration of Seas (ICES)...

  20. Radioactivity monitoring of the Turkish Black Sea coast as a part of the IAEA model project 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' and nuclear techniques for the environmental management of water resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Koksal, G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Kose, A.; Kucukcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Erkol, A.Y.; Karakelle, B.; Osvath, I.; Fowler, S.

    2002-01-01

    A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project is initiated in response to the needs of participating Member-States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer technique to marine pollution studies. The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interest. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed thought various conventions and declarations. Socio-economically; fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from Turkish monitoring work consists of the routine sampling of sea water, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. Insights gained from the application of nuclear techniques for the 'Pollution Investigation of the Kucukcekmece Lake' and the 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' Model Technical Co-operation Project carried out at the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center supporting by the IAEA are presented. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of protection of the water resources within Eurasian countries and the need for strong cooperation among nuclear research centers

  1. Contemporary radioecological state of the North-western Black Sea and the problems of environment conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, N N; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Gulin, S B; Milchakova, N A

    2014-04-15

    Review is devoted to the analysis of a radioecological situation in the North-western Black Sea and concerns the levels of contamination of the components of an ecosystem by the main artificial radioactive isotopes ((90)Sr, (137)Cs, (239,240)Pu). The long-term accumulation trends of these radionuclides were analyzed in components of the Black Sea ecosystem after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Zones that have an increased ability to accumulate these radioisotopes were revealed. The assessment of irradiation dose rates formed by (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in Black Sea hydrobionts was obtained. The strategy for biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources should include monitoring of the radioecological state of the marine ecosystems, and the formation of a complex of biogeochemical criteria for assessment of an ecological situation in the sea. This approach is important for marine protected areas, since it allows the formation of a basis for scientific and practical function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  3. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) in the NE Aegean Sea frontal area: Seasonal dynamics under the influence of Black Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Lagaria, A.; Giannakourou, A.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) was determined on a seasonal basis (autumn, spring and summer) along a north-south transect in the NE Aegean Sea and the vicinity of the Dardanelles Straits. Their distribution patterns were studied in respect to hydrographic conditions and water mass characteristics in the area, as well as particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, changes in standing stocks of chlorophyll-α and bacterial production. TEP concentrations ranged from 15.4 to 188 μg GX eq L-1. Their spatial distribution patterns within the euphotic zone displayed significant seasonal variability, which appears to closely reflect the temporal variation of the water column structure, resulting from the encounter and interplay of the Black Sea and Levantine Water masses, and the associated biogeochemical processes. Minimum TEP concentrations during autumn could be likely attributed to a minor quantity of TEP and/or its dissolved precursors exuded by phytoplankton and their enhanced degradation due to their long residence time in the water column. During spring, high TEP production was mediated by actively growing phytoplankton, while during summer a positive link to the intense stratification of the water column and the enhanced bacterial growth within the Black Sea Water layer was observed. The results reported in this study highlight the fact that TEP carbon represents a significant fraction of the POC pool. Moreover, TEP production is critical in promoting particle coagulation rates, playing an important role in carbon cycling/transportation out of the euphotic zone.

  5. Evolution of Future Black Sea Fish Stocks under Changing Environmental and Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Salihoglu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a case study toward producing quantitative scientific advice on the application of the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP in the Black Sea. We provide estimates of fishing mortality rates at levels which will lead to rebuilding and maintaining stocks above biomass levels that could produce maximum sustainable yield (MSY under the IPCC RCP4.5 future climate scenario together with the business as usual (BAU river discharge scenario. In this study, we have implemented a coupled, basin-scale circulation-biogeochemical model and used its output to feed a food web model to test near-future changes that may be observed in the Black Sea ecosystem under the influence of contemporary fisheries exploitation conditions. In order to test model response to changes in climate and related drivers, the future climate scenario (2015–2020 simulation was compared to the present day (2000–2014 simulation. Likewise, to test the sensitivity of the higher trophic level food web model to changes in fishing pressure, a future estimate of fishing pressure was projected based on its respective contemporary value and applied to each fish stock. Using these models, fishing mortality rates that could produce the maximum sustainable yield (FMSY in future years 2015–2020 and ensure the long-term recovery of the predatory fish stocks of the Black Sea are predicted. Future projections suggest that all fish stock will decrease in all the regions of the Black Sea except for sprat. Anchovy is expected to show the highest decrease in biomass. Analyses on FMSY estimates show that a significant reduction in fisheries exploitation is required for the sustainable management of the Black Sea ecosystems and the related services. This study, for the first time, presents future stock size, FMSY, and MSY estimates for the Black Sea for 11 fish species. FMSY values are generally lower than estimates of the scientific, technical, and economic committee for fisheries (STECF

  6. Hydrologic Control on Bacterial Nitrogen Fixation in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. M.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Stratified oceans of the Phanerozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events apparently were dominated by bacterial nitrogen fixation. Decreased marine N:P nutrient ratios resulting from increased denitrification and decreased phosphate burial efficiency under anoxic waters drove this nutrient regime. This model is upheld by the presence of cyanobacterial hopanoid biomarkers in sedimentary records and δ15N values indicative of nitrogen fixation. However, in the largest modern redox-stratified marine basin, the Black Sea, bacterial nitrogen fixation seems to be only a minor contributor to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, we use geochemical proxies to evaluate the role of bacterial nitrogen fixation during the deposition of the Holocene Black Sea sapropel, starting 7.8 ka. We report compound-specific nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values of pyropheophytin a, a chlorophyll degradation product, and bacteriochlorophyll e produced by green sulfur bacteria. We also present the surprising finding of scytonemin, a pigment produced only by filamentous cyanobacteria exposed to ultraviolet radiation, in certain intervals in these sediments. In the Holocene, nitrogen fixation in the Black Sea is most prominent during times of reduced river water influx. This directly decreases the external flux of nitrate into the surface waters. Reduced freshwater influx also decreases the volume of low salinity water dispersed around the sea by the Rim Current, allowing the chemocline to shoal along the margins. Previous geochemical studies have described this changing chemocline geometry. The exposure of shallow water sediments to anoxic waters further stimulates nitrogen fixation by releasing more phosphorus to the system. Nitrogen fixation is recorded in the sediments as bulk and compound-specific pyropheophytin a δ15N values near 0 ‰ and -5 ‰, respectively. We have also detected scytonemin in two intervals characterized by especially low δ15N values. This compound suggests abundant filamentous

  7. Exploration of the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas Aboard E/V Nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Brennan, M. L.; Raineault, N. A.; Shank, T. M.; Mayer, L. A.; Roman, C.; Mitchell, G. A.; Coleman, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, the Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus undertook a two-month expedition to the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas. The primary goal of the Nautilus is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration, National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and corporate partners. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and telepresence technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide shipboard response before the ship moves on. The 2012 expedition is comprised of four areas of interest. Extensive sidescan mapping took place off the Turkish coasts of the southern Black Sea and eastern Aegean Sea, and was followed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives on targets of archaeological, geological, and biological interest. In the Black Sea, additional work was done on the porewater chemistry of the sediments in the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic zones. Nautilus returned to the Anaximander Seamounts, including Kazan, Amserdam, Thessaloniki, and Athina, to further explore active and formerly active seep sites located in 2010. Finally, based on biological and geological discoveries made on Eratosthenes Seamount in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, we returned to further study chemosynthetic vent communities and tectonic processes.;

  8. Impact of winter cooling on the northern part of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Anatolii

    2016-07-01

    Climate change in the future may have a negative impact on many countries due to the increasing surface temperature and sea level rise. Probably, unprecedented largest positive trend of surface temperature, which observed since the mid XX century, has associated with increasing human activities around the world. Moreover, this warming will continue in this century, and at the end of the XXI century will be 2 - 5 ºC. Thus, investigation and monitoring of current climate are very important and necessary tasks. Regional model data (downscaling) and satellite data are used, because of underdeveloped network of meteorological stations in the northern part of the Black Sea region. Experiment of downscaling was carried out for the Black Sea region with a high spatial resolution of 0.22° x 0.22° for 1958 - 2007(daily values). For the Black Sea were also used satellite data of sea surface temperature(SST) from MyOcean-2 Project, which CNR(Rome) has reprocessed Pathfinder V5.2 (PFV52) AVHRR data over period 1981 - 2012 with daily gap-free maps (L4) at the original PFV52 resolution at 0.04° x 0.04°. Correlation between satellite SST and surface temperature from regional model climate are amounted 0,99. Thus, surface temperature of model and satellite data for the Black Sea is much correlated between yourself. The following integral characteristics of the Black Sea are referred to the area of sea limited by the 44 - 47º N and 28 - 34º E. Maximum cooling of the north-western part of the Black Sea in winter is occurs after invasion of cold air across the northern border of the basin. In addition, this water area is also interesting in the presence of her huge oil and gas reserves, as well as the construction of liquefied gas (crude oil) terminals. The maximum values of total heat flux (sensible + latent heat fluxes= Q) corresponding to the minimum values of SST are observed during the periods of the negative phase of the NAO. Besides, fluxes with extreme days P (Q) = 95

  9. SOME FEATURES OF THE BLACK SEA SEASONAL THERMOHALINE VARIABILITY: MODERN VIEW

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    Valentin Tuzhilkin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of statistical processing and physical analyses of the historical and recent hydrographic data set are presented. Seasonal thermohaline (hydrographic variabilities of the Black Sea main baroclinic layer (0–200 m are considered. In the upper 50-m layer, seasonal thermohaline variability is generated mainly by the heat and freshwater fluxes across the sea surface. In the main pycnocline between depths of 50 and 200 m it is caused by the flux of the wind-stress relative vorticity. Thermohaline effects of these processes are described.

  10. Distribution of pollutants in the Russian sector of the Black Sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos'yan, R.D.; Yesin, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    For the latest 30-40 years the Black Sea pollution by various pollutants is observed. It is the result of economical activity intensification on the shore and of slow growth of cleaning system capacity. In the coastal zone concentration of pollutants depends on the pollutant amount brought from the source and the process of their distribution and transport to the open sea. Within the Krasnodar region towns of Novorossiisk, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, Sochi and the ports of Novorossiisk and Tuapse are the main sources of pollutants

  11. The Fight Against Emissaries across the Black Sea Coastline Area (1834–1847 years

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    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of archival sources examines the work of foreign emissaries on the Black Sea coastline in 1834-1847 years. The significant part of sources is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The importance is given to the activities of foreign agents, their life among the hillmen, and methods of fighting of the Russian administration with foreign agents. The author comes to the conclusion that in the period of 1834-1847 years, on the Black Sea coastline the emissaries were carried out the diverse activities aimed against the Russian Empire. This activity was shown at the instigation of the hillmen for the war against Russia, the spread of false information, work as instructors, as well as to the personal involvement of emissaries in fighting.

  12. Predictive isotopic biogeochemistry of lipids from the Black Sea and Cariaco Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.H.; Hayes, J.M.; Wakeham, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of autotrophic organisms can be predicted based on recently established relationships between [CO 2 (aq)] and var-epsilon p , the isotopic fractionation accompanying carbon fixation. In both the Black Sea and the Cariaco Trench, where [CO 2 (aq)] values are known and δ values for hydrocarbons were recently determined, predicted biomass δ values can be compared to those of biomarkers extracted from POM and sediment samples. The agreement is good, although a 5 per-thousand range in δ values is observed for the lipids, which may be due to ecological factors or to contributions from organisms that assimilate HCO 3 -. Lycopane and pentamethyleicosane apparently derive from planktonic organisms. Diploptene in the Black Sea apparently is derived from chemoautotrophic bacteria living at the oxic/anoxic interface. Some odd-C, long-chain n-alkanes have planktonic δ values, and the authors suggest they are not strict terrestrial indicators

  13. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strezov, Alexander [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: strezov@inrne.bas.bg; Nonova, Tzvetana [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-02-15

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest {sup 137}Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea.

  14. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, Alexander; Nonova, Tzvetana

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest 137 Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while 226 Ra and 210 Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea

  15. Black Sea Cooperation: a Difficult Path to Overcoming Divisions and Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Manoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea area is mostly discussed for its security relevance to Europe and to the rest of the international community. Suffering from a long transition period to market economy and parliamentary democracy, the peoples living in the area have been struggling to overcome the new divisions of the post Soviet era and join the European community of stability and prosperity. Regionalism has been used as a means towards this end. Embraced already by the early 1990s by local political elites of the newly established countries in the region, regionalism became a fashionable policy tool responding to needs of sovereignty boosting, global integration and good neighbourly relations. Primarily used as a foreign policy tool, regionalism has followed a difficult path. This chapter presents an overview of the evolution of Black Sea regionalism, looking at actors, interests and processes. Then it discusses its achievements and shortcomings.

  16. NW Black Sea ecosystems recovery from former severe seasonal hypoxia and effect on macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Begun, Tatiana; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The benthos researches carried out in the last decade on the NW Black Sea shelf established the transitional process of the bottom communities, from the severe disturbed state resulted from seasonal hypoxia of high eutrophication from 1970-2000 period towards a new state. The authors, with their expertise achieved in the framework of several national and EU FP6&7 projects (SESAME, HYPOX, PERSEUS), analyzing more than 600 quantitative samples, consider the benthic associations influenced mainly by the Danube River discharge being characterized as follows: • decrease in the specific diversity (e.g. Mollusca - from 170 species in the 1960s - 1970s to 70 species in the present in NW Black Sea); • loss or diminishing of some habitat areas (typical habitat with Zostera, Phyllophora, Cystoseira, Barnea, Donacilla etc.); • increase in the numeric abundance and biomass of some specific benthic populations (Melinna, Alitta, Dipolydora etc.); • loss or reduction of some specific populations (Abra prismatica, Spisula subtruncata, Chamelia gallina etc.); • replacement of some strong and quite large benthic populations by metapopulation of small extension; • diminution of the biofilter strength by reduction of the filter - feeder populations; • qualitative and quantitative worsening of benthic biological resources, especially molluscs - forms playing an important ecological part and with great economic importance (mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, soft-shell clam Mya arenaria, veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa); • thriving of opportunistic forms (especially worms populations causing sediment bioturbation - Melinna palmata, Heteromastus filiformis) and, temporarily, some exotic species recently pervading Black Sea (Mya, Anadara, Rapana etc.); • great quantitative fluctuations of all benthic populations; • occurrence of some weak sing of ecosystem recovery. However, recovery of the benthic ecosystem appears to be less certain although an improvement on

  17. Present regulatory situation in South East European and Black Sea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenow, K.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, after the energy reforms beginning, various regulatory models are either actually used or contemplated in the countries of Southeastern Europe and the Black Sea region. The 'models' are country-specific and five of them are described in this report. Certain common issues emerge specific to these countries can be grouped in three categories. The first category, called 'framework issues', includes the policy issues that determine the context in which the regulator will have to evolve. The second category, called 'regulatory issues proper', includes licensing, setting of prices, tariffs, transmission fees, establishment of codes for markets, grids and metering. The third category, called 'international issues', includes these issues requiring the international cooperation among regulators. The countries in Southeastern Europe and around the Black Sea have a long experience with regulation of grid-based energies and this experience should be adapted to the market-oriented context bearing in mind the benefits of competition and of regional integration and markets

  18. Numerical studies on the dynamics of the Northwestern Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOURAFALOU

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Black Sea shelf dynamics are studied with numerical simulations based on the Princeton Ocean Model. The study focus is on buoyancy and wind driven flows and on the transport and fate of low salinity waters that are introduced through riverine sources (the Danube, Dnestr and Dnepr Rivers, under the seasonal changes in atmospheric forcing. The study is part of the DANUBS project (NUtrient management in the DAnube basin and its impact on the Black Sea. The numerical simulations show that the coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially that of the Danube, which is dominant with monthly averaged values ranging from 5,000 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transport of low-salinity waters associated with the Danube runoff is greatly influenced by wind stress, topographic effects and basin-scale circulation patterns, such as changes in the position of the Rim Current.

  19. (40)K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Gulina, L V; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu; Duka, M S; Moseichenko, I N; Rodina, E A

    2014-08-01

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide (40)K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, (40)K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ukraine’s trade and economic priorities in the Black sea economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Goncharuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of trade and economic priorities of Ukraine’s integration into the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC. The country’s integration options have been analyzed including the Western European vs. pro-Russian integration vector, the bidirectional gravity model, and an alte — native subregional cooperation direction. Ukraine’s sectoral priorities for deepening economic cooperation with the BSEC member countries in the context of implementation of the national interests have been identified, in particular in the field of goods, transport and tourism services, and energy trading. The ways of and instruments for improving Ukraine’s trade activities within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation have been offered for the various working groups of the Organization that are focused on such areas of cooperation as macroeconomics, policy and law, finance and economics, science and technology, culture and society, infrastructure, and institutional renewal.

  1. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  2. Stimulation of autotrophic denitrification by intrusions of the bosporus plume into the anoxic black sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsman, Clara A; Murray, James W; Staley, James T

    2012-01-01

    Autotrophic denitrification was measured in the southwestern coastal Black Sea, where the Bosporus Plume injects oxidized chemical species (especially O(2) and [Formula: see text]) into the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic layers. Prominent oxygen intrusions caused an overlap of [Formula: see text] and sulfide at the same station where autotrophic denitrification activity was detected with incubation experiments. Several bacteria that have been proposed to oxidize sulfide in other low oxygen environments were found in the Black Sea including SUP05, Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and BS-GSO2. Comparison of TRFLP profiles from this mixing zone station and the Western Gyre (a station not affected by the Bosporus Plume) indicate the greatest relative abundance of Sulfurimonas and Arcobacter at the appropriate depths at the mixing zone station. The autotrophic gammaproteobacterium BS-GSO2 correlated with ammonium fluxes rather than with sulfide fluxes and the maximum in SUP05 peak height was shallower than the depths where autotrophic denitrification was detected. Notably, anammox activity was not detected at the mixing zone station, though low levels of DNA from the anammox bacteria CandidatusScalindua were present. These results provide evidence for a modified ecosystem with different N(2) production pathways in the southwest coastal region compared to that found in the rest of the Black Sea. Moreover, the same Sulfurimonas phylotype (BS139) was previously detected on >30 μm particles in the suboxic zone of the Western Gyre along with DNA of potential sulfate reducers, so it is possible that particle-attached autotrophic denitrification may be an overlooked N(2) production pathway in the central Black Sea as well.

  3. Stimulation of autotrophic denitrification by intrusions of the Bosporus Plume into the anoxic Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara A. Fuchsman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic denitrification was measured in the southwestern coastal Black Sea, where the Bosporus Plume injects oxidized chemical species (especially O2 and NO3- into the oxic, suboxic and anoxic layers. Prominent oxygen intrusions caused an overlap of NOx- and sulfide at the same station where autotrophic denitrification activity was detected with incubation experiments. Several bacteria that have been proposed to oxidize sulfide in other low oxygen environments were found in the Black Sea including SUP05, Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and BS-GSO2. Comparison of TRFLP profiles from this mixing zone station and the Western Gyre (a station not affected by the Bosporus Plume indicate the greatest relative abundance of Sulfurimonas and Arcobacter at the appropriate depths at the mixing zone station. The autotrophic gammaproteobacterium BS-GSO2 correlated with ammonium fluxes rather than with sulfide fluxes and the maximum in SUP05 peak height was shallower than the depths where autotrophic denitrification was detected. Notably, anammox activity was not detected at the mixing zone station, though low levels of DNA from the anammox bacteria Candidatus Scalindua were present. These results provide evidence for a modified ecosystem with different N2 production pathways in the southwest coastal region compared to that found in the rest of the Black Sea. Moreover, the same Sulfurimonas phylotype (BS139 was previously detected on >30 μm particles in the suboxic zone of the Western Gyre along with DNA of potential sulfate reducers, so it is possible that particle-attached autotrophic denitrification may be an overlooked N2 production pathway in the central Black Sea as well.

  4. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Black Sea Hydrodynamics and Chlorophyll: A Concentration with Connection to Wind Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Model GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center GPS Global Positioning System HRPT High-Resolution Picture Transmission IGDR Interim Geophysical Data...inter-annually, seasonally, and by mesoscale/ synoptic scale, dominate the near-surface circulation of the Black Sea (Oguz et al. 1994; Poulain et al...factor affecting the scales of synoptic , seasonal, and inter-annual eddies. Exchanges in the shelf-deep basin of the Black Sea are mainly driven by

  5. A New Record for Occurrence of Symphodus bailloni (Osteichthyes: Perciformes: Labridae in the Western Black Sea Coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Göktürk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish species Symphodus bailloni (Valenciennes, 1839 reported in the present study were collected between June 2010 and June 2011 from the western Black Sea coasts which were previously not recorded from the Black Sea coast of Turkey. A total of 717 specimens of S. bailloni were measured, ranging between 8.9 and 15.4 cm TL. Morphometrics, meristics, and diagnostic characteristics of the species are presented.

  6. A New Record for Occurrence of Symphodus bailloni (Osteichthyes: Perciformes: Labridae) in the Western Black Sea Coast of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktürk, Didem; Karakulak, F. Saadet; Ünsal, Nuran; Kahraman, Abdullah E.

    2012-01-01

    The fish species Symphodus bailloni (Valenciennes, 1839) reported in the present study were collected between June 2010 and June 2011 from the western Black Sea coasts which were previously not recorded from the Black Sea coast of Turkey. A total of 717 specimens of S. bailloni were measured, ranging between 8.9 and 15.4 cm TL. Morphometrics, meristics, and diagnostic characteristics of the species are presented. PMID:22593703

  7. Taxonomic contribution to the genus Sphaerosyllis (Annelida: Syllidae: Exogoninae) in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor; Martín, Guillermo San

    2017-10-04

    During a study of fauna associated with a shallow-water Zostera (Zosterella) noltei bed from the southern part of the Romanian Black Sea coast, among the identified material collected in 2015, a syllid polychaete belonging to the subfamily Exogoninae, Sphaerosyllis taylori Perkins, 1981, represents a new record for the Black Sea. Re-examination of available specimens previously identified as Sphaerosyllis bulbosa Southern, 1914 revealed that they belong to an unknown species, described herein as Sphaerosyllis pontica sp. nov. The new species is characterized by the median antenna inserted more posteriorly than the lateral antennae, dorsal cirri with bulbous bases and very short tips, shorter than the parapodial lobes, dorsal cirri absent on chaetiger 2, parapodial glands with fibrillar material from chaetiger 4 onwards, compound chaetae with short blades and smooth shafts, anterior parapodia with two aciculae each, one straight and one with bent tip. Descriptions of both species are provided together with a key to all Sphaerosyllis species known from the Black Sea.

  8. New nutritional composition data on selected traditional foods consumed in Black Sea Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Hayran, Osman; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Traditional foods are an important part of the culture, history, identity and heritage of a region or country and are key elements in dietary patterns. In most countries there is limited information on the nutritional composition of such foods and therefore there is a need to investigate, register and promote traditional foods. One of the aims within the 'Sustainable exploitation of bioactive components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods' (BaSeFood) project is to generate for the first time new data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods from six Black Sea Area countries to promote their sustainable development and exploitation. Thirty-three traditional foods were analysed in an accredited laboratory to determine their nutritional composition, and the data were fully documented. The nutrient content varied widely because of the nature and variety of the analysed foods. The energy content ranged between 4 kcal per 100 g for kvass southern and 900 kcal per 100 g for mustard oil, with the exception of the analysed teas, which did not contribute to energy intake. The use of a common methodology for the study of traditional foods will enable countries to further investigate these foods. Moreover, a new nutritional knowledge base of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries will contribute to promote local biodiversity and sustainable diets by maintaining healthy dietary patterns within local cultures. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Molecular diversity and predictability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus along the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bradd J; Kokashvili, Tamar; Tskshvediani, Ana; Janelidze, Nino; Mitaishvili, Nino; Grim, Christopher J; Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Chen, Arlene J; Taviani, Elisa; Eliashvili, Tamar; Tediashvili, Marina; Whitehouse, Chris A; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related gastroenteritis and is also an autochthonous member of marine and estuarine environments worldwide. One-hundred seventy strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from water and plankton samples collected along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea during 28 months of sample collection. All isolated strains were tested for presence of tlh, trh, and tdh. A subset of strains were serotyped and tested for additional factors and markers of pandemicity. Twenty-six serotypes, five of which are clinically relevant, were identified. Although all 170 isolates were negative for tdh, trh, and the Kanagawa Phenomenon, 7 possessed the GS-PCR sequence and 27 the 850 bp sequence of V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. The V. parahaemolyticus population in the Black Sea was estimated to be genomically heterogeneous by rep-PCR and the serodiversity observed did not correlate with rep-PCR genomic diversity. Statistical modeling was used to predict presence of V. parahaemolyticus as a function of water temperature, with strongest concordance observed for Green Cape site samples (Percent of total variance = 70, P Black Sea, some of which carry pandemic markers, with increased water temperature correlated to an increase in abundance of V. parahaemolyticus.

  10. LIPIDS OF BLACK SEA ALGAE: UNVEILING THEIR POTENTIAL FOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND COSMETIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bulgarian Black Sea coast is rich in algae, regarding biomass and algal biodiversity. The red algae Gelidium crinale (Rhodophyta and brown algae Cystoseira barbata (Phaeophytes are among the most abundant species along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Yet information about their lipid composition is limited. Purpose: Present study was conducted to investigate biologically active substances in two underexplored seaweed lipids. Total lipids, total phospholipids, fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids were analysed. In addition, the specific distribution of fatty acids group among the total lipids and total phospholipids were elucidated. Material/Methods: The saponifiable lipid fraction was derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identify and quantify the fatty acids. The fat soluble non-saponifiable lipids were identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with UV/Vis and fluorescence detectors (HPLC-UV-FL. Results: Results showed that Rhodophyta and Phaeophytes have high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a good source of these compounds. They presented a “healthy” n-6/n-3 ratio. Both seaweed species showed considerably high amounts of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin. Conclusions: The study reveals that lipids from Black Sea algae have a high potential as natural sources of biologically active ingredients. They are balanced source of fatty acids and contained beneficial antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin.

  11. The renewable energy and economic growth nexus in Black Sea and Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koçak, Emrah; Şarkgüneşi, Aykut

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth within the framework of traditional production function for the period of 1990–2012 in 9 Black Sea and Balkan countries. For this purpose, we use panel cointegration, co-integration estimate methods and heterogeneous panel causality estimation techniques. The study has concluded that there is a long term balance relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth and renewable energy consumption has a positive impact on economic growth. Heterogeneous panel causality analysis results support growth hypothesis in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine; feedback hypothesis in Albania, Georgia and Romania; neutrality hypothesis in Turkey and according to the panel data set including all nine countries the results support feedback hypothesis. With the findings, it was concluded that there is a significant impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Balkan and Black Sea Countries. - Highlights: • Explores the impact of renewable energy on economic growth in Black Sea and Balkan countries. • Employs panel cointegration and heterogeneous causality analyses. • Finds significant effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth. • Finds bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for the whole panel.

  12. Stock assessments of the Black Sea anchovy during the period 1979-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. PRODANOV

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The stock assessments of the Black Sea anchovy during the period 1979-1993 were made by Age- and Length-structured VPA. According to the obtained results, the initial anchovy exploited biomass varied from 1421.3 (1979 to 243.3 thousand tons (1990. In 1979 the mean exploited biomass was 1036.5 thousand tons. Both assessments are very close because the mean biomass at F=0.5 has to be 73.71% from the initial one. The comparatively low level of fishing activity from 1968-1977 (mean value of F was 0.2407 and the increase in Black Sea productivity predetermined the increase in anchovy biomass during the period 1979-1983. This rise in productivity of the Black Sea implies higher values of the anchovy exploited biomass, but this did not occur due to the increased fishing mortality upon the anchovy, which kept its abundance and biomass at considerably lower levels. The mean value of F was 0.7348 during the period 1983-1986 and reached 1.2487 in 1987-1988. The mean anchovy biomass in 1991 and 1992 was 179.1 and 314.0 thousand tons. In the same years the initial anchovy biomass was 430.5 and 592.1 thousand tons. The mean value of the fishing mortality coefficient in 1991 and 1992 was 0.3889 and 0.6353, respectively. Consequently, the decrease of fishing mortality during the specified years was o

  13. Chronological study of {sup 137}Cs input to the Black Sea deep and shelf sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N. [A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol (Ukraine); Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The chart of the post-Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs distribution in the upper Black Sea sediments was made. The field of sediments with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity was found near the Danube River mouth. The age of sediment layers as well as the sedimentation rates were calculated from {sup 137}Cs vertical profiles in the top of the uncompacted sediments nearby the Danube (11.5 mm yr{sup -1}), the NW Black Sea slope (2.2 mm yr{sup -1}) and the deepest western area (0.4 mm yr{sup -1}). Subsequent assessments showed the high distinction of {sup 137}Cs sedimentary fluxes and inventories between these sites related to different contributions of terrigenous matter in the sediments, as traced by {sup 40}K. The results allow to reconstruct chronology of {sup 137}Cs input to the Black Sea over the last decades. The traced three most notable phases correspond well with the periods of active nuclear weapon testings in the 1950`s and 1960`s as well as of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The post-Chernobyl dynamics of {sup 137}Cs activity in the near Danube sediments traced from its dated profile was like that observed during the annual monitoring. (author) 8 refs.

  14. Chronological study of 137Cs input to the Black Sea deep and shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The chart of the post-Chernobyl 137 Cs distribution in the upper Black Sea sediments was made. The field of sediments with the highest 137 Cs activity was found near the Danube River mouth. The age of sediment layers as well as the sedimentation rates were calculated from 137 Cs vertical profiles in the top of the uncompacted sediments nearby the Danube (11.5 mm yr -1 ), the NW Black Sea slope (2.2 mm yr -1 ) and the deepest western area (0.4 mm yr -1 ). Subsequent assessments showed the high distinction of 137 Cs sedimentary fluxes and inventories between these sites related to different contributions of terrigenous matter in the sediments, as traced by 40 K. The results allow to reconstruct chronology of 137 Cs input to the Black Sea over the last decades. The traced three most notable phases correspond well with the periods of active nuclear weapon testings in the 1950's and 1960's as well as of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The post-Chernobyl dynamics of 137 Cs activity in the near Danube sediments traced from its dated profile was like that observed during the annual monitoring. (author)

  15. Subsatellite polygon for studying hydrophysical processes in the Black Sea shelf-slope zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, A. G.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Kremenetskiy, V. V.; Nizov, S. S.; Piotukh, V. B.; Soloviev, V. A.; Shvoev, D. A.; Tsibul'sky, A. L.; Kuklev, S. B.; Kukleva, O. N.; Moskalenko, L. V.; Podymov, O. I.; Baranov, V. I.; Kondrashov, A. A.; Korzh, A. O.; Kubryakov, A. A.; Soloviev, D. M.; Stanichny, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The first data on the creation of the subsatellite polygon on the Black Sea shelf and continental slope in the Gelendzhik area (designed in order to permanently monitor the state of the aquatic environment and biota) and the plans for maintaining and developing this polygon are presented. The autonomous measuring systems of the polygon in the composition of bottom stations with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP), Aqualog robotic profilers, and thermo-chains on moored buoy stations should make it possible to regularly obtain hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and bio-optical data with a high spatial-time resolution and transmit these data to the coastal center on a real-time basis. These field data should be used to study the characteristics and formation mechanisms of the marine environment and biota variability, as well as the water-exchange processes in the shelf-deep basin system, ocean-atmosphere coupling, and many other processes. These data are used to calibrate the satellite measurements and verify the water circulation numerical simulation. It is assumed to use these data in order to warn about the hazardous natural phenomena and control the marine environment state and its variation under the action of anthropogenic and natural factors, including climatic trends. It is planned to use the polygon subsatellite monitoring methods and equipment in other coastal areas, including other Black Sea sectors, in order to create a unified system for monitoring the Black Sea shelf-slope zone.

  16. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  17. Romanian contributions in the regional study of the Black Sea radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea has been the victim of mineral exploitation, of un managed fisheries, of unrestricted intense shipping activities (with no formal controls on waste disposal) and of dumping of toxic wastes. Beside the classical pollutants radioactive pollutants are carried into the sea waters through Danube, Dniester, Bug, a.o. Consequently, radioactivity surveys and monitoring as well as radiological research are currently part of all the environmental assessments and protection strategies in Romania. Indigenous effort in this respect is conjugated with participation in research contracts and coordinated programmes with IAEA / Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco) between 19987-1992, in the programme G lobal Inventory of Radioactivity in the Mediterranean Sea' launched by IAEA, and in the Co-operative Marine Science Programme for the Black Sea, through its working group on radiochemistry and radioecology including Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the US Environmental Agency (USA), since 1991. Field data on the distribution in space and time of natural and artificial radionuclides (K-40, Ac-228, Ra-226, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90, starting in 1992), used for computation of in situ distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs), and of external and internal dose assessments in Romanian sector have been gathered along with results on CFs in marine sediments, seaweeds and molluscs, measured under laboratory conditions. (authors). 1 tab., 21 refs

  18. A comprehensive study of the origins of methane emission in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, P.

    2016-02-01

    Search and exploration of hydrocarbon deposits of sea and ocean floors is one of the most urgent problems of the modern marine geology. In Ukraine the problem of scientifically reasoned evaluation of reservoirs and specification of the prospects of natural gas production is highly important. However, a key question of the origin of the gas seepage and seabed flames remains controversial and has not yet been clarified. Materials for the study were compiled by an expedition of Department of Marine Geology and Sedimentary Ore Formation of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences using a manned submersible in combination with conventional methods of marine geology. On the basis of this data, we analyzed the outside edge of the shelf, the continental slope, the adjacent area of the Black Sea basin and confirmed both endogenous and biogenic origins of natural gas at the sea floor. The study discloses specific tectonic and geodynamic conditions of the Cenozoic era, high fragmentation of the region, a frequent renewal of permanent fault systems that promotes an active lateral and vertical migration of large masses of hydrocarbons in the Earth's crust. The study found that the North Black Sea coast is a zone of active accumulation of natural hydrocarbons of various origins. As the next step of the studies, a detailed tectonic analysis can provide a substantial assistance to determine the prospects of developing energy resources and to prevent from errors in the assessment of commercial petroleum potential of the region.

  19. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  20. Ancient DNA derived from alkenone-biosynthesizing haptophytes and other algae in Holocene sediments from the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, M.J.L.; Boere, A.; Abbas, M.; Wakeham, S.G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Holocene sea surface temperatures (SST) of the Black Sea have been reconstructed using sedimentary C37 unsaturated alkenones assumed to be derived from the coccolithophorid haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, whose fossil coccoliths are an important constituent of the unit I sediments. However,

  1. Practical Application of Sea Water Quality Mathematical Model for the Black Sea Coast of Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Burunin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an application of the developed model of the sea water quality for forecasting of coastal waters indicators change in the artificial coastal water areas of Sochi. Results of the researches conducted in relation to yacht port «Grand Marina Sochi» are considered.

  2. Sensitivity of WRF-ARW for Heavy Precipitation Event over the Eastern Black Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doǧan, Onur Hakan; Önol, Barış

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the extreme summer precipitation case over the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey by using WRF-ARW. 11 people were killed by the flood and many buildings were damaged by the landslides in Artvin province. The flood caused by heavy precipitation between August 23 and 24, 2015 and the station observation is 255 mm total precipitation for the two days. We have also used satellite based observational data (Global Precipitation Measurement: GPM), which represents 150 mm total precipitation during case, to validate precipitation simulations. We designed three nested domains with 27-9-3 km resolutions for the simulations and the inner domain covers the all Black Sea and the surrounded coasts. The simulations have been driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim data and the initial conditions have been generated for 4 different simulations which are 3-days, 7-days, 15-days and 25-days long. WRF-ARW model physics parameters have been tested to improve simulation capability for extreme precipitation events. The microphysics (Kessler and New-Thompson) and PBL (YSU PBL and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) options have been applied for each simulations separately, therefore 15 sensitivity simulation have been analyzed by using different parametrizations. In general, all simulations underestimated the two days extreme precipitation event which the large scale flow interact with warmer sea surface temperatures and complex topography over the eastern Black Sea region. The 3-days simulation with Kessler microphysics and YSU PBL predicts 148 mm precipitation which is highest simulated precipitation compare to all simulations for the corresponding station location. Moreover 25-days simulation represents better spatial coverage for precipitation pattern compare to the GPM data.

  3. Mössbauer study of oxide phase distributions in rust formed on steel constructions near the Black Sea in Sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru; Lauer, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Goloborodko, P. G.; Polyakov, A. M. [Sanatorium “Progress” (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The phase composition of the intermediate oxide layers formed on elements of steel structures at different positions relative to the sea water of the Black Sea near Sochi are investigated. The differences of the phase composition of these oxide layers are shown, depending on the location of the design details in relation to the sea and the abundancies of certain types of oxides in the studied layers are discussed.

  4. Arctic sea ice a major determinant in Mandt's black guillemot movement and distribution during non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoky, G.J.; Douglas, David C.; Stenhouse, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mandt's black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) is one of the few seabirds associated in all seasons with Arctic sea ice, a habitat that is changing rapidly. Recent decreases in summer ice have reduced breeding success and colony size of this species in Arctic Alaska. Little is known about the species' movements and distribution during the nine month non-breeding period (September–May), when changes in sea ice extent and composition are also occurring and predicted to continue. To examine bird movements and the seasonal role of sea ice to non-breeding Mandt's black guillemots, we deployed and recovered (n = 45) geolocators on individuals at a breeding colony in Arctic Alaska during 2011–2015. Black guillemots moved north to the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas immediately after breeding, moved south to the Bering Sea during freeze-up in December, and wintered in the Bering Sea January–April. Most birds occupied the MIZ in regions averaging 30–60% sea ice concentration, with little seasonal variation. Birds regularly roosted on ice in all seasons averaging 5 h d−1, primarily at night. By using the MIZ, with its roosting opportunities and associated prey, black guillemots can remain in the Arctic during winter when littoral waters are completely covered by ice.

  5. Tidal dynamics in the inter-connected Mediterranean, Marmara, Black and Azov seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, Christian; Bellafiore, Debora; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bajo, Marco; Umgiesser, Georg

    2018-02-01

    In this study we investigated the tidal dynamics in a system of inter-connected land-locked basins formed by the Mediterranean, the Marmara, the Black and the Azov seas (MMBA system). Through the application of an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model to a unique domain representing the whole MMBA system, we simulated the tidal propagation and transformation inside each basin and in the straits connecting them. The model performance was evaluated against amplitudes and phases of major tidal constituents from 77 tidal gauges. The numerical results provided a description of the characteristics of the principal semi-diurnal, diurnal and long-term tides over the entire system. Even if the narrow straits act as a barrier for the tidal sea surface oscillations, our numerical results demonstrated that the along-strait interface slope produces water fluxes between the adjacent basins of the same order of magnitude of the climatological transports estimated by several authors. The long-term tidal modulations of the water exchange between the Mediterranean and the Black seas resulted to be non negligible and may partially explain the monthly and fortnightly flow variability observed in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits.

  6. Phosphorus dynamics in and below the redoxcline in the Black Sea and implications for phosphorus burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Kraal, P.; Séguret, M. J. M.; Flores, M. R.; Gonzalez, S.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Slomp, C. P.

    2018-02-01

    Marine basins with oxygen-depleted deep waters provide a natural laboratory to investigate the consequences of anoxic and sulfidic (i.e. euxinic) conditions for biogeochemical processes in seawater and sediments. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) and associated elements such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) in the euxinic deep basin of the Black Sea. By examining water column particles with scanning electron microscope - energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that Mn(III/IV)-P is the key form of particulate P in the redoxcline. Other forms of particulate P include organic P, Fe(III)-P, and inorganic polyphosphates. Most inorganic P particles that are formed in the redoxcline subsequently dissolve in the underlying sulfidic waters, with the exception of some particulate Fe(III)-P that accounts for extractions and a 33P radiotracer experiment point towards the formation of labile Ca-P and P adsorbed onto calcium-carbonate and clays and a role of these phases as a major sink of P in the sediment. The total P burial efficiency in the sediments is ∼27%, which is relatively high when compared to estimates for sediments in other euxinic basins such as the Baltic Sea (calcium carbonate may contribute to the more efficient sequestration of P in Black Sea sediments.

  7. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the North-Western Black Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Staneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the coupling between physical and biogeochemical models and analyses the response of the ecosystem in the north-western Black Sea to nutrient loads and climate changes. The basic physical and biological dynamics of the upper north-western Black Sea is illustrated as well. The physical model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM; additionally, a parameterisation of mixed layer is included. The biogeochemical model is based on the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model (ERSEM and consists of five modules: (1 primary producers, (2 microbial loop, (3 mesozooplankton, (4 benthic nutrients, and (5 benthic biology. The ecosystem in ERSEM is subdivided into three functional types, producers (phytoplankton, decomposers (pelagic and benthic bacteria and consumers (zooplankton and zoobenthos. Model-data comparisons have been performed for both calibrating and verifying coupled model simulations. We address here the impact of nutrient discharge from the Danube River on the functioning of the biological system. The evolution of the mixed layer, as well as the response of the biological system to variability of the nutrient discharge from the Danube River is described in detail. Several scenarios have been developed to study the impact which nutrient reduction has on the coastal marine system. The model predictions indicate that the biological system is very sensitive to the changes in nutrient concentrations, as well as to their ratios.

  8. Optical properties of sea ice doped with black carbon – an experimental and radiative-transfer modelling comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiative-transfer calculations of the light reflectivity and extinction coefficient in laboratory-generated sea ice doped with and without black carbon demonstrate that the radiative-transfer model TUV-snow can be used to predict the light reflectance and extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. The sea ice is representative of first-year sea ice containing typical amounts of black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities. The experiments give confidence in the application of the model to predict albedo of other sea ice fabrics. Sea ices,  ∼  30 cm thick, were generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator ( ∼  2000 L tanks with scattering cross sections measured between 0.012 and 0.032 m2 kg−1 for four ices. Sea ices were generated with and without  ∼  5 cm upper layers containing particulate black carbon. Nadir reflectances between 0.60 and 0.78 were measured along with extinction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.03 cm−1 (e-folding depths of 10–30 cm at a wavelength of 500 nm. Values were measured between light wavelengths of 350 and 650 nm. The sea ices generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator were found to be representative of natural sea ices. Particulate black carbon at mass ratios of  ∼  75,  ∼  150 and  ∼  300 ng g−1 in a 5 cm ice layer lowers the albedo to 97, 90 and 79 % of the reflectivity of an undoped clean sea ice (at a wavelength of 500 nm.

  9. Optical properties of sea ice doped with black carbon - an experimental and radiative-transfer modelling comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Amelia A.; Lamare, Maxim L.; King, Martin D.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative-transfer calculations of the light reflectivity and extinction coefficient in laboratory-generated sea ice doped with and without black carbon demonstrate that the radiative-transfer model TUV-snow can be used to predict the light reflectance and extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. The sea ice is representative of first-year sea ice containing typical amounts of black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities. The experiments give confidence in the application of the model to predict albedo of other sea ice fabrics. Sea ices, ˜ 30 cm thick, were generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator ( ˜ 2000 L tanks) with scattering cross sections measured between 0.012 and 0.032 m2 kg-1 for four ices. Sea ices were generated with and without ˜ 5 cm upper layers containing particulate black carbon. Nadir reflectances between 0.60 and 0.78 were measured along with extinction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.03 cm-1 (e-folding depths of 10-30 cm) at a wavelength of 500 nm. Values were measured between light wavelengths of 350 and 650 nm. The sea ices generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator were found to be representative of natural sea ices. Particulate black carbon at mass ratios of ˜ 75, ˜ 150 and ˜ 300 ng g-1 in a 5 cm ice layer lowers the albedo to 97, 90 and 79 % of the reflectivity of an undoped clean sea ice (at a wavelength of 500 nm).

  10. First Indo-Pacific fish species from the Black Sea coast of Turkey: Shrimp scad Alepes djedaba (Forsskål, 1775 (Carangidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of shrimp scad Alepes djedaba (Forsskål, 1775 was caught by using fish net at a depth of 30 m on 11 October 2017 from Sinop Bay, the West Black Sea. With the present study, A. djedaba is first lessepsian fish species in the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The migration of IndoPacific species to the Black Sea indicate that climate change is getting an important issue both for marine biodiversity and fisheries in the Black Sea.

  11. Regional Responses to Black Carbon Aerosols: The Importance of Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Scott, A. A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Seviour, W. J. M.; Waugh, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of modern black carbon aerosols on climate via their changes in radiative balance is studied using a coupled model where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are allowed to vary and an atmosphere-only version of the same model where SSTs are held fixed. Allowing the ocean to respond is shown to have a profound impact on the pattern of temperature change. Particularly, large impacts are found in the North Pacific (which cools by up to 1 K in the coupled model) and in north central Asia (which warms in the coupled simulation and cools in the fixed SST simulation). Neither set of experiments shows large changes in surface temperatures in the Southeast Asian region where the atmospheric burden of black carbon is highest. These results are related to the stabilization of the atmosphere and changes in oceanic heat transport. Over the North Pacific, atmospheric stabilization results in an increase in stratiform clouds. The resulting shading reduces evaporation, freshening the surface layer of the ocean and reducing the inflow of warm subtropical waters. Over the land, a delicate balance between greater atmospheric absorption, shading of the surface and changes in latent cooling of the surface helps to determine whether warming or cooling is seen. Our results emphasize the importance of coupling in determining the response of the climate system to black carbon and suggest that black carbon may play an important role in modulating climate change over the North Pacific.

  12. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  13. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to recent DSDP Leg 42B Cores from the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baak, Christiaan G. C.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan V.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled

  14. Application of allozyme markers for screening of turbot populations along Western Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENELIN NIKOLOV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data for electrophoretic pattern of 26 loci, resolved for the 8 protein systems (7- enzyme and 1-non-enzyme assayed were used to investigate population structure of turbot along the Bulgarian and Romanian Black Sea coasts using genetic diversity measures. Seventeen loci were polymorphic in all populations and a total of 34 alleles were identified. Four types of tissue: muscle, retina, plasma and haemoglobin were analyzed. The percentage of polymorphic loci was high (65.38% within populations. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on the Shannon’s information index (0.446-0.448 and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations (FST =0.014. The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS was (-0.209 and demonstrated low level of inbreeding. The genetic distance (DNei between the populations was low and vary between 0.003 and 0.014. Genetic distances among turbot populations were positively correlated with geographic distances (r = 0.474, but the association was not significant according to the Mantel test (p=0.651 and showed a lack of correlation between genetic distance and the geographic location of populations. Results identified one genetic stock with sufficient gene flow between all the three sites to prevent genetic differentiation from occurring. Only 1.4% of the genetic variation was observed among populations. Results revealed that adopting a single stock model and regional shared management could probably be appropriate for sustainable long-term use of turbot along western Black Sea coast. Determination of the contemporary state of the population distribution will be the prerequisite for determination of adequate measures for exploitation and protection of the existing turbot populations along western Black Sea coast.

  15. Microbial plankton communities in the coastal southeastern Black Sea: biomass, composition and trophic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulgen Aytan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We investigated biomass and composition of the pico-, nano- and microplankton communities in a coastal station of the southeastern Black Sea during 2011. We also examined trophic interactions within these communities from size-fractionated dilution experiments in February, June and December. Autotrophic and heterotrophic biomasses showed similar seasonal trends, with a peak in June, but heterotrophs dominated throughout the year. Autotrophic biomass was mainly comprised by nanoflagellates and diatoms in the first half of the year, and by dinoflagellates and Synechococcus spp. in the second half. Heterotrophic biomass was mostly dominated by heterotrophic bacteria, followed by nanoflagellates and microzooplankton. Dilution experiments suggest that nano- and microzooplankton were significant consumers of autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. More than 100% of bacterial production was consumed by grazers in all experiments, while 46%, 21% and 30% of daily primary production were consumed in February, June and December, respectively. In February, autotrophs were the main carbon source, but in December, it was heterotrophic bacteria. An intermediate situation was observed in June, with similar carbon flows from autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. Size-fraction dilution experiments suggested that heterotrophic nanoflagellates are an important link between the high heterotrophic bacterial biomass and microzooplankton. In summary, these results indicate that nano- and microzooplankton were responsible for comprising a significant fraction of total microbial plankton biomass, standing stocks, growth and grazing processes. This suggests that in 2011, the microbial food web was an important compartment of the planktonic food web in the coastal southeastern Black Sea. Keywords: Phytoplankton, Microzooplankton, Carbon biomass, Microbial food web, Grazing, Black Sea

  16. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  17. Including granulometric sediment coastal data composition into the Black Sea GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Elena; Khaliulin, Alexey; Krylenko, Marina; Krylenko, Viacheslav; Zodiatis, George; Nikolaidis, Marios; Nikolaidis, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The module structure of the Black Sea GIS allows the increasing of its functionality, including new data types and defining new procedures accessing them, their visualization and integration with existing data by their conjoint processing and representation. The Black Sea GIS is released as free software; Mapserver is used as a mapping service; MySQL DBMS works with relational data. A new additional feature provided, is the ability of including coastal data obtained in SB SIO RAS. The data represent granulometric composition of the Anapa bay-bar sediments. The Anapa bay-bar is an accumulative sand form (about 50 km long) located on the northwest Russian Black Sea coast. The entire bay-bar and especially its southern part with sand beaches 50-200 m wide is intensively used in recreation. This work is based on the results of field studies of 2010-2014 in the southern part of the Anapa bay-bar researched by scientists of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS. Since the shore under consideration has no clearly pronounced reference points, "virtual" points located within 1 km distance from each other were selected. Transversal profiles cross these points. The granulometric composition was studied along with 45 profiles. The samples taken in every profile were from the most characteristic morphological parts of the beach. In this study we used shoreline zone samples. Twenty one granule fractions (mm) were separated in the laboratory. The module which processes coastal data allows to select coastal data based on territory/region and granulometric sediment composition. Also, it allows to visualize coastal maps with user-selected features combined with other GIS data.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SEISMIC RESEARCH WORKS FOR OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS IN THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. CHIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact of seismic research works for oil and gas deposits in the Black Sea. The prospecting and exploitation activity of hydrocarbon deposits in Romania has experienced a major development in the nineteenth century and has remained since a major component in achieving energy independence in our country. In 1970 the oil and gas production in Romania reached a peak of over 14.5 million tons of crude oil. Gas production reached 33 million tons of oil equivalents. After 1990 the production level fell again, because of the depletion of the existing resources and the lack of investment prevented the discovery and the development of new fields. They have led in the last few years to a decrease of the oil production level to less than 5.0 million tons of oil and of the gas production of 10,3 million oil equivalent. After 1990 the Romanian Government through THE NATIONAL AGENCY FOR MINERAL RESOURCES has decided to organize international auctions to award a series of contracts regarding exploration and participation to rates of production of specialized companies that run all the financial funds and necessary technologies for the development of hydrocarbon prospecting activities. That is why in the Black Sea, beside the oil and gas deposits leased to OMV Petrom, there were also leased 7 areas needed for research, exploration and possible exploitation of oil and gas deposits. This paper presents the effects of seismic research works on the environment, considering that these are the first that will run on the platform of the Black Sea shore.

  19. IR-BASED SATELLITE PRODUCTS FOR THE MONITORING OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR OVER THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELEA LILIANA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of precipitable water (TPW in the atmospheric column is one of the important information used weather forecasting. Some of the studies involving the use of TPW relate to issues like lightning warning system in airports, tornadic events, data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models for short-range forecast, TPW associated with intense rain episodes. Most of the available studies on TPW focus on properties and products at global scale, with the drawback that regional characteristics – due to local processes acting as modulating factors - may be lost. For the Black Sea area, studies on the climatological features of atmospheric moisture are available from sparse or not readily available observational databases or from global reanalysis. These studies show that, although a basin of relatively small dimensions, the Black Sea presents features that may significantly impact on the atmospheric circulation and its general characteristics. Satellite observations provide new opportunities for extending the knowledge on this area and for monitoring atmospheric properties at various scales. In particular, observations in infrared (IR spectrum are suitable for studies on small-scale basins, due to the finer spatial sampling and reliable information in the coastal areas. As a first step toward the characterization of atmospheric moisture over the Black Sea from satellite-based information, we investigate three datasets of IR-based products which contain information on the total amount of moisture and on its vertical distribution, available in the area of interest. The aim is to provide a comparison of these data with regard to main climatological features of moisture in this area and to highlight particular strengths and limits of each of them, which may be helpful in the choice of the most suitable dataset for a certain application.

  20. Growth rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Buster, N.A.; Ross, Steve W.

    2011-01-01

    Black corals (order Antipatharia) are important long-lived, habitat-forming, sessile, benthic suspension feeders that are found in all oceans and are usually found in water depths greater than 30 m. Deep-water black corals are some of the slowest-growing, longest-lived deep-sea corals known. Previous age dating of a limited number of black coral samples in the Gulf of Mexico focused on extrapolated ages and growth rates based on skeletal 210Pb dating. Our results greatly expand the age and growth rate data of black corals from the Gulf of Mexico. Radiocarbon analysis of the oldest Leiopathes sp. specimen from the upper De Soto Slope at 300 m water depth indicates that these animals have been growing continuously for at least the last 2 millennia, with growth rates ranging from 8 to 22 µm yr–1. Visual growth ring counts based on scanning electron microscopy images were in good agreement with the 14C-derived ages, suggestive of annual ring formation. The presence of bomb-derived 14C in the outermost samples confirms sinking particulate organic matter as the dominant carbon source and suggests a link between the deep-sea and surface ocean. There was a high degree of reproducibility found between multiple discs cut from the base of each specimen, as well as within duplicate subsamples. Robust 14C-derived chronologies and known surface ocean 14C reservoir age constraints in the Gulf of Mexico provided reliable calendar ages with future application to the development of proxy records.

  1. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin from R/Vs GORIZONT and OKEANOGRAF, 1960 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0074609)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin of the Mediterranean...

  2. Applicability of massively parallel sequencing on monitoring harmful algae at Varna Bay in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhembekova, Nina; Urusizaki, Shingo; Moncheva, Snejana; Ivanova, Petya; Nagai, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    In this study the plankton diversity in 13 environmental samples from Varna Bay (in the western Black Sea) was analyzed using massively parallel sequencing (MPS). This preliminary study was undertaken to assess the potential of this technology for future implementation in monitoring programs in the Black Sea. Amplicon sequences of the 18S rRNA gene (V4-5 regions) were obtained using the Illumina MiSeq 250PE platform. A total of 1137 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained among which 242 OTUs with >0.990 BLAST top hit similarity (21.3% of all detected OTUs) closely related to sequences belonging to -protists. A large portion (175 OTUs=72.3%) was identified at the species levels, including species typical for the Bulgarian Black Sea plankton community, as well as many that haven't been reported earlier in the Bulgarian Black Sea coast (124 OTUs=51.2%). Dinoflagellates were represented by the highest species number (77 OTUs comprising 31.8% of protist species), with dominant genera Gyrodinium and Heterocapsa. The present survey revealed the presence of 12 species listed as harmful, some of which have been previously overlooked, such as Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Karenia bicuneiformis, and Karlodinium veneficum. Species identification was possible for 10.3-36.0% of the detected OTUs in the six major supergroups. The frequency in Rhizaria was significantly lower than that in other major groups (p<0.05-0.01), implying difficulties in the classification from morphology-based observations. The metagenetic data had an insufficient resolution of the 18S rRNA gene for species identification in many genera. These issues may hamper the implementation of MPS-based surveys for plankton monitoring, especially for detecting harmful algal blooms (HAB). The sequencing technology is steadily improving and it is expected that sequence length and quality issues will be resolved in the near future. The ongoing efforts to register taxonomic information and quality controls in

  3. Concurrent activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria in the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, John B.; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Staley, James T.; Murray, James W.

    2012-01-01

    After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox) in the environment, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss has been questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating nitrite reductase (nirS) mRNA transcripts at a single location in the Black Sea was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the l...

  4. Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in mosses in the Black Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Bulut, A.M.; Gueven, K.C.; Sauer, E.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) activity levels in mosses from the Black Sea area, northern Turkey, are reported following the Chernobyl accident during the period of 1989-1991. The cesium radionuclides were detected and measured in all the samples but other long-lived radionuclides such as 144 Ce and 106 Ru were measured in only one sample. The present data support the fact that radioactivity monitoring in mosses can be useful to determine the lasting effect of radioactive contamination. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  5. Marine fish diversity and habitat use along the western coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Dumitru Gavril

    2015-11-01

    I identified 34 species of fish in the Shabla-Tyulenovo area and 39 species in the Constanta area, of which 19 species preferred sandy bottoms, 21 rocky bottoms, 16 rocky habitats with Cystoseira sp., 19 man-made structures and 9 were pelagic. For 7 species habitat preferences could not be determined as a result of capture only by fishing. In conclusion, the scuba visual transects along with fishing methods provide a relevant image to the current state of the fish diversity along the western coast of the Black Sea.

  6. Calculations of hydrophysical fields in the coastal regions of the Black Sea with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, N.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a hydrodynamical model with nonlinear equations of motion and heat and salt advection to reconstruct the fields of hydrophysical parameters in the coastal regions of the Black Sea taking into account the real atmospheric forcing and river discharges for the winter and summer seasons of 2006. A higher spatial resolution allowed to get a detailed meso- and submesoscale structure of hydrophysical fields in the upper and deep layers of the Southern Coast of Crimea and the north-western shelf and to obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the eddies and jets more accurately in comparison with previous calculations.

  7. Mercury in the Black Sea - results of the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Sonke, J.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg), whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be converted into the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg). Today we believe this conversion occurs during the bacterial remineralization of sinking organic matter in the oceanic water column. The Black Sea with its high organic matter inputs and anoxic deep waters is an excellent study site to investigate in more detail the processes yielding MeHg. To date only one vertical profile of Hg species near the Western shelf and one vertical profile in the Western Gyre are published (Lamborg et al. 2008). We will present new results of the 2013 Dutch-led GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise in the Black Sea. Research vessel "Pelagia" occupied 12 full depth stations along an east-west transect from 13 to 25 July 2013. High resolution vertical profiles were sampled using a titanium ultraclean CTD frame (de Baar et al., 2008) equipped with 24 x 24L PVDF samplers. Samples were filtered (0.2µm, Sartobran 300), drawn into pre-cleaned 250mL Savillex PFA bottles and acidified to 0.4% (v:v) with double-distilled HCl. Dissolved MeHg, as the sum of monomethylHg and dimethylHg, was analyzed via isotope dilution gas chromatography sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Total dissolved Hg was determined following the US EPA 1631 method. We will present high resolution vertical Hg species profiles, including one ultra-high resolution profile (1 sample every 5m-depth) to understand the dynamics along the chemocline (Luther et al., 1991). We will also present the results of the GEOTRACES international intercalibration exercise for dissolved MeHg and dissolved total Hg in surface seawater that we organized during the same cruise. References De Baar HJW, Timmermans KR, Laan P, De Porto HH, Ober S, Blom JJ, Bakker MC, Schilling J, Sarthou G, Smit MG, Klunder M. Titan: A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program. Mar. Chem. 2008, 111

  8. Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Walter; Seifert, Richard; Nauhaus, Katja; Treude, Tina; Thiel, Volker; Blumenberg, Martin; Knittel, Katrin; Gieseke, Armin; Peterknecht, Katharina; Pape, Thomas; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Widdel, Friedrich; Peckmann, Jörn; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Gulin, Maksim B

    2002-08-09

    Massive microbial mats covering up to 4-meter-high carbonate buildups prosper at methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea shelf. Strong 13C depletions indicate an incorporation of methane carbon into carbonates, bulk biomass, and specific lipids. The mats mainly consist of densely aggregated archaea (phylogenetic ANME-1 cluster) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group). If incubated in vitro, these mats perform anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction. Obviously, anaerobic microbial consortia can generate both carbonate precipitation and substantial biomass accumulation, which has implications for our understanding of carbon cycling during earlier periods of Earth's history.

  9. Microbial Reefs in the Black Sea Fueled by Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Walter; Seifert, Richard; Nauhaus, Katja; Treude, Tina; Thiel, Volker; Blumenberg, Martin; Knittel, Katrin; Gieseke, Armin; Peterknecht, Katharina; Pape, Thomas; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Widdel, Friedrich; Peckmann, Jörn; Pimenov, Nikolai V.; Gulin, Maksim B.

    2002-08-01

    Massive microbial mats covering up to 4-meter-high carbonate buildups prosper at methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea shelf. Strong 13C depletions indicate an incorporation of methane carbon into carbonates, bulk biomass, and specific lipids. The mats mainly consist of densely aggregated archaea (phylogenetic ANME-1 cluster) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group). If incubated in vitro, these mats perform anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction. Obviously, anaerobic microbial consortia can generate both carbonate precipitation and substantial biomass accumulation, which has implications for our understanding of carbon cycling during earlier periods of Earth's history.

  10. Analysis of Complex Marine Hazards on the Romanian Black Sea Shelf Using Combined Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoila, I. V.; Radulescu, V.; Moise, G.; Diaconu, A.; Radulescu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geophysical acquisition technologies including High Resolution 2D Seismic (HR2D), Multi-Beam Echo-Sounding (MBES), Sub-Bottom Profiling (SBP) and Magnetometry were used in the Western Black Sea (offshore Romania) to identify possible geohazards, such as gas escaping surface sediments and tectonic hazard areas up to 1 km below the seafloor. The National Project was funded by the Research and Innovation Ministry of Romania, and has taken place over 1.5 years with the purpose of creating risk maps for the surveyed pilot area. Using an array of geophysical methods and creating a workflow to identify geohazard susceptible areas on the Romanian Black Sea continental shelf is important and beneficial for future research projects. The SBP and MBES data show disturbed areas that can be interpreted as gas escapes on the surface of the seafloor, and some escapes were confirmed on the HR2D profiles. Shallow gas indicators like gas chimneys and acoustic blanking are usually delimited by vertical, sub-vertical and/or quasi-horizontal faults that mark possible hazard areas on shallow sedimentary sections. Interpreted seismic profiles show three main markers: one delimiting the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary and two for the Miocene (Upper and Lower). Vertical and quasi-horizontal faults are characteristic for the Upper Miocene, while the Lower Miocene has NW-SE horizontal faults. Faults and possible hazard areas were marked on seismic sections and were further correlated with the MBES, SBP, Magnetometry and previously recorded data, such as earthquake epicenters scattered offshore in the Western Black Sea. The main fault systems likely to cause those earthquakes also aid the migration of gas if the faults are not sealed. We observed that the gas escapes were correlated with faults described on the recent seismic profiles. Mapping hazard areas will have an important contribution to better understand the recent evolution of the Western Black Sea basin but also for projecting

  11. [Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet celebrates 75 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, G V; Brashkov, A A

    2010-08-01

    The history of the Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet begun in the 1 April 1935 when the sanitary-epidemiological laboratory was founded. The article is concerned with the different stages of vivid development of this institute during 75 years. During this period organization, establishment and the name were changed many times. Since 2002 it got the current name and represents the scientific-methods institution which can solve the issues of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic supply of military personnel of the navy. Special attention is given to the high-readiness force.

  12. Determination of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Turna, Sema; Sapmaz, Canan; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught from five different locations of the western Black Sea coast of Turkey in August 2009. Organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the liver tissues, and then the levels of OCPs were measured using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all locations. The levels of total OCPs in fish samples ranged between 0.224 and 1.103 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. DDT, beta-HCH, and endosulfan I were the dominant OCPs in the fish samples. The levels of DDT in fish samples ranged between 0.081 and 0.186 μg g(-1) dry weight. The levels of total HCH in fish samples ranged between 0.007 and 0.376 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. Although the usage of OCPs was banned in Turkey, the results of this study clearly indicated the presence of OCPs in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey and exposure of living organisms to these chemicals.

  13. Faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) family in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region.

  14. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  15. Depletion of barium and radium-226 in Black Sea surface waters over the past thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenison Falkner, K.K.; Edmond, J.M.; O'Neill, D.J.; Todd, J.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nearly landlocked waters of the Black Sea support a valuable fishery, but are also particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we use dissolved barium and radium-226 as tracers, to investigate the biogeochemical health of the sea. Both elements are brought to surface waters by vertical mixing of deeper, enriched waters, and by rivers; these inputs should ordinarily be balanced by outflow of surface waters at the Bosphorus, and by biologically mediated removal of 226 Ra-bearing barite. We show, however, that surface-water inventories have been substantially depleted over the past few decades: recent (1988-89) barium concentrations were 1.6 times lower than in 1958 and 1967. These observations suggest that steady-state cycling of these elements has been perturbed by increased primary productivity, presumably fuelled by nutrients from industry and agricultural runoff, and to a lesser extent by decreased fluvial sediment loads owing to extensive impoundment of rivers in the region. (author)

  16. Coastal upwelling in the Gelendzhik area of the Black Sea: Effect of wind and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, K. P.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Myslenkov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Long series data of a thermistor chain in the Black Sea coastal zone near Gelendzhik were analyzed. A thermistor chain installed 1 km offshore and at a depth of 22 m. There are full and incomplete upwelling events observed. The study of upwelling genesis based on: wind speed data from the NCEP/CFSR reanalysis and Gelendzhik weather station, velocity and direction of coastal currents measured by ADCP profiler moored on the bottom near the thermistor chain. Over the whole observation period (warm seasons of 2013-2015), more than 40 events of upwelling were registered four of them were full upwellings, when presence of under-thermocline water was observed near the sea surface. For every upwelling event, conditions prior to the changes in thermic structure, were analyzed. It is found that full upwelling generally occur under synergistic wind and current forcing. Fairly strong forcing of one of these factors is sufficient for partial upwelling to occur.

  17. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under great anthropogenic pressure due to the substantial freshwater input from the surrounding industrial and agricultural areas, especially central and middle-Eastern Europe, the Black Sea basin is ranked among the most ecologically threatened water bodies of the world. Oil levels are unacceptable in many coastal areas perilously close to polluted harbors and many river mouths; the places presenting the highest levels of bio-diversity and having a high socio-economic importance due to human use of coastal resources. There are about sixty sources of pollution which resulted in "hot spots" having disastrous impacts on sensitive marine and coastal areas and needing immediate priorities for action. Beyond such land-based sources, trans-boundary pollution sources from Black Sea riparian countries, heavy maritime traffic, particularly involving petroleum transports and fishing boats, and the improper disposal of ballast and bilge waters and solid waste are also important marine sources of pollution. Found in fossil fuels such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In order to estimate their distribution in sediment and their sources, they were monitored from the bottom samples offshore the Zonguldak industry region, one of the most polluted spots in the Turkish Black Sea. There the budget of pollutants via rivers is not precisely known due to an evident lack of data on chemical and granulometric composition of the river runoff and their fluxes. Therefore the marine sediments, essential components of marine ecosystems, are very important in our estimating the degree of the damage given to the ecosystem by such inputs. Realization of the sources and transport of these contaminants will be a critical tool for future management of the Zonguldak industry region and its watershed. The sea bottom in study area is composed of mainly sand and silt mixtures with small amount of clay. Geochemical analyses have shown that oil

  18. What is known about Cyanoprokaryota and the algal blooms along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA TENEVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the research related to the taxonomic composition, algal blooms and toxic potential of representatives from Cyanoprokaryota (Cyanobacteria, Cyanophyta in the coastal waters of the Bulgarian Black Sea area. Main strands of the algal research, including Cyanoprokaryota, are presented in a chronological order. The taxonomic composition of cyanoprokaryotic microorganisms, their importance as a part from the algal flora of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the main problems caused by this group organisms are discussed. This information could be used as a basis for future investigations related to the taxonomy, diversity, distribution and evaluation of the biological activity of cyanoprokaryotic species in the Black Sea and particularly in the Bulgarian coast area.

  19. [Cytological State of Gonads and Level of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax Pall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Cytological state of the gonads and hormonal state of hatchery Black Sea trout before differentiation into resident and anadromous forms (parr) at an age of 15 months have been examined. It has been shown that the hormonal changes associated with the choice of life strategy in the Black Sea trout females and males are pronounced to different degrees. As compared with the resident and anadromous individuals; the female parr display a low rate of oogenesis and similar hormonal status, while characteristic of the male parr are an intermediate rate of spermatogenesis, a low level of thyroid hormones and estradiol, and a medium testosterone level. As has been found, the undifferentiated Black Sea trout individuals predominantly develop into the resident form.

  20. Occurency of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in river water sources of Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Zeynep; Seferoğlu, Onuralp; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-12-01

    A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58.7%), 125 (52.1%) and 120 (50%) samples respectivelly were positive by each method. Out of 240 environmental samples collected from 25 sites of Samsun Province have been found positive for G. duodenalis by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. 55 (30.5%), 50 (27.8%) and 47 (26.1%) of 180 environmental samples collected from 20 other sampling sites of Giresun Province were positive for Giardia by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. Five PCR products from different samples of the Giresun Province and 10 other samples from the Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage B. Five PCR products from Giresun Province and 5 samples from Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage A. This is the first report about G. duodenalis assemblages A and B from water samples investigations in Black Sea of Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace metals in tissues of the six most common fish species in the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Didem; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Ag and Pb in scale, skin, muscle, gills, liver and the gonads of Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Black Sea salmon (Salmo trutta labrax), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and Whiting (Merlangius merlangius euxinus) from the Black Sea, in Turkey, were investigated. Elemental analyses were performed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after sample preparation by microwave digestion. Mean metal concentrations in different tissues were in the following ranges: Mn 0.09-23.1, Fe 0.58-326, Co 0.01-0.22, Ni 0.03-1.34, As 0.13-3.40, Se 0.13-4.42, Ag 0.01-0.18, Cd 0.32-6.25, Pb 0.02-0.38 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight. Metal concentrations in the muscles of the examined species were generally lower than those in scale, skin, gills, liver and the gonads. The described method was validated by analysis of Dogfish Liver-certified reference material, DOLT-4.

  2. Traditional foods from the Black Sea region as a potential source of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia G; Costa, Helena S; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Santos, Mariana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Koçaoglu, Bike; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, minerals have assumed great importance in public health. As a consequence, considerable research has been carried out to better understand their physiological role and the health consequences of mineral-deficient diets, to establish criteria for defining the degree of public health severity of malnutrition, and to develop prevention and control strategies. In most countries, there is limited information on the mineral content of traditional foods, and consequently it is very difficult to estimate mineral intake across these countries. Ten minerals were quantified in 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries. Our results indicate a considerable variability among the analysed traditional foods; nevertheless, the most abundant components were sodium (ranging from 40.0 to 619 mg 100 g(-1), for kvass southern and herbal dish, respectively), potassium (varied between 45.5 mg 100 g(-1) for millet ale and 938 mg 100 g(-1) for roasted sunflower seeds), and phosphorus (22.2 mg 100 g(-1) and 681 mg 100 g(-1) for sauerkraut and roasted sunflower seeds, respectively). This is the first study that provides validated data on the mineral content for 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries, which is important in order to elucidate their role in the dietary pattern of populations and to preserve and promote these foods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Three new species of Alburnoides from the southern Black Sea basin (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Davut; Kaya, Cüneyt; Bayçelebi, Esra; Bektaş, Yusuf; Ekmekçi, F Güler

    2017-03-13

    Three new Alburnoides species are described from the southern Black Sea basin. Alburnoides kurui, new species, from the Yeşilırmak drainage, is distinguished from other species of Alburnoides in the southern Black Sea basin, the Marmara basin and the Anatolian Aegean basin by having a scaleless keel between the posterior pelvic fin base and the anus or with rarely 1 scale covering the anterior part of the keel; 50-59 total lateral-line scales; 13½-15½ branched anal-fin rays and 7-9 gill rakers. Alburnoides freyhofi, new species, from the Kızılırmak drainage, is distinguished by having a scaleless keel between the posterior pelvic fin base and the anus, 44-53 total lateral-line scales; 14½-16½ branched anal-fin rays and 5-7 gill rakers. Alburnoides kosswigi, new species, from the Sakarya drainage, is distinguished by having a scaleless keel between the posterior pelvic fin base and the anus or rarely with 1-3 scales covering the anterior part of the keel; 43-57 total lateral-line scales; 11½-13 (14)½ branched anal-fin rays and 5-7 gill rakers.

  4. Feeding, respiration, and excretion of the Black Sea Noctiluca scintillans MacCartney in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Solov'ev, K. A.

    2013-07-01

    Studies were conducted at the end of June 2011 in the coastal region of the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The bulk of the Noctiluca scintillans population was observed in the thermocline and reached a density of 40000 ind./m3. Analysis of digestive vacuoles content showed that Noctiluca could consume cells of Neoceratium tripos and N. furca, which had been considered inedible for Black Sea zooplankton, as well as temporary cysts of dinoflagellates, presumably of the toxic genus Alexandrium. The Noctiluca population consumed in total 10-30% of the abundance of temporary cysts, 2-29% of primary production, and 2-9% of potential Calanus euxinus egg production. For the first time, the excretion rates of ammonium nitrogen and mineral phosphorus were measured for N. scintillans. Our calculations showed that in summer, excretion by Noctiluca contributed from 4 to 18% and from 15 to 53% of phytoplankton total nitrogen and phosphorus requirements, respectively. The specific growth rate of Noctiluca (0.17-0.35) in summer, estimated from data on the daily food intake and respiration rate, was close to the values obtained in spring.

  5. Influence of macroalgae diversity on radionuclide and heavy metal accumulation in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Stankov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides and toxic metals in Black Sea green, brown and red macroalgae were investigated using Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry AAS (FAAS, ETAAS). All algae samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast during the period 1996 - 2004. The obtained data show that radionuclide and metal concentrations depend on the macrophytes type and are higher in red Ceramium species. Tendencies in the concentration pollutants variations during the studied period are examined and all data give information about different macrophytic species ability to accumulate certain elements from one and the same sampling location The possibilities to use Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta algae phylums as bioindicators in marine environment are investigated. All obtained results show that use of macroalgae reduces the need of complex studies on chemical speciation of aquatic contaminants and makes algae valuable indicators for the seawater quality assessment. Higher levels are obtained at the northern part of the Black Sea due to seawater current circulation, originating from Danube, Dnyeper and Dnester river outflow and also at the southern part of the coast. All data show that there is no serious contamination along the Bulgarian coast

  6. Seafloor Litter in the Sinop İnceburun Coast in the Southern Black Sea

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    Ayşah Öztekin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, abundance, distribution and type of seafloor litter were determined in the Sinop Inceburun coast which is the northeast point of Turkey. Study was carried out in October 2014 and proposed methods by Guidance on Monitoring of Marine Litter in European Seas’ published by European Marine Strategy Framework Directive Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter section of seafloor litter adopted the region. Seafloor litter density was found mean 808.74±215.02 pieces per km-2. The amount of litter was found maximum in 34 m depth. When results were evaluated in terms of the type of material plastic was found 95.35% and encountered litter items were mainly composed of plastic bags. The size groups were found generally small than 50 cm x 50 cm in the classification according to the size groups. The data obtained from the study demonstrate that the seafloor in the region have highly littered compared to the other studies in the Black Sea. Marine litter pollution is a growing problem in the world all of the world’s oceans and also the Black Sea. Necessary measurements must be taken to solve this problem.

  7. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  8. An Evaluation of Vanadium Enrichment in the Eastern Shelf Sediments of the Turkish Black Sea

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    Selma Ünlü

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the spatial distribution of vanadium level, its enrichment and possible sources in the bottom sediment along the shelf of the Turkish Black Sea. In April 2006, vanadium concentrations were measured along the measurement profiles (20, 50 and 100 m using ICP-MS. The vanadium levels ranged from 40 to 315 µg g-1, usually within the range of typical and background values (Cf3. The concentrations decrease gradually with water depth, implying the dominance of anthropogenic sources such as industrial wastes, agricultural effluents, sewage discharge, and port activities. The vanadium levels had not significant correlations with the physicochemical parameters (sediment texture, water content, TOC and TPH level in the sediment. At the eastern basin, a serious vanadium enrichment (Cf>6-9 was observed in November 2010, implying some important regional and seasonal contributions; which may be natural or anthropogenic. Biogeochemical processes, eutrophication, wave-based erosion, abnormal current circulations, bottom morphology and influence of other substances in the environment may be other regulating factors to this enrichment. Continuous monitoring and further studies are required for a detailed description of vanadium mobility and for assessment of the main controlling processes associated with vanadium enrichment in the eastern Black Sea basin.

  9. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  10. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

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    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  11. Separating contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources in atmospheric methane from the Black Sea region, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, Stela; Pendall, Elise; Miller, John B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Dlugokencky, Ed; White, James W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Danube Delta-Black Sea region of Romania is an important wetland, and this preliminary study evaluates the significance of this region as a source of atmospheric CH 4 . Measurements of the mixing ratio and δ 13 C in CH 4 are reported from air and water samples collected at eight sites in the Danube Delta. High mixing ratios of CH 4 were found in air (2500-14,000 ppb) and dissolved in water samples (∼1-10 μmol L -1 ), demonstrating that the Danube Delta is an important natural source of CH 4 . The intercepts on Keeling plots of about -62 per mille show that the main source of CH 4 in this region is microbial, probably resulting primarily from acetate fermentation. Atmospheric CH 4 and CO data from the NOAA/ESRL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory) were used to make a preliminary estimate of biogenic CH 4 at the Black Sea sampling site at Constanta (BSC). These data were used to calculate ratios of CH 4 /CO in air samples, and using an assumed CH 4 /CO anthropogenic emissions ratio of 0.6, fossil fuel emissions at BSC were estimated. Biogenic CH 4 emissions were then estimated by a simple mass balance approach. Keeling plots of well-mixed air from the BSC site suggested a stronger wetland source in summer and a stronger fossil fuel source in winter

  12. Estimation of Sea Level variations with GPS/GLONASS-Reflectometry Technique: Case Study at Stationary Oceanographic Platform in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatov, G. A.; Padokhin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we study GNSS - reflectometry methods for estimation of sea level variations using a single GNSS-receiver, which are based on the multipath propagation effects (interference pattern in SNR of GNSS signals at small elevation angles) caused by the reflection of navigational signals from the sea surface. The measurements were carried out in the coastal zone of Black Sea at the Stationary Oceanographic Platform during one-week campaign in the summer 2017. GPS/GLONASS signals at two working frequencies of both systems were used to study sea level variations which almost doubled the amount of observations compared to GPS-only tide gauge. Moreover all the measurements were conducted with 4-antenna GNSS receiver providing the opportunity for different orientations of antennas including zenith and nadir looking ones as well as two horizontally oriented ones at different azimuths. As the reference we used data from co-located wire wave gauge which showed good correspondence of both datasets. Though tidal effects are not so pronounced for the Black Sea, the described experimental setup allowed to study the effects of sea surface roughness, driven by meteorological conditions (e.g. wind waves), as well as antenna directivity pattern effects on the observed interference patterns of GPS/GLONASS L1/L2 signals (relation of the main spectral peak to the noise power) and the quality of sea level estimations.

  13. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  14. Biodiversity of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas along Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this paper is to establish the biodiversity status of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas (NATURA 2000 along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The observation stations in the period 2010-2012 were within the frames of the following habitats: 1160 – Large shallow inlets and bays; 1110 – Sandbanks, slightly covered by seawater and Sublittoral mussel banks on sediment. In general, the data shows steady state compared to the 1980s, except for the area near Kamchia River, characterized by low biodiversity due to water pollution from the river inflow (with contaminants from agricultural and industrial sources in the upper river stream and less salinity leading to marine mussel species reduction. In the border area, near the Emona zone, the black mussel catches varied between 160-600 kg in 2005, while only single specimens were detected in 2013. In the same field, the yield of Rapana venosa was within the limits of 5-40 kg in 2005 and between 80-160 kg in 2013. The established variability showed a dynamic balance between Mytilus galloprovicialis and Rapana venosa that pose a challenge for future stock of the black mussel and point the need of regular monitoring.

  15. Technique for Simulation of Black Sea Circulation with Increased Resolution in the Area of the IO RAS Polygon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Fomin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    A numerical technique is presented for simulating the hydrophysical fields of the Black Sea on a variable-step grid with refinement in the area of IO RAS polygon. Model primitive equations are written in spherical coordinates with an arbitrary arrangement of poles. In order to increase the horizontal resolution of the coastal zone in the area of the IO RAS polygon in the northeastern part of the sea near Gelendzhik, one of the poles is placed at a land point (38.35° E, 44.75° N). The model horizontal resolution varies from 150 m in the area of the IO RAS polygon to 4.6 km in the southwestern part of the Black Sea. The numerical technique makes it possible to simulate a large-scale structure of Black Sea circulation as well as the meso- and submesoscale dynamics of the coastal zone. In order to compute the atmospheric forcing, the results of the regional climate model WRF with a resolution of about 10 km in space and 1 h in time are used. In order to demonstrate the technique, Black Sea hydrophysical fields for 2011-2012 and a passive tracer transport representing self-cleaning of Gelendzhik Bay in July 2012 are simulated.

  16. Molecular identification of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in water samples collected from Black sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Zeynep; Gulabi, Berivan Basak; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of Blastocystis sp. and complete a phylogenetic analysis of 268 water samples that were collected from the Samsun, Amasya and Sinop Provinces of the Black Sea in Turkey, between the years 2011 and 2014. Blastocystis sp. was investigated in 48 uncultured sea water samples that were collected from 4 sites within the Sinop Province. A total of 100 river water samples were collected from 37 sites in the Samsun Province and 120 river water samples were collected from 10 sampling sites within the Amasya Province. The small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed for the detection of Blastocytis sp. and the PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Subsequently, the (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned by Bioedit and phylogenetic trees were constructed for Blastocystis with reference to the genotypes from GenBank. Blastocystis sp. were found in 3 out of the 75 (4%) river water samples that were collected from the Samsun Province. Six of the 120 (5%) river water samples and 1 out of the 48 (2%) seawater samples were positive for Blastocystis in the Amasya and Sinop Provinces. There were two different subtypes (ST; 1 and 3) found from sequencing all of the samples from the investigated sites. Two and one PCR products were found to be positive for ST1 and ST3 from the different samples collected within the Samsun Province. Two and 4 PCR products from the Amasya Province were ST1 and ST3, respectively and only one sample from the Sinop Province was found to be positive for ST1. This is the first report to identify and report the occurrence of Blastocystis subtypes within the Black Sea of Turkey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Concurrent Activity of Anammox and Denitrifying Bacteria in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Kirkpatrick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox in the Black Sea in 2003, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss was questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating Black Sea nitrite reductase (nirS mRNA transcripts at a single location was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the lower suboxic zone over this time span. Their distributions, however, were fundamentally different; denitrification expression was much more variable. Depth profiles covering the suboxic zone showed that the four groups of anammox-type sequences were expressed consistently in the lower suboxic zone, and were consistent with anammox 16S rDNA gene profiles. By contrast, denitrifier-type nirS sequence groups were mixed; half of the groups exhibited consistent expression in the lower suboxic zone, while others varied between season and depth. Co-occurrence of both anammox and denitrifier expression was common and ongoing. Both types of transcripts were also found in samples with low concentrations of sulfide ( >2 μM. 6 major groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were identified, making these transcripts more diverse than previous DNA clone libraries. Several groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were closely related to sequences from the Baltic Sea. An increase in denitrifier-type nirS transcript diversity and depth range in October 2007 corresponded to an increase in mixed layer net community productivity as measured by O2/Ar gas ratios, as well as to an increase in N2 concentrations in the upper suboxic zone. Taken together, the variations in expression patterns between anammox and denitrification provide one explanation as to how near instantaneous rate measurements, such as isotope spike experiments, may regularly detect anammox activity but underreport

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in macroalgae species from Sinop coasts of the Southern Black Sea

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    Levent Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cd and Co in macroalgae from Sinop coasts of the Sounthern Black Sea. Methods: Chlorophyta-green algae (Chaetomorpha spp., Cladophora spp., Ulva linza, Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca, Ulva rigida; Ochrophyta-brown alga [Cystoseira barbata (C. barbata] and Rhodophyta-red algae (Ceramium spp., Corallina panizzoi were collected seasonally in the year 2010 from the upper infralittoral zone of inner harbour, outer harbour, Gerze and Ayancık of Sinop coasts of the Black Sea. The samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in order to determine heavy metal levels in different algal division species along Sinop coasts and to provide information of marine environment quality as marine strategy framework directive is aimed to ensure good environmental status of the seas by 2020 in the European Union. Results: The results showed that metal concentrations in all studied green algae, brown alga and red algae increase in the order: Cd < Co < Ni < Pb < Cu < Zn < Mn < Fe, Cd < Co < Cu < Ni < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe and Co < Cd < Ni < Cu < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe, respectively. In all divisions, among the essential elements the highest concentrations exhibited by Fe, in Gerze station- (2328 ± 89 µg/g dry weight in Chaetomorpha spp.; (2143 ± 78 µg/g dry weight in C. barbata and (968 ± 20 µg/g dry weight in Ceramium spp. Conclusions: The highest accumulation of different metals in the analysed algae species were: Fe and Co in Chaetomorpha spp., Zn in C. barbata, Ni and Cu in Ulva linza, Mn in Ulva intestinalis, Pb and Cd in Corallina panizzoi.

  19. Benthic hypoxia and early diagenesis in the Black Sea shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Audrey; Roevros, Nathalie; Capet, Arthur; Grégoire, Marilaure; Fagel, Nathalie; Chou, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Marine waters of semi-enclosed seas are affected by a major environmental issue which is oxygen depletion in bottom waters. Deoxygenation is one of the most widespread man-induced consequences which can be catastrophic for living species. Between 1970 and 1990, the benthic compartment of the Black Sea underwent modifications due to the occurrence and increase of hypoxia. Indeed, these changes might cause a deterioration of the structure and functioning of the ecosystems. Nowadays, some regions, such as the north-western shelf, are still affected seasonally by this phenomenon. Within the framework of the BENTHOX project, a biogeochemical study focusing on the early diagenesis is conducted in the Black Sea. It aims (1) to obtain a better understanding of the impact of benthic hypoxia on the diagenetic pathways, (2) to contribute to a new dataset of biogeochemical measurements in the sediments including porewaters. During a cruise (Emblas II - May 2016), on board the RV Mare Nigrum, sediment cores were taken at 4 stations on the Ukrainian shelf. Porewaters were extracted on board the ship using Rhizon technique under N2 atmosphere and will be analyzed for dissolved nutrients and major ions. In addition, sediments were sliced and will be determined for major solid phases and trace element contents. A multi-proxies (biological, sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical) approach will be used to identify the hypoxic events and to reconstruct the history of bottom hypoxia. The results obtained will be presented and discussed with emphasis on the first outcomes and the major biogeochemical processes involved in the early diagenesis.

  20. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military

  1. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  2. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  3. Implementation of Black Sea numerical model based on NEMO and 3DVAR data assimilation scheme for operational forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Peneva, Elisaveta; Storto, Andrea; Rostislav, Kandilarov; Lecci, Rita; Yang, Chunxue; Coppini, Giovanni; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a new model implementation for the Black Sea, which uses data assimilation, towards operational forecasting, based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Madec et al., 2012). The Black Sea domain is resolved with 1/27°×1/36° horizontal resolution (~3 km) and 31 z-levels with partial steps based on the GEBCO bathymetry data (Grayek et al., 2010). The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using high resolution atmospheric forcing provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast (ECMWF). The initial condition is calculated from long-term climatological temperature and salinity 3D fields. Precipitation field over the basin has been computed from the climatological GPCP rainfall monthly data (Adler et al., 2003; Huffman et al., 2009), while the evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux. The climatological monthly mean runoff of the major rivers in the Black Sea is computed using the hydrological dataset provided by SESAME project (Ludvig et al., 2009). The exchange with Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus Straits is represented by a surface boundary condition taking into account the barotropic transport calculated to balance the fresh water fluxes on monthly bases (Stanev and Beckers, 1999, Peneva et al., 2001). A multi-annual run 2011-2015 has been completed in order to describe the main characteristics of the Black Sea circulation dynamics and thermohaline structure and the numerical results have been validated using in-situ (ARGO) and satellite (SST, SLA) data. The Black Sea model represents also the core of the new Black Sea Forecasting System, implemented at CMCC operationally since January 2016, which produces at daily frequency 10-day forecasts, 3-days analyses and 1-day simulation. Once a week, the system is run 15-day in the past in analysis mode to compute the new optimal initial condition for the forecast cycle. The assimilation is performed by a

  4. Geochemical characteristics of Holocene laminated sapropel (unit II) and underlying lacustrine unit III in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Walter E.; Arthur, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    eg 1 of the 1988 R/V Knorr expeditions to the Black Sea recovered 90 gravity and box cores. The longest recovery by gravity cores was about 3 meters, with an average of about 2.5 meters, recovering all of the Holocene and upper Pleistocene sections in the Black Sea. During the latest Pleistocene glaciation, sea level dropped below the 35-meters-deep Bosporus outlet sill of the Black Sea. Therefore throughout most of its history the Black Sea was a lake, and most of its sediments are lacustrine. The oldest sediments recovered (older than 8,000 calendar years) consist of massive to coarsely banded lacustrine calcareous clay designated as lithologic Unit III, generally containing less than 1 percent organic carbon (OC). The base of overlying Unit II marks the first incursion of Mediterranean seawater into the Black Sea, and the onset of bottom-water anoxia about 7,900 calendar years. Unit II contains as much as 15 percent OC in cores from the deepest part of the Black Sea (2,200 meters). The calcium carbonate (CaCO3) remains of the coccolith Emiliania huxleyi form the distinctive white laminae of overlying Unit I. The composition of Unit III and Unit II sediments are quite different, reflecting different terrigenous clastic sources and increased contributions from hydrogenous and biogenic components in anoxic Unit II sapropel. In Unit II, positive covariance between OC and three trace elements commonly concentrated in OC-rich sediments where sulfate reduction has occurred (molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium) and a nutrient (phosphorus) suggest a large marine source for these elements although nickel and vanadium also have a large terrigenous clastic source. The marine sources may be biogenic or hydrogenous. A large biogenic source is also suggested for copper and cobalt. Because abundant pyrite forms in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, we expected to find a large hydrogenous iron component, but a strong covariance of iron with aluminum suggests that the

  5. Regional forecasting system of marine state and variability of dynamical processes in the easternmost part of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordzadze, Avtandil; Demetrashvili, Demuri

    2014-05-01

    The regional forecasting system for the easternmost part of the Black Sea developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics of I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University under the EU framework projects ARENA and ECOOP is a part of the Black Sea basin-scale Nowcasting/Forecasting System. A core of the regional forecasting system is a baroclinic regional model of Black Sea dynamics with 1 km spacing based on hydrostatic primitive equations of ocean hydrothermodynamics, which are written in z-coordinates for deviations of thermodynamic values from their standard vertical distributions. To solve the problem the two-cycle method of splitting the model equation system with respect to both physical processes and coordinate planes and lines is used. The regional model of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics is nested in the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol/Ukraine). The regional forecasting system provides 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the easternmost part of the Black Sea, which is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with the meridian 39.080E. Data needed on liquid and upper boundaries, also the 3-D initial hydrophysical fields for the easternmost regional area are provided in near operative mode from Marine hydrophysical Institute via Internet. These data on the liquid boundary are values of velocity components, temperature and salinity predicted by the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute and on the sea surface 2-D meteorological boundary fields - wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates predicted by the regional atmospheric model ALADIN are used. The analysis of the results of modeling and forecast of dynamic processes developed for 2010-2014 showed that the easternmost water area of the Black Sea is a dynamically very active zone, where continuously there are processes of generation

  6. Stable isotope evidence for the Bottom Convective Layer homogeneity in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, Alexander V; Dubinina, Elena O; Demidova, Tatyana P; Kokryatskaya, Nataliya M; Rimskaya-Korsakova, Maria N; Kosova, Sofia A; Yakushev, Evgeniy V

    2014-01-01

    The Black Sea is the largest euxinic basin on the Earth. The anoxic zone consists of the upper part water mass stratified by density, and the lower water mass homogenized relative to density (depth >1750 m), named the Bottom Convective Layer. To assess homogeneity and possible exchange of matter across the upper and lower boundaries of the Bottom Convective Layer, new data on stable isotope composition of S, O and H were obtained. Samples were collected in August 2008 and March 2009 from two stations located in the eastern central part of the Black Sea. Distribution of δ(18)O and δD values of water for the entire water column did not vary seasonally. Appreciable differences were marked for δD value variation in the picnocline area (water depth 200-400 m) and in the BCL 5 m above the bottom that might be caused by penetration of intrusions with elevated portion of shelf modified Mediterranean Water. Observed linear relationship between δ(18)O (or δD) and salinity indicates that mixing water and salt occurs at the same time, and the deep water of the Black Sea has two end members: the high-salinity Mediterranean seawater and freshwater input. In the Bottom Convective Layer, the average δ(34)S (H2S) was -40.6 ± 0.5‰ and did not vary seasonally. At the bottom (depth > 2000 m), (34)S depletion down to -41.0‰ was observed. Our δ(34)S (SO4) data are by 2-3‰ higher than those measured previously for the Bottom Convective Layer. Sulfate from the aerobic zone with δ(34)S (SO4) = +21‰ corresponds to ocean water sulfate and that has not been subjected to sulfate reduction. Average δ(34)S (SO4) values for depths > 1250 m were found to be +23.0 ± 0.2‰ (1σ). Sulfur isotope composition of sulfate does not change in the Bottom Convective Layer and on its upper and lower boundaries, and does not depend on the season of observation.

  7. Assessing the marine geological cycle of cobalt from its interactions with particles in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, M.; Dulaquais, G.; Planquette, H.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Black Seas is the world's largest anoxic marine basin. Being extremely stable, the water column of this system is an ideal site to study the geochemical mechanisms affecting trace elements behavior in seawater across different oxygenation states, from the surface oxygenated layer to the deep euxinic waters. Understanding these processes in the modern Black Sea is also a pathway to assess the evolution of the ocean composition throughout geological timescales especially during the transition between the Proterozoic (euxinic) and the modern (oxic) ocean. Furthermore in the context of the spreading and intensification of oxygen deficient environments in coastal areas due to anthropogenic forcing, the study of heavy metals and key trace elements such as Co in the natural anoxic marine system of the Black Sea can provide insights into future environmental changes. Here we report field measurements along the GEOTRACES-A04N section for cobalt (dissolved: dCo; particulate: pCo) and for others redox-sensitive trace elements (particulate Mn, particulate Fe). High surface dCo concentrations (> 500 pM) were measured probably induced by coastal inputs combined with low ventilation rate. Below the oxygenated waters, competitive redox-processes combined with a strong interaction with particles governed distribution of dCo. In the suboxic waters, the dCo concentrations dramatically decreased (as low as 28 pM) resulting from adsorption onto manganese oxides (MnOx). In the upper sulfidic layer, the reduction of MnOx released dCo leading to the highest dCo concentrations never encountered before in modern marine systems (up to 6.6 nM). In deeper waters, dCo sharply decreased with depth, likely due to sorption of dCo onto Fe and/or sulfide complexes and their subsequent precipitation in these sulfidic waters. This vertical gradient is then combined with complementary geochemical modeling in order to better figure how the cobalt cycle could have evolved across the ocean's history.

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms from the Romanian sector of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Oros, Andra; Plavan, Gabriel; Nicoara, Mircea

    2015-05-25

    The aim of this research was to study the accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium - Cd, lead - Pb, chromium - Cr, nickel - Ni, and copper - Cu) from water and sediments into living tissues of relevant marine species from different trophic levels of a food web, representative for shallow waters of the Romanian Black Sea Coast where the main anthropogenic impacts exist. The heavy metals concentrations were analysed by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer with graphite furnace, the results being further used to calculate the bioconcentration factors for a few key taxa like green and red algae, molluscs and fishes. Seven sampling sites influenced by anthropogenic pollution sources (municipal wastewater treatment plants and diffuse sources) were considered and a total of 300 samples were analysed for the period 2011-2012, this being the first unitary study for the Romanian Black Sea marine ecosystem. In 2011 and 2012 there were no significant differences between the sampling areas considering the heavy metals concentrations in water. For the sediments significant differences were observed between sampling sites for some heavy metals, namely Pb in 2011 and Pb, Cu and Cd in 2012, the highest concentrations being registered in the southern sector of the Romanian Black Sea shore, where the anthropogenic pollution sources are represented by the harbour and wastewater treatment plants. The values of the bioaccumulation factors (BCFsed) shows that algae are good accumulators for Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd, in comparison with BCFwater where the order of heavy metal accumulation was different: Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd>Cu. Molluscs have higher bioconcentration factors for Cu and Cd for sediments and for Cu and Ni for water. Rapana venosa accumulated more Cd and Cu. For fishes, Pb, Cu and Ni had the highest values in the tissues of benthonic species Mullus barbatus. In bivalve molluscs and fishes, in the majority of cases, there were not recorded exceeding mean concentrations as compared to the maximum

  9. [Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Reis, Ahu; Kaklıkkaya, Neşe; Tosun, Ilknur; Aydın, Faruk

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the major cause of transfusion-associated hepatitis, is an important public health problem in the world as well as in Turkey. HCV is grouped as six distinct genotypes and a large number of closely-related subtypes. Genotyping of HCV is an important tool for providing epidemiological data, prediction of prognosis, and optimization of antiviral therapy. This study was carried out to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in hepatitis C patients residing in different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. A total of 304 HCV-RNA positive cases (151 male, 153 female; age range: 11-93 years, mean age: 55.2 ± 13.3 years) who were admitted to the Molecular Microbiology Unit of Department of Medical Microbiology, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, between January 2009 to December 2012, were included in the study. HCV genotypes were detected in plasma samples of the patients by using commercial assays [INNO-LiPA HCV II (Innogenetics, Belgium) or Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc, USA)]. Due to the ambiguous genotyping results in some samples with these methods, an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with genotype-specific primers was also used in the study. Similar to the previous reports from Turkey, our results showed that four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) prevailed in the Eastern Black Sea Region and the predominant genotype and subtype were genotype 1 (92.8%) and 1b (87.5%), respectively. Distribution of genotypes were observed to vary according to the province. Prevalences of subtype 1a, genotype 2, 3, and 4 were noted as 5.3%, 1.6%, 4.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the samples from Giresun, Gumushane and Bayburt provinces, which are relatively less immigrated, had higher genotype 1, and the prevalence rates in the region was affected by the presence of non-citizen residents. This study is the first report on distribution of HCV genotypes in chronic hepatitis

  10. Mass Evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and Altimetry: Accuracy Assessment and Solution Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality.

  11. Drivers of the autumn phytoplankton development in the open Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Alexander S.; Shapiro, Georgy I.; Chasovnikov, Valeriy K.; Wobus, Fred; Zanacchi, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of the autumn development of phytoplankton in the Black Sea were investigated using satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl), which was estimated for two regions in the deep sea over a 20-year period. We analysed 8-day composite Chl images along with changes in: (i) nutrient concentration obtained from in-situ measurements, (ii) sea surface temperature (SST), (iii) photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) obtained from satellite imagery, (iv) wind speed from the re-analysis of meteodata and (v) the depth of the upper mixed layer (UML) calculated from a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea. The peak in Chl was identified most frequently in the first half of November. A positive correlation between the duration of strong wind events and phytoplankton development was revealed, which was associated with the deepening of the UML, and replenishment of the photic zone with nutrients. The impact on phytoplankton was significant when the cumulative duration of strong wind (> 8 m s- 1) exceeded 60 h over the preceding 8 days. In such cases, the frequency of the Chl peaks increased up to 30-50% with an average of 20%. Strong wind was shown to determine the timing of the autumn bloom, but not its strength. From a positive relationship between the maximum Chl and nitrate concentration we found instead that the intensity of the autumn bloom was mainly defined by nitrate replenishment in the photic zone. On average, the timing of the seasonal maximum of Chl in the first half of November coincided with the deepening of the UML to the bottom of the seasonal thermocline (ca 25 m). Elution of nitrate from deeper layers, where its concentration is substantially higher, mitigated the nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth. At the same time, a sharp decrease in PAR after mid-November resulted in the limitation of light for phytoplankton growth. Inter-annual variations of Chl in spring and autumn were shown not to be correlated. For example, the basin

  12. The Training of Qualified Specialists in the Countries of the Black Sea Region in the Context of Globalization Education Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheludko Inna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the trends in higher education development in the countries of the Black Sea region, namely, historical, methodological, methodical and technological, which determine the objective and subjective connections and relationships that are common to the system of higher pedagogical education of the countries under study and define persistent pursuit of modernization and transformation of the nature, content, structure, functions, ways of management approaches to the education process, forms, methods, tools and techniques of teaching students. The trends in the public-authoritarian model of higher education have been revealed. It has been found out that the leading trend in Ukraine and other countries of the Black Sea is the governance and financing of future teachers with appropriate management functions and control that significantly affects the organizational structure of higher education. The features of a modern system of higher pedagogical education in the Black Sea region are the system of higher education institutions; main directions of modern reforms in higher education; functioning of leading universities that prepare teachers, their types, characteristics of structural units, students. According to the areas in development of higher pedagogical education in the Black Sea region, we have divided the trends into four groups: historical, methodological, methodical, technological, that are top priority for education systems.

  13. The assemblage of fish of the Tyligul River (Black-Sea basin of South-West Ukraine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutsokon, Y.; Kvach, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 223-228 ISSN 1996-4536 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tyligul River * fish * assemblage * Northern Black Sea * museum collections Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://bioweb.lnu.edu.ua/studia/pdf/201591/2015_9_1_382.pdf

  14. The Training of Qualified Specialists in the Countries of the Black Sea Region in the Context of Globalization Education Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludko, Inna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the trends in higher education development in the countries of the Black Sea region, namely, historical, methodological, methodical and technological, which determine the objective and subjective connections and relationships that are common to the system of higher pedagogical education of the countries under study and define…

  15. Stratigraphy and Chronology of the Lake Sediments from Crimea as a Basis for Reconstructing the Black Sea Level Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolba, Vladimir; Subetto, D.A.; Kuznetsov, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    Two long sediment sequences have been recovered from two lakes in Western Crimea (Lakes Saki and Dzharylgach) within a frame of the joint Danish-Russian-Ukrainian interdisciplinary project "Northern Black Sea in the 1st millennium BC: Human history and climate changes". A detailed examination...

  16. Jurassic arc volcanism on Crimea (Ukraine): Implications for the paleo-subduction zone configuration of the Black Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, M.J.M.; Vrouwe, B.; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Kuiper, K.F.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Davies, G.R.; Stephenson, R.A.; Kaymakci, N.; Matenco, L.C.; Saintot, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    The early Cretaceous and younger opening of the Black Sea has obliterated much of the older record of Tethyan subduction below southeastern Europe. The earlier Mesozoic evolution was dominated by opening and closure of Tethyan oceans between Gondwana and Laurasia with their consumption, at least in

  17. Modeling the nitrogen cycling and plankton productivity in the Black Sea using a three-dimensional interdisciplinary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Nezlin, N.; Kostianoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    A six-compartment ecosystem model defined by a simple nitrogen cycle is coupled with a general circulation model in the Black Sea so as to examine the seasonal variability of the ecohydrodynamics. Model results show that the annual cycle of the biological productivity of the whole basin is

  18. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  19. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Desmet, P.; Aelterman, B.; Courtens, W.; Feys, S.; Vanermen, N.; Verstraete, H.; Van de Walle, M.; Deneudt, K.; Hernandez, F.; Houthoofdt, R.; Vanhoorne, B.; Bouten, W.; Buijs, R.-J.; Kavelaars, M.M.; Müller, W.; Herman, D.; Matheve, H.; Sotillo, A.; Lens, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5

  20. The Dnepr Canyon: evidence for a continuous submarine channel link between the outer shelf and the deep-sea basin of the northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Sergei B.; Artemov, Yuriy G.; Egorov, Viktor N.; Evtushenko, Dmitriy B.

    2013-08-01

    Multibeam bathymetric surveys and single-beam profiles were collected in 2003-2010 from aboard the Ukrainian RV Professor Vodyanitskiy (cruises PV-58 and PV-60, 2003 and 2004), and the German RV Meteor (cruise M-72, legs 1 and 4, 2007) and RV Maria S. Merian (cruise MSM-15, leg 2, 2010) along the continental margin of the NW Black Sea. Integrating published, reprocessed and novel data has revealed the existence of a major continuous channel extending from the Dnepr paleo-delta into greater water depths. It is more than 90 km long, 1.1 km wide and up to 125 m deep. On the upper slope (120-960 m water depth), a number of smaller channels merge into the large, Y-shaped Dnepr Canyon, which then continues obliquely downslope via this submarine channel to at least 1,815 m water depth off the Crimean continental margin, NW Black Sea. The channel could be an important, hitherto unknown link between the shallow oxic and deep anoxic environments of the Black Sea, along which sediment and organic matter could be funneled into the deep-sea basin. This would have far-reaching implications for investigations dealing with marine geology and biology, climate change, as well as oil and natural gas exploitation. The unusual alignment of the channel along the margin of the basin, as well as the location and mode of channel termination in deeper waters deserve future research.

  1. Predation mechanisms of Rapana venosa (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in different biotopes along the Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Alisa

    2016-01-30

    Mechanisms of feeding by the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa from different biotopes of 11 sites along the Black Sea coast are discussed. Two methods--edge-drilling and suffocation--are used, but the prevailing method in a particular biotope depends on the type of bivalve prey. Drill signs were present on almost all shells of Chamelea gallina, captured by rapa whelks in field conditions, while in a field experiment, only 11% of all empty Mytilus galloprovincialis had drilling signatures. The degree of radula abrasion was also dependent on the available bivalves: it was the highest in biotopes with C. gallina and juvenile mussels, and the lowest in biotopes with large mussels. Intermediate degrees of abrasion were observed in biotopes with mixed prey: C. gallina and Anadara kagoshimensis, C. gallina and mussels, or small and large mussels. Since we observed only initial signs of drilling, simultaneous application of boring and suffocation could take place. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea RID B-8834-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, MMM; Sliekers, AO; Lavik, G.

    2003-01-01

    ). Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N(2) in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing...... the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors(3). Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, (15)N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific 'ladderane' membrane lipids(4) indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed...... by anammox bacteria below the oxic zone. This is the first time that anammox bacteria have been identified and directly linked to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the environment. The widespread occurrence of ammonium consumption in suboxic marine settings(5-7) indicates that anammox might...

  3. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  4. Evaluation of trace metal contents of some wild edible mushrooms from Black sea region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Fructification organs of Calvatia excipuliformis, Lycoperdon perlatum, Laccaria amethystea, Armillaria mellea, Marasmius oreades, Xerula radicata, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Cantharellus tubaeformis, Hypholoma fasciculare, Clitocybe gibba, Collybia dryophila, Lepista nuda and Mycena aetites were collected from different localities in Black sea region of Turkey. Their trace metals concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after wet and microwave digestion. The results were (as mg/kg) 150-1741 for iron, 15.5-73.8 for copper, 28.6-145 for manganese, 43.5-205 for zinc, 4.8-42.7 for aluminium and 0.9-2.6 for lead. The levels of lead analyzed in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material

  5. Evaluation of trace metal contents of some wild edible mushrooms from Black sea region, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesli, Ertugrul [Karadeniz Technical University, Fatih Faculty of Education, Department of Biology, 61335 Soegutlu, Trabzon (Turkey); Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr; Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    Fructification organs of Calvatia excipuliformis, Lycoperdon perlatum, Laccaria amethystea, Armillaria mellea, Marasmius oreades, Xerula radicata, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Cantharellus tubaeformis, Hypholoma fasciculare, Clitocybe gibba, Collybia dryophila, Lepista nuda and Mycena aetites were collected from different localities in Black sea region of Turkey. Their trace metals concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after wet and microwave digestion. The results were (as mg/kg) 150-1741 for iron, 15.5-73.8 for copper, 28.6-145 for manganese, 43.5-205 for zinc, 4.8-42.7 for aluminium and 0.9-2.6 for lead. The levels of lead analyzed in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  6. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  7. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  8. Organic-matter production and preservation and evolution of anoxia in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dating of sediments collected in gravity cores during Leg 1 of the 1988 R/V Knorr expedition to the Black Sea suggests that the onset of water-column anoxia at ???7.5 ka was virtually synchronous across the basin over a depth range of ???200 - 2250 m. A finely laminated, organic carbon (OC) rich sapropel (unit II) was produced as a result of this anoxia. The trigger for increased OC production and development of anoxia was the spillover of saline waters through the Bosporus that probably began at ???9.0 ka and peaked between ???7.0 and 5.5 ka. This spillover enhanced vertical mixing and nutrient cycling and caused a short-term (2-3 kyr) burst in surface-water productivity during the early part of unit II deposition. Continued incursion of saline waters enhanced vertical stability and inhibited mixing of nutrients into surface waters, thus limiting primary production and decreasing the OC flux to sediments beginning ???5.5 ka. Concentration, accumulation rate, and degree of preservation of organic matter all decreased in the upper part of unit II as a result of decreasing productivity, but anoxia persisted throughout most of the water column. The end of unit II sapropel deposition was synchronous across the Black Sea as the result of the first blooms of the coccolith Emiliania huxleyi, which presumably marked an increase in surface-water salinity above 11 and the beginning of unit I deposition. The high coccolith-carbonate fluxes that occurred during deposition of unit I diluted the OC concentration in the sediments, but OC accumulation rates are about the same as those in upper part of unit II.

  9. Turkish Straits System and Southern Black Sea: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / Canyon Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black Sea are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous canyons connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer system has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the 'Mediterranean effluent' onto the Black Sea past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow canyon that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus Canyon finally cascading down the few small canyons. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus Canyon. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous canyons into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.

  10. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  11. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Merlangius merlangus euxinus and Trachurus trachurus off the Turkish coast of Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Onuk, Ertan Emek

    2013-03-01

    A total of 286 larval forms of Hysterothylacium aduncum were collected from Merlangius merlangus euxinus and Trachurus trachurus captured at different sites of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Prevalence of H. aduncum in M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus was 37.4 and 29.3 %, respectively. The fourth-stage larvae from M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus of H. aduncum were characterized genetically using a molecular approach. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced. Two isolates of H. aduncum obtained from M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus in Black Sea showed a 100 % nucleotide similarity. Pairwise comparison between the entire ITS fragment including ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 sequences of the H. adumcum isolates of M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus from Black Sea (Turkey, JX413596-JX413597) and other H. adumcum isolates from Baltic Sea (Poland, AJ937672), North Sea (Denmark, HM598666), Mediterranean Sea (Tunisia, HQ270427), Japan Sea (Japan, AB277826), Adriatic Sea (Croatia, JQ934878), East Greenland Sea, English Channel, Bay of Biscay, Adriatic Sea, and North Sea showed differences ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 %. With the present study, larvae of H. aduncum infecting M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus caught off the Black Sea, Turkey were characterized for the first time by sequencing of the ITS rDNA.

  12. Ecological policy, assessment and prediction of the fate of Chernobyl radionuclides in sediments of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontar, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The mathematical model has been designed to investigate the fate and distribution of the Chernobyl radionuclides in sediments of the Black Sea. One of the regions of intensive radioactive precipitation during the Chernobyl disaster was the nothwestern Black Sea region. There are some canyon systems in this region, where bottom sediments of the shelf zone are removed to the continental slope region and finally to the abyssal part of the sea. The lack of reliable information on the removal intensity of the shelf sediments, which contain different kinds of radioactive precipitation, does not allow changes in the radioactive situation to be predicted reliably enough in the given region. On the other hand, the surface sedimentary layers dated by characteristic Chernobyl precipitation made it possible to obtain information on sediment movement rates and directions, as well as other quantitative and qualitative parameters for the mechanisms of canyon processes. This region was selected for our study

  13. Understanding the Dynamics of the Oxic-Anoxic Interface in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Grayek, Sebastian; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Claustre, Hervé; Murray, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The Black Sea, the largest semienclosed anoxic basin on Earth, can be considered as an excellent natural laboratory for oxic and anoxic biogeochemical processes. The suboxic zone, a thin interface between oxic and anoxic waters, still remains poorly understood because it has been undersampled. This has led to alternative concepts regarding the underlying processes that create it. Existing hypotheses suggest that the interface originates either by isopycnal intrusions that introduce oxygen or the dynamics of manganese redox cycling that are associated with the sinking of particles or chemosynthetic bacteria. Here we reexamine these concepts using high-resolution oxygen, sulfide, nitrate, and particle concentration profiles obtained with sensors deployed on profiling floats. Our results show an extremely stable structure in density space over the entire basin with the exception of areas near the Bosporus plume and in the southern areas dominated by coastal anticyclones. The absence of large-scale horizontal intrusive signatures in the open-sea supports a hypothesis prioritizing the role of biogeochemical processes.

  14. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  15. Doppler HF Radar Application for the Study of Spatial Structure of Currents in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Gorbatskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the surface current spatial structure observations performed by SeaSonde Doppler HF radar (operating frequency is 25 MHz in the Black Sea region adjacent to the city of Gelendzhik are represented. The observations imply a special technique consisting in successive measurements at two selected points of the coastline. Initially, the measurements are carried out in the first of two selected coastal points during two hours. Then the radar system is transferred to the second point on the coast where the procedure is repeated. At that the velocity field is assumed to remain unchanged during the total measurement period (including the time of the radar displacement from both points. The measurement results are shown in a form of a spatial map of the current velocity vectors in the research region (with 20 × 20 km dimensions. Some features of the current spatial and temporal variability in the coastal waters are revealed. Particularly, the eddy-like formations (the diameter is a few kilometers which rapidly move and collapse. Since similar eddies are detected using the contact measurement methods, complex and variable structure of the surface currents measured by a radar does not seem to be an artifact. Nevertheless, reliability of the data resulted from the radar measurements of the surface current velocity field should be verified in future by comparing it with the results of the quasi-synchronous velocity field measurements performed by stationary, drifting and towed velocity meters.

  16. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  17. A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anthony; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas; Mancosu, Emanuele; Abbaspour, Karim C; Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Allenbach, Karin; De Bono, Andrea; Fasel, Marc; Gago-Silva, Ana; Bär, Roger; Lacroix, Pierre; Giuliani, Gregory

    2017-07-04

    The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region. This platform covers: landuse, climate, and demographic scenarios; hydrology and related water vulnerability and scarcity; as well as beach erosion. Each data set has been obtained with state-of-the-art modelling tools from available monitoring data using appropriate validation methods. These analyses were conducted using global and regional data sets. The data sets are intended for national to regional assessments, for instance for prioritizing environmental protection projects and investments. Together they form a unique set of information, which lay out future plausible change scenarios for the BSC, both for scientific and policy purposes.

  18. STUDY REGARDING TO AGGRESSIONS ON THE ECOSYSTEM DANUBE DELTA – BLACK SEA AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  19. Diversity reception of hydroacoustic signals from the results of experiments in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, E. P.

    2010-11-01

    The results are presented of an experimental study of spatial and frequency correlation of amplitude fluctuations of hydroacoustic signals on two paths of the Black Sea under conditions of a thermal underwater sound channel and tonal-continuous emission at frequencies of 4 and 1.5 kHz. The emitters were located in the coastal wedge on the bottom slope at depths of 35 and 60 m; a receiver system was submerged to a depth of 50-60 m off the side of a ship drifting at various distances in the open sea. Data are presented on the spatial (horizontal and vertical) and frequency intervals of fluctuation correlation on the first path extending 100 km at an emission frequency of 4 kHz under conditions of dominant fast fluctuations, as well as on the second path extending 300 km at an omission frequency of 1.5 kHz under conditions of dominant slow fluctuations. The results of experiments are used to estimate the efficiency of space-diversity and frequency-diversity reception of acoustic signals in application to information transmission over a hydroacoustic channel.

  20. Seasonal Dynamics of Biogeochemical Processes in the Water Column of the Northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, I. I.; Lein, A. Yu.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Ivanov, M. V.; Flint, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    Integrated studies on the hydrochemistry and water column rates of microbial processes in the eastern sector of the Black Sea along a standard 100-miles transect off Gelendzhik from the coast to the central part of the sea at water depths of 100-2170 m show that a series of warm winters and the absence of intense convective winter mixing resulted in a relatively low content of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and nutrients in the water column in March 2009. The relatively high SPM concentrations and the presence of isotopically light POC at the offshore station are indicative of the supply of terrigenous material from land and low contributions of phytoplanktonic organic matter to the composition of SPM. This may explain the low rates of biogeochemical processes in the water column near the coast. The surface layer at deep-water stations is dominated by isotopically heavy phytoplanktonic organic matter. This suggests that the supply of terrigenous material from land was insufficient in offshore deep-water areas. Therefore, warm winters and insufficient nutrient supply do not prevent photosynthesis in the photic layer of the deep-water zone, which generates organic substrates for heterotrophic aquatic communities. The results of isotopic analysis of POC, measurements of the rates biogeochemical processes, and the hydrochemical characteristics of the water column can be used to determine the nature and seasonal variability of the POC composition.

  1. A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anthony; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas; Mancosu, Emanuele; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Allenbach, Karin; de Bono, Andrea; Fasel, Marc; Gago-Silva, Ana; Bär, Roger; Lacroix, Pierre; Giuliani, Gregory

    2017-07-01

    The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region. This platform covers: landuse, climate, and demographic scenarios; hydrology and related water vulnerability and scarcity; as well as beach erosion. Each data set has been obtained with state-of-the-art modelling tools from available monitoring data using appropriate validation methods. These analyses were conducted using global and regional data sets. The data sets are intended for national to regional assessments, for instance for prioritizing environmental protection projects and investments. Together they form a unique set of information, which lay out future plausible change scenarios for the BSC, both for scientific and policy purposes.

  2. The test skeletal matrix of the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanold, Julia M; Immel, Francoise; Broussard, Cédric; Guichard, Nathalie; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Brümmer, Franz; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    In the field of biomineralization, the past decade has been marked by the increasing use of high throughput techniques, i.e. proteomics, for identifying in one shot the protein content of complex macromolecular mixtures extracted from mineralized tissues. Although crowned with success, this approach has been restricted so far to a limited set of key-organisms, such as the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the pearl oyster or the abalone, leaving in the shadow non-model organisms. As a consequence, it is still unknown to what extent the calcifying repertoire varies, from group to group, at high (phylum, class), median (order, family) or low (genus, species) taxonomic rank. The present paper shows the first biochemical and proteomic characterization of the test matrix of the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Arbacioida). Our work suggests that the skeletal repertoire of A. lixula exhibits some similarities but also several differences with that of the few sea urchin species (S. purpuratus, Paracentrotus lividus), for which molecular data are already available. The differences may be attributable to the taxonomic position of the species considered: A. lixula belongs to an order - Arbacioida - that diverged more than one hundred million years ago from the Camarodonta, which includes the two species S. purpuratus and P. lividus. For the echinoid class, we suggest that large-scale proteomic screening should be performed in order to understand which molecular functions related to calcification are conserved and which ones have been co-opted for biomineralization in particular lineages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Benthos microalgae of the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya S. Balycheva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents for the first time a list of the benthic microalgae of the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve, including the Karkinitsky Gulf and Sary-Bulatsky liman. During 2015 and 2016, 78 taxa were found: Bacillariophyta – 69, Cyanoprokaryota – 6, Haptophyta – 3. In the Karkinitsky Gulf 45 taxa were found, in the Sary-Bulatsky liman – 56 taxa. The Czekanovski-Sorensen similarity coefficient between these locality is 46%. The basis of the flora is diatoms: Cocconeis scutellum, Entomoneis alata, Halamphora coffeiformis, Nitzschia scalpelliformis, Pleurosigma angulatum, Pl. elongatum, Psammodictyon panduriforme, including Coronia daemeliana, Surirella striatula, Tryblionella circumsuta, which are rare for the microphytobenthos of the Crimean coast of the Black Sea. According to different classifications, dominant algae are benthic (86%, marine (49% and cosmopolite (30% species. Two potentially toxic species of diatoms, H. coffeiformis and Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, were found once, 20 species of saprobionts – indicators of water quality were found. A comparison of the floras in the protected regions of the Black Sea between the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve and the Kazachya Bay Sanctuary showed 38 common species of benthic diatoms, in the Karadag Nature Reserve – 43 and in the Kazantip Nature Reserve (Azov Sea – 21. The total microalgae abundance of the epilithon of the stones of the Sary-Bulatsky liman varied from 81,000 to 331,000 cellscm-2, biomass – 0.012–0.018 mgcm-2, number of species – 11–13. A significant contribution was made by cyanobacteria, their average abundance reached 256,000 cellscm-2 and biomass – 0.007 mgcm-2. The abundance of diatoms varied from 48,000 to 75,000 cellscm-2, the biomass reached 0.011 mgcm-2 with the dominance of Seminavis ventricosa. The obtained data have shown the necessity of regular monitoring of the microphytobenthos of the Lebyazhy'i Ostrova Reserve in order to identify the qualitative

  4. Effect of hypoxia on benthic nutrient fluxes in the northwestern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.

    2012-04-01

    The western Black Sea shelf has been affected by eutrophication from the 1960s to the mid 1990s. A combination of increased nutrient loads from the major inflowing rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnepr and favourable climate conditions led to high productivity regimes. As a consequence, increased oxygen consumption due to decomposition of organic matter caused recurrent seasonal bottom water hypoxia for more than 20 years. In addition, recycling of nutrients from organic matter settling to the seafloor along with tight benthic-pelagic coupling represents an important internal source for productivity, hence internally supporting eutrophication. From the 1970s to 1990s, the benthic and pelagic systems deteriorated and ecosystem structure and functioning changed. Following the collapse of the centrally planned economies in the eastern European countries during the 1990s, the riverine nutrient input decreased, and the ecosystem, now slowly responding, shows signs of recovery; e.g. by a decrease in hypoxic events. In this study, benthic nutrient flux data from in-situ and ex-situ experiments during the 1990s on the Danube-influenced north-western Black Sea shelf and data from the 2000s, including the EU-FP7 HYPOX experiments, are analysed to reveal the effect of hypoxia on benthic nutrient fluxes. Mann-Whitney statistical tests have been applied to demonstrate the significance of differences in fluxes due to varying oxygen conditions in the water. During the 1990s experiments, bottom water hypoxia was encountered in all locations, while during the 2000s hypoxia has been met only during summer in the Danube Prodelta area and near the Dniester mouth. Indeed, bottom water oxygen in the 1990s has been statistically significantly lower than in the 2000s while benthic oxygen consumption was higher during eutrophication-induced hypoxia. The benthic nutrient fluxes in the 1990s and the 2000s however do not differ significantly. During hypoxia, despite ceasing eutrophication

  5. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the western Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra-seasonal and inter-annual temperature variations. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water mass between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season due to formation of a seasonal pycnocline. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from in-situ observations taken over the 2nd half of the 20th century. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the shelf area during the summer stratification period (May–November.The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by a cold phase between 1985 and 1995 and a further warming after 1995. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter convection is well preserved over the following months in the deep sea, the signal of winter cooling in the BSW significantly reduces during the warm season. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. It is shown that temperature in the BSW is stronger correlated with the temperature of Cold Intermediate Waters (CIW in the deep sea than with the severity of the previous winters, thus indicating that the isopycnal exchanges with the deep sea are more important for inter-annual/inter-decadal variability of the BSW on the western Black Sea shelf than effects of winter convection on the shelf itself.

  6. Insights into the benthic communities response to the inflow of Black Sea mesotrophic waters in the North Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Sevastou, Katerina; Podaras, Dimitrios; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the Dardanelles inflow of buoyant, modified Black Sea waters (BSW) of low salinity and temperature, on the meio- and macrobenthic communities of the north Aegean ecosystem was investigated during two cruises in October 2013 and March 2014. Sediment samples were collected from two stations subjected to the BSW effect, one shallow and one deep north of the Dardanelles Straits, and from two stations of similar bathymetry, which were considered to be outside the influence of BSW and were located to the south of the Dardanelles Straits. Results suggest that there is an effect of the BSW on benthos, as both meiofaunal and macrofaunal standing stocks were lower at the most distant, and therefore least affected from the inflow, station, and higher at the station of similar bathymetry which was affected the most by the BSW inflow. Univariate and multivariate non-parametric analyses (nMDS, PERMANOVA) provided further support, indicating differences between the two areas (North vs. South) in the case of the deep stations, while differences between depth categories were evident in the area outside the BSW influence zone. Distance-based linear modeling (DISTLM) indicated that meiofauna correlated with proxies of food availability and sediment characteristics. Macrofauna, on the other hand, showed a rather high significant correlation with depth only. Nematode species composition was statistically significant different between depth categories only, yet the nMDS ordination clearly separated the deep southern station from the rest, with non-selective deposit feeders dominating the stations under the influence of the BSW, and epistratum feeders being important at the stations outside the influence of the BSW. It is concluded that both the meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities at the northern stations benefit from a constant input of high amounts of organic matter to the seafloor, while those at the southern area may be occasionally affected by the thermohaline BSW

  7. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  8. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  9. Preliminary sediments quality assessment of the Midia Port aquatorium - Black Sea - Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Stanica, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study shows the present environmental quality of superficial sediments within the aquatorium of an industrial harbor. These results help better understand the correlation between historical pollution and present environmental state of the harbor sediments and related environmental hazards in case of dredging. The study area is the Port of Midia, situated in Romania, western Black Sea coast. The port is located at the boundary between the Danube Delta coast (widest nature protected biosphere reserve in the EU) in the north - and the almost entirely human controlled coast - starting south of the port. Midia Harbor was first built in 1942, expanded during the late 1970`s, and currently operates as an oil and general merchandise terminal. This port receives a double impact of waters: brackish Black Sea waters, as well as Danube fresh waters arriving into the aquatorium through the inshore Danube - Black Sea Canal Lock. To understand the environmental status of the port aquatorium one sampling campaign was performed during August 2011. Samples were collected within the aquatorium and in in the surrounding area outside the harbor. For a better correlation with the particularities related to the transitions in water salinity, the aquatorium was divided into five sectors with specific characteristics: Cargo Terminal Area, Oil Terminal Enclosure Area, Ships Transit Area, Waste Oil Buffer Area and Marine Area. The following analyses were performed on water and sediment samples: physical and chemical characteristics of the waters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, pH, redox potential, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals), bulk sediments (particle size, grain size distribution, mineralogy, organic matter and carbonates content, heavy minerals load, organic compounds) and microbiological and ecotoxicological assays. The grain size analysis reveals the prevalence of very fine-silt and silty-clay fractions, and

  10. Development and lipid storage in Calanus euxinus from the Black and Marmara seas: Variabilities due to habitat conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichny, L. S.; Kideys, A. E.; Hubareva, E. S.; Besiktepe, S.; Isinibilir, M.

    2006-01-01

    Oil sac volume, gonad size and moulting patterns were investigated in the copepod Calanus euxinus inhabiting deep and shallow zones of the Black Sea and penetrating into the Marmara Sea. In summer the C. euxinus population in deep layers of the Black Sea was dominated by pre-diapause and diapausing postmoult copepodite stage V (CV) with small sexually undifferentiated gonads and mean lipid content of 14.1 ± 6.0% of body volume. The lipid content of deep-living females was 7.2 ± 4.2% of body volume. At the same time, intermoult and premoult CV with enlarged gonads and low lipid content (7.7 ± 5.1% of body volume) and females with oil sac volume of 1.4 ± 1.0% were found at shallow stations. Premoult CV with oil volume of 0.6 ± 0.8% and mature females with little visual evidence of substantial lipid storage dominated in the Marmara Sea. The differences in moulting patterns and oil sac volumes of C. euxinus from deep zones and shallow regions suggest that vertical migrations to the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) are necessary for formation of large lipid reserves providing high reproductive potential of this species. On the basis of an energy balance model it was shown that under low phytoplankton concentration of about 30 μg C l - 1 preadults and adults migrating to the OMZ could accumulate lipids (up to 5% of body energy content daily), in contrast to copepods constrained to shallow oxic water columns of the Black Sea and from the Marmara Sea.

  11. Productivity, facies and stable-isotope records of OAE2 (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the NW European epicontinental sea: from the English Chalk to North Sea black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Gröcke, Darren

    2013-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ‰ ∂13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ∂13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore

  12. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  13. Concurrent activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, John B; Fuchsman, Clara A; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Staley, James T; Murray, James W

    2012-01-01

    After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox) in the environment, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss has been questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating nitrite reductase (nirS) mRNA transcripts at a single location in the Black Sea was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the lower suboxic zone over this time span. Their distributions, however, differed in that only expression of denitrification-type nirS was seen in the upper suboxic zone, where geochemistry was variable. Depth profiles covering the suboxic zone showed that the four groups of anammox-type sequences were expressed consistently in the lower suboxic zone, and were consistent with anammox 16 S rDNA gene profiles. By contrast, denitrifier-type nirS sequence groups were mixed; some groups exhibited consistent expression in the lower suboxic zone, while others appeared less consistent. Co-occurrence of both anammox and denitrifier expression was common and ongoing. Both types of transcripts were also found in samples with low concentrations of sulfide (>2 μM). Six major groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were identified, and several groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were closely related to sequences from the Baltic Sea. An increase in denitrifier-type nirS transcript diversity and depth range in October 2007 corresponded to a small increase in mixed layer net community productivity (NCP) as measured by O(2)/Ar gas ratios, as well as to an increase in N(2) concentrations in the suboxic zone. Taken together, the variations in expression patterns between anammox and denitrification provide one possible explanation as to how near instantaneous rate measurements, such as isotope spike experiments, may regularly detect anammox activity but underreport denitrification.

  14. The effect of snow/sea ice type on the response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of snow/sea ice vary with age and by the processes they were formed, giving characteristic types of snow and sea ice. The response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is shown to depend on the snow and sea ice type and the thickness of the snow or sea ice. The response of albedo and e-folding depth of three different types of snow (cold polar snow, wind-packed snow and melting snow and three sea ice (multi-year ice, first-year ice and melting sea ice to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is calculated using a coupled atmosphere–snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow, over the optical wavelengths of 300–800 nm. The snow and sea ice types are effectively defined by a scattering cross-section, density and asymmetry parameter. The relative change in albedo and e-folding depth of each of the three snow and three sea ice types with increasing mass ratio of black carbon is considered relative to a base case of 1 ng g−1 of black carbon. The relative response of each snow and sea ice type is intercompared to examine how different types of snow and sea ice respond relative to each other. The relative change in albedo of a melting snowpack is a factor of four more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to cold polar snow over a black carbon increase from 1 to 50 ng g−1, while the relative change in albedo of a melting sea ice is a factor of two more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to multi-year ice for the same increase in mass ratio of black carbon. The response of e-folding depth is effectively not dependent on snow/sea ice type. The albedo of sea ice is more responsive to increasing mass ratios of black carbon than snow.

  15. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and ammonia profiles collected by bottle in the Black Sea from 5/5/1955 - 4/16/1989 (NODC Accession 0000131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the FIOLENT and other platforms in the Black Sea. Data were collected from 05 May 1955...

  16. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  17. Inorganic nutrients, sulfide and oxygen profiles from R/V KNORR in the Black Sea from 19880514 to 19880725 (NODC Accession 9400101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection contains inorganic nutrient chemistry, sulfide and oxygen data collected during cruises 2 through 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Oceanographic...

  18. Geothermal structure of the eastern Black Sea basin and the eastern Pontides orogenic belt: Implications for subduction polarity of Tethys oceanic lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiz Maden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical results of thermal modeling studies indicate that the lithosphere is cold and strong beneath the Black Sea basin. The thermal lithospheric thickness increases southward from the eastern Pontides orogenic belt (49.4 km to Black Sea basin (152.2 km. The Moho temperature increases from 367 °C in the trench to 978 °C in the arc region. The heat flow values for the Moho surface change between 16.4 mW m−2 in the Black Sea basin and 56.9 mW m−2 in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Along the southern Black Sea coast, the trench region has a relatively low geothermal potential with respect to the arc and back-arc region. The numerical studies support the existence of southward subduction beneath the Pontides during the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic.

  19. Phytoplankton and zooplankton samples taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Black, Azov, Barents, Kara, and White Seas from 1999 to 2011 (NODC Accession 0117462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from July 1999 to October 2011 in the Caspian, Black, Azov, Barents, Kara and White Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open...

  20. lllicit Radiological and Nuclear Trafficking, Smuggling and Security Incidents in the Black Sea Region since the Fall of the Iron Curtain – an Open Source Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological smuggling and trafficking incidents, events, and threats from the wider Black Sea area, 1990 – 2011  An Open Source Compilation prepared by Alex P. Schmid & Charlotte Spencer-Smith

  1. Immunization Strategies Targeting Newly Arrived Migrants in Non-EU Countries of the Mediterranean Basin and Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Giambi, Cristina; Del Manso, Martina; Dente, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Monta?o-Remacha, Carmen; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends that host countries ensure appropriate vaccinations to refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. However, information on vaccination strategies targeting migrants in host countries is limited. Methods: In 2015?2016 we carried out a survey among national experts from governmental bodies of 15 non-EU countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea in order to document and share national vaccination strategies targeting newly arrived migrants. Resul...

  2. Seasonal dynamics of marine litter along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Anna; Chuturkova, Rozalina; Yaneva, Velika

    2017-06-15

    In this study marine litter (ML) surveys were conducted in 8 beaches along the Bulgarian Black Sea coastline within 4 seasons for 2015-2016. The monitoring applied OSPAR guideline, classifying ML in eight categories and 167 types. The results exhibited predominance of artificial polymer materials - 84.3%. ML densities ranged from 0.0587±0.005 to 0.1343±0.008 n/m 2 , highest on the urban beaches. The seasonal dynamics of most top 10 ML showed highest quantities in summer than the other seasons, as the differences are of high statistical significance (0.001≤P≤0.05). Top 1 ML item for most of the beaches was cigarette butts and filters reaching 1008±10.58 nos. in summer and from 19±3.41 to 89±7.81 nos. during the rest of the seasons (P<0.001). For the pronounced seasonality contributed the recreational activities, increased tourist flow and the wild camping. The investigation will enrich data scarcity for Descriptor 10 "Marine litter". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing contribution of coccolithophorids to the phytoplankton in the northeastern Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasakova, Olga N; Okolodkov, Yuri B; Chasovnikov, Valeriy K

    2017-11-15

    During 2005-2011, 418 phytoplankton samples were collected in Novorossiysk and Tuapse ports and near the resort cities of Anapa and Gelendzhik in the northeastern Black Sea. The maximal values of both abundance and biomass of phytoplankton related to high nutrient concentration, probably due to anthropogenic load, were observed at Novorossiysk (5.82×10 5 cells/l, 1.492g/m 3 ); in other bays values were about three times lower. The annual cycle included two to four phytoplankton abundance peaks. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant coccolithophorid (1.15×10 5 cells/l offshore and 2.20×10 4 cells/l in bays and ports). In spring-summer it contributed up to 90% of the phytoplankton abundance offshore. The maximal abundance of E. huxleyi was observed offshore of Gelendzhik (up to 1.32×10 6 cells/l); the minimum was in the coastal zone in the port of Novorossiysk (on average 7.7×10 3 cells/l). Generally, the species appears to avoid eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the issue of drought-tolerant ornamental woody plants the Black Sea coast (near Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The summer-autumn drought, when rainfall in July - September, less than 200 mm, a significant limiting factor for ornamental woody plants of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. In the region under dry periods are irregular, the study of their impact on plants is problematic and delayed for many years. The last drought was in 2015, when the three months fell only 87 mm of rainfall. In the last days of the dry period were examined 501 views and intraspecific taxa belonging to 112 genera, bushy evergreen shrubs and trees, as the most vulnerable. Evaluation of drought resistance was evaluated according to our 3-point system, and the results were analyzed in the context of consolidated floristic regions. The results showed adequate drought tolerance, not less than 65 %, cultivated in the region of evergreen shrubs and bushy trees mainly from East Asia and the Mediterranean. Among the species that are recommended for mass plantings, for the pre-emptive use of landscaping and street-resistant plants 67-80 %. All this ensures stability and high decorative plants ofSochi city.

  5. Natural and artificial radioactivity measurements in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, N.; Cevik, U.; Celik, A.; Koz, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, naturally occurring radionuclides of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It was found that the activity concentrations ranged from 12 to 120 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 13 to 121 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 204 to 1295 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Besides naturally occurring radionuclides, 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in soil, lichen and moss samples and it was found that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 27 to 775 Bq kg -1 with for soil, from 29 to 879 Bq kg -1 for lichen and from 67 to 1396 Bq kg -1 for moss samples. Annual effective doses due to the naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were estimated. Ecological half-lives of 137 Cs in lichen and moss species were estimated. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1993 indicated ecological half-lives between 1.36 and 2.96 years for lichen and between 1.35 and 2.85 years for moss species

  6. Coastal upwelling in Gelendzhik area of the Black sea: wind and dynamics influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, Ksenia

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the results of upwelling observations at the coastal zone of the Black Sea near Gelendzhik city. The long series of water temperature (thermochain from 6 to 18 m) were analyzed. The events of full and incomplete upwelling were selected. 5 events from 45 referred to the full upwelling. Under termocline water with a temperature of less than 10° C was observed near the surface. In order to analyze upwelling causes the wind speed from NCEP/CFSR reanalysis and data of the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) over the period 2013-2015 (mostly warm season) were used. Special upwelling cryteria that consideres wind stress, local baroclinic Rossby radius and thickness of upper mixed layer was calculated. This cryteria allow to estimate role of the wind forcing. Conditions precedent change of the thermal structure are analyzed for each of the upwelling events. It is found that full upwelling preceded by a steady long (more than 2 days) northwest wind. Most of all fixed upwelling events (40%) happened with the synergetic effect of wind and currents. There is also a possibility of local rise of cold waters in submesoscale eddies and advection of these waters with current - such event of full upwelling was recorded in June 2015. This work was supported by Russian Science Founding, grant № 14-17-00382.

  7. Display of the β-effect in the Black Sea Two-Layer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pavlushin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research is a continuation of a series of numerical experiments on modeling formation of wind currents and eddies in the Black Sea within the framework of a two-layer eddy-resolving model. The main attention is focused on studying the β-effect role. The stationary cyclonic wind is used as an external forcing and the bottom topography is not considered. It is shown that at the β-effect being taken into account, the Rossby waves propagating from east to west are observed both during the currents’ formation and at the statistical equilibrium mode when the mesoscale eddies are formed. In the integral flows’ field the waves are visually manifested in a form of the alternate large-scale cyclonic gyres and zones in which the meso-scale anti-cyclones are formed. This spatial pattern constantly propagates to the west that differs from the results of calculations using the constant Coriolis parameter when the spatially alternate cyclonic and anti-cyclonic vortices are formed, but hold a quasi-stationary position. The waves with the parameters of the Rossby wave first barotropic mode for the closed basin are most clearly pronounced. Interaction of the Rossby waves with large-scale circulation results in intensification of the of the currents’ hydrodynamic instability and in formation of the mesoscale eddies. Significant decrease of kinetic and available potential energy as compared to the values obtained at the constant Coriolis parameter is also a consequence of the eddy formation intensification.

  8. The Nursing Students' Views About the Patient's Rights at the West Black Sea Universities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin Er, Rahime; Ersoy, Nermin; Celik, Sevim

    2014-12-01

    The members of healthcare team have an important role in implementation and protection of patient's rights. Contemporary nursing entails an ethical responsibility to advocate and protect the patients' rights. This study was designed to evaluate how ready nursing students, at the end of their education, were to play the role of patient's rights advocates and to discuss ethics education in nursing. This descriptive study was performed on nursing students at Black Sea Universities in the academic year 2010-2011. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire about students' attitudes regarding patients' rights including patient's rights regulations. The association between gender and students' attitudes was analyzed using Chi-square test. The mean age of the 238 participants was 22.11 ± 1.21 years and 82.8% of them were female. The majority of the nursing students held desirable attitudes toward patient information, truth telling, and protection of patients' privacy and medical records. However, the students' views about the rights of patients to refuse treatment, children's active participation in treatment, prioritization of the quality of life in treatment, and respect for the rights of dying patients were less satisfactory. The results of this study was concerning with regard to nursing students' readiness for duties such as patient's rights advocacy. Therefore, it proposes ethics education that covers both patient's rights and the obligations of nurses to defend these rights.

  9. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  10. Sulfur Isotopes in the Upper Part of the Black Sea Anoxic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, A. V.; Dubinina, E. O.; Demidova, T. P.; Chasovnikov, V. K.

    2017-11-01

    New data are reported on the sulfur isotope composition and concentration of sulfide and sulfate in the upper part of the Black Sea anoxic zone as a function of the potential water density. The observations were performed at a station with the coordinates 44.489° N and 37.869° E three times a week every two days. A local negative deficiency in sulfate concentration up to 1.7% related to the sulfate reduction processes was recorded. This anomaly in sulfate concentration was short-lived and did not affect the sulfur isotope composition. In the upper part of the anaerobic zone, the δ34S(SO4) value varied from 21.2 to 21.5‰, which could have occurred from mixing of water masses from the oxic zone (21.1‰) and the Bottom Convective Layer (23.0 ± 0.2‰). The sulfur isotope composition of sulfide ranged from -40.8% at a depth of 250 m to -39.4‰ at the upper boundary of the anoxic zone with a H2S content of only 2.7 μM. Two models (mass balance and fractionation of sulfur isotopes using the Rayleigh equation) are considered to explain the differences in δ34S(H2S) values observed.

  11. Definition and documentation of traditional foods of the Black Sea Area Countries: potential nutrition claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilis, Vardis; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Bondrea, Aurelian; Fedosov, Sergey; Hayran, Osman; Jorjadze, Mariam; Karpenko, Dmitry; Costa, Helena S; Finglas, Paul; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2013-11-01

    Nutrition and health claims are permitted in foods marketed in the European Union under Regulation 1924/2006. Quality products such as traditional foods might benefit from this act, as it can highlight their nutritional richness. In this study the nutritional content of 33 traditional foods from the Black Sea Area Countries was evaluated against the thresholds of the Regulation for nutrition claims. Most of the foods were eligible to bear several nutrition claims, mostly related to their fat, sugar, fiber and sodium content. The average number of claims per traditional food was two, with a range between zero and nine. Overall, about 72 nutrition claims were potentially relevant for the 33 traditional foods studied. Foods linked with the most claims were nuts and seeds. The inclusion of traditional foods under this standardized European scheme could be an efficient way to highlight their possible beneficial nutritional properties. The production and marketing of traditional foods could be of benefit to both the health of consumers and the economic viability of producers, especially small- and medium-size enterprises. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Economic Situation of Fish Farming in Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai Petrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture industry, like most other industries, has a very powerfull correlation with the economical domain. Being an economic activity that generates profit, practicing fish farming aims profit maximization. The present study gives information regarding the economical indicators and also makes a cost structure analysis of five groups of fish farms from Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea: homestead fish farms, small scale fish farms, middle scale fish farms, big scale fish farms and floating cages. The fish farms were classified in this way by their production capacity. In order to collect data, the most representative fish farms for each group were selected and face to face interviews were made for every one of them. Data related to their source of financing, initial investment, labour costs, selling prices, feed costs and other operational costs were collected, arranged, structured and analyzed and a series of economic indicators as gross production value, gross margin, breakeven quantity, specific investment, profit, profitability ratio, rate of return or labour productivity were calculated. As a result, it was observed that fish production capacity has a big influence over the rate of return, middle scale fish farms being the most profitable, followed closely by small scale fish farms.

  13. Spatial distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the Crimea—Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmin, V. Yu; Shumlianska, L. O.

    2018-03-01

    Some aspects of the seismicity the Crime—Black Sea region are considered on the basis of the catalogued data on earthquakes that have occurred between 1970 and 2012. The complete list of the Crimean earthquakes for this period contains about 2140 events with magnitude ranging from -1.5 to 5.5. Bulletins contain information about compressional and shear waves arrival times regarding nearly 2000 earthquakes. A new approach to the definition of the coordinates of all of the events was applied to re-establish the hypocenters of the catalogued earthquakes. The obtained results indicate that the bulk of the earthquakes' foci in the region are located in the crust. However, some 2.5% of the foci are located at the depths ranging from 50 to 250 km. The new distribution of foci of earthquakes shows the concentration of foci in the form of two inclined branches, the center of which is located under the Yalto-Alushta seismic focal zone. The whole distribution of foci in depth corresponds to the relief of the lithosphere.

  14. Radiological indices of drinking waters on the north part of the bulgarian black sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, P.T.; Rusev, R.; Chuturkova, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria is a country which is located in the Eastern Europe. A drinking water sources on the North part of Bulgarian Black Sea coast have different radiological indices. The sources of drinking water can be lakes, rivers, wells, dam lakes and so on. Property estimation of the contents of Uranium (Ur), Radium (Ra 226), and total Beta activity, shows that concentrations of investigated parameters vary around TDI (tolerable daily intake). To Uranium for example the TDI yields a guideline value are 2 μg/litre if a 60 kg adult consuming 2 litres of drinking water per day and the provisional guideline value of Uranium which shows the health significance in drinking waters is 0.002 mg/1. The situation with the full Beta activity and Radium concentrations is the same. All these qualitative and quantitative indices are close to the provisional guideline values, but in some cases it is higher than the limit concentrations. The full Beta activity is measured in Becquerel per litre and values are around 0.193+7-20% Bq/1. The Radium concentration takes the dimensions of Bq/1 and it is about 0.009 Bq/l. No matter of the source of drinking water, contents of radiological indices is a very important element of the health care control

  15. Microbial water quality of the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelidze, N; Jaiani, E; Lashkhi, N; Tskhvediani, A; Kokashvili, T; Gvarishvili, T; Jgenti, D; Mikashavidze, E; Diasamidze, R; Narodny, S; Obiso, R; Whitehouse, C A; Huq, A; Tediashvili, M

    2011-03-01

    From 2006 to 2008, microbial water quality was monitored along the Georgian coast of the Black Sea. Temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured, along with a variety of aquatic microbial parameters, including heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total culturable bacterial count (TCBC), and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration. Total and fecal coliforms and total enterococci counts were recorded as indicators of fecal pollution. Vibrio bacteria, and Escherichia coli- and Vibrio-specific bacteriophages were isolated and enumerated to determine their relationships to standard marine pollution indicators. Persistent microbial pollution was observed, particularly in the summer months, with a higher rate of contamination in estuaries. Microbial indicators generally showed seasonal dependence, suggesting that temperature may influence bacterial dynamics in this environment. No correlation was apparent between fecal pollution indicators and physical-chemical and aquatic microbial parameters, although there were significant relationships amongst the indicators themselves, as well as with the prevalence of Vibrio bacteria and phage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deposition of the radiocaesium in soil at the Black Sea coastal area in Turkey after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varinlioglu, A.; Kose, A.

    1997-01-01

    It was known that some of the Black Sea region received rainfall containing radioactive material after the Chernobyl accident. This region was the most affected area by wet deposition because rainfall occurred during radioactive cloud passage. The unfortunate event at Chernobyl is a unique accession for better defining the fate of radioactive pollutant in the environmental. Several papers have been published recently concerning radioactivity levels observed in part of Europe and Black Sea region as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the environmental central of Black Sea and its Turkish coast is of particular interest owing to the relative proximity of Turkey to Chernobyl. Not much information for the deposition rates of cesium radionuclides in soil of this area is available. Exceedingly high Cs-migration rates of 0.2-0.3 cm.h - 1 in soils were found few days after deposition during a rain shower. However generally the deposited Cs was quickly fixed in the top soil and Cs migration agricultural soils decreased to values below 1 cm.a -1 , levels which are known from the global fallout caesium. The fallout of radiocesium after the Chernobyl accident has renewed interest in its environmental behaviour. How it behaves in soils is important, for example, for the modelling of radiocesium transport and retention in soil and transfer from soil to plants and hence in to the food chain

  17. First observations on the abundance and composition of floating debris in the North-western Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela C; Ion, Gabriel; Aliani, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of marine litter in the Black Sea region is poorly known and even less data have been reported on the abundance of floating debris. Here we present results from a ship-based visual survey carried out in the North-Western part of the Black Sea, providing the first preliminary data on the characteristics of floating debris in Romanian waters. High litter densities peaking to 135.9 items/km(2) were found in the study area (mean 30.9 ± 7.4 items/km(2)). Probably due to the proximity of the Danube delta, natural debris were on average, much more abundant than anthropogenic litter in most surveyed locations (mean 141.4 ± 47.1 items/km(2), max 1131.3 items/km(2)). Most of the 225 objects we sighted consisted of pieces of wood and other riparian debris (75.5%), however plastic items remained undoubtedly the most abundant type of litter, representing 89.1% of all sighted man-made items. The Black Sea is not exempt from the global invasion of floating debris, however data are still lacking and a basin-wide survey is urgently needed to identify accumulation areas and develop regionally effective solutions to the problem of marine litter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization and morphological aspects of Myxobolus parvus (Myxozoa) from Liza saliens (Mugilidae) off the Turkish Black Sea coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, A; Gürkanlı, C T; Özkan, H; Acar, G; Çiftçi, Y; Yurakhno, V

    2016-09-01

    Members of the phylum Myxozoa are among the most cosmopolitan parasites of fish, and the genus Myxobolus is the largest within the class Myxosporea in freshwater and marine environment from all over the world. Myxobolus parvus has been reported from mainly mugilid fishes from different localities including the Black Sea. Leaping mullet Liza saliens collected by fishermen off Sinop coasts of the Black Sea in the period between September 2014 and December 2015 was investigated for myxosporean parasites using conventional methods. M. parvus Schulman, 1962 was the only Myxobolus species identified and it was found in the gills, gall bladder, kidney tubules, and inside several cysts located on the lower jaw of examined fish in the present study. Morphometric data and all details of parasitic infection were determined and presented in tables and illustrated in figures. Molecular characterization was also conducted to reveal its position within Myxosporea. Two M. parvus samples from gills and kidney showed the same haplotype and appeared in the same sub-lineage with marine Myxobolus species. The closest haplotypes to M. parvus were Triactinomyxon sp. and Endocapsa sp. which are the actinosporeans forms of unknown myxozoan species. These data are the first in molecular characterization of M. parvus, its occurrence in lower jaw of leaping mullet along with its infection prevalence values off the Turkish Black Sea coasts.

  19. [Phylogeography and phenotypic diversity of the pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Northern Black Sea Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, E E; Novitsky, R A; Bangs, M R; Douglas, M R; Douglas, M E; Khrystenko, D S; Kasyanov, A N; Slynko, Yu V

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the origin and the genetic and morphological diversity of the pumpkinseed sunfish, a North American invader that is actively expanding its range in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on an analysis of variability of the nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA cyt b locus, it was found that all populations of the Northern Black Sea Coast (basins of Dnieper, Dniester, and Danube rivers) are represented by one haplotype. Intraspecific variability is absent. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that the most related haplotype is in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish from New Germany Lake in the Potomac Riverbasin (Maryland, United States), which makes it possible to consider it a parent of the investigated populations. Morphological variation oin countable traits was highly homogeneous. Significant differentiation of a sample from the population of the Dnieper Reservoir from the populations of the Danube and Dniester was found for plastic traits of both the body and cranium. Analysis of the trajectories of development showed that the Dnieper is inhabited by a "pelagic" morpho-ecological form of pumpkinseed sunfish, while the Dniester and Danube is inhabited by a "littoral" form. It is suggested that the success of the settlement of this North American species in the Northern Black Sea Coast does not depend on the origin or the level of its genetic diversity but is instead likely to be ensured by the realization of its available discrete morpho-ecological variability.

  20. Use of a nesting platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kathy C.; Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Schoneman, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 Gull-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen islands, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.

  1. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  2. Anaerobic methane oxidation and a deep H2S sink generate isotopically heavy sulfides in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Bottcher, ME; Luschen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The main terminal processes of organic matter mineralization in anoxic Black Sea sediments underlying the sulfidic water column are sulfate reduction in the upper 2-4 m and methanogenesis below the sulfate zone. The modern marine deposits comprise a ca. 1-m-deep layer of coccolith ooze and underl......The main terminal processes of organic matter mineralization in anoxic Black Sea sediments underlying the sulfidic water column are sulfate reduction in the upper 2-4 m and methanogenesis below the sulfate zone. The modern marine deposits comprise a ca. 1-m-deep layer of coccolith ooze...... and underlying sapropel, below which sea water ions penetrate deep down into the limnic Pleistocene deposits from >9000 years BP. Sulfate reduction rates have a subsurface maximum at the SO42--CH4 transition where H2S reaches 4 maximum concentration. Because of an excess of reactive iron in the deep limnic...... deposits, most of the methane-derived H2S is drawn downward to a sulfidization front where it reacts with Fe(III) and with Fe 21 diffusing up from below. The H2S-Fe2+ transition is marked by a black band of amorphous iron sulfide above which distinct horizons of greigite and pyrite formation occur...

  3. A new record of Ratan goby - Ponticola ratan (Nordmann, 1840 (Pisces: Gobiidae in the Black Sea, Romanian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 we managed to capture a specimen of ratan goby (Ponticola ratan in the Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea, near the locality of Sf. Gheorghe (Tulcea County. This is the 7-th signaling for this species in Romanian coastal waters. The previous 6 specimens were recorded in the period 1960-1993, between Mangalia (Constanţa County and Sulina (Tulcea County. The species was identified by means of meristic characters (number of scales on medial line, number of spiny and soft rays, and morphological particularities (cycloid scales on the nape area and pectoral fin joint. Also, the measurements made, confirmed that the ratio between the head length and total length, which was 33% (TL=8.70 cm vs. Head Length=2.61cm. Another morphological character, specific to this species, is the lower jaw, which exceeds in length the upper jaw. Being a Ponto-Caspian endemite, with low population along the Bulgarian and Romanian coastline, we considered it important to point out this new record. Noting that, being known the trend of sporadic migration of this species, would not be excluded that global warming causes a shift from its normal distribution area, from northern and northeastern (Black Sea to south-west. Therefore, future research may bring more notifications regarding this species in south-western area of the Black Sea

  4. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  5. Uranium stable isotope fractionation in the Black Sea: Modern calibration of the 238U/235U paleo-redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, John M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Middag, Rob; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Reliable interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understanding of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, the world's largest anoxic basin. Paired measurements of 238U/235U and U concentration, supported by other redox parameters, were obtained for water column and sediment samples collected during the 2013 GA04N GEOTRACES expedition to the Black Sea. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV), resulting in up to 43% of U being removed from solution in euxinic bottom waters. Uranium reduction and removal is accompanied by a progressive shift in 238U/235U towards isotopically light values in the water column as heavier 238U is preferentially exported to sediments over lighter 235U. This gives rise to apparent isotope enrichment factors of ε = -0.63 ± 0.09‰ and ε = -0.84 ± 0.11‰ when U removal is modelled by Rayleigh and closed system equilibrium isotope fractionation, respectively. These ε values fall within the range determined for bacterial U reduction experiments, and together with a striking correlation between the distributions of U and H2S, implicate microbially-mediated U(VI)-U(IV) reduction as the primary mechanism controlling U isotopic shifts in the Black Sea. The 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the the 238U/235U of Black Sea bottom waters through the isotope enrichment factor of the U reduction reaction but the relationship between sedimentary and water column 238U/235U is complicated

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Niemiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A high level of anthropopressure has been registered in Sevastopol region, connected with its strategic role as the main city in the region, but also due to Russian Black Sea Fleet stationing there for many years. A significant source of the Black Sea contamination in Sevastopol area is the industry located in this city, municipal waste and agriculture. Implementing measures aimed at protection of the Black Sea and the evolution of their results requires monitoring conducted in the regions with various levels of anthropopressure. The work was aimed at the assessment of copper and cadmium content in water and algae in selected bays of the Black Sea in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight Sevastopol bays (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Strieletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna and Sevastopolska and from the open sea in the vicinity of Fiolent. Algae (Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida were collected from the same places. Collected water was preserved on the sampling place and brought to the laboratory where its copper and cadmium concentrations were assessed. Collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, then homogenised and mineralised. Copper and cadmium content were determined in the mineralizates using ASA method with electrothermal atomisation. Cadmium concentration in water ranged from 0.13 to 1.74 µg Cd∙dm-3, and copper from 7.07 to 22.56 µg Cd∙dm-3. Considerable differences in the content of the analysed elements were registered in individual bays. The highest content was assessed in Galubaja and Sevastopolska bays, whereas the lowest one in the water collected in the open sea and in Pivdenna bay. Copper concentrations in the analysed algae fluctuated from 3.375 to 14.96 mg Cu∙kg-1 d.m. No differences were noted in this element content between the algae species. Cadmium content in the algae ranged from 0.133 to 1.133 mg Cd∙kg-1 d.m. Higher accumulation of cadmium

  7. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets in the Black Sea : a biogeochemical model of the whole water column coupling the oxic and anoxic parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfide budgets are derived for the Black Sea water column from a coupled physical–biogeochemical model. The model is applied in the deep part of the sea and simulates processes over the whole water column including the anoxic layer that extends from similar, equals115 m

  8. Mechanism of molybdenum removal from the sea and its concentration in black shales: EXAFS evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, G.R.; Miller, C.V.; Charnock, J.M.; Mosselmans, J.F.W.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Garner, C.D.; Vaughan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Molybdenum K-edge EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) spectra yield new structural information about the chemical environment of Mo in high-Mo black shales and sediments. Two spectral types are found. The less common one, associated with Mo ores developed in shale in China, is that of a MoS2 phase, possibly X-ray amorphous jordisite. The other, associated with Cretaceous deep sea sediments and with other black shales, is characterized by short Mo-O distances (1.69-1.71 A??), by Mo-S distances of 2.30-2.38 A??, and in some cases by second shell Mo and Fe interactions, which suggests that some Mo resides in transition metal-rich phases. EXAFS spectra of synthetic amorphous materials, prepared by scavenging Mo from HS solutions with Fe(II), FeOOH, and humic acid, suggest that the second spectral type arises from Mo present chiefly in two forms. One is a compact, Mo-Fe-S "cubane" type compound with Mo-S distances of ???2.36 A?? and Mo-Fe distances of ???2.66 A??, while the other is probably an organic form containing some Mo-O double bonds (???1.69 A??). Laboratory products, that were prepared by scavenging dissolved Mo from sulfidic solutions with humic acid, yield spectra quite similar to the second spectral type observed in shales and sediments, including unexpected indications of Mo-Fe interactions. Molybdenum L-edge spectra indicate that the mean oxidation state in the sediments and shales lies between IV and VI. This work demonstrates the merit of EXAFS for obtaining structural information on natural materials containing X-ray amorphous components which defeat conventional mineralogical characterization. The implications of these findings regarding Mo scavenging from sulfidic natural waters are considered. We introduce the concept of a geochemical switch, in which HS- transforms the marine behavior of Mo from that of a conservative element to that of a particle reactive element. The action point of the HS- switch is calculated to be, aHS- = 10

  9. Cascading ocean basins: numerical simulations of the circulation and interbasin exchange in the Azov-Black-Marmara-Mediterranean Seas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Emil Vassilev; Grashorn, Sebastian; Zhang, Yinglong Joseph

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we use the unstructured grid model SCHISM to simulate the thermohydrodynamics in a chain of baroclinic, interconnected basins. The model shows a good skill in simulating the horizontal circulation and vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and currents. The magnitude and phases of the seasonal changes of circulation are consistent with earlier observations. Among the mesoscale and subbasin-scale circulation features that are realistically simulated are the anticyclonic coastal eddies, the Sebastopol and Batumi eddies, the Marmara Sea outflow around the southern coast of the Limnos Island, and the pathway of the cold water originating from the shelf. The superiority of the simulations compared to earlier numerical studies is demonstrated with the example of model capabilities to resolve the strait dynamics, gravity currents originating from the straits, high-salinity bottom layer on the shallow shelf, as well as the multiple intrusions from the Bosporus Strait down to 700 m depth. The warm temperature intrusions from the strait produce the warm water mass in the intermediate layers of the Black Sea. One novel result is that the seasonal intensification of circulation affects the interbasin exchange, thus allowing us to formulate the concept of circulation-controlled interbasin exchange. To the best of our knowledge, the present numerical simulations, for the first time, suggest that the sea level in the interior part of the Black Sea can be lower than the sea level in the Marmara Sea and even in some parts of the Aegean Sea. The comparison with observations shows that the timings and magnitude of exchange flows are also realistically simulated, along with the blocking events. The short-term variability of the strait transports is largely controlled by the anomalies of wind. The simulations demonstrate the crucial role of the narrow and shallow strait of Bosporus in separating the two pairs of basins: Aegean-Marmara Seas from one side and Azov-Black

  10. Toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the Black Sea and associated human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavan, Gabriel; Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Nicoara, Mircea; Micu, Dragos; Strungaru, Stefan-Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated. These metals are used in high amounts in industries located near the coastline such as shipyard construction and industrial plants. Toxic metal accumulation depends on fish feeding behavior, abiotic conditions, metal chemistry, and animal physiology. For instance, cadmium was measured in the muscle of the investigated species and average values of 0.0008-0.0338 mg kg -1 were obtained. The lowest average value of this metal was measured at benthic species N. melanostomus and the highest at the pelagic predator T. mediterraneus ponticus. Generally, the highest metal concentration was measured in the digestive tract that has the role of biofilter for these contaminants. The risk of contamination is significantly reduced by avoiding the consumption of certain fish tissues (digestive tract and skin for copper and skeleton for nickel). An estimation of the dietary metal intake to young consumers was realized for each of the studied species of fish from Romanian, Bulgarian, and Turkish waters, during the period 2001-2014 in order to evaluate the risks of chronic exposure in time due to metal toxicity. This estimation is important for the prevention of chronic exposure due to metal toxicity. Food exposure to studied metals showed a negative trend for Romania, Turkey, and Bulgaria based

  11. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    of erosion and coastal landslides. Among human activities that might have direct or indirect adverse impact on cultural heritage the main are coastal and underwater developments and infrastructures. These are building of coast- and shore-protection structures, roads, placing different types of pipeline (a recent case from Bulgaria is envisaged construction of gas pipeline "South Stream"). Other categories of anthropogenic impacts, such as coastal tourism and expansion of settlements, etc. are less negative factors, but locals and visitors can accidentally damage monuments, or in most of the cases by not being aware of the presence and importance of a archeological site. Finally, insufficient decision-making and management of coastal and underwater cultural heritage can also have potential adverse impact. Recommendations for mitigation and protection measures are also outlined in the end. This work is a part of the Project "Submarine Archaeological Heritage on the Western Black Sea Shelf - HERAS", financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria.

  12. Euphotic zone bacterioplankton sources major sedimentary bacteriohopanepolyols in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Seifert, Richard; Kasten, Sabine; Bahlmann, Enno; Michaelis, Walter

    2009-02-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are lipid constituents of many bacterial groups. Geohopanoids, the diagenetic products, are therefore ubiquitous in organic matter of the geosphere. To examine the potential of BHPs as environmental markers in marine sediments, we investigated a Holocene sediment core from the Black Sea. The concentrations of BHPs mirror the environmental shift from a well-mixed lake to a stratified marine environment by a strong and gradual increase from low values (˜30 μg g -1 TOC) in the oldest sediments to ˜170 μg g -1 TOC in sediments representing the onset of a permanently anoxic water body at about 7500 years before present (BP). This increase in BHP concentrations was most likely caused by a strong increase in bacterioplanktonic paleoproductivity brought about by several ingressions of Mediterranean Sea waters at the end of the lacustrine stage (˜9500 years BP). δ 15N values coevally decreasing with increasing BHP concentrations may indicate a shift from a phosphorus- to a nitrogen-limited setting supporting growth of N 2-fixing, BHP-producing bacteria. In sediments of the last ˜3000 years BHP concentrations have remained relatively stable at about 50 μg g -1 TOC. The distributions of major BHPs did not change significantly during the shift from lacustrine (or oligohaline) to marine conditions. Tetrafunctionalized BHPs prevailed throughout the entire sediment core, with the common bacteriohopanetetrol and 35-aminobacteriohopanetriol and the rare 35-aminobacteriohopenetriol, so far only known from a purple non-sulfur α-proteobacterium, being the main components. Other BHPs specific to cyanobacteria and pelagic methanotrophic bacteria were also found but only in much smaller amounts. Our results demonstrate that BHPs from microorganisms living in deeper biogeochemical zones of marine water columns are underrepresented or even absent in the sediment compared to the BHPs of bacteria present in the euphotic zone. Obviously, the assemblage of

  13. Molecular characterizations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi Gulel, G; Martinez-Urtaza, J

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium that is considered as one of the major causes of bacterial food-borne outbreaks at a global scale. A total of 114 samples including mussel (n = 42), seawater (n = 22) and fish (n = 50) samples were collected and subjected to investigation. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was detected in 45 (39%) of 114 samples with an occurrence in mussel, seawater and fish samples of 76, 40·9 and 8% respectively. A total of 96 isolates were positive for the species-specific genes toxR and tlh and confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus. Presence of the virulence marker gene tdh was not identified in any of the strains investigated; however, four of strains were positive for the trh gene. Serological analysis of eight randomly selected trh-negative isolates identified three different serotypes: O4:K untypeable (KUT), O2:KUT, O3:KUT. Conversely, all four trh-positive strains belonged to a single serotype (O1:K1) and share an undistinguishable genetic profile by PFGE analysis, suggesting the existence of a dominant clone for the trh-positive strains in the region. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent food-poisoning bacterium associated with seafood consumption. The number of infections is increasing worldwide and is being reported in areas with no previous incidence. This study provides the first instance of the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus strains with virulence traits in the Black Sea, contributing to gain a better understanding about potential risk associated with this pathogen in the region. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Palaeoecology and geoarchaeology of the Varna Lake, northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana FILIPOVA-MARINOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal lakes are rich sources of biostratigraphic information that is very useful in palaeoecological reconstructions of climate changes and human impact on the natural vegetation. This information is of great importance for the archaeological descriptions of submerged praehistorical settlements found in the northern Bulgarian Black sea area. There are 4 archaeological sites in this area that have been palynologically studied for the last 30 years: the Durankulak Lake, the Shabla-Ezeretz Lake system, the Lake Bolata, as well as the Varna-Beloslav Lake system. Because of the lack of AMS radiocarbon dates for these sites, it was not possible to correlate adequately all palaeoenvironmental results with the available archaeological chronology.Aimed to receive additional information on the Holocene vegetation dynamics and lake level changes, as well as on the anthropogenic impact during the Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age, the high-resolution spore-pollen analysis of AMS dated laminated sediments from a new Core 3 – Varna Lake was combined with analyses of dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, and other non-pollen palynomorphs.The location of the core is close to several sites of submerged praehistorical settlements and the Varna Late Eneolithic (Chalcolithic Necropolis, which is famous with the oldest hand-made gold treasure in the Worlds, and permits the palaeoenvironmental correlations of obtained results with available archaeological and geochronological data. The core is 995 cm long, but its palynologically investigated length is 870 cm. It contains dark grey clay and laminated sediments (varves. Seven samples of sediments were submitted for radiocarbon dating to the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS Facility of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI. The dates have been calibrated using the program CALIB version 6.1.0 of using the IntCal09 curve. An Age Model for the sedimentation rate was created by the

  15. Water intrusions and particle signatures in the Black Sea: a Biogeochemical-Argo float investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Emil Vassilev; Grayek, Sebastian; Claustre, Hervé; Schmechtig, Chaterine; Poteau, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    Continuous observations during 3 years with a vertical resolution of 1 dbar from two Bio-Argo floats in the Black Sea that were equipped with oxygen optodes, chlorophyll fluorometers, and backscattering sensors are analyzed. The particle backscattering coefficient, b bp provides a proxy for the concentration of suspended particles. The observations clearly identify thermal and b bp intrusions down to 700-800 m in the Bosporus inflow area. In this area, b bp is more than five times larger than elsewhere, which could indicate bacterial abundance and possible biological involvement in the precipitation of Mn-containing particles. The b bp anomalies become much shallower than the temperature anomalies with increasing distance to the east of the strait. Their maxima are located between the onset of the suboxic zone and the upper part of the anoxic layer. Unlike well-known intrusions that are caused by inflow, open ocean intrusions are shallower and often characterized by multiple layers of backscatter maxima with thicknesses of only 15-20 m. The ratio between backscattering coefficients measured at two wavelengths, which gives a proxy for particle size, shows that the relative amount of larger size particles in the anoxic layer increases with depth. The particle concentrations and their size distribution display different vertical variability, which indicates the complex transformation of biological matter. The lower concentration of particles and lower chlorophyll-a during the extremely warm 2016 reveals an overall positive correlation between the two properties. The trends in the particle backscattering coefficient in the suboxic zone during 2013-2016 could indirectly reveal a biogeochemical response to temperature changes.

  16. Aspects regarding environmental impact of oil marine platforms from Black sea coast - Romanian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : As a result of investigations conducted by R.A.PETROM - PETROMAR Constanta subsidiary, reserves of oil and gas in geological structures LEBADA, EOCEN - LEBADA and SINOE from romanian sector of Black Sea Continental Platform, have been discovered. These reserves are exploited by marine platforms and ways of oil transportation to the shore are submarine pipe-lines and ships. To assess environmental impact of oil transportation, studies covered following steps; Characterization of the present status of environmental factors, in the range of pipe-lines and ships; Marine water characterization: salinity, ionic composition, dissolved gases, organic depositions on metallic bodies; Marine bicenosys: phytoplankton and zooplankton characteristics, phytobenthos and zoobenthos communities, marine ichtyofauna, marine mammals. Marine resources available for exploitation; Total radioactivity analysis results; Marine water hydrocarbons analysis results; Present pollution sources in the area; Air quality in oil marine platforms area and shore area; Potential pollution sources and pollutants resulted from oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Sources and emissions in air; Sources and emissions in marine environment; Aspects regarding waste management; Environmental impact of oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the air quality and marine environment of oil marine platforms activities; Assessment of environmental impact on atmosphere generated by the oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the marine environment of oil transport ships; Effects of oil fractions on marine organisms; Acute effects of oil pollution on marine communities; Risks of causing major environmental impact accidents/failures on marine platforms PETROMAR; Chronic effects of low oil concentrations;Marine environment recovery potential after discharges accidents

  17. Urban solid waste characterization in the east part of Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.O. Demirarslan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the solid waste characterisation that belongs to Artvin city centre, which is located in East Black Sea Region of Turkey, were searched. The study has the feature of being the first study for the country of Artvin in terms of study. The field of study is composed of 7 neighborhoods and those can be separated into 3 groups as low, middle and high level of income. In this study, 11 kind of waste were examined, which are organic, paper, plastic, glass, metal, ash, electronic, textile, garden waste, hazardous and others. The effect of seasons on the amount of waste was examined; also, the relationship between the amount of waste and the level of income was also examined by using the two-way ANOVA analysis. Furthermore, all ratios of wastes that are located in Artvin city centre were searched. According to that, the waste ratios, occurs in one year, of all neighborhoods in the Artvin city centre are found as 61.06% organic, 10.28% paper, 9% plastic, 3.20% glass, 2.29% metal, 3.87% ash, 0.037% electronic, 1.58% textile, 1.35% garden waste, 0.51 % hazardous and 7.23% others. Those obtained values were compared with other similar studies in the literature. Moreover, for collecting recyclable wastes for the city centre 3 different methods are proposed named as methods collection from households, collection from buildings and collection from neighborhoods. These methods have been studied economically and the collection from buildings method is the most appropriate among these three methods.

  18. Quantification of microbial communities in subsurface marine sediments of the Black Sea and off Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eSchippers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-rich subsurface marine sediments were taken by gravity coring up to a depth of 10 meters below seafloor at six stations from the anoxic Black Sea and the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia during the research cruises R/V Meteor 72/5 and 76/1, respectively. The quantitative microbial community composition at various sediment depths was analyzed using total cell counting, CARD-FISH and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. Total cell counts decreased with depths from 109 – 1010 cells /mL at the sediment surface to 107 – 109 cells /mL below one meter depth. Based on CARD-FISH and Q-PCR analysis overall similar proportions of Bacteria and Archaea were determined. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was successfully revealed by Q-PCR. Crenarchaeota and the bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi were as highly abundant as Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Less abundant but detectable in most of the samples in high gene copy numbers were Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae (off Namibia as well as the functional genes cbbL encoding for the large subunit of Rubisco, the functional genes dsrA and aprA of sulfate-reducers and the gene mcrA of methanogens. Overall the high organic carbon content of the sediments goes along with high cell counts and high gene copy numbers, as well as an equal abundance of Bacteria and Archaea.

  19. Trophic structure of the fouling community in Odessa Bay (Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Varigin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trophic structure of the coastal fouling community of Odessa Bay (Black Sea, which was composed of 10 species of macrophytes, 57 invertebrate species and 4 species of fish, was determined. The basic trophic relationship between organisms composing the community is shown. A minimization of interspecific trophic competition within the community is noted. The main sources of food material entering the fouling community were determined. We show that a significant proportion of food in the form of detritus, dissolved organic matter and small planktonic organisms enters the community from the water column. Filtration and pumping activity of sestonophage-organisms, particularly mussels, helps to attract food material to the community. Primary producers of the community are macrophytes and microphytes, which develop on account of their photosynthetic activity and ensure the provision of food to herbivores. The trophic group of detritophages consumes different fractions of the detritus which accumulates in the byssus threads of bivalve molluscs. In this context, mussel druses act as sediment traps, collecting detritus. Numerous polyphages, which are essentially omnivores and do not usually lack food material, were noted in the community. A small group of carnivorous invertebrates, whose representatives actively attack small animals, was identified. The abundance of these species in the community was about 1%, and their biomass less than 0.6%. Fish living in macrophyte weeds are the consumers in the community. We determined that the highest relative abundance (over 36% in the fouling community was reached by sestonophages and polyphages. We found that the undisputed leader in the relative biomass (over 97% in the fouling community ofOdessaBaywas the sestonophages (mainly composed of mussels. We determined that the trophic structure index of the community was 0.94, which confirms the significant dominance in biomass of bivalves over other species in

  20. On-line applications of numerical models in the Black Sea GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nikolaidis, M.; Stylianou, Stavros

    2017-09-01

    The Black Sea Geographical Information System (GIS) is developed based on cutting edge information technologies, and provides automated data processing and visualization on-line. Mapserver is used as a mapping service; the data are stored in MySQL DBMS; PHP and Python modules are utilized for data access, processing, and exchange. New numerical models can be incorporated in the GIS environment as individual software modules, compiled for a server-based operational system, providing interaction with the GIS. A common interface allows setting the input parameters; then the model performs the calculation of the output data in specifically predefined files and format. The calculation results are then passed to the GIS for visualization. Initially, a test scenario of integration of a numerical model into the GIS was performed, using software, developed to describe a two-dimensional tsunami propagation in variable basin depth, based on a linear long surface wave model which is legitimate for more than 5 m depth. Furthermore, the well established oil spill and trajectory 3-D model MEDSLIK (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/medslik/) was integrated into the GIS with more advanced GIS functionality and capabilities. MEDSLIK is able to forecast and hind cast the trajectories of oil pollution and floating objects, by using meteo-ocean data and the state of oil spill. The MEDSLIK module interface allows a user to enter all the necessary oil spill parameters, i.e. date and time, rate of spill or spill volume, forecasting time, coordinates, oil spill type, currents, wind, and waves, as well as the specification of the output parameters. The entered data are passed on to MEDSLIK; then the oil pollution characteristics are calculated for pre-defined time steps. The results of the forecast or hind cast are then visualized upon a map.

  1. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  2. Variation of total organic carbon content along the stream Harsit, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Adem; Önsoy, Hizir; Akinci, Görkem; Bulut, Volkan Numan

    2011-11-01

    The TOC in surface waters and wastewater is an important analytical parameter describing the total content of all organic substances containing carbon. In practice, the TOC originated from natural and anthropogenic sources, and even if it is not directly responsible for dangers on human health, its determination is important for any kind of water that is used by public. The aim of this study was to determine variation of total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon (TC) content in the stream Harsit, which courses in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. Sampling was fortnightly conducted in each of the four seasons between March 2009 and February 2010. A total of 230 water samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the main branch of the stream Harsit with 143 km of length. Obtained TOC values were evaluated and used to classify the water quality of stream Harsit, according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation (TWPCR). The annual average TOC content values for the stations were found between 2.33 and 6.97 mg/L. It was seen that the TOC content have increased along the streamcourse of Harsit until the fourth station, where reaches its maximum value. The TOC content, then, has decreased and the minimum value was observed in the eighth station. The results showed that, except in winter season, maximum TOC content observed in many of the water samples were above Class I water standard indicated in TWPCR, which classifies the water resources according to the different area of uses. It was also found that TOC has a small contribution to TC and the highest TOC content in stream waters were measured in Gumushane station where direct discharge of city wastewaters and solid waste dumping to the stream were observed.

  3. Identification and expression of GnRH2 and GnRH3 in the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), a hermaphroditic teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Scott J; Decatur, Wayne A; Breton, Timothy S; Marquis, Timothy J; Hayes, Mary K; Berlinsky, David L; Sower, Stacia A

    2015-04-01

    We cloned two cDNAs for two gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), respectively, from the black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Black sea bass are protogynous hermaphroditic teleosts that change from females to males between 2 and 5 years of age. Similar to other GnRH precursors, the precursors of black sea bass GnRH2 and GnRH23 consisted of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. Our analyses failed to identify GnRH1. GnRH3 precursor transcript was more widely distributed in a variety of tissues compared with GnRH2. Further examination of GnRH expression and gonadal histology was done in black sea bass from three different size groups: small (11.4-44.1 g), medium (179.4-352.2 g) and large (393.8-607.3 g). Interestingly, GnRH3 expression occurred only in the pituitaries of males in the small and medium groups compared with expression of GnRH2. Future functional studies of the sea bass GnRHs will be valuable in elucidating the potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms of black sea bass reproduction and may ultimately contribute to management advances in this commercially important fish.

  4. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  5. Neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy of phytoplankton in the coastal zone of the Crimea (Black sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekhoroshkov, P.S.; Kravtsova, A.V.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Tokarev, Yu.N.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the concentrations of 45 elements in the coastal phytoplankton communities used as bioindicator of inorganic contamination of the Black Sea coastal area near Sevastopol, Ukraine, were determined by means of neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer. Phytoplankton samples were collected by total tows of the plankton net with 35 μm pore size at 3 stations situated in polluted and relatively pristine water areas of the Sevastopol coastal zone during autumn period of the phytoplankton active growth. The concentration of Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, As, Rb, Ba, Th and Fe, Cr increases exponentially from relatively pristine station to more polluted station and 10 and 3 times greater, respectively, in the phytoplankton of the Sevastopol Bay. The rare-earth elements have relatively the same concentration values of about 1 μg/g and tend to accumulate in the phytoplankton from the polluted station in the Sevastopol Bay. The obtained results are in good agreement with the elemental concentration data in the oceanic plankton, plankton communities from the White Sea and the Black Sea. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry the mineral particles of unknown origin and impurities of copper (0.42% by weight) in the phytoplankton at the polluted station and zinc (0.57% by weight) at the relatively pristine station were determined

  6. Distribution and migration of 239+240Pu in abiotic components of the Black Sea ecosystems during the post-Chernobyl period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, N N; Gulin, S B; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2018-08-01

    Distribution of 239,240 Pu in abiotic components (water and bottom sediment) of the Black Sea ecosystems was studied during the post-Chernobyl period at different offshore and near-shore locations. The trends of these radionuclides accumulation by sediments were analyzed. The spatial-temporal changes in the 239,240 Pu distribution as well as effective half-life for these radionuclides in the Black Sea surface water in deep-sea area are presented. The estimations of the average annual removal fluxes of the 239,240 Pu into the bottom sediments were obtained. The Black Sea sediments were characterized by a higher 239,240 Pu concentration factor (C f  ≈ n·10 4 -n·10 6 ) and radiocapacity factor (F( 239,240 Pu) was about 99.9% on the shelf, 94.5-99.1% on deep-sea basin for silty and 94.6-98.9% on the shelf for sandy bottom sediments) as compared with C f and F for 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Silty bottom sediments play the role of 239,240 Pu main depot in the Black Sea ecosystem. The studied radioecological characteristics of Pu allowed us to define the type of plutonium biogeochemical behavior in the Black Sea as a pedotropic one. The results of this complex radioecological monitoring of 239+240 Pu contamination in the Black Sea and their analysis makes it possible to understand the plutonium redistribution pathways which will enable to carry out the tracing of its migration within the ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromosome mutagenesis in populations of aquatic biota in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Danube and Dnieper rivers, 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the level of structural mutagenesis in the reproductive and somatic cells of aquatic biota of various taxa from natural populations of neustic and benthic communities in the Black and Aegean Seas and the Dnieper and Danube rivers between 1986 and 1989. The cytogenetic research covered embryos, larvae and adult worms of Nereidae, Naididae, Tubificidae and Turbellaria, adult Sagitta setosa, young Bivalvia molluscs, embryos of Mysidacea, and growing roe of Engraulis encrasicholus, Sprattus sprattus, Diplodus annularis, Mullus barbatus, Trachurus trachurus, Scophthalmus maeoticus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus and Stizostedion lucioperca. It was established that aquatic biota in the open waters of the Black and Aegean Seas had a lower level of chromosome mutagenesis than representatives of the fluvial communities. The intensity of mutagenesis was compared with the data published in the literature on radioactive contamination/chemical pollution of the aqueous medium in these areas. The paper sets out statistical regularities in chromosome mutagenesis (inter-individual variability in the chromosome aberration rate and distribution of chromosome damage in cells), noting different patterns of chromosome aberration distribution among cells. On the basis of a large quantity on our own data from field and experimental cytogenetic studies involving aquatic biota, the paper considers the possibility of using - for the purposes of radiochemical-ecological monitoring - chromosome damage distribution in cells as an indicator of whether mutagens are radiation-related or not. (author)

  8. Oceanographic and meteorological data from various meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net taken from several Russian vessels in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas from 18 April, 1952 to 7 December, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0117731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from 18 April 1952 to 7 December 2012 in Caspian, Black and Azov Seas. Various vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Data collection...

  9. Oceanographic and meteorological data from meteorological sensors and bottle/rosette/net and CTD taken from Russian vessels in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas from 1897 to 2012 (NODC Accession 0117429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruises took place from May 1897 to December 2012 in the Caspian, Azov and Black Seas. Russian vessels were used to collect data in the open sea. Small boats were...

  10. Coastal cliffs, rock-slope failures and Late Quaternary transgressions of the Black Sea along southern Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Lenart, Jan; Hradecký, Jan; Hercman, Helena; Braucher, Règis; Šilhán, Karel; Škarpich, Václav

    2018-02-01

    Rock-slope failures represent a significant hazard along global coastlines, but their chronology remains poorly documented. Here, we focus on the geomorphology and chronology of giant rockslides affecting the Crimean Mountains along the Black Sea coast. Geomorphic evidence suggests that high (>100 m) limestone cliffs flanking the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are scarps of rockslides nested within larger deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). Such pervasive slope failures originated due to lateral spreading of intensively faulted Late Jurassic carbonate blocks moving atop weak/plastic Late Triassic flysch and tuff layers. By introducing a dating strategy relying on the combination of the uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) of exposed calcareous speleothems covering the landslide scarps with the 36Cl exposure dating of rock walls, we are able to approximate the time interval between the origin of incipient crevices and the final collapse of limestone blocks that exposed the cliff faces. For the three representative large-scale rockslides between the towns of Foros and Yalta, the initiation of the DSGSDs as evidenced by the widening of crevices and the onset of speleothem accumulation was >300 ka BP, but the recent cliff morphology along the coast is the result of Late Pleistocene/Holocene failures spanning ∼20-0.5 ka BP. The exposures of rockslide scarps occurred mostly at ∼20-15, ∼8, ∼5-4 and ∼2-0.5 ka, which substantially coincide with the last major Black Sea transgressions and/or more humid Holocene intervals. Our study suggests that before ultimate fast and/or catastrophic slope failures, the relaxation of rock massifs correlative with karstification, cracks opening, and incipient sliding lasted on the order of 104-105 years. Rapid Late Glacial/Holocene transgressions of the Black Sea likely represented the last impulse for the collapse of limestone blocks and the origin of giant rockslides, simultaneously affecting the majority

  11. Effects of changing nutrient inputs on the ratio of small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunev, Oleg A.; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    Significant increases in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the Black Sea in the second half of the 20th century caused eutrophication and drastically decreasing Si:N and Si:P ratios. Combined with climate change, overfishing of top predators and a huge outbreak of the non-indigenous ctenophore Mnemiopsis, the pelagic food web was strongly modified and its efficiency for channeling primary production to higher trophic levels substantially reduced. We used the ratio between small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass on the Danube shelf and in the open Black Sea to investigate long-term changes in food web functioning. The ratio had 1) highest values for the pre-eutrophication period when diatoms and copepods dominated the pelagic food web ('muscle food chain'), 2) decreased during the eutrophication period with stronger prevalence of autotrophic pico- and nanophytoplankton, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, microzooplankton, Noctiluca and jellyfish ('jelly food chain' with increased importance of the microbial loop), 3) lowest values during the ecological crisis (1989-1992), when small pelagic fish stocks collapsed, and 4) increased after 1993, indicating that the ecosystem went out of the crisis and exhibited a trend of recovery. However, in the last period (1993-2008) the ratio remained close to values observed in the middle eutrophication phase, suggesting that the ecosystem was far from fully recovered. Since early 2000s, fluctuating pelagic fish stocks, with a tendency to decreasing fish landing again, have been observed in the Black Sea. Additionally, the quality of food for the small pelagic fish has deteriorated due to warming trends and the legacy of eutrophication, giving support for the 'jelly food chain', exhibiting low energy transfer and prevalence of organisms with high respiration rate and low nutritional value.

  12. Acute toxicity of zinc, copper and lead to three species of marine organisms from the Sinop Peninsula, Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    BAT, Levent; GÜNDOĞDU, Ayse; SEZGİN, Murat; ÇULHA, Mehmet; GÖNLÜGÜR, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed on Echinogammars olivii (Amphipoda), Sphaeroma serratum (Isopoda) and Palaemon elegans (Decapoda), from the Sinop Peninsula in the Black Sea. 96- h LC 50 values were estimated for copper, zinc and lead in these species using the static bioassay method. The LC 50 values of Cu for E. olivii, S. serratum and P. elegans were 0.25, 1.98 and 2.52 mg/l, respectively. The LC 50 values of Zn for E. olivii , S. serratum and P. elegans were 1.30, 6.12 and 12.3 mg...

  13. Recent changes of biogenic carbonate deposition in anoxic sediments of the Black Sea: sedimentary record and climatic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B

    2000-05-01

    Recent changes of carbonate deposition were traced in a Black Sea sediment core taken in the western abyssal basin. The sediments were dated from a vertical profile of excess 210Pb. The 210Pb geochronology corresponded well to the 137Cs fallout record. A 20-year cyclic variability of carbon deposition has been traced in the dated sediments and has been related inversely to the long-term changes in temperature of air over the basin, forcing the convection in the upper water column, which may bear influence upon the coccolithophorid blooms by bringing nutrients from deeper water to the surface.

  14. Application of the spectrometric and radiochemical techniques in analyzing environmental samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.S.; Mungov, G.; Galabov, N.; Kolarova, M.; Guenchev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Development of the appropriate methods and techniques for marine and atmospheric radioactivity measurements in the NIMH-BAS during the last 5 years is presented. Approaches for pre-concentration of the radionuclides from the atmosphere and sea water samples followed with reliable radiochemical methods for radionuclides separation and low level counting are discussed. Dissolved radiocesium concentrations measured in a period of time starting in 1993 show some decrease with years and spatial variations probably due to the hydrophysical features of the sampling sides - the lower measured concentrations during 1995 and 1998 correspond to the lower salinity. Application of the radiochemical separation of Plutonium, Thorium, 90 Sr and Americium on the samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal region is reported. (author)

  15. Seismic crustal structure between the Transylvanian Basin and the Black Sea, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Fielitz, W.; Dinu, C.; Landes, M.; Bala, A.; Prodehl, C.

    2007-02-01

    In order to study the lithospheric structure in Romania a 450 km long WNW-ESE trending seismic refraction project was carried out in August/September 2001. It runs from the Transylvanian Basin across the East Carpathian Orogen and the Vrancea seismic region to the foreland areas with the very deep Neogene Focsani Basin and the North Dobrogea Orogen on the Black Sea. A total of ten shots with charge sizes 300-1500 kg were recorded by over 700 geophones. The data quality of the experiment was variable, depending primarily on charge size but also on local geological conditions. The data interpretation indicates a multi-layered structure with variable thicknesses and velocities. The sedimentary stack comprises up to 7 layers with seismic velocities of 2.0-5.9 km/s. It reaches a maximum thickness of about 22 km within the Focsani Basin area. The sedimentary succession is composed of (1) the Carpathian nappe pile, (2) the post-collisional Neogene Transylvanian Basin, which covers the local Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Tarnava Basin, (3) the Neogene Focsani Basin in the foredeep area, which covers autochthonous Mesozoic and Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks as well as a probably Permo-Triassic graben structure of the Moesian Platform, and (4) the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the North Dobrogea Orogen. The underlying crystalline crust shows considerable thickness variations in total as well as in its individual subdivisions, which correlate well with the Tisza-Dacia, Moesian and North Dobrogea crustal blocks. The lateral velocity structure of these blocks along the seismic line remains constant with about 6.0 km/s along the basement top and 7.0 km/s above the Moho. The Tisza-Dacia block is about 33 to 37 km thick and shows low velocity zones in its uppermost 15 km, which are presumably due to basement thrusts imbricated with sedimentary successions related to the Carpathian Orogen. The crystalline crust of Moesia does not exceed 25 km and is covered by up to 22 km of

  16. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, Nevzat [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Cevik, Ugur [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Kara, Ayhan [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 40}K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) and internal hazard index (H{sub in}) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Ra{sub eq} values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg{sup -1} by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h{sup -1} and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y{sup -1}, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y{sup -1}), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  17. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes in a province of western Black-Sea region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Elif; Ogedey, Esra Deniz; Külah, Canan; Beğendik Cömert, Füsun

    2010-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the significant causes of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma all throughout the world. There are six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV. HCV genotyping is of crucial importance in the determination of the treatment protocols and the follow-up of the clinical course since treatment success is low and the duration of treatment is longer in HCV genotype 1 infected cases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HCV genotype profiles of the patients with chronic hepatitis C in Zonguldak, providing the first data about HCV genotypes from western Black-Sea region, Turkey. The HCV genotypes of 44 patients (26 female, 18 male; age range: 29-89 years, mean age: 60.05 ± 10.81 years) with positive anti-HCV antibody and HCV-RNA results, admitted to the hospital between May 2007 and July 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of the patients were between 8-160 IU/L (mean 63.99 ± 37.15 IU/L) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were between 17-160 IU/L (mean 62.77 ± 36.75 IU/L). HCV antibody was determined by ELISA method (Abbott Laboratories, USA), and HCV-RNA was determined by two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction systems [Cobas Taqman (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Research, USA)]. The genotyping was performed by a reverse hybridization based method, Versant® HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0 (Bayer Health Care, Belgium). HCV genotypes could not be determined for 5 (11.4%) patients since HCV-RNA levels were low. Genotyping could be performed for 39 (88.6%) patients and 38 (97.4%) had genotype 1b and one (2.6%) patient had genotype 1a. In conclusion, in concordance with the other studies conducted in our country, genotype 1b was found to be the most prevalent genotype in patients from our region.

  18. High Resolution Wide Angle Seismics of A Mud Volcano - Crimea, Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, J.; Broser, A.; Zillmer, M.; M52-1 Shipboard Party, The

    Gashydrates in marine sediments have been identified in the Black Sea first (Yefre- mova and Zhizchenko, 1974). Since russian researchers frequently reported gashy- drate findings near the seafloor from sediment cores (Soliviev and Ginsburg, 1994; Ivanov et al., 1998). Additional indications for emplacements of gas hydrates near the surface are observations of gas plumes by acoustic systems (Polikarpov et al., 1999) as well as direct observations of the ocean floor by video systems (Limonov et al., 1997). The existence of a Bottom-Simulating-Reflector (BSR) is used to identify gashydrate layers in seismic sections. These negative polarized reflector indicates the base of the hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) and generally cuts stratigraphic sequences. Still in dis- cussion is the question whether this reflection is caused by a velocity increase above the BHSZ or a velocity decrease due to free gas below the BHSZ (Pecher et al., 1996). Knowledge about gas and gashydrate concentrations in the sediments will be neces- sary to answer these questions. In January 2002 an interdisciplinary team of researches from Germany (Kiel and Bre- men), the Ukraine and Russia is going to carry out detailed investigations across a mud volcano in the waters offshore Crimea. Besides ocean floor video observations and geological sampling high resolution seismic data acquisition will be done. Record- ings of a multichannel streamer adopted to the alternating shot sequences (University of Bremen) will be accompanied by Ocean-Bottom-Hydrophones (OBH) and Ocean- Bottom-Seismometers (OBS) from GEOMAR, Kiel. During data acquisition three dif- ferent seismic sources (water gun, 2 GI gun) will be shot in alternating mode. There- fore three profiles of different frequency content will be achieved simultaneously. The corresponding resolution and depth of signal penetration will allow to study different sediment layers with increased resolution near the seafloor. It is planned to observe the shots with

  19. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2017-04-01

    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e. g. depressurization and/or carbon dioxide injection) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR - Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs«. In order to simulate the exploitation of hydrate-bearing sediments in the subsea, an in-house simulation model HyReS which is implemented in the general-purpose software COMSOL Multiphysics is used. This tool turned out to be especially suited for the flexible implementation of non-standard correlations concerning heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate kinetics, and other relevant model data. Partially based on the simulation results, the development of a technical concept and its evaluation are the subject of ongoing investigations, whereby geological and ecological criteria are to be considered. The results illustrate the processes and effects occurring during the gas production from a subsea gas hydrate deposit by depressurization. The simulation results from a case study for a deposit located in the Black Sea reveal that the production of natural gas by simple depressurization is possible but with quite low rates. It can be shown that the hydrate decomposition and thus the gas production strongly depend on the geophysical properties of the reservoir, the mass and heat transport within the reservoir, and

  20. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  1. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  2. The Black Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Center (BS-MFC) in the framework of the Copernicus Marine Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Coppini, Giovanni; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Gregoire, Marilaure; Staneva, Joanna; Peneva, Elisaveta; Özsoy, Emin; Vandenbulcke, Luc; Storto, Andrea; Lemieux-Dudon, Benedicte; Lovato, Tomas; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia; Palermo, Francesco; Creti, Sergio; Macchia, Francesca; Lecci, Rita; Behrens, Arno; Marinova, Veselka; Slabakova, Violeta

    2017-04-01

    The BS-MFC entered the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, http://marine.copernicus.eu/) in October 2016, providing regular and systematic information about the ocean state in the Black Sea in operational mode. An expert team constitutes the BS-MFC Consortium: the Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS, Bulgaria) coordinates the service and the management in collaboration with Fondazione Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC, Italy), Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht - Institute of Coastal Research (HZG, Germany), the University of Liege (ULG, Belgium), the Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski (USOF, Bulgaria) and the Eurasia Earth Sciences Institute - Istanbul Technical University (ITU, Turkey). The system provides a complete data catalogue for the Black Sea ocean variables such as temperature, salinity, sea level, currents, biogeochemistry and waves through a technologically advanced and resilient service, which is fully interconnected with the other Centers in the Copernicus network. The high level BS-MFC architecture is based on 3 Production Units, for Physics, Biogeochemistry and Waves products respectively, a Dissemination/Archiving Unit for the delivery of the products and their archiving/accessibility, a Local Service Desk connected to the CMEMS Service Desk devoted to support all the operational activities, and backup units for all the main service components. Products consist of analysis/hindcast, 10-days forecast and reanalysis, describing the physical (currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, mixed layer depth and bottom temperature), the biogeochemical state and waves. To implement and improve the service, the BS-MFC has detailed an evolution plan, actually under implementation, devoted to establish, assess and improve the systems and their operational functionalities, providing some improvements from the scientific point of view concerning the modeling components (e.g., the fully aligned

  3. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  4. The need for a regional framework for marine scientific research in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Nilufer

    2014-10-01

    One of the important contributions of the 1982 United Nations Law of the Sea Convention (UNCLOS) is Part XIII on Marine Scientific Research (MSR). UNCLOS recognizes the general rule that all states have the right to conduct MSR subject to rights and duties of other states under the convention and in addition, the obligation to promote and facilitate MSR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep-water profiling of 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea. A further insight into dynamics of the post-Chernobyl radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Egorov, V.N.; Duka, M.S.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Mirzoyeva, N.Yu.; Bey, O.N.; Gulina, L.V.

    2015-01-01

    The first post-Chernobyl measurements of vertical distribution of 137 Cs in the abyssal Black Sea waters have been conducted in the vicinity of submarine canyon Viteaz together with profiling of 90 Sr. This allowed showing an increase in 137 Cs concentration and the low 90 Sr/ 137 Cs activity ratio (≈0.2) at 1,000 m water depth, suggesting the long-distance influence of the Danube River runoff through the Viteaz Canyon. Calculation of inventories of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in oxic and anoxic Black Sea waters and their comparison with the total input of these radionuclides to the Black Sea after the Chernobyl accident have revealed considerable accumulation of them in the deep water column. (author)

  6. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  7. Phytosociological and ecological structure of Mediterranean enclaves along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Fergan; Kilinc, Mahmut; Korkmaz, Hasan; Kutbay, Hamdi Guray; Yalcin, Erkan; Bilgin, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study phytosociological structure of Mediterranean enclaves which occured along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black sea region was investigated. Pinus brutia var. brutia and Quercus coccifera are the most widespread communities in the study area. Pinus pinea, Arbutus andrachne, Arbutus unedo, Fontanesia philliraeoides subsp. philliraeoides and Olea europaea L. var sylvestris have a restricted distribution in inner parts of Black sea region as compared to P. brutia and Q. coccifera. The following associations were described in the study area. Siderito dichotomae -Quercetum cocciferae, Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestns ass. nov, Cotino coggyreae- Arbutetum andrachnes, Buxo sempervirenti-Arbutetum unedonis ass. nov, Paliuro spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Querco infectoriae-Pinetum brutiae and Crucianello ponticae-Pinetum pinae. The highest species diversity was found in Crucienello ponticae- Pinetum pinae, while the lowest species diversity was found in Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestris. Evenness values were much similar to each other among all of the associations. According to CA Paliurus spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Spiraeo crenatae- Oleetum sylvestris and Crucienello ponticae-Pinetum pinae occured in the negative zone. The other four associations occured in the positive zone.

  8. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  9. The nitrogen cycle in anaerobic methanotrophic mats of the Black Sea is linked to sulfate reduction and biomass decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen-Tomm, Martin; Basen, Mirko; Bastida, Felipe; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) mats host methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Little is known about the nitrogen cycle in these communities. Here, we link the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to the nitrogen cycle in microbial mats of the Black Sea by using stable isotope probing. We used four different (15)N-labeled sources of nitrogen: dinitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. We estimated the nitrogen incorporation rates into the total biomass and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Dinitrogen played an insignificant role as nitrogen source. Assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction occurred. High rates of nitrate reduction to dinitrogen were stimulated by methane and sulfate, suggesting that oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfides was necessary for AOM with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen occurred also in the absence of methane as electron donor but at six times slower rates. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was independent of AOM. Ammonium was used for biomass synthesis under all conditions. The pivotal enzyme in AOM coupled to sulfate reduction, MCR, was synthesized from nitrate and ammonium. Results show that AOM coupled to sulfate reduction along with biomass decomposition drive the nitrogen cycle in the ANME mats of the Black Sea and that MCR enzymes are involved in this process. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  11. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  12. Serologic detection of antibodies against Fasciola hepatica in sheep in the middle Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acici, Mustafa; Buyuktanir, Ozlem; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Umur, Sinasi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Samples from 213 sheep were collected randomly in Samsun, Tokat, and Sinop from September 2005 to January 2007 and tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using F. hepatica excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. The distribution of ELISA-positive samples for F. hepatica infections out of a total of 213 sheep serum samples was 23/71 (32.4%), 15/59 (25.4%), and 29/83 (34.9%) in Samsun, Sinop, and Tokat, respectively. The immunodominant proteins were determined by Western blot analysis using molecular weight markers of 14 kDa, 20 kDa, 24 kDa, 27 kDa, 33 kDa, 45 kDa, and 66 kDa and extracted from sera of sheep that were positive for Fasciola spp. eggs and also hyperimmune sera from rabbits immunized with E/S antigens. The ELISA-positive results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. As a result, seroprevalence of F. hepatica infection was found in 31.4% of sheep from the Karayaka breed in the Middle Black sea region of Turkey. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. New discovered Izmir and Busan Mud Volcanoes and Application of Seismic Attributes and AVO Analysis in the Easternmost Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, S.; Cifci, G.; Ozel, S.; Atgin, O.; Ozel, O.; Barin, B.; Er, M.; Dondurur, D.; Kucuk, M.; Gurcay, S.; Choul Kim, D.; Sung-Ho, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, the continental margins of Black Sea became important for its gas content. There are no scientific researches offshore Trabzon-Giresun area except the explorations of oil companies. This is the first survey that performed in that area. 1700 km high resolution multichannel seismic and chirp data simultaneously were collected onboard R/V K.Piri Reis . The seismic data reveal BSRs, bright spots and acoustic maskings especially on the eastern part of the survey area. The survey area in the Eastern Black Sea includes continental slope, apron and deep basin. Two mud volcanoes are discovered and named as Busan and Izmir. The observed fold belt is believed to be the main driving force for the growth of mud volcanoes.Faults are developed at the flanks of diapiric uplift. Seismic attributes and AVO analysis are applied to 9 seismic sections which have probable gassy sediments and BSR zones. In the seismic attribute analysis high amplitude horzions with reverse polarity are observed in instantaneous frequency, envelope and apparent polarity sections also with low frequency at instantaneous frequency sections. These analysis verify existence of gas accumulations in the sediments. AVO analysis and cross section drawing and Gradient analysis show Class 1 AVO anomaly and indicate gas in sediments. Keywords: BSR, Bright spot, Mud volcano, Seismic Attributes, AVO

  14. Developmental abnormalities and neurotoxicological effects of CuO NPs on the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula by embryotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Catanese, Eva; Vitale, Valeria; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Barreca, Davide; Brunelli, Elvira; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    The embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was evaluated in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula embryos, by using 24-well plates. Fertilized eggs were exposed to five doses of CuO NPs ranging from 0.07 to 20 ppb, until pluteus stage. CuO NPs suspensions in artificial seawater formed agglomerates of 80-200 nm size, and copper uptake was 2.5-fold up in larvae exposed to high NP concentrations in respect to control. Developmental delay and morphological alteration, including skeletal abnormalities, were observed, as well as impairment in cholinergic and serotonergic nervous systems. These findings suggest the potential of CuO NPs to interfere with the normal neurotransmission pathways, thus affecting larval morphogenesis. Overall, the embryotoxicity tests are effective for evaluation of nanoparticle effects on the health of aquatic biota. Furthermore, as the black sea urchin A. lixula demonstrated to be vulnerable to NP exposure, it may be a valid bioindicator in marine biomonitoring and ecotoxicological programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  16. Distribution and Sources of Dissolved Black Carbon in Surface Waters of the Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Nakane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon, also called black carbon (BC, is an important component in the global carbon cycle. BC produced by biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion is transported to oceans by the atmosphere or rivers. However, environmental dynamics (i.e., major sources and sinks of BC in marine environments have not been well-documented. In this study, dissolved BC (DBC collected from surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific were analyzed using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA method. The DBC concentration and the ratio of B5CA and B6CA to all BPCAs (an index of the DBC condensation degree ranged from 4.8 to 15.5 μg-C L−1 and from 0.20 to 0.43, respectively, in surface waters of the Chukchi/Bering Seas and the North Pacific Ocean. The concentration and condensation degree of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas were higher and more variable than those in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which implies that the major factors controlling DBC distribution were different in these marine provinces. In the Chukchi/Bering Seas, the DBC concentration was negatively correlated to salinity but positively correlated to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM quantity and total dissolved lignin phenol concentration estimated by CDOM parameters. These correlations indicated that the possible major source of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas was Arctic rivers. However, in the North Pacific, where riverine inputs are negligible for most sampling sites, DBC was possibly derived from the atmosphere. Although spectral slopes of CDOM at 275–295 nm (an index of the photodegradation degree of CDOM differed widely between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, the concentration and condensation degrees of DBC were similar between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which suggests that photodegradation was not the only major factor controlling DBC distribution. Therefore, DBC

  17. Distribution and sources of dissolved black carbon in surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Motohiro; Ajioka, Taku; Yamashita, Youhei

    2017-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon, also called black carbon (BC), is an important component in the global carbon cycle. BC produced by biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion is transported to oceans by the atmosphere or rivers. However, environmental dynamics (i.e., major sources and sinks) of BC in marine environments have not been well documented. In this study, dissolved BC (DBC) collected from surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific were analyzed using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The DBC concentration and the ratio of B5CA and B6CA to all BPCAs (an index of the DBC condensation degree) ranged from 4.8 to 15.5 µg-C L-1 and from 0.20 to 0.43, respectively, in surface waters of the Chukchi/Bering Seas and the North Pacific Ocean. The concentration and condensation degree of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas were higher and more variable than those in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which implies that the major factors controlling DBC distribution were different in these marine provinces. In the Chukchi/Bering Seas, the DBC concentration was negatively correlated to salinity but positively correlated to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) quantity and total dissolved lignin phenol concentration estimated by CDOM parameters. These correlations indicated that the possible major source of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas was Arctic rivers. However, in the North Pacific, where riverine inputs are negligible for most sampling sites, DBC was possibly derived from the atmosphere. Although spectral slopes of CDOM at 275-295 nm (an index of the photodegradation degree of CDOM) differed widely between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, the concentration and condensation degrees of DBC were similar between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which suggests that photodegradation was not the only major factor controlling DBC distribution. Therefore, DBC distributions of the

  18. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  19. Geochemistry of the Black Sea during the last 15 kyr: A protracted evolution of its hydrography and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Black Sea is a 2200 m deep anoxic, marine sea connected to the Mediterranean Sea via the Dardanelles Strait, Marmara Sea, and the 3 km wide, 35 m deep Bosphorus Strait. The biogeochemistry of sediment from the Anatolia slope has recorded changes to the hydrography leading up to and following the input of Mediterranean water at ~9.4 ka (103 years B.P.), when global sea level rose to the level of the Bosphorus sill and high-salinity water from the Mediterranean began to spill into the then brackish lake. The water initially mixed little with the lake water but cascaded to the bottom where it remained essentially isolated for ~1.6 kyr, the time required to fill the basin from the bottom up at its present input rate. The accumulation of Mo in the seafloor sediments, a proxy of bottom-water anoxia, increased sharply at ~8.6 ka, when bacterial respiration in the bottom water advanced to SO42− reduction by the oxidation of organic detritus that settled out of the photic zone. Its accumulation remained elevated to ~5.6 ka, when it decreased 60%, only to again increase slightly at ~2.0 ka. The accumulation of Corg, a proxy of primary productivity, increased threefold to fourfold at ~7.8 ka, when upward mixing of the high-salinity bottom water replaced the then thin veneer of the brackish photic zone in less than 50 years. From that time onward, the accumulation of Corg, Mo, and additional trace metals has reflected the hydrography of the basin and Bosphorus Strait, controlled largely by climate.

  20. Morphological and molecular identification of Gyrodactylus bubyri Osmanov, 1965 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Caucasian dwarf goby, Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg) (Actinopterygii: Gobionellidae) from a Black Sea lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Borislav; Huyse, Tine; Pankov, Plamen; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2016-04-01

    Gyrodactylus bubyri Osmanov, 1965, a monogenean parasite of Caucasian dwarf goby Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg) described from Aral Sea and subsequently reported from the same host from Strymon River, Greece, is recorded from Atanasovsko Lake, Bulgarian Black Sea coast (the first record of G. bubyri from the Black Sea basin). The species is redescribed by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as the ITS rDNA sequence is obtained. As comparative materials, specimens of G. bubyri from K. caucasica (Strymon River), G. charon Vanhove and Huyse in Vanhove et al., 2014 from Knipowitschia milleri (Acheron Delta, Greece) and G. micropsi Gläser, 1974 from Potamoschistus microps from North Sea (Belgium) are studied. Comparative morphology and molecular data demonstrate that G. micropsi is a junior synonym of G. bubyri (new synonymy). The validity of G. charon is questioned, pending examination of additional materials in order to prove it as a distinct species or as a junior synonym of G. bubyri.

  1. Understanding the Impact of Environmental Variability on Anchovy Overwintering Migration in the Black Sea and its Implications for the Fishing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Guraslan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus undertake extensive overwintering migrations every fall from nursery grounds to warmer overwintering areas located on the south-eastern coast of the Black Sea. During migration and particularly upon arrival at the Anatolian coast, they support an important fishery and valuable source of income for the regional community. Black Sea anchovy have undergone significant stock fluctuations partly related to climatic conditions; for example, migrating anchovy schools arrived late or failed to arrive at the Anatolian coast when fall temperatures increased. It is therefore of importance to understand the conditions required for successful overwintering migration and explore different migration routes. This study invokes a Lagrangian modeling approach applied to satellite derived circulation and temperature data as a first attempt to model anchovy migration dynamics in the Black Sea. This modeling approach takes the influence of the physical environment into account, while the quality of overwintering grounds, adaptive, schooling, and homing behavior is neglected. The model is used to investigate the possible influence of interannual and seasonal variability of temperature and surface currents, as well as the influence of migration behavior on the success of anchovy overwintering migration for both the Black Sea and Azov Sea anchovy. The results of the present work show the possibility that overwintering anchovy fished along the Turkish Eastern Anatolian coast may not exclusively originate from the northwestern shelf, but mainly from the eastern Black Sea basin. Migration pathways are identified for both Black Sea and Azov Sea anchovy, which are of importance for the national fisheries efforts of riparian countries. The modeling results are in agreement with general patterns of anchovy migration given in the literature indicating that the physical environment may be a major factor in shaping general migration

  2. Northern Black Sea Region in 1400–1442 and the Origin of the Crimean Khanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Gulevych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Crimean Khanate’s foundation still remains poorly studied. Also, little is known about the early years of the first Crimean khan Haci I Giray whose ancestors ruled in the Crimea and the Golden Horde. In the 20s of the 15th century the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas actively intervened in the affairs of the Crimea and the Golden Horde trying to establish his sovereignty in the city of Caffa, where he strove to nominate subordinated khans. However, at the end of his reign, he could not exert a serious military pressure because until he died, he was occupied with his coronation. The boundaries of the Crimean tumen extended from the river Dniester in the West to the Volga River in the East, from the mean flow of the Dnieper and Southern Bug River in the North to the coastal cities of the Crimean peninsula in the south. In the first half of 15th century, there were many stationary settlements of Tatars in the Black Sea steppes. Thus, the tumen occupied a large territory. Having a great military power, the Crimean rulers did not separate the Crimean Ulus from the Golden Horde, but used the peninsula as a staging area for the seizure of power in the state capital city of Sarai. The Tatar nobility also sought to enthrone those khans who would be dependent on them. One of their strongest representatives was Tehene-bey who had a residence in Solkhat on the Crimean peninsula. He persuaded Vytautas to give them Ulugh Muhammad as a khan. In response, the khan nominated Tehene-bey as his deputy in the Crimea. A few years later, Ulugh Muhammad quarreled both with Tehene-bey and the Lithuanian ruler Švitrigaila. In 1433, the Grand Duke of Lithuania helped Khan Sayid Ahmad II both to split the Golden Horde and to seize power on the right bank of the Dnieper. According to many historians, Haci Giray seized power in the Crimea and defeated a Genoese military detachment in 1434, but this statement is not confirmed by the written sources and

  3. The determination of the effects of coal mining on the coastal morphology at Black Sea coasts of Istanbul using Landsat data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maktav, D.; Kapdasli, S.

    1994-01-01

    At some regions of the Black Sea coasts of Istanbul in Turkey, there are a number of coal mining areas. As a result of these mining works, topographical and morphological structure of the land near the coast line has been strongly changed. Moreover, a great amount of earth has been carried into the sea in front of the coast line. The study concerns the attempt to monitor the coal mining effects on the coast line and coastal morphology by using remote sensing technology

  4. Self-Organization Maps for Analyzing the Black Sea Bio-Physical Variability and Surface Wind Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, P. C.; Gulher, E.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the Black Sea surface circulation and chlorophyll-a concentration with the link to the surface winds is investigated using the self-organizing maps (SOMs) on the satellite data from Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO), Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT). Six spatial patterns with temporal variability are identified for the surface currents: Pattern-1 (Sevastopol Cyclonic and Batumi Dipole Eddies, 21%) Pattern-2 (Cyclonic RIM Current and Anti-cyclonic Batumi Eddy, 16%), Pattern-3 (Anti-cyclonic Sevastopol and Batumi Eddies, 17%), Pattern-4 (Cyclonic RIM Current and Cyclonic Batumi Eddy, 21%), Pattern-5 (Anti-cyclonic RIM Current and Batumi Dipole Eddies, 15%), Pattern-6 (Anti-cyclonic RIM Current and Multi Eddies, 10%). The bi-modal characteristics has been changed in 1999-2009 with the fall bloom being more significant than the spring bloom. The surface circulation pattern-4 (cyclonic RIM current and Batumi eddy) is associated with the occurrence of the fall bloom. Evident connection of negative NAO and negative ENSO to the pattern-4 circulation implies the large-scale atmospheric effect. Possible connection of these patterns to the climatological indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic/West Russian (EAWR), oscillation are also discussed.

  5. High-Resolution Numerical Model for Predicting the Transport and Dispersal of Oil Spilled in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Korotenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled DieCAST-SSBOM (Shirshov-Stony Brook Oil spill transport Model circulation-oil spill transport model is used to predict the transport and dispersal of contaminants resulting from representative hypothetical oil spills in the Black Sea. With climatological forcing, the DieCAST model realistically simulates many of the dominant mesoscale features of seasonally-varying large scale circulation and meso-scale features of the circulation including the Rim Current, anticyclonic coastal eddies, headland eddy shedding and vertical stratification. The oil spill model ingests DieCAST surface currents and employs a Lagrangian tracking algorithm to predict the motion of a large number of seeded particles, the sum of which (~1 million form the oil plume. Basic processes affecting the transport of oil and its fate (advection, sinking, evaporation, etc. are included as parameters. Various scenarios of hypothetical blowouts of oil in different regions of the sea are simulated and discussed as to their structure, transport and likelihood of coastal contamination. The ultimate objective is to develop an operational oil slick model forced with synoptic winds and air-sea interaction.

  6. Falia strategică Marea Neagră – Marea Baltică (The strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge

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    Gheorghe VĂDUVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a moment when it seemed that the East-West dimension of the ontology of Euro-Asian space was beginning to emerge out of its traditional conflicting character and do something in order to bridge the gaps. This would have been excellent, since Western Europe has finance and technology, while Asia is rich in resources. The civilizations to be found on the largest geophysical platform of the Earth are not contradictory and conflicting; they are just different, by area, culture, and interests. Many of the truths that sounded like dogmata or things which were well known and had become chronic were ignored both by the triumphalist and the pessimist analysts. Whatever had happened seemed to be water under the bridge. The Summit of the Eastern Partnership in Vilnius, in the autumn of 2013, showed, however, the real face of things. The undercurrents were revealed, frustrations became evident, the strategic Black Sea – Baltic Sea ridge was reactivated and, consequently, the forces, the means, the plans and the resources were re-positioned. The war started again. Actually, it had never stopped because the war between the East and the West is unfortunately a continuous one. Like a road without beginning, without end, and with no exit.

  7. 90Sr content in the Black Sea bottom sediments after the Chernobyl NPP accident and its use as a radiotracer for an assessment of bottom settlement rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyeva, N. Y.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    The increase of 9 0Sr concentrations in the Black Sea bottom sediments along to western coast of the Black Sea and south part of Crimea was observed in 1987-1988 years. To our opinion, it was connected with hydrological processes (for example, currents), occurring in the given sea parts. The most polluted by post-Chernobyl 9 0Sr areas were bottom sediments of Dnieper, Dniester and Danube River deltas, territory of an arrangement of a main channel of the North-Crimea Channel - region of a peninsula Tarkhankut, southeast part of Crimea (Feodosiya area). The similar situation in confined of the greatest contents 9 0Sr to the specified areas not only is kept with time (till 2000), but the process of increase of 9 0Sr concentration in bottom sediments of the investigated regions is observed. So average concentration of 9 0Sr in Dnieper River delta bottom sediments in 1987 was 28,5 Bq kg - 1 , in 2000 - 148,2 28,5 Bq kg - 1 of Dry Weight. Such character of 9 0Sr redistribution shows, that both in first years after Chernobyl NPP accident, and in the following time, the entry of 9 0Sr in the Black Sea basin occurs, basically, with water flow of the large rivers in a northwest part of the Black Sea, discharge waters of the North-Crimean Channel. These sources of 9 0Sr input to the Black Sea ecosystem considerably prevailed above direct atmospheric pollution by given radionuclide in April-May 1986 at once after the Chernobyl NPP accident. On the base of monitoring researches results the maps of 9 0Sr dynamics redistribution in the Black Sea bottom sediments (0-5 cm) since 1986 (Chernobyl NPP accident) up to 2000 were sketched out. The distribution of 9 0Sr radionuclide in the bottom sediments columns, which were selected from the Corukh river mouth region and from the Dnieper-Bug estuary area, is investigated. The peaks of 9 0Sr increased contents were founded in the profile of its vertical distribution in the bottom sediments. These peaks correspond to the periods of 9 0Sr

  8. Phosphorus burial in sediments of the sulfidic deep Black Sea: Key roles for adsorption by calcium carbonate and apatite authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary burial of the essential nutrient phosphorus (P) under anoxic and sulfidic conditions is incompletely understood. Here, we use chemical and micro-scale spectroscopic methods to characterize sedimentary P burial along a water column redox transect (six stations, 78-2107 m water depth) in the Black Sea from the shelf with its oxygenated waters to the anoxic and sulfidic deep basin. Organic P is an important P pool under all redox regimes, accounting for up to 60% of P burial. We find a general down-core increase in the relative importance of organic P, especially on the shelf where P bound to iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) (oxyhydr)oxides is abundant in the uppermost sediment but rapidly declines in concentration with sediment depth. Our chemical and spectroscopic data indicate that the carbonate-rich sediments (Unit I, ∼3000 years, ∼0-30 cm depth) of the sulfidic deep Black Sea contain three major P pools: calcium phosphate (apatite), organic P and P that is strongly associated with CaCO3 and possibly clay surfaces. Apatite concentrations increase from 5% to 25% of total P in the uppermost centimeters of the deep basin sediments, highlighting the importance of apatite formation for long-term P burial. Iron(II)-associated P (ludlamite) was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy but was shown to be a minor P pool (∼5%), indicating that lateral Fe-P transport from the shelf ("shuttling") likely occurs but does not impact the P burial budget of the deep Black Sea. The CaCO3-P pool was relatively constant throughout the Unit I sediment interval and accounted for up to 55% of total P. Our results highlight that carbonate-bound P can be an important sink for P in CaCO3-rich sediments of anoxic, sulfidic basins and should also be considered as a potential P sink (and P source in case of CaCO3 dissolution) when reconstructing past ocean P dynamics from geological records.

  9. Searching for Sustainability in Teacher Education and Educational Research: Experiences from the Baltic and Black Sea Circle Consortium for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salite, Ilga

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic and Black Sea Circle Consortium for educational research (BBCC) was established at the beginning of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005). BBCC has obtained its name in the "Third International Conference Sustainable Development, Culture, Education, in the University of Vechta" (Germany, 2005). The paper…

  10. Novel archaeal macrocyclic diether core membrane lipids in a methane-derived carbonate crust from a mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Stadnitskaia, A.N.; Baas, M.K.; Ivanov, M.K.; Weering, T.C.E. van

    2003-01-01

    A methane-derived carbonate crust was collected from the recently discovered NIOZ mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea during the 11th Training-through-Research cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev. Among several specific bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids present in this crust, two

  11. Finding of Pseudobacciger harengulae (Digenea, Faustulidae) in the Mediterranean Horse Mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae), from the Gulf of Odessa, Black Sea, Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulak, B.; Kvach, Yuriy

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2018), s. 47-52 ISSN 0084-5604 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Black Sea * Digenea * Pseudobacciger * Trachurus * new records * new host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  13. New insights and questions about the Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic evolution of Eastern Black Sea and Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Smith, Brigitte; Muller, Carla; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Sheremet-Korniyenko, Yevgeniya; Yegorova, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Since last decade a lot of new field researches (supported by MEBE and DARIUS programmes) were carried out in order to clarify the tectonic evolution of the South Caucasus and Eastern Black Sea regions. A summary of these improvements are as following: 1. Evidence of only one suture zone in the Lesser Caucasus: the Sevan-Akera suture zone as the eastward continuity of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan one. 2. Timing and modalities of the Upper Cretaceous obduction process of the Sevan-Akera back-arc basin. 3. Paleolatitude reconstruction of the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia microplate (TASAM) since the Late Cretaceous 4. Paleocene to Miocene tectonic evolution of the collision zone between Eurasia and the TASAM. 5. Structures and propagation of the Lesser Caucasus and Greater Causasus foreland basins from Paleocene to Miocene. 6. Structures of the inverted Paleocene-Eocene Adjara-Trialeti basin of the Eurasian margin and timing of deformations from Lesser Caucasus to Greater Caucasus. 7. New stratigraphic data from the Crimea Mountain which argues for a Lower Cretaceous rifting of the Eastern Black Sea. According to aforementioned results and previous studies, this widespread zone (from the Eastern Black Sea to the Lesser Caucasus) appears act as a large puzzle of heterogeneous lithospheres (continental, oceanic, arc, back-arc basins) since the Early Cretaceous. This is probably why this area has differently reacted in time and space to the northward collision of the TASAM with Eurasia since the Late Cretaceous and then of Arabian plate since the Oligo-Miocene. It seems that some lithospheres which have cold mantellic behavior (especially the Black Sea) react as rigid blocks, while others with a continental origin, reheated by magmatism, (as the Taurides-Anatolides) were extruded to the west or bended as an orocline (as the Lesser Caucasus, the Pontides). This is why some main questions remain, are not solved and are still debated. 1. The continuity of main structures

  14. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyritization processes and greigite formation in the advancing sulfidization front in the Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neretin, LN; Bottcher, ME; Jørgensen, BB

    2004-01-01

    Pyritization in late Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea is driven by sulfide formed during anaerobic methane oxidation. A sulfidization front is formed by the opposing gradients of sulfide and dissolved iron. The sulfidization processes are controlled by the diffusion flux of sulfide from above...... and by the solid reactive iron content. Two processes of diffusion-limited pyrite formation were identified. The first process includes pyrite precipitation with the accumulation of iron sulfide precursors with the average chemical composition of FeSn (n = 1.10-1.29), including greigite. Elemental sulfur...... reduction at depth causes a progressive formation of pyrite with a delta(34)S of up to + 15.0parts per thousand. The S-isotopic composition of FeS2 evolves due to contributions of different sulfur pools formed at different times. Steady-state model calculations for the advancement of the sulfidization front...

  16. Revisiting the Issue of Far-Left Political Parties in 1907–1909 (through the Example of Black Sea Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Taran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the activity of far-left organizations across Black Sea Governorate in 1907–1909. During this period, the bodies of internal affairs detected in the region a subversive activity of SR Maximalists, Communist Anarchists, and other terrorist groups. The activity of these destructive forces would come down to the physical liquidation of government officials, representatives of right parties, as well as extortion of money from merchants. The author comes to the conclusion that in Novorossiysk the two-year period following the end of the First Russian Revolution saw the party organizations of Social Democrats, Socialist Revolutionaries, Maximalists, Anarchists, etc., to virtually degrade and take on forms of organized criminal groups.

  17. Assessment of metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in seawater, sediment and biota samples in the coastal area of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Bayrak, Esra Yilmaz; Akdeniz, Aysel

    2017-09-15

    This study investigated the contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in seawater, sediment, different shell sizes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples collected from four different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region. With the exception of Zn, all the metal concentration values measured in the sea snail were observed to be higher than those of mussels in all stations. While the correlation between mussels and sea snail according to metal concentrations was found to be positive (p˂0.05), this relation was not observed between the other parameters, such as the shell sizes, salinity and pH (p˃0.05). Although the mean concentration values of Cu, Zn, and Pb for mussel and sea snail are significantly above the tolerable levels, the estimated daily intake values for mussel were below the daily intake recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic evidence for avian influenza H5N1 viral transmission along the Black Sea-Mediterranean Flyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sen; Tian, Huaiyu; Wu, Xiaoxu; Xu, Bo; Yang, Jing; Chan, Karen Kie Yan; Huang, Shanqian; Dong, Lu; Brownstein, John; Xu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    The current epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus is considered to pose a significant threat to the health of wild and domestic avian species, and even to human beings. The Black Sea-Mediterranean Flyway is one of the most important epidemic areas of H5N1. However, the epidemic along this flyway has not been fully explored. To better understand the role of hosts in the spread and evolution of H5N1 virus along the flyway, a phylogeographic study was conducted using haemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences obtained during 2005-2013. To infer phylodynamic spread in time and space, we used a flexible Bayesian statistical framework and modelled viral spatial diffusion as a continuous-time Markov-chain process along time-measured genealogies. Our results revealed that H5N1 virus isolated from wild birds showed an increase in genetic variation of HA gene from 2005-2007. The mean genetic distance of viruses isolated from poultry reached its peak in 2010, and dropped in 2011, increasing again in 2012-2013. The reconstruction of virus circulation revealed a different viral-migration network of H5N1 virus by different hosts. Western Russia constituted a link in viral migration from Russia to Europe and Africa. Cross-species transmission of H5N1 viruses predominated in the migration network of the Black Sea-Mediterranean Flyway. This might be due to the migration of birds across long distances and interaction between local poultry and migratory birds. Additionally, the short-distance spread of H5N1 viruses among poultry followed local transportation networks. Such findings will aid in developing effective disease control and prevention strategies.

  19. Abnormal cervical cytology risk factors in the Western Black Sea Region and the importance of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sımavli, Serap; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Cukur, Selma; Aksel, Ferda

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings in the Western Black Sea Region and investigate an association between socio-demographic risk factors and the presence of cytological abnormalities. The reports of 11,539 cervical smears diagnosed according to Bethesda System 2001 version in the Pathology Department between January 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively from the hospital records and cytopathology reports. Repeated smear results, unsatisfactory smear results, patients with known gynecologic malignancy history, smear results of patients with hysterectomy and smear results of patients whose socio-demographic information could not be obtained were excluded from the evaluation. The results of 7,740 patients who met the criteria for the study were evaluated. The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities was 1.8 % in general. The prevalence rates for atypical squamous cells with undetermined significance (ASC-US), atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and atypical glandular cells (AGC) were 1.16%, 0.11%, 0.29%, 0.15%, and 0.03% respectively. The prevalence of cytologically diagnosed cervical invasive neoplasia was 0.025%. Advanced age, low education level (primary school or less) and not having health insurance were found as to be risk factors for preinvasive and invasive lesions. Women who had a high school education and previously had a smear test had decreased risk for developing preinvasive and invasive lesions. This study shows prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and associated risk factors in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. The most important risk factor was identified as not having health insurance.

  20. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  1. Observation of initial clinical manifestations and repercussions from the treatment of 314 human injuries caused by black sea urchins (Echinometra lucunter) on the southeastern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2012-06-01

    Injuries caused by sea urchins are the most common caused by marine animals in humans in Brazil, with the black sea urchin (Echinometra lucunter) causing the most injuries to bathers. This study observed 314 human wounds with emphasis on the early observation of clinical signs and symptoms and their implications on the recommended treatment. All the injuries were caused by black sea urchins and were observed in bathers. The lesions and the pain were associated with penetration of the spines; there was no early inflammation or pain without pressure on the wounded places. Complications arising from this kind on injury, including infections and foreign body granulomas, are associated with the permanence of the spines in the wounds. The study confirmed that this kind of injury is the most common accident caused by aquatic animals in Brazil. The main therapeutical recommendation is early removal of the spines to prevent late complications, such as infections and the formation of foreign body granulomas.

  2. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  3. Distribution of (137)Cs in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea Coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, H; Kiris, E; Dalgic, G; Cevik, U

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the results of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclide concentrations in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples collected during the period of February-November 2014 from twelve different stations within the border of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Also, these radionuclide concentrations were determined in sea water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations in seawater, sediment and mussel tissue samples were between 1.12-1.69mBqL(-1), 3.26-30.74 and 1.61-3.16Bqkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 231.41-399.49mBqL(-1), 215.71-450.07 and 286.84-382.16Bqkg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. These values are also in accordance with the concentrations reported for similar regions. Additionally, radiological impact parameters such as daily intake of (137)Cs and (40)K, annual committed effective dose and carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of mussel were calculated and compared with the international data. Lifetime cancer risk values are lower than the limit of 10(-3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change evolution of the hydrological balance of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas: impact of climate model resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elguindi, Nellie; Somot, S.; Déqué, M.; Ludwig, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the ability of the CNRM-ARPEGE CLIMATE V4 general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the present-day hydrological budget components [precipitation minus evaporation over the sea ( P - E) and fresh water runoff ( R)] over the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian sea basins. Three simulations were performed which were exactly identical except for horizontal resolution, allowing for a unique opportunity to isolate and study the effects of resolution on simulating the hydrological components. Model calculated values of runoff and P - E were compared to a variety of data sources and show that the model's performance improves significantly with increased resolution, especially in regions with mountainous terrain. Corresponding future climate simulations (following the IPCC A2 scenario) were also performed and indicate that while resolution does not seem to have a significant effect on the qualitative impacts of future climate change on the hydrologic balance, quantitatively the results vary significantly among the models. These results suggests that high resolution global models, or downscaling models such as RCMs, are necessary in order to assess the magnitude of future changes in the hydrological components of these basins.

  5. PM10 and PM2.5 composition over the Central Black Sea: origin and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M; Mihalopoulos, N; Tutsak, E; Theodosi, C; Zarmpas, P; Kalegeri, P

    2015-11-01

    Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between April 2009 and July 2010 at a rural site (Sinop) situated on the coast of the Central Black Sea. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 23.2 ± 16.7 and 9.8 ± 6.9 μg m(-3), respectively. Coarse and fine filters were analyzed for Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), C2O4(2-), PO4(3-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) by using ion chromatography. Elemental and organic carbon content in bulk quartz filters were also analyzed. The highest PM2.5 contribution to PM10 was found in summer with a value of 0.54 due to enhanced secondary aerosols in relation to photochemistry. Cl(-), Na(+), and Mg(2+) illustrated their higher concentrations and variability during winter. Chlorine depletion was chiefly attributed to nitrate. Higher nssCa(2+) concentrations were ascribed to episodic mineral dust intrusions from North Africa into the region. Crustal material (31%) and sea salt (13%) were found to be accounted for the majority of the PM10. The ionic mass (IM), particulate organic matter (POM), and elemental carbon (EC) explained 13, 20, and 3% of the PM10 mass, correspondingly. The IM, POM, and EC dominated the PM2.5 (~74%) mass. Regarding EU legislation, the exceeded PM2.5 values were found to be associated with secondary aerosols, with a particular dominance of POM. For the exceeded PM10 values, six of the events were dominated by dust while two and four of these exceedances were caused by sea salt and mix events, respectively.

  6. Linking benthic biodiversity and environmental conditions at the sea floor combining statistical and mechanistic modeling. Case study on the Black Sea's northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drion, Roxanne; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2014-05-01

    The preservation of the health and biodiversity of benthic ecosystems is a crucial priority in order to achieve the Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine waters. The multiple pressures acting on the ocean, and in particular, on the coastal zone may prevent the maintenance of biodiversity either directly (e.g. trawling, dredging) or indirectly by modifying environmental conditions at the sea floor (e.g. eutrophication, pollution, acidification, warming). The management of the GES of the benthos in a changing environment and the definition of management strategies (e.g. nutrient reduction) that would preserve GES require tools able to predict the modifications of environmental conditions and to link these modifications to the status of the benthic system. Coupled biogeochemical-circulation models provide a large amount of information on physical (e.g. currents, salinity, temperature, shear stress) and biochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen, inorganic nutrients, sinking detritus) but cannot provide an information on species richness. We propose to link these aspects by applying canonical ordination techniques (e.g. Redundancy Analysis, CoInertia Analysis) on a large data set on macrobenthos collected on the Black Sea's north-western shelf with in-situ sediment data (e.g. granulometry, carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, CaCO3 content) and bottom conditions (e.g. shear stress, level of oxygen stress, flux of organic matter to the sediments) provided by a three dimensional model. Beyond taxonomic description, the analysis is performed on the functional composition of the macrobenthos: A trait-based approach is used to assess the functional composition of the macrobenthos by associating the considered species to a list of biological, ecological and behavioral traits. This approach allows to appraise how local conditions determine the functional and taxonomical diversity and provides a mean to evaluate the impact of habitat alteration on the ecological role of

  7. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Stegniy, Borys; Rula, Oleksandr; Shutchenko, Pavlo

    2012-12-01

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September 2010 to September 2011, a wild bird surveillance study was conducted in these regions to identify avian influenza viruses. Biological samples consisting of cloacal and tracheal swabs and fecal samples were collected from wild birds of different ecological groups, including waterfowl and sea- and land-based birds, in places of mass bird accumulations in Sivash Bay and the Utlyuksky and Molochniy estuaries. The sampling covered the following wild bird biological cycles: autumn migration, wintering, spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons. A total of 3634 samples were collected from 66 different species of birds. During the autumn migration, 19 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 14 of which were identified as low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus subtypes H1N?, H3N8, H5N2, H7N?, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N8. From the wintering samples, 45 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 36 of which were identified as LPAI virus subtypes H1N1, H1N? H1N2, H4N?, H6N1, H7N3, H7N6, H7N7, H8N2, H9N2, H10N7, H10N4, H11N2, H12N2, and H15N7. Only three viruses were isolated during the spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons (serotypes H6, H13, and H16). The HA and NA genes were sequenced from the isolated H5 and N1 viruses, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecological connections between the Azov and Black Sea regions and Europe. The LPAI viruses were isolated mostly from mallard ducks, but also from shellducks, shovelers, teals, and white-fronted geese. The rest of the 14 hemagglutinating viruses isolated were identified as different serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-1, APMV-4, APMV-6, and APMV-7). This information furthers our understanding

  8. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  9. [Contribution to determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Black Sea region: data from single high volume center in Zonguldak, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Tarık; Aynıoğlu, Aynur; Dındar, Gökhan; Babür, Taner

    2014-07-01

    We've read with great interest the article entitled "Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey" by Buruk et al. published in Mikrobiyol Bul 2013; 47(4): 650-7. In that study, the authors described the determination and distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Eastern Black Sea Region comprehensively. According to the current information, the determination of HCV genotypes is the most important factor for the management of therapy and virus-related complications, such as chirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies geographically throughout the world. Therefore every country and even each region within the country should know the distribution of HCV genotypes to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Herein we would like to contribute the data about distribution of HCV genotypes in whole Black Sea Region by presenting our current results obtained from Zonguldak province, where maximum number of chronic hepatit C patients have already been identified in Eastern Black Sea Region. A total of 53 chronic hepatitis C patients (26 female, 27 male; mean age: 57.1 ± 14.3, age range: 21-82 years) who were admitted to Zonguldak Ataturk State Hospital between January 2012-December 2013 were evaluated. Genotype analysis was performed by RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular, ABD) system. Genotype-1 was found to be the most frequently detected type with a rate of 96.2% (51/53). The prevalences of genotype-2 (1/53) and genotype-4 (1/53) were same, with a rate of 1.9%, in our study. Subtyping of genotype-1 strains yielded 52.9% (27/51) genotype-1b, 3.9% genotype-1a (2/51) and 47% untypeable genotype-1 (24/51). The present study was the second study from the Western Black Sea Region in our country, regarding HCV genotypes. In conclusion, considering entire Black Sea Region, genotype-1 is the most common genotype (96.2%), and 1b (52.9%) is the most common

  10. Sharply Reduced Biofilm Formation from Cobetia marina and in Black Sea Water on Modified Siloxane Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danail Akuzov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Siloxane fouling release coatings are currently the only viable non-toxic commercial alternative to toxic biocide antifouling paints. However, they only partially inhibit biofouling since biofilms remain a major issue. With the aim to improve the bacterial resistance of siloxane coatings modified with non-ionic surfactant (NIS, antioxidant (AO or both NIS/AO, the ability of PEG-silane co-cross-linker was investigated to reduce Cobetia marina adhesion and multispecies biofilm formation from natural seawater. Surface physical-chemical and physical-mechanical parameters relevant to bio-adhesion were estimated before the testing of the biofilm formation. Slightly reduced biofilm from C. marina and sharply reduced multispecies biofilm, formed in natural sea water, were found on the PEG-silane co-cross-linked coatings without modifying additives. However, both C. marina growth and biofilm formation from natural sea water were sharply reduced on the PEG-silane co-cross-linked coatings containing NIS or AO, even more, no C. marina adhesion was seen on the coating containing NIS and AO simultaneously. Possible explanations of the observed effects are presented in this article. It was concluded that the PEG-silane co-cross-linker, toghether with NIS and AO, can be used as an efficient tool to additionally reduce the bioadhesion of Gram-negative marine bacteria and multispecies biofilm formation on siloxane antifouling coatings.

  11. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of some marine fishes from Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major part of healthy human diet consist of marine fish and seafood products. And it is not surprising that there are numerous studies based on metal accumulation in various fish species. Fish may also be used for heavy metal monitoring programs of marine environments due to their easy sampling, sample preparation and chemical analysis. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, total mercury and total arsenic were determined in edible part of two commercially valuable fish Greek aquaculture species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata purchased from Bulgarian market during 2011. The concentration of metals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The concentration of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Pb 0.008 - 0.013; Cd 0.0017 - 0.022; Ni 0.007 - 0.012; Cu 0.054 - 0.115; Mn 0.043 - 0.09; Zn 0.14 - 0.15; Fe 0.17 - 0.19; Cr 0.05 - 0.07; Hg 0.11 - 0.13; As 1.6 - 1.8 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively.

  12. Long-term dynamics of the state of the fouling community in the Odessa Bay (Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Varigin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the long-term dynamics of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the coastal fouling community of OdessaBay(Black Sea for the last 40 years. It compares the data on this community obtained by different researchers in 1976, 1994 and 2016 . The number of species included in the fouling community decreased from 103 (1976 to 43 (1994 and then rose to 62 by 2016. As a possible reason for this reduction in the species composition of the community the influence of large-scale anthropogenic eutrophication, which was already strongly evident in the north-western part of the Black Seain the 1970s, is proposed. This phenomenon was accompanied by periodic outbreaks of mass abundance of planktonic algae, secondary water pollution, the development of hypoxia and a frequent suffocation effect on the benthos, which caused the disappearance from the community of 41 species of invertebrates. The reduction in the number of species affected representatives of the following taxons: Polychaeta, Amphipoda, Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Currently, the core of the community includes the same species of invertebrates as in the past. It is based on Bivalvia mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Among the attached forms , Mytilaster lineatus (Bivalvia and Amphibalanus improvisus (Cirripedia play a leading role, and among mobile – representatives of Polychaeta, Isopoda, Amphipoda and Gastropoda. It is shown that 10 of the 25 species, recorded the first time for this community in the 1970s, have become abundant in modern conditions. The primacy in the relative density in the composition of the community at the present time has passed from the amphipod crustaceans to bivalve molluscs. The highest relative biomass, both in the past and in the present-day conditions was observed in representatives of Bivalvia. The structure of the resistance of the fouling community to the effects of unstable environmental factors specific to the coastal zone is

  13. Information, attitude, and behavior toward organ transplantation and donation among health workers in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbaş, M; Türkyilmaz, S; Can, G; Ulusoy, S; Kalyoncu, M; Kaynar, K; Yavuzyilmaz, A; Kiliç, E; Ari, S; Ari, B

    2011-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the information, attitude, and behaviors toward organ donation among health workers in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. This descriptive study was performed between December 2008 and November 2009. It involved 1,545 health personnel in 8 state hospitals in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, excluding the university hospitals in the towns of Trabzon, Rize, Gümüşhane, and Giresun. Educational seminars regarding organ transplantation and donation were arranged for the hospitals in the study. Questionnaires on the subject distributed to the participants were collected before the seminars began. They contained questions about occupation, gender, age, previous organ donation, whether the person would consider donating if they had not already volunteered (if not, the reasons why), whether any relatives had volunteered to donate organs, whether anyone close to them had volunteered to donate organs, whether they would donate organs in the event of a relative's death, and what they might think if they were to require an organ transplant. Following the seminars, participants were given the opportunity to obtain organ donation cards from a stand on site. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Eighty-one participants (5.2%), including 46 women (5.2%) and 35 men (5.3%), had previously officially volunteered to donate organs (P = .875). One hundred thirty-seven health personnel were willing to donate organs by visiting the donation stand after the seminars. The main reasons for participants who had not volunteered to donate organs failing to do so were lack of information about donation and procedures (28.4%), lack of interest in the subject (23.2%), and Islamic religious beliefs and/or traditions (19.6%). One hundred eighty health personnel (11.7%) had family members or relatives who had volunteered to donate organs. Asked whether they would donate that person's organs in the event of the death of a relative, 93 doctors (67.6%), 225

  14. On the interpretation of millennium-scale level variations of the Black Sea during the first quarter of the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Introduction. During the first quarter of the Holocene, the Black Sea (BS) experienced large changes: amid the gradually rising water surface, Black Sea level (BSL) fluctuations occurred. We calculated based on records (e.g., Balabanov, 2007) that the standard deviation is ˜3.5 ÷ 5 m. Their typical duration was ˜1000 years. Time of occurrence of positive and negative anomalies of the BS is different in different reconstructions. The source of these discrepancies could be tectonically induced vertical motions. Before ˜7 ka BP the BSL was higher than the level of the World Ocean. The rising BS spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosphorus (Chepalyga, 2007). It is clear that if the water discharge were quite large, the long-term BSL anomalies could not be. This study focuses on the quantification of this concept. Methodology. I use the equation of the water balance of the BS in term of the annual averaged level anomalies. Time scales of the BSL fluctuations were determined based on the BS basin morphology and averaged volumes of rivers runoff and water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill. The short-term (1-2 year) contribution (like random white noise) to level changes are due to variations of river runoff and precipitation mines evaporation. From this perspective, the water balance equation is represented as a stochastic Langevin equation (Kislov, 2015). In another case, the BSL anomaly could be destructed due to relation "BSL anomaly - value of water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill" which acts as a negative feedback. Results. To quantify the parameters, I use the present day information about hydrological regime of the BS. It should not lead to serious errors, because the first and last quarters of the Holocene exhibit similarity in their hydroclimatic regimes (Panin, Matlakhova, 2014). As well, the paleohydrological data about dynamics of the Dnieper River runoff was used (Swetc, 1978). It was found that the time scale of the BSL fluctuations due to water discharge

  15. Foraging responses of black-legged kittiwakes to prolonged food-shortages around colonies on the Bering Sea shelf.

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    Rosana Paredes

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008-2010 at two sites in the Pribilof Islands, where the population has either declined (St. Paul or remained stable (St. George. Foraging conditions were assessed from changes in (1 bird diets, (2 the biomass and distribution of juvenile pollock (Theragra chalcogramma in 2008 and 2009, and (3 eddy kinetic energy (EKE; considered to be a proxy for oceanic prey availability. In years when biomass of juvenile pollock was low and patchily distributed in shelf regions, kittiwake diets included little or no neritic prey and a much higher occurrence of oceanic prey (e.g. myctophids. Birds from both islands foraged on the nearby shelves, or made substantially longer-distance trips overnight to the basin. Here, feeding was more nocturnal and crepuscular than on the shelf, and often occurred near anticyclonic, or inside cyclonic eddies. As expected from colony location, birds from St. Paul used neritic waters more frequently, whereas birds from St. George typically foraged in oceanic waters. Despite these distinctive foraging patterns, there were no significant differences between colonies in chick feeding rates or fledging success. High EKE in 2010 coincided with a 63% increase in use of the basin by birds from St. Paul compared with 2008 when EKE was low. Nonetheless, adult nutritional stress, which was relatively high across years at both colonies, peaked in birds from St. Paul in 2010. Diminishing food resources in nearby shelf habitats may have contributed to kittiwake population declines at St Paul, possibly driven by increased adult mortality or breeding desertion due to high foraging effort and nutritional stress.

  16. The Neolithization of Northern Black Sea area in the context of climate changes

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    Nadezhda Kotova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neolithisation of the Pontic steppe was a long process, with four stages which were associated with climate changes. It began c. 7500 calBC, with early animal husbandry in the western Azov Sea area. The beginning of the second stage was connected with an arid climate (7000–6900 calBC and the origin of the Rakushechny Yar culture in the Lower Don region. The third stage (6500–6300 calBC occurred during a humid period. Besides animal husbandry, the steppe population borrowed the first pottery from the Rakushechny Yar culture. The fourth phase (6300–6000 calBC was connected with extreme aridity and the neolithisation of the modern forest-steppe and forest zones of Ukraine and Russia.

  17. [Genetic variation of the mtDNA cyt b locus in topmouth gudgeon introduced into water bodies in the northern part of the Black Sea region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, Yu V; Slynko, E E; Karpova, E P; Boltachev, A R

    2017-01-01

    The up-to-date phylogeographical distribution of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva Temminck et Schlegel 1846 in water bodies of the Northern Black Sea region is considered. Genetic variation of mtDNA cyt b gene is analyzed. It is established that topmouth gudgeon penetrated and spread in the basins of the Dnieper and Don rivers and in water bodies of Crimea from the secondary center of its dispersion— water bodies of Central Europe. It is demonstrated that haplotypes of topmouth gudgeon in the Danube delta are the most homologous to the haplotypes in the native range of the species in China. A considerable decrease in the level of genetic variation in the populations in the Black Sea region is reported.

  18. Study of seasonal dynamics of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients and pollutants from the surface water layer of the Black Sea during 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Krivenko, O.V.; Stokozov, N.A.; Zherko, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    A series of regular measurements of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen) and pollutants (mercury, polychlorided biphenyls) from the surface water layer was carried out with 1-2 month interval between the measurements using 234 Th in the region of western cyclonic circulation of the Black Sea. It allowed to estimate the seasonal dynamics and to obtain average annual values of dientrophication and sedimentational self-purification of the euphotic zone of the Western part of the Black Sea. The parallel measurements of the rates of sedimentation evacuation of suspended organic nitrogen from the euphotic zone, which were performed using 234 Th and determining the so called products of phitoplankton by the absorption of 15 N traced nitrates and ammonium, give practically identical results. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  19. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaiotov, Stefan; Simeonovski, Ivan; Levterova, Victoria; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Brankova, Nadia; Tankova, Kristin; Campbell, Katrina; Jacob, Pauline; Helmi, Karim; Boots, Bas; D'Ugo, Emilio; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Mancini, Laura; Breitenbach, Ulrich; Mielke, Erik; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-06-30

    The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM) is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected-24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012-2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  20. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  1. Research on the application possibilities of the mass trapping methods against codling moth [Cydia pomonella L.) (Lep.:Tortricidae)] in the Black Sea region.

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, M.; Avcı, Ü.; Kahveci, Y.; Erdem, B.

    2008-01-01

    Apple production is important in the Black Sea Region especially in Amasya, Tokat, Kastamonu and Samsun provinces. Many studies have been done on Cydia pomonella which is the main pest of the apple orchards. The results of the studies provided reduction of pesticide use and encourage economic pest management. It is recommended that no pesticide use against C.pomonella after this study. There are plenty of promising developments on this subject in the world. These result would allow more...

  2. Research on the application possibilities of the mass trapping methods against codling moth [Cydia pomonella L.) (Lep.:Tortricidae)] in the Black Sea region.

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, M.; Avcı, Ü.; Kahveci, Y.; Erdem, B.

    2008-01-01

    Apple production is important in the Black Sea Region especially in Amasya, Tokat, Kastamonu and Samsun provinces. Many studies have been done on Cydia pomonella which is the main pest of the apple orchards. The results of the studies provided reduction of pesticide use and encourage economic pest management. It is recommended that no pesticide use against C.pomonella after this study. There are plenty of promising developments on this subject in the world. These result would allow more...

  3. Differences between Whole Otolith and Broken-Burnt Otolith Ages of Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927) Sampled from the Black Sea (Samsun, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Nazmi; BOSTANCI, Derya; YILMAZ, Savaş

    2005-01-01

    Different bony structures as scales, vertebrae, otoliths, opercles and subopercles of 156 red mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927) sampled from the Black Sea were removed for age determination. Otoliths were read once by two experienced readers. However, due to the difficulty of interpretation of annuli on the otolith edge, the broken-burnt method was applied to the 61 otoliths. Broken-burnt otoliths were also read once by the same two experienced readers. When whole otolith and br...

  4. Geochronological reconstruction of 137Cs transport from the Coruh river to the SE Black Sea: comparative assessment of radionuclide retention in the mountainous catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S. B.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Martin, J.-M.

    2003-11-01

    The deposition record of 137Cs was traced in the SE Black Sea sediments adjacent to the Coruh river mouth in comparison with the earlier studied chronology of 137Cs deposition in front of the Danube delta (NW Black Sea). In both cases, the 137Cs profiles showed two subsurface peaks attributable to maximum fallout of 'bomb' and Chernobyl radionuclides. The Coruh profile revealed a larger contribution of 'bomb' 137Cs in comparison with the Chernobyl input, suggesting different coverage of NW and SE Black Sea regions with the C